458 results for 1960

  • Studies of magnetic micropulsations with special reference to discrete emissions in the vicinity of one cycle per second

    Fraser, B.J. (1965)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The work on magnetic micropulsations described in this thesis falls into two parts. The first part considers micropulsations associated with meteoric phenomena, a high-altitude thermo-nuclear explosion, and man-made electromagnetic interference. In the study on the association of micropulsations with meteors, both the effects of hourly meteor rates and individual meteor occurrences on micropulsation activity in the 1.5 cps band recorded at the same site, are considered. It is found that the variation in hourly meteor rates, plotted through a succession of nights, is not significantly related to the corresponding micropulsation activity. Most individual meteors do not have any associated micropulsation activity, but the number of coincidences is greater than random, and it remains possible that some of the larger meteors do produce magnetic effects. Observations of the magnetic disturbance produced by the July 9, 1962 thermo-nuclear explosion above Johnston Island are described and the characteristic oscillation periods are interpreted. In the second part of the thesis, the development of recording and data analysis instrumentation, suitable for observing the frequency-time properties of signals in the Pc1 band (0.2 - 5 cps), is described and the characteristics of eight months of recorded data are interpreted in order to gain insight into the origin of the discrete Pc1 emissions generally known as pearl-type micropulsations or hydromagnetic emissions. Special attention is given to the design of a galvanometer-photocell preamplifier and it is shown that the frequency response of a standard laboratory galvanometer may be extended, by the application of feedback, to cover a considerable portion of the Pc1 band. The fine structure properties of hydromagnetic emissions are found to be in qualitative agreement with recently suggested theories for emission propagation by hydromagnetic ion cyclotron wave packets in the magnetosphere. Significant diurnal variations in hydromagnetic emission fine structure parameters are established, and it is shown that these are not associated with the daytime attenuation of hydromagnetic waves in the ionosphere, but with the emission source in the magnetosphere. The diurnal variations indicate that the emission source is located near the L=4 field line between 03 - 06 hr LT, and near the L=6.5 field line between 12 - 15 hr LT. The diurnal movement in the emission source position provides a simple explanation for the variation in hydromagnetic emission diurnal occurrence with latitude, and is also consistent with the variation in average emission frequency with latitude. It is suggested that the diurnal movement in the source position may result from the magnetospheric convection of low energy trapped particles. A preliminary analysis of the effects of geomagnetic activity on hydromagnetic emissions shows that the average nighttime location of the emission source is in the vicinity of the L=5 field line on extremely quiet days, and the L=3.7 field line on moderately disturbed days.

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  • Studies of the upper atmosphere

    Fraser, G.J. (1965)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In an attempt to make synoptic observations of winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, a simplified version of the correlation method for analysing spaced receiver ionosphere drift observations was developed. The new method makes possible the use of much simpler recording methods and eliminates the manual reduction of records. Drift observations made at noon between altitudes of 65 and 100 km, for summer 1963-4 and winter 1964 are presented. It is concluded that the mean monthly drift is a good estimate of the winds at these heights. The most prominent feature of the seasonal circulation is the upward progression of the height of reversal from westerlies (below) to easterlies (above) from 80 km in April to 100 km in July. The reversal height falls to 90 km in August and September.

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  • Solid state studies : transition ions in zinc oxide

    Anderson, R.S. (1967)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Furnace control facilities have been developed and crystals of ZnO with Mn, Co, Ni and Cu as impurities grown from a PbF2 flux. Visible spectra of Ni- and Co- ZnO in a variety of concentrations have been taken at temperatures from 1°K to 300°K. Sharp lines have been studied using high resolution to avoid slit effects. Temperature, polarisation and concentration dependence have been analysed to determine the nature of the transitions involved. Trigonal crystal field calculations have been performed to fit the observed electronic levels. Evidence has been found for the assignment of the visible band of Ni - ZnO to two electronic transitions and their phonon sidebands. An extra level, which may be due to some form of Jahn-Teller interaction, has been observed. Several parts of the spectrum show characteristics of a reduction of off-diagonal matrix elements by vibronic coupling. Lines due to pair interactions have been identified on the low energy side of the visible bands in Ni- and Co - ZnO. For Ni - ZnO the interaction cannot be due to spin, which is quenched in the ground state.

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  • Solid state studies : Raman spectroscopy and the lattice vibrations of CdCl2 and CdBr2

    Lockwood, D.J. (1969)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The fundamental lattice vibrations of the trigonal CdC12 structure (D3d5 ) have been analyzed group theoretically, and symmetry coordinates have been constructed. The primitive cell has nine normal modes of vibration. All six optical modes are either infrared or Raman active, so a complete vibrational analysis is possible. Results of far-infrared measurements on a Fourier-transform spectrometer together with Raman spectra recorded by argon laser excitation are presented for both CdC12 and CdBr2. Symmetry assignments of the observed frequencies are made on the basis of the shift in frequency in going from chloride to bromide and the polarization behaviour. Peaks in the second-order axial infrared absorption spectra are assigned to allowed fundamental combinations. The lattice frequencies of CdC12 are consistent with those of the isomorphic crystals of CoC12 and MnC1 2, which have also been investigated by infrared absorption. An unsuccessful attempt was made to measure the electronic Raman spectra of Fe2+ and Co2+ ions in CdC12 and CdBr2. The Raman spectra were measured on a Raman system comprising a 5 watt argon laser and a double monochromator, with photoelectric detection. The construction of the Raman spectrometer, and the associated signal processing electronics, is described in detail. Special emphasis has been placed on the use of on-line computer techniques in processing the Raman signal. A signal averaging system has been developed that is superior to both photon counting and lock-in amplification when measuring very weak signals.

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  • Studies in the solid state : optical spectra of IrCl62- and PtCl62- complexes

    Douglas, I.N. (1969)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The optical absorption spectra of the complexes IrCl62- and PtCl62- in single crystals of Cs2ZrCl6, Cs2HfCl6 and K2SnCl6, and PdCl62- in Cs2ZrCl6 have been studied at liquid helium temperature. Both molecular orbital theory and ligand field theory are used to interpret the results. The rich vibrational structure observed in many of the bands is analysed in terms of the vibrational modes of the complexes. Several long progressions involving up to twelve quanta of the totally symmetric vibration, ylg, were observed throughout the spectra, indicating that the transitions are to states in which the bond length has changed. Luminescent bands due to transitions from the triplet states of the 5d6 configuration of Pt4+ in crystals of the type K2PtCl6 have been found in the red and green regions of the spectrum. A study of the temperature dependence of the band width of the red luminescence in K2PtCl6 powder has been made and fitted to a coth function. At liquid helium temperature both bands showed vibrational progressions, involving several quanta of the totally symmetric vibration.

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  • Uranium luminescence

    Nicholas, J.V. (1966)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Lower ionospheric irregularities

    Vincent, R.A. (1967)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis is a study of the structure of that part of the ionosphere lying between 60 and 120 km. In the usual terminology the ionized parts of the atmosphere in this altitude range are called the ionospheric D and E regions, the boundary between them occurring at a height of 90 km. Above this height the E region extends upwards to 140 km, the base of the F region. Since the ionization below 50 km is not enough to effect the propagation or radio waves this height effectively marks the bottom of the D region. There is also another system of nomenclature based on the neutral gas temperatures of the atmosphere. The mesosphere lies in the altitude range 50 to 85 km, which is a region of decreasing temperature with height. Because they refer to the same height range the terms mesosphere and D region are often used synonymously in the following work. Above 90 km the temperature increases, rapidly at first and then more slowly, in the thermosphere.

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  • Some aspects of molybdenum halide chemistry

    Gainsford, G.J. (1969)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Chemical and X-ray crystallographic studies of molybdenum(II) halides, which are based on the well-known (Mo₆Cl₈)⁴⁺ cluster, have been carried out. Contrary to previous reports, the reactions of 2,2'-bipyridyl with the halides (Mo₆Cl₈)Cl₄ and (Mo₆Cl₈)I₄ yield, even under mild conditions, bipyridylium salts of chloromolybdic(II) and iodomolybdic(II) acids respectively: (BipyH)₂((Mo₆Cl₈)X₆) where X = Cl, I and Bipy = 2,2'-bipyridyl. The reactions are complicated by the formation of mixtures of products, which are mainly various crystalline forms of the bipyridylium salts. An amorphous product may be a true mono-bipyridyl complex. An unusual oxidation occurs during the reactions of triphenylphosphine (Ph₃P) and triphenylarsine (Ph₃As) with (Mo₆Cl₈)Cl₄ and (Mo₆Cl₈)I₄. Infra-red spectral and X-ray powder photographic studies show that the oxidized ligand complexes, (Mo₆Cl₈)X₄(Ph₃Z0)₂ (X = Cl, I; Z = As,P), are formed except under conditions in which both molecular and chemically-bound oxygen is rigorously excluded. The conditions required to coordinate more than two neutral unidentate ligands to the (Mo₆Cl₈)⁴⁺ cluster have been examined. It proved possible to obtain new ionic complexes under a range of conditions. The six-fold coordination of the (Mo₆Cl₈)⁴⁺ cluster is maintained in these compounds (e.g. ((Mo₆Cl₈)I₃(triphenylphosphine oxide)₂(pyridine))⁺I⁻) by the ionization of one or more of the terminal halogen atoms in the molybdenum(II) halide starting material (e.g.(Mo₆Cl₈)I₄). The X-ray single crystal structures of two isomorphous salts, (BipyH)₂(( (Mo₆Cl₈)X₆) (X = Cl,I), have been solved using the difference Patterson method. To solve another crystalline modification of the chloro-salt, the (Mo₆Cl₈) cluster was constrained to its established geometry with its centroid fixed at the origin of the unit cell. This rigid group of atoms was then rotated by the least-squares refinement of the three orientation-defining angles. The three structures contain discrete ((Mo₆Cl₈)X₆)²⁻(X = Cl,I) and (C₁₀H₉N₂)⁺ (bipyridylium) ions. The anions consist of highly-symmetric (Mo₆Cl₈) clusters (Mo-Mo = 2.606, Mo-Cl = 2.48 Ao), with six terminal halogen atoms (X) bound by single covalent bonds to the molybdenum atoms (Mo-Cl = 2.423, Mo-I = 2.737 Ao). The bipyridylium cations are twisted from perfect cis conformations in all three structures. The average dihedral angle between the two rings is 13 degrees. Further details of the geometries of the anion and cation are discussed. The ionic packing in the three crystals is dominated by the bulky anions. These are arranged in expanded "hexagonal close-packed" layers with the cations centred on approximately trigonal holes in this array. The two crystalline modifications of the chloro-salt differ in the orientation of the bipyridylium cations in these layers.

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  • A History of Niue

    McDowell, David (1961)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    "In the beginning, this island now called Niue was nothing but coral rock (he punga)... There came a god, an aitu, from the south, a god sailed to and fro on the face of the waters. He looked down here and saw far below on the ocean the white punga rock. He let down his hook and hauled the punga up to the surface, and lo! there stood and island!" - John Lupo. The genesis of Niue remains conjectural. The Polynesian calls in a supernatural agency, an aitu from the south, to explain the emergence of the multiplication of corals and algae from the waters of the mid-Pacific to form an island two-hundred feet high, but the story of the god and his line and hook is a local adaptation of a very ancient and widespread fable, as are in varying degrees other Polynesian versions of the birth of the island, Cook advanced two further possibilities in 1777 when he speculated: "Has this Island been raised by an earthquake? Or has the sea receded from it?"

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  • The Wellington urban motorway : the parts played by the planning authorities and the Bolton Street Preservation Society

    Miller, Richard Ogilvy (1969)

    Bachelor of Arts thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The inadequacy of our present planning system to accomodate at the critical stage participation of interested citizens in the control of their environment. A case history showing how the negotiations between the various authorities and the Bolton Street Cemetery Preservation Society, the route of the motorway, concerning demonstrates the truth or otherwise of the hypothesis.

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  • The politics of planning : a case study : the Christchurch Master Transportation Plan.

    Eng, Andreas (1968)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The process of amalgamation of the suburban local bodies of the Christchurch metropolitan area with the City ended with the incorporation of Sumner into the City in 1945. A brief account of the circumstances in which amalgamation took place up to 1945 offers an instructive commentary on the problem of local government reorganisation. The boroughs of Sydenham, St. Albans and Linwood amalgamated with the City in 1903 because the advantages of doing so were obvious and immediate. There were simply too many functions of common concern which could not successfully be dealt with except by an amalgamated local body. A high pressure water supply and a comprehensive method of sewage disposal were two such functions almost immediately undertaken by the new City Council. A poll of electors in each of the three relatively under-developed boroughs favoured amalgamation by a margin of better than two to one. Between 1903 and 1945 twelve more suburbs joined the City but the bulk of 'essential' reorganisation was completed with the accession of the suburbs of Bromley and Papanui in 1923.

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  • Industrial conflict in New Zealand, 1951-61

    Lukey, Lyall Gordon (1966)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis represents an Attempt to examine, in a particular historical context, the relationship between the system designed to regulate industrial conflict in New Zealand and the kind of conflict which ensues as a result of the existence of that system. The central event is the waterfront stoppage of 1951 which, over a period of five months, resulted in the loss of more than a million working days to New Zealand industry. A period of strife of the magnitude of the 1951 crisis could have served to perpetuate traditional patterns of conflict. In the event this does not seem to have happened. By over-reaching itself in 1951 the militant section of the industrial labour movement in New Zealand confirmed the attitude of the moderates: that direct action was a dangerous method for redressing grievances and securing concessions. In the decade after 1951 the incidence of stoppages and strikes was much lower than hitherto. The theme of this study is not that a period of conflict was followed by a decade of industrial harmony, but that the nature of industrial conflict itself underwent a significant change. After 1951 conflict between workers and their employers was riot suspended, but it took place largely at a political level, in a way which obscured most of the visible signs of discord. Mr. J. F. Fardell, General Manager of the Christchurch transport Board and Mr. K. McL. Baxter, National Secretary of the New Zealand Federation of Labour assisted this study by kindly providing material not readily accessible. Others, too numerous to mention, helped in various capacities and my thanks is also due to them.

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  • Studies on the biology and functional morphology of Triplectides obsoleta

    Rowley Smith, Diana Margaret (1962)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Triplectides obsolete overwinters in the larval state, and larval stages may therefore be found at all times of the year. The first part of this section entails a description of the external features of the larval form. It appeared that the larvae changed little in form throughout their larval life, for no obvious features could be found which differed greatly from one instar to the next, the main change being a gradual increase in size due to normal growth processes. The primary aim of this section was to determine the number, and if possible the duration of the larval instars; secondly that the instars may be distinguished from each other so that by sampling the population over the autumn, winter and spring months the changes in proportion of the instars represented in the population during this time could be shown. Simultaneously and indication of the larval growth and habitat distribution has been obtained. The larval case and the case building habit is dealt with in a later section. The egg mass of T. obsolete was not found in the field, but two masses were laid by one female in the laboratory. A description of these and the contained eggs is given at the end of 1/3. The 1st instar larva partly on account of the difficulty in obtaining egg stages has not been found. Consequently its description has had to be omitted from this work.

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  • The imagery of Thomas De Quincey's 'impassioned prose'

    Dwyer, Denis Noel (1965)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • A reappraisal of the 1890 maritime strike in New Zealand

    Merrett, Ian Arthur (1969)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Besides being a detailed study of the causes, course and consequences of the 1890 Maritime Strike in New Zealand, this thesis is also an overall account of the trials and tribulations, and the successes and failures of the labour movement in New Zealand between the passage of Stout's Trade Union Bill in 1878, and the enactment in 1894 of the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act sponsored by Reeves. As such it has attempted to place that strike in its perspective as one of the really important events in labour history. From it I hope it can be seen that the 1890 Maritime Strike has to a certain extent, influenced the structure of the labour movement from the time that Reeves's bill was passed.

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  • Morality and the women in the plays of Thomas Middleton

    Dawson, Susan Christene (1969)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    My aim in this study is twofold. Firstly I wish to bring to light the work of a dramatist who, at least in the past, has been admired for The Changeling (although even then with reservations), but for very little else. The Changeling may be Middleton's ultimate statement about the nature of evil in the human personality, but it is by no means his only one. Part of the interest in a study of this nature must therefore be in the tracing of the development which culminates in this play, Secondly, I believe that while Middleton's women characters show a development representative of a general interest in psychology, abnormal included, which is exhibited. by many of the dramatists in the late Elizabethan and early Jacobean periods, this development is also rendered highly individual by his moral point of view.

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  • The old poetic : a reappraisal of Old English lyrical and heroic verse

    Glover, Rupert Granville (1968)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • A study of low valency states of transition metals

    Hickford, Jeanette Helen (1967)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This is a study of certain aspects of the chemistry of low valency states of the two group VIIa elements, technetium and rhenium. Sections 1 and 2 are on technetium and rhenium, respectively, and Section 3 consists of a comparative review of their chemistry. SECTION 1 Technetium in oxidation states (IV) (III) and (II). New complexes of technetium, with some organic ligands containing group V elements, have been identified. The tetravalent complexes have been prepared by direct reaction between technetium tetrachloride (and tetrabromide) and the ligand. They are all basicall six-coordinate complexes in which technetium has three unpaired electrons. Electronic spectra of these compounds, and the potassium hexahalogenotechnetates (IV), have been studied in detail. The value of Dq for technetium (IV) in a chloride field is ~2400 cm -¹, if the band assignments are correct. The reduction of technetium (IV) to technetium (III) can be brought about be relatively mild reducing agents, e.g. the reaction of technetium tetrachloride (or tetrabromide) with bis(diphenyl-phosphino)ethane, in ethanol, produces the complex [Tc(III)X₂(diphos)₂]X, where X = Cl,Br. This is further reduced by reaction in the cold with sodium borohydride to form [Tc(II)X₂(diphos)₂]. The properties of these compounds are consistent with those expected for six-coordinate d⁴ and d⁵ spin-paired complexes. Several attempts have been made to synthesise technetium trichloride, using a variety of methods; the high stability of the tetrachloride is a dominant factor in the non-formation of the trichloride. SECTION 2 Rhenium(III) “cluster” compounds. Trimeric rhenium trichloride, Re₃Cl₉, has been reacted with several neutral polydentate ligands containing group V elements. From the reaction products (often several), new trimeric complexes have been isolated in which the ligand is attached to one or more metal atoms. For example, in complexes such as [Re₃Cl₈(diarsine)₂]Cl, and [Re₃Cl₈(terp)]Cl, the organic ligand is probably bonded to one rhenium atom; however, in a complex such as Re₃Cl₉(diphos)1.5 (empirical formula), at least some of the ligand groups must be bridged across two metal atoms adjacent trimeric units. The effect of groups attached to the rhenium atom, within the complex anion, has been studied further by the preparation of compounds of types M (x+y-9)[Re₃Clxyy], (where Y is a singly-charged anion e.g. bromide), and M(x+2y-9)[Re₃Clxyy’], (where Y’ is a doubly-charged anion e.g. oxalate); M is a univalent cation and x+y = 10, 11 or 12. A study of the properties of these complexes indicates that the basic unit Re₃Cl₃, is still present in each. The influence of “external” groups in the trimeric anion causes minor shifts in the visible absorption spectra. An interesting compound, which has been formulated as Cs₅Re₄Cl₆Br₁₂, was isolated during the investigations. The physical and chemical properties of this complex indicates that it is a “lattice compound”, consisting of the complex halide, Cs₂Re(IV)Br₆, and the trimeric compound, Cs₃Re₃(III)Cl₆Br₆. The reaction between thionyl chloride and rhenium dioxide (described by R. Colton as a means of preparing Re₃(IV)Cl₁₂) was studied in detail. The main products are usually the monomeric compounds, Re(IV)Cl₃(OH). H₂O, and Re(IV)Cl₃(OH).2H₂O; small amounts of other compounds, e.g. rhenium trichloride, are sometimes formed. The analogous reaction for technetium gives similar results.

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  • Pseudo-conjunction in the cyclopropane ring

    Miller, Ian James (1966)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A survey of the available data on the properties of cyclopropane systems shows that the common assumption that cyclopropane can conjugate with unsaturated systems is questionable. A series of phenylcyclopropanecarboxylic acids, and a series of phenylcyclopropylamines were prepared, and a study was made of the basicity and nucleophilicity of the latter, and reactivity of the former, and the spectral properties of both. It was shown that the lone pair of the nitrogen of a phenylcyclopropylamine does not appear to conjugate with the cyclpropane ring, that the cyclopropane ring cannot transmit mesomeric effects, and that the cyclopro-pane ring electrons are not appreciably more polarizable than is expected classically. A general explanation of the properties of cyclopropane systems is offered in terms of strain, and it is pointed out that in certain cases, particularly in consideration of polarizability, the effects of ring closure cannot be neglected. It is concluded that the cyclopropane ring does not conjugate with unsaturated centres.

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  • The evolution of the rural settlement pattern of lowland South Taranaki, 1860-1920

    Rawson, Gerald Ian (1967)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The settlement pattern forms the basis of any cultural landscape and it is the aim of this study in historical geography to trace its evolution in lowland South Taranaki in order to explain that landscape's final appearance. This pattern has evolved from the time of first European settlement and its study from a historical and geographical viewpoint allows the contribution of each stage in its evolution to be illustrated. To this end not only is where the people were important, but also why they were there and the intensity of their occupance. South Taranaki 's settlement pattern has formed around Agriculture, and as a result there is little need to distinguish between urban and rural uses of the land in the case of concentrations of settlement. The townships such as Ohangi, Oeo, and Matapu for example are an integral part of the rural scene as they exist only to serve their local farmers. The larger centres such as Hawera and Eltham serve a wider community than that provided by the districts' farmers but insofar as they have grown from and contributed to the rural districts they will be included as part of the rural settlement pattern. The area studied is bounded in the north by a line from Opunake through Ngaere to the edge of the hill country of inland Taranaki. This hill country and the Patea river to its mouth at Patea forms the eastern boundary (see figure 5). The coastline from Patea to Opunake forms the south western boundary. These boundaries are set not so much to argue that this area is distinct geographically as because by concentrating on a relatively small area the many factors which make up a settlement pattern can be illustrated. In addition available source material also favours this delimitation as it was the circulation area for The Hawera and Normanby Star and the Egmont Star the two major primary sources. This area includes all of the Hawera and Waimate West counties together with parts of the Patea, Eltham and Egmont counties (see figure 4). A boundary based more on county lines was considered but discarded as these had undergone many changes. The emerging of stable administrative boundaries is in itself one theme in the settlement patterns evolution. The settlement pattern in its final form was a European creation. The time period covered therefore is from 1860 when large numbers of Europeans began to settle to 1920 by which time the pattern had emerged in its final form. Most of the development took place between 1880 and 1900, while after 1920 the emphasis is on greater efficiency in farming interrupted by the depression of the 1930's.

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