208 results for 1970, ResearchSpace@Auckland

  • Comparison of collagenase activity in eosinophil and neutrophil fractions from rat peritoneal exudates

    Bassett, EG; Baker, JR; Baker, Paul; Myers, DB (1976-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The collagenase activity has been compared in extracts of eosinophils and of neutrophils from peritoneal exudates in two groups of rats, one of which had been treated to augment the numbers of eosinophils and the other the numbers of neutrophils. The proportion of granulocytes to other cells in each preparation was increased by differential centrifugation over a continuous gradient. Collagenase was extracted from the fractions in which granulocytes were concentrated and the activity assayed by the radioactive fibril method. There was at least as much collagenase in the eosinophil-enriched extracts as in the neutrophil-enriched extracts. It is postulated that eosinophil collagenase may have a function in the remodelling of newly-synthesised collagen during the post-inflammatory phase of healing, since eosinophil leucocytes appear in significant numbers within the connective tissue during this phase. This suggests a different role for eosinophil collagenase than that for neutrophil collagenase, since neutrophils are present only in the early stages of inflammation, when collagen is being degraded.

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  • The influence of approach velocity on bubble coalescence

    Kirkpatrick, Robert; Lockett, MJ (1974-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Experiments have been carried out in which a cloud of air bubbles has been prevented from rising by downflowing water in a tube. High speed photography revealed an almost complete absence of bubble coalescence. This has been attributed to the large approach velocities of bubbles in the cloud. Further experiments in which a single bubble has been allowed to coalesce with a plane air???water interface have demonstrated the effect more clearly. Two basic types of bubble coalescence have been recognised depending on the approach velocity of the bubbles. At a low approach velocity, bubble coalescence is rapid, but coalescence times are considerably increased at large approach velocities. For pure liquids, a theory is put forward which shows that at low approach velocities film rupture can occur before the approaching bubbles are brought to rest. At large approach velocities the bubbles are brought to rest before rupture occurs. In the latter case bubble bounce can occur and the total coalescence time is thereby considerably increased. Based on observed approach velocities in a stationary bubble cloud, it is suggested that large approach velocities in a bubble column may be an important factor in limiting bubble coalescence.

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  • Ideal bubbly flow and actual flow in bubble column

    Lockett, MJ; Kirkpatrick, Robert (1975)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Froth regime point efficiency for gas-film controlled mass transfer on a two-dimensional sieve tray

    Lockett, MJ; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Uddin, MS (1979)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Unanswered Questions in Computerized Literary Analysis

    Drake, Bryan (1972)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Spin???spin interactions in polynuclear nickel(II) complexes: susceptibility and low-temperature magnetisation studies of tris[bis(pentane-2,4-dionato)nickel(II)]

    Boyd, Peter; MARTIN, RL (1979)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The magnetic susceptibility and magnetisation of the trinuclear complex [Ni3(pd)6](pd = pentane-2,4-dionate) have been reinvestigated in the range 1.8???300 K. Detailed magnetisation studies have been performed to low temperatures to evaluate the properties of the septet (S= 3) ground state of the molecule. The results have been analysed in terms of the Heisenberg???Dirac???Van Vleck isotropic exchange Hamiltonian including contributions from single-ion zero-field splittings. Ferromagnetic coupling between adjacent ions is confirmed, although the magnitude of both this interaction and the antiferromagnetic interaction between the terminal ions is found to be half that previously reported. This diminution is due to the effect of zero-field splitting on the low-temperature magnetic properties, the ground-state septet (S= 3) having a splitting of ???1.3 cm???1.

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  • Procedures for the Optical Assessment of Low Vision Aids

    Smith, G; Jacobs, Robert; Johnston, AW (1979)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Although optometrists often prescribe low vision aids for patients with visual impairment, in some cases they cannot be certain that a particular aid will be suitable for use because of a paucity of optical specification accompanying the aid. This paper reviews the important optical properties required of low vision aids, and details methods for the description and comparison of these properties.

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  • Ovine placental lactogen: purification and properties

    Reddy, Shivanand (1979)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    A procedure was developed to purify ovine placental lactogen (oPL) from fetal cotyledonary tissue of late gestation. A prolactin radioreceptor assay using mammary tissue membranes from the late pregnant rabbit was established and used to monitor lactogenic activity throughout the purification.

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  • The mechanical properties of glassy poly (methyl methacrylate)

    Meikle, John Boyd, 1940- (1970)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The mechanical properties of glassy poly (methyl methacrylate) have been examined by means of constant strain-rate tests at differing strain-rates and temperatures. Both fast-cooled and slow-cooled samples have been examined in order to determine the effect the rate of cooling has upon the mechanical properties. The ß and α’ relaxations were revealed in the experimental results. The difference in mechanical properties of fast- and slow-cooled samples could not be satisfactorily explained by the theory of Rusch.

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  • On the earthquake generated response of torsionally unbalanced buildings.

    Dempsey, K. M. (1978)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    An investigation is made into the coupled lateral-torsional response of torsionally unbalanced “shear” buildings to horizontally directed earthquake excitation. Attention is confined to analytical models that have linearly elastic, viscously damped responses. The investigation involves three separate analyses: Firstly, in a preliminary study, the earthquake response of an asymmetric single storey building model is analyzed and general expressions are derived for the location of the centre of stiffness and the orientation of the principal axes. Secondly, an analysis is made of the coupled lateral-torsional response of a partially symmetric single storey building model to a single component of earthquake excitation. A modal solution of the two equations of motion is developed and a general criterion is derived for the existence of full modal coupling. By employing the design spectrum concept, together with conservative rules for the combination of modal maxima, analytical results in dimensionless form are evaluated for an equivalent static shear and an equivalent static torque. The combination expressions are then modified to include an allowance for modal coupling before the final results are computed and tabulated. The results substantiate previous findings which have pointed to a possible link between strong modal coupling and severely coupled lateral and torsional responses. In particular, they indicate that those nominally symmetric buildings which exhibit strong modal coupling are liable to respond more strongly in torsion than has hitherto been recognised by most building codes. This effect has not in the past been quantified in analytical terms. Although the results have practical applications in design, the analysis concerns itself primarily with the determination of realistic estimates for the dimensionless response quantities and no attempt is made to derive design rules. Finally, the partially symmetric single storey model is extended to a special class of partially symmetric multistorey "shear" buildings. The importance of this final analysis derives from the similarity between the results for the single storey model and those for the continuous multistorey model.

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  • Structured evaluation of attitudes to dwelling environments : people’s subjective assessments of preference satisfaction and meaning as indicators of architectural design performance

    Bartlett, Peter John (1978)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This Thesis is developed around twin topics. One aspect of the Thesis is an attempt to ascertain the extent to which structured research-techniques from the Social and Behavioural Sciences may be applied to investigations of various man-environment relationships and specifically of the contributions of Architecture in those relationships, - in this case within dwelling-environments. The other aspect of it, is an attempt to ascertain through people's subjective assessments, the preferences, satisfactions and meanings they recognise in various dwelling-environments; and then, to identify the kind and character of architectural components which prompt such recognition. Underlying the first aspect of the Thesis was a quest for a repertoire of research procedures with which to implement and sustain the Evaluative or Performance Approach to Architectural Design, Research and Education. Permeating the second aspect, was a quest for evidence of fundamental factors and concerns in people's experience of human settings, which could perhaps be identified as more or less common to a number of culturally or socially-identifiable groups - as it were, a general semantic-agreement, 'socially-contracted' as in other social behaviour and languages, of both the verbal and non-verbal kinds. Following a brief introductory review of present-day widely felt concerns about recent urban-design and development, seen as an offending environment for human-consciousness, Part 1 of the Thesis develops, against a motivating prospect of urban-crisis related to resource deficiencies, a theoretical framework embracing a commitment to the evaluation of human satisfaction in the designed environment and to appraising and predicting this environment's performance in accommodating that satisfaction. A discussion of Theoretical Commitments towards the twofold interests of the Thesis - in short, research process and research product - comprises an evaluation of survey techniques and the concepts they measure (such as 'satisfaction'), and a review of the philosophical and methodological consequences of adopting the holistic viewpoints of Phenomenology and Communication Theory in either conceptualising, researching or designing the built-environment. The Theory of Semiology is summarised as a model for the semantic theory of the architectural environment. A series of five Basic Theoretical Assumptions, is drawn from this theoretical discussion and leads to both the General Thesis - Aspect A, which, regarding research processes, anticipates the effective application of research techniques from the Social Sciences to research in Architecture; and to the General Thesis - Aspect B, which, regarding research products, looks towards the nature of environmental satisfaction in dwelling-environments by reference to the theories of Semiology and 'Social Contract', and an anticipated semantic-identity of preferred dwelling idioms. Part 2 describes the scope of the survey research attempted and presents a discussion of the three concepts: 'Preference', 'Satisfaction' and 'Meaning'. Part 3, the longest, presents the eight surveys in a series focused on dwelling-environments, each complete with a graphical representation and detailed discussion of results. It is early in this series of surveys that the three subordinate Hypotheses A, B and C are developed, stated and tested against subsequent survey results. Part 4 draws up a summary of the numerous significant survey-findings about dwelling-environments, reconciles these findings with the research hypotheses, and with both aspects of the General Thesis, develops further inferences and assertions about respondent groups and about housing attitudes, and then proceeds to a discussion of their implications for Theory, for Architectural-Design and Planning and for Further Research. Appendixes include explanatory notes about multivariate analysis of variance, and survey-sampling procedure, a respondent debate about Living-Room semantics, plan and photographs of the full-size simulation studio in which the Living-Room settings were produced, and an application of findings on environmental 'meaning' to the Planning concept of 'Amenities' in relation to a Planning Tribunal Hearing.

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  • The meaning of the built environment: dwelling environments as meaning household identity

    Niculescu, Susan Katharine (1975)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The thesis is an attempt to find whether there is any perceived or actual correlation between people (personal characteristics, or characteristics of subgroups) and the environments they choose--in particular, their houses; that is, to correlate identifiable physical aspects of environment with various identifiable personal or social characteristics, and to attempt to explain why such correlations occur; thence to postulate theories which will enable environments to be designed to be acceptable to particular groups of people. "The thesis", part 1 of the thesis, is a theoretical statement comprising, in Chapter I, an explicit statement of the theoretical framework in the form of five premises derived from philosophy and theories of psychology, art and architecture, and sociology. And, in Chapter II, a statement of the two hypotheses (that dwelling environments are perceived as "meaning" the people who live in them and that people choose dwelling environments, other things being equal, according to their concept of the kind of people they are) and the assumptions necessary to test them. In Part 2: "The Research Method" Chapter III covers the development of the measure of closure in dwelling environments. Closure was chosen in Chapter II as the environmental variable to be used for the purposes of this study. The final measure comprises five sets of four bird’s eye view perspective line drawings depicting five situations in a typical house in which closure is varied in four steps from very open to very closed. Chapter IV describes the development of the measure of household identity. The measure of household identity was developed especially to be of relevance to the choice of degrees of closure in dwelling environments. The measure is derived from actual verbal responses of the respondents to open ended questions asked in pilot studies. In Chapter V, the last chapter in Part 2, the research design of the survey study is described: the research model used, the design of the questionnaire, and the sampling method. The first chapter of Part 3: "The Results and Discussion of the Results", Chapter VI, presents the sample size (610) and shows that the sample is representative of the population of the Auckland greater urban area. In Chapter VII, the results relating to hypothesis I are presented and discussed. The results weakly support the hypothesis but the correlations are not of sufficient strength to be used predictively. In Chapter VIII the results of hypothesis 2 are presented and discussed. These results also support the hypothesis but even less strongly so than for hypothesis 1. Chapter VIII also covers sub-hypothesis 1, that people choose dwelling environments according to their "objective” household identity, In Chapter IX the results of the hypotheses are compared and summarized. And in Chapter X the implications of the results are outlined: an attempt is made to relative the results to the theoretical framework and from this implications for a possible theory of aesthetics are drawn. The implications of the results for the theory and practice of architecture are delineated and finally suggestions for future research are outlined.

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  • Site response to earthquakes with reference to the application of microtremor measurements.

    Parton, Ian M. (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    It is generally accepted that some areas of the earth's surface are more prone to earthquake occurrence than others. Furthermore, within these earthquake-prone area the distribution of earthquake epicentres is non-uniform. Ttis has led to a system of regional zoning for earthquake resistant design in most countries. Observations of localised damage resulting from earthquakes has only recently led to the general acceptance of the fact that the degree of damage may be influenced by the characteristics of the soils in the affected area. Where the damage is related to gross instability of the soil resulting in large permanent deformations, association of the damage with local soil conditions is readily apparent. A somewhat less obvious effect of soil conditions on building damage is that subsurface soil layering can influence the intensity of ground shaking, and the frequency content of the surface motion, even though the soils underlying structures may remain perfectly stable during an earthquake. The frequency characteristics of the surface motion are important as the existence of a predominant ground frequency may lead to resonance of structures during prolonged shaking. In Chapter 2 a brief resume of existing knowledge of the occurrence, origin and nature of earthquakes is presented. Basic wave models and wave types are outlined.

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  • Chemistry of low-valent osmium

    Grundy, Kevin Rodger (1975)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study concerns the synthesis, structure and reactivity of complexes of d⁶ and d⁸ osmium. The reactivity of certain ligands coordinated to low-valent osmium has also been investigated. Various hydride complexes of osmium(II) were prepared as potential precursors of osmium(O). OsH₄(PPh₃)₃ reacts with p-tolylisocyanide (TIC) and 4-ethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-1-phosphabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (ETPO) to yield OsH₂(L)(PPh₃)₃ from which were derived OsH₂(L’)(L)(PPh₃)₂ (L, L’=CO, TIC, ETPO). Attempts to eliminate hydrogen from the dihydrides failed. OsHCl(CO) (PPh₃)₃ reacts with neutral ligands L (=TIC, ETPO, P(OMe)₃, P(OPh)₃, PPh₂Me) to give OsHCl(CO)(L)(PPh₃)₂ which, with silver perchlorate (L=TIC, ETPO only) afford OsH(OClO₃)(CO)(L)(PPh₃)₂. The labile perchlorate ligand can be replaced by ligands L’ affording [OsH(CO)(L)(L’)(PPh₃)₂]ClO4 (L=TIC, L’=CO, TIC, PPh₃ L=ETPO, L’=CO, ETPO). OsHCl(CO)(PPh₃)₃ reacts with silver perchlorate in acetonitrile to yield [OsH(CO)(CH𠠼N)₂(PPh₃)₂]ClO4, which in turn reacts with neutral ligands to give [OsH(CO)(CH₃N)(L)(PPh₃)₂]ClO₄ (L=CO, TIC, ETPO, PPh₃). Cationic [OsH(CO)₂(PPh₃)₃]+ and [OsH(TIC)₂(PPh₃)₃]+ can be prepared from the action of PPh₃ on [OsH(CO)₂(CH₃N)(PPh₃)₂]+ and TIC on OsH(O₂CCH₃)(PPh₃)₃ respectively. With base, [OsH(CO)(CH₃N)(PPh₃)₃]ClO4 affords OsH(OH)(CO)(PPh₃)₃ from which a series of hydroxide complexes OsH(OH)(CO)(L)(PPh₃)₂ (L=CO, TIC ETPO) can be obtained. The hydroxide group in OsH(OH)(CO)(PPh₃)₃ is cleaved by acids HX to yield OsHX(CO)(PPh₃)₃ (X=F, Br, Cl, I, CH₂, CF₂, SC₇H₇, OClO₃). Those members of the series with X=CN, N₃, OCN, SCN were obtained from OsH(OClO₃)(CO)(PPh₃)₃ and the appropriate anion. From the values of vCO for this series can be gained some understanding of the bonding properties of the anionic ligands.

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  • Aspects of UHF communications on overhead earth-wires in power transmission networks

    Castle, N. J. (1976)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The motivation for this research is a proposed UHF surface wave communication system in which the waveguides are the stranded, overhead earth wires of Power System transmission lines. Attention is confined largely to an investigation of certain aspects which affect the overall surfaces wave transmission loss, a full-scale system having been set up in the laboratory for experimental purposes. For the prediction of transmission loss the stranded conductor is assumed to be equivalent to a solid conductor of the same diameter but with surface anisotropy in the form of two mutually orthogonal surface impedances the major reactive component of which is attributed to the effects of the helical stranding. This reactance is determined from a consideration of the fields which are assumed to exist within the cavities between the strands, and externally. From a comparison between experimental and theoretical loss characteristics there is sufficient inducement to accept the anisotropic model of the stranded conductor for practical design purposes. Approximate equations are developed to simplify the calculation of transmission loss and the notion of ‘capture cross-section’ is employed for the estimation of the efficiency of conical horn launchers. It is deduced from ‘sensitivity’ relationships that the horn loss is relatively insensitive to small changes in the fictitious surface reactance representing the effects of helical stranding, which tends to justify the assumptions upon which the anisotropic model is based. On the other hand, variations in the helix angle are shown to have a marked effect upon the calculated horn loss. This influences the choice of the stranded conductor used as the waveguide for the experimental verification of the model. The Author’s experimental research is described at length, the principal objective being to establish the anisotropic model as an acceptable theoretical substitute for the stranded conductor. To reduce the horn loss, dielectric sheaths are ted to the waveguide in the vicinity of the horn apertures. The discrepancies which then appear between theory and experiment are attributed both to the scattering of the surface wave by the boundary discontinuities at the ends of the sheaths and to the anomalous behaviour of commercial-grade PVC dielectric. Considering the increase in the transmission efficiency which may be realised by fitting dielectric sheaths to the conductor near the horn apertures it is concluded that a theoretical investigation of the scattering properties of the discontinuities s in order. Thus, the remainder of the Thesis is devoted, to this scattering effect as it may be encountered in the proposed scheme, the theoretical analysis following the lines of earlier documented research. A short-cut method is applied for the determination of certain ‘half-plane’ functions which appear in the expressions for the scattered power. Theoretical results are presented together with a discussion of some experimental measurements and a brief theoretical examination of the effects on the horn loss of varying the thickness of the dielectric sheaths. It is argued that the horn loss may be reduced if the dielectric thickness is graded in steps to a value at the horn apertures consistent with the desired ‘power capture’. The Thesis is concluded with an Addendum which outlines a number of topics suggested by the Author for future research.

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  • Aspects of the biology and utilisation of Pterocladia and Gracilaria

    Luxton, David Morley (1977)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Pterocladia lucida (R. Br.) J. Ag. is the prinipal raw material for agar production in New Zealand. Since collection commenced in 1943 the annual harvest has never stabilised and over recent years there has been a general decline, which has inhibited expansion of the indigenous industry. Field and laboratory studies have been made in order to obtain information on the biology of P. lucida. Form variability is considered in detail and a relationship between external morphology and wave exposure of the habitat is proposed. The culture of P. lucida from spores in a running seawater system is described in detail. Results on carpospore and tetraspore germination, and sporeling growth under light and temperature regimes are presented. Germination of both spore types was inhibited at 10°C while at higher temperatures germination was greatest under 4 klux. Spore germination and sporeling development in culture is described. Only sterile prostrate thalli possessing rhizoidal haptera were obtained and a hypothesis relating the appearance of surface haptera to the direction of irradiation is proposed. The development of an outdoor wave tank for culturing is described and the growth rate and development of sporelings is discussed with reference to water movement. Sporelings were maintained in culture for up to 22 months. Cultured sporelings have also been transplanted into different habitats. Creeping axes established from carpospores produced erect fronds, which produced tetraspores after seven to ten months in situ. This confirmed part of a Polysiphonia-type life history for the first time in a Gelidioid species. Axis elongation rate in situ was estimated to be less than 10cm year-1 at Leigh. It was concluded that the collection of attached weed could not be sustained annually, but controlled harvesting in specific areas every two years is advocated. Seasonal variation in agar yield and gel strength from wave exposed and sheltered populations of P. lucida was studied. Agar levels varied throughout the year, being greatest in spring and summer, while gel strengths showed a similar trend. The feasibility of utilising indigenous Gracilaria secundata Harvey forma pseudoflagellifera May has been studied. The yield and gel properties of agar were determined from different alkali pretreatments. There was a marked increase in gel strength when weed was pretreated in alkali, the maximum gel strength being obtained from a weed treatment of 3 percent NaOH for three hours at 80°C. The gel properties of agar from G. secundata f. pseudoflagellifera are compared with agar from other sources. The agar was suitable for commercial use, but exhibited a greater resilience than that from Pterocladia lucida. The vegetative regeneration of G. secundata f. pseudoflagellifera in the Manukau Harbour has been studied and an experimental harvest of 0.68t is described. During spring 100 percent regeneration from hand cleared and raked areas occurred after eight to thirteen weeks. Based on regeneration results, mechanical harvesting four times a year of Gracilaria mats in the Manukau Harbour is advocated. The predicted sustainable yield is 1084-1304t year-1. The extraction and gel properties of agar from Melanthalia abscissa (Turn.) Hook. et Harv. are reported for the-first time, but the commercial collection of this species is not advocated.

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  • Design Brief for New Seawater System at the Marine Research Laboratory (University of Auckland), Leigh, New Zealand

    Ballantine, WJ (1971)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The McLean estate : a study of pastoral finance and estate management in New Zealand, 1853-91

    Parr, Bruce C (1970)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Conjoint Measurement and the Canonical Analysis of Contingency Tables

    Davis, Peter (1977)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The simultaneous conjoint model of measurement is first briefly outlined and its relevance to the problems of measurement level in sociological research discussed. The canonical correlation approach to the analysis of contingency tables is then presented as a simultaneous conjoint model solution to the problem of providing a more adequate representation than a traditional X2-based measure of association of more complex sets of frequency data.

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  • Mixed use of alphabetic and symbolic messages

    Jacobs, Robert (1977)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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