947 results for 1970

  • The changing agricultural geography of Southland, 1878-1940.

    Kellaway, Roger George (1970)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The evolution of the agricultural system of Southland was a long-term process. It has roots that stretch back to Britain before the agricultural revolution and it has not yet ended. Indeed, it probably will never end because agricultural systems are dynamic entities. The aim of this work bas been to consider the manner in which the agricultural geography of Southland has reacted to the changes that have taken place in the profitability ot various forms ot agricultural production, the introduction of new types of agricultural technology, and the impact of new modes of transport.

    View record details
  • Unanswered Questions in Computerized Literary Analysis

    Drake, Bryan (1972)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Surficial sediments of Raglan Harbour

    Sherwood, Alan M. (1973)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Raglan Harbour is a drowned river valley system lying in a structurally depressed fault block. Much of the upper reaches of the harbour consist of tidal flats formed by sediment veneered shore platforms, and dissected by relatively deep channels. Estuarine conditions occur in the tidal reaches of major streams entering the harbour. Sediment textures reflect a gradual decrease in energy conditions passing, up the harbour from clean, well-sorted sands near the harbour entrance to mainly muddy sands and sandy muds that characterise the tidal flats. Tidal currents result in highly variable energy conditions. Modes of sediment transport and deposition and a generalised scheme of current patterns and relative current strengths throughout the harbour are interpreted from textural analyses. The coastal iron-sands are the principle source heavy minerals in sediments throughout Raglan Harbour. Bulk sediment mineralogies and clay mineralogies indicate detrital inheritance from hinterland rocks as the main source of terrigenous sediment supplied to the harbour as fluvial sediment load and by shoreline erosion. Benthonic organisms supply most of the carbonate and organic matter in the sediments, as well as causing considerable sediment reworking. Phosphatic concretions found in certain areas of the harbour appear to be of Recent to Sub-recent diagenetic origin. Much of the present aerial extent of Raglan Harbour is probably the result of shore platform development within the harbour during the last 8-10,000 years. The bulk of the material eroded during this process has been removed from the sedimentary system of the harbour and deposited on the continental shelf.

    View record details
  • The theory of S-functions and applications in quantum mechanics

    Butler, P.H. (1970)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    S-functions, as developed by D.E. Littlewood, are reviewed and their properties developed and extended. A computer programme has been written to perform most S-function operations. In particular, S-function division is defined, which produces many simplifications, and general methods for calculating both inner and outer plethysm are derived. The properties of matrix groups are similarly discussed using the theory of S-functions and programmes written to produce branching rules and Kronecker products. This required some new work on spin characters and on the difference characters of even dimensional rotation groups. Generalized Racah tensors are used to study the group properties of general mixed configurations of electrons. Some properties of factorized general coupling and recoupling coefficients are also derived. These properties are used to calculate part of general two body fractional parentage coefficients. The above methods are used to investigate the usefulness of the group R4 as an approximate symmetry for the first row atoms. It is found that the interaction with the underlying ls2 shell completely breaks this symmetry.

    View record details
  • Some studies of the theory and application of continuous groups in atomic spectroscopy

    Cunningham, M.J. (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis is concerned with the representation theory of continuous groups both compact and non-compact and its application to atomic spectroscopy. In Chapter I some atomic wavefunctions for equivalent electrons in the group scheme SU2 x (U2l+1 R2l+1 R3) are constructed in terms of electron fermion creation and annihilation operators. The concept of semiconjugacy is defined and shown to reduce the number of states that must be explicitly calculated. The states of the d shell are calculated and tabulated. In Chapter II it is shown how to extract n-body cfp's associated with arbitrary auxiliary quantum numbers from the n-body generalisation of Redmond's formula. The method is applied to give explicit formulae for the squares of one body cfp's of the atomic d-shell. Group theory is applied in Chapter III to extend the quasiparticle formalism developed by Armstrong and Judd to expose the complete group structure of the eigenfunctions of the equivalent electron l shell. A simple method for relating quasiparticle states to determinantal states and for calculating quasiparticle matrix elements is developed. The need for fractional parentage coefficients in calculating these matrix elements is eliminated. In Chapter IV the technique and formalism is extended to describe general mixed configurations. The hydrogen atom is factorised according to the scheme 0(4,2) 0(2,1) x 0(3) in Chapter V and the radial group 0(2,1) studied. It is shown that rkD n/(n+q) , where Da is a dilatation operator, is proportional to a tensor operator in this scheme, allowing a group theoretical study of the radial matrix element rk, including an explanation of the Pasternack and Sternheimer selection rule. The technique is extended in Chapter VI to solve a differential equation directly related to the generalised Kepler equation of Infeld and Hull in an 0(2,1) x 0(3) group scheme. This equation contains as special cases the Schrodinger, Klein-Gordan, and Dirac (two forms) hydrogen atoms. A generalised Pasternack and Sternheimer selection rule exists and some matrix elements can be evaluated group theoretically.

    View record details
  • A study of winds and waves

    Cherry, N.J. (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The project involved an observational program to study the lee waves produced over Canterbury due to the Southern Alps over the year 1970 using superpressure balloons and radar-wind/radiosonde balloons. The characteristics and performance of balloons (tetroons) and balloon systems were studied in detail. The data from the balloons was used to obtain a wave classification which may be used to predict the scale of wave motion from the radar-wind profile. It was also compared with solutions of two-, three- and exponential layer models to evaluate their applicability in predicting the wave motion. It was found that they gave a good correlation with observations when the atmosphere was approximated by layers but generally the airflow profiles were more complex and the layer theories at best predicted the scale of the wavelengths observed. The amplitudes of the waves were found to be mainly dependent on the resonance between the forcing periodicities of the mountains and the natural oscillations of the airflow.

    View record details
  • Upper atmospheric studies : some observations of the south tropical OI airglow phenomenon

    Malcolm, Roger K. (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An account is presented of a series of observations of the dynamic behaviour of a region of the south tropical airglow·arcs made from Rarotonga (Lat. 21.2° south, long. 159.8° west) with the aid of a large aperture (90 cms), high resolution (½° beamwidth) scanning photometer. The night airglow is found to be strongly disturbed on many nights, characteristically by elliptical areas of lower than normal intensity drifting in an easterly direction. It was possible to associate their passage with the occurrence of 'spread-F' as observed by the Rarotongan ionosonde. An attempt is made to account for the airglow processes; suggestions are made concerning the possible origin of the disturbances; and their presence is examined in the light of the trans-equatorial propagation of V.H.F. signals from Hawaii, as recorded at Rarotonga.

    View record details
  • Solid state spectroscopy : rare earth - hybride centres in the alkaline earth fluorides

    Jacobs, I.T. (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Both the optical and infrared spectra of cerium and praseodymium tri-positive ions in the alkaline earth fluorines have been studied. Various charge compensation mechanisms have been employed including negative hydride, deuteride and tritide ions. For the hydride centres the degenerate local mode lines are resolved into more than one component. These splittings are attributed to electron-phonon interaction effects between the low lying rare earth 4f electronic states and the hydride ion local mode phonons. The 4f-5d electronic transitions of the cerium hydride type centres show large isotope shifts up to 50 cm⁻¹. Only the non-degenerate hydride ion vibration appears in the 4f-5d optical spectra and the vibrational interval is increased from absorption to fluorescence by as much as 15%. Both the isotope and vibronic shifts for the tetragonal cerium sites are attributed to electron-phonon interaction effects. Simple models involving point charges and point dipoles account in a semi-quantitative way for several features of the spectra but fail to account for either the sign or magnitude of the isotope and vibronic shifts.

    View record details
  • Solid state spectroscopy : the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of gadolinium anderbium ions in hydrogenated alkaline earth fluoride crystals

    Edgar, A. (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Electron Paramagnetic Resonance technique has been used to study alkaline earth fluoride crystals doped with both hydride and gadolinium (or erbium) ions, and the spin Hamiltonian parameters have been determined for the various kinds of charge-compensated rare earth ion site which occur. In particular, two sites of tetragonal symmetry with the structures RE³⁺-FI⁻, RE³⁺-HI⁻ have been examined, and small shifts in the EPR spectra of the latter site have been measured when a deuteride or tritiide ion replaces the hydride ion. A crystal lattice model of point charges and point dipoles at distorted lattice sites predicts a value of the crystal field parameter B₀² for the tetraqonal sites which is only one half of that estimated from the observed spectra, but the model successfully accounts for the larger value of B₀² for the RE³⁺-HI⁻ site compared with the RE³⁺-FI⁻ site on the basis of the larger polarisability of the H⁻ ion. Isotope shifts are interpreted by the electron phonon interaction between the 4f electrons of the rare earth ion and the localised mode of vibration of the light anion. The magnitudes of the shifts, calculated on a point charge/point dipole model, are in good agreement with experiment. The reorientation of the tetragonal Gd³⁺-HI⁻ sites has been examined by EPR line broadening and dielectric loss techniques. No distinct dielectric loss peak corresponding to this site was observed, and it is proposed that it cannot be distinguished from that for Gd³⁺-FI⁻ sites. An interstitialcy model for the reorientation has been investigated and is found to be consistent with this explanation and with the observation of a metastable Gd³⁺-HS⁻-FI⁻ site in u.v. irradiated calcium fluoride.

    View record details
  • Atmospheric physics : electron density variations in the mesosphere

    Wratt, D.S. (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The theory of the differential absorption and differential phase experiments is examined, and it is found that the differences in predicted electron densities due to different hypothetical reflection processes are in general no larger than experimental uncertainties. Results of differential absorption and differential phase measurements are compared. It is found that electron densities in the mesosphere above Christchurch can be affected by energetic particle precipitation. Evidence is also found for increases in electron concentration associated with a stratospheric warming, but apart from this there is no clear evidence for stratosphere-ionosphere coupling above Christchurch. Model studies show that much of the variation over time scales of four days or more above Christchurch could be accounted for by vertical transport of nitric oxide. However, other results make it likely that other processes, such as variations in loss rate, are also important.

    View record details
  • The spectra of transition-metal ions in solids

    Johnstone, I.W. (1975)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The results of an investigation of the Raman and infrared spectra of cobaltous ions in cadmium-chloride, cadmium-bromide, and manganese-chloride, and of cobalt-chloride are presented. The cobalt ions substitute for the cation in these crystals and experience a trigonal crystal-field which splits the lowest ⁴T₁g (⁴F) cubic-field term into six Kramers doublets with energies in the range 0-1200 cm⁻¹. The Raman spectra, measured as a function of temperature and of cobalt concentration show all five single ion electronic transitions together with several lines due to cobalt ion pairs. The infrared spectra comprise both magnetic-dipole allowed electronic transitions and electric-dipole allowed vibronic lines and bands. They confirm the identity of the electronic transitions seen by Raman scattering and also yield information concerning the lattice modes of the host and the possible interactions within cobalt ion pairs. The strong field matrices of the trigonal crystal-field and Zeeman interactions are calculated for the d³ (d⁷) configuration and quantitatively explain the experimental data. The crystal-field analysis provides single ion wavefunctions for further calculations which successfully explain the spectra of antiferromagnetic CoCl₂ and exchange coupled colbalt pairs in CdCl₂ (Co²⁺) and CdBr₂ (Co²⁺). A preliminary investigation of the infrared absorption of an oxygen-induced impurity site in CdCl₂-type crystals is also presented.

    View record details
  • Upper atmospheric studies using radio meteors

    Wilkinson, Philip James (1973)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The atmospheric motions in the 80-110 km height region, and methods of measuring them are discussed. Wind measurements using radio meteor trails are then considered in greater detail and an account is given of the equipment at the field station of the Physics Department of Canterbury at Rolleston near Christchurch, as well as details of the data reduction methods used. An analysis of the errors associated with the collection of data indicates that approximately half the variance in an average of wind velocities observed in a thirty minute period is due to atmospheric variability. Results from the first year's observations suggest that the solar diurnal and semidiurnal tides are of roughly the same magnitude, this magnitude being in agreement with the latitudinal variations observed at other stations.

    View record details
  • The group theory of the harmonic oscillator with applications in physics.

    Haskell, T. G. (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The possibility of the group SU₃ being used in the description of the (d+s)N and (d+s)npm many-electron complexes is examined by symmetrization of the Coulomb Hamiltonian. By dividing the Coulomb interaction into symmetry conserving and symmetry violating terms it is found that while the SU₃ scheme tends to give a better description in the (d+s)N case it shows no improvement over the configurational scheme in the (d+s)npm complex. The scheme is, however, very useful for the calculation of matrix elements of operators normally found in atomic spectroscopy and a complete set of symmetrized , scalar, Hermitian spin-independent two particle operators acting within (d+s)npm configurations is constructed. The radial wavefunctions of the harmonic oscillator are found to form a basis for the representations of the group 0(2,1) in the group scheme Sp(6,R) ⊃ S0(3) x 0(2,1). The operators Tkp = r2k are shown to transform simply under the action of the group generators. The matrix elements of Tkq and a selection rule similar to that of Pasternack and Sternheimer are derived. Finally the rich group structure of the harmonic oscillator is investigated and a dynamical group proposed which contains, as subgroups, the groups Sp(6,R), SU(3), H₄ and the direct product 0(2,1) x S0(3). Some remarks are made about contractions of groups, semidirect and direct products, and the generalization of the method to n-dimensions.

    View record details
  • Erwin Strittmatter in reference to the agarian novel of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

    Gebbie, Ian William (1978)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study deals with two aspects of German literature: the agrarian novel from the early nineteenth century to National Socialism, and a comparison of capitalist and socialist ideology, using the works of the DDR author Erwin Strittmatter. In the first part of the thesis, chosen works are analysed with the aim of establishing a pattern of bourgeois idealism and of tracing its development in reference to the changing historical background. The political implications of the nationalist transformation and radicalisation of the conservative agrarian ideology, which grew up as a middle-class reaction to the emergence of modern industrial Germany, are illustrated by the combination of the heroic and the idyllic in fascist literature. The second part deals with the socialist agrarian novel, which is discussed, in the light of Marxist theory, as a departure from the conservative model, and in relation to different political ideals and objectives. Three agrarian novels of Erwin Strittmatter Ochsenkutscher, Tinko and Ole Bienkopp - are examined in detail as the basis for contrast with capitalist doctrine and for observations on the role of literature in the DDR. The concluding chapter illustrates how, in the established East German state of the 1960's, the disregard for the demands of authority, which is a feature of Strittmatter's Ole Bienkopp, indicates a return to the traditional pattern of bourgeois idealism within the confines of socialist morality.

    View record details
  • Swaggers and society : a New Zealand experience

    Steven, Graeme D. (1979)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    The aims of this study are two-fold. First, to reach an understanding of the swagger, his lifestyle, and his outlook on life. And second, to investigate the relationships between the swagger and various groups in New Zealand society, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The North Otago region was chosen as a base for the study because it has traditionally been regarded as one of the main swagger areas in New Zealand. The main town of Oamaru had a population of 4000 to 6000 in the 1890's, and was neither wholly urban or rural. As the service centre for the North Otago hinterland and a road, rail and sea centre, Oamaru had large numbers of itinerants, passing through the town. In the rural hinterland mixed cropping predominated, and this required large numbers of seasonal workers, which were drawn from outside the region. In Chapter One it is argued that rural itinerant workers were integrated into a rural structure that was both labour intensive and seasonal. Chapter Two discusses the characteristics which separate the swagger from other rural itinerants, which I have called, the "swag-carriers". In Chapter Three the conflict between the swagger and a developing bureaucracy, and middle class ideology in the late nineteenth century, is analysed. In Chapters Four and Five, the attitudes of rural and towns people towards the swagger are investigated. A model based on the value system of "reputation" and "respectability is used in Chapter Six to explain the ambivalence of attitudes towards the swagger, and to investigate an important aspect of the swagger psychology - his self esteem and his individuality.

    View record details
  • Censorship of films : conflict in focus.

    Pirie, Andrew J., (1976)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    View record details
  • The development of Paremoremo Prison.

    Weiss, Gary Hilton. (1973)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    View record details
  • Comments on the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service Act.

    Tristram, Richard Hamish. (1970)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    View record details
  • The long term residential treatment of delinquent boys by the Child Welfare Division of the Department of Education.

    Campbell, John Baird. (1971)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    View record details
  • Workers' perceptions of industry, and their commitment to their union

    Coup, Owen (1974)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In the field of industrial sociology, little research has been done which views industry and the organisations associated with it, from the worker's perspective. There is agreement among those associated with the field in this country, that very little is known about the attitudes, perceptions and expectations that the New Zealand industrial worker has of industry, employer and job. It is important that research be done on the worker's views, since this would establish a better basis for our industrial relations policy. The present research was designed as an exploratory study, to examine workers' perceptions of their industry, their relationship with their employer, and their union. Essentially, there were two specific points considered. The first was an examination of the adequacy of Marxian theory as an explanation for the relationship that exists between employer and worker in the New Zealand industrial setting. The second was a preliminary analysis of the validity of a model, which attempts to predict the commitment of workers to their union, on the basis of certain preconditions which are outlined as a series of five stages. The research consisted of interviews with workers sampled from two unions in the Christchurch area. The analysis of the data did not use any sophisticated statistical techniques, since these were not appropriate for a preliminary study, or the size of the sample involved. The conclusions reached on the first point were, that although these workers do display certain characteristics that would be expected on the basis of a Marxian perspective, they also have other characteristics (notably an awareness of the interdependence of worker and employer), which Marxian theory cannot explain adequately. With regard to the model, the trends that it predicts definitely occur in this data, but the model does not account for all factors affecting the commitment of union members. It needs refinement and further, more rigorous, testing, before any final conclusion can be reached regarding its validity. As is appropriate for an exploratory study, a considerable number of suggestions for further research have been generated.

    View record details