953 results for 1970

  • Comparison of collagenase activity in eosinophil and neutrophil fractions from rat peritoneal exudates

    Bassett, EG; Baker, JR; Baker, Paul; Myers, DB (1976-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The collagenase activity has been compared in extracts of eosinophils and of neutrophils from peritoneal exudates in two groups of rats, one of which had been treated to augment the numbers of eosinophils and the other the numbers of neutrophils. The proportion of granulocytes to other cells in each preparation was increased by differential centrifugation over a continuous gradient. Collagenase was extracted from the fractions in which granulocytes were concentrated and the activity assayed by the radioactive fibril method. There was at least as much collagenase in the eosinophil-enriched extracts as in the neutrophil-enriched extracts. It is postulated that eosinophil collagenase may have a function in the remodelling of newly-synthesised collagen during the post-inflammatory phase of healing, since eosinophil leucocytes appear in significant numbers within the connective tissue during this phase. This suggests a different role for eosinophil collagenase than that for neutrophil collagenase, since neutrophils are present only in the early stages of inflammation, when collagen is being degraded.

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  • Plutonic and metamorphic rocks in the Victoria range segment of the Karamea batholith, Southwest Nelson, New Zealand.

    Tulloch, Andrew James (1979)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Digital copy stored under Section 55 of the NZ Copyright Act.

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  • Froth regime point efficiency for gas-film controlled mass transfer on a two-dimensional sieve tray

    Lockett, MJ; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Uddin, MS (1979)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The influence of approach velocity on bubble coalescence

    Kirkpatrick, Robert; Lockett, MJ (1974-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Experiments have been carried out in which a cloud of air bubbles has been prevented from rising by downflowing water in a tube. High speed photography revealed an almost complete absence of bubble coalescence. This has been attributed to the large approach velocities of bubbles in the cloud. Further experiments in which a single bubble has been allowed to coalesce with a plane air???water interface have demonstrated the effect more clearly. Two basic types of bubble coalescence have been recognised depending on the approach velocity of the bubbles. At a low approach velocity, bubble coalescence is rapid, but coalescence times are considerably increased at large approach velocities. For pure liquids, a theory is put forward which shows that at low approach velocities film rupture can occur before the approaching bubbles are brought to rest. At large approach velocities the bubbles are brought to rest before rupture occurs. In the latter case bubble bounce can occur and the total coalescence time is thereby considerably increased. Based on observed approach velocities in a stationary bubble cloud, it is suggested that large approach velocities in a bubble column may be an important factor in limiting bubble coalescence.

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  • Ideal bubbly flow and actual flow in bubble column

    Lockett, MJ; Kirkpatrick, Robert (1975)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The Christchurch tramway strike, 1932 : a research essay

    Graham, Mary-Ann Beverley (1978)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Most historians agree that the Auckland, Wellington and Dunedin riots of early 1932 were spontaneous outbreaks of rage by a people driven to take desperate measures against the conditions of the Depression. Yet little mention is made, and indeed known of, the so-called Christchurch 'riots' which occurred at the same time. The Christchurch demonstrations arose out of the Tramway Strike which followed the horrifying Auckland riot of a fortnight previous. Although there were no scenes of rampaging unemployed, running amok through the streets breaking windows and looting goods, a man was fatally injured during the Christchurch demonstration and incidents of violence on a smaller scale did occur. Curiously, these incidents served to restrict further outbreaks of incendiary violence in the city, rather than to encourage it. Why was this so? What factors operating in Christchurch at the time of the Tramway Strike prevented the dispute from expanding into an uprising on the scale of that of Auckland, or Wellington, or Dunedin? Does the relative absence of social disruption indicate that Christchurch was united rather than divided by its depression experience? The essay will attempt to answer this question in the light of the condition of the unemployed in Christchurch at the time. It will look at the origins of the Tramway dispute and the events which happened within the city itself as a result of the strike. Secondly it will investigate why the strike did not widen into a mass demonstration against established law and order as a result of dissatisfaction with the Coalition Government's economic policies. A final conclusion will follow a brief summary of the events following the Tramway Strike.

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  • The changing agricultural geography of Southland, 1878-1940.

    Kellaway, Roger George (1970)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The evolution of the agricultural system of Southland was a long-term process. It has roots that stretch back to Britain before the agricultural revolution and it has not yet ended. Indeed, it probably will never end because agricultural systems are dynamic entities. The aim of this work bas been to consider the manner in which the agricultural geography of Southland has reacted to the changes that have taken place in the profitability ot various forms ot agricultural production, the introduction of new types of agricultural technology, and the impact of new modes of transport.

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  • Unanswered Questions in Computerized Literary Analysis

    Drake, Bryan (1972)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Surficial sediments of Raglan Harbour

    Sherwood, Alan M. (1973)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Raglan Harbour is a drowned river valley system lying in a structurally depressed fault block. Much of the upper reaches of the harbour consist of tidal flats formed by sediment veneered shore platforms, and dissected by relatively deep channels. Estuarine conditions occur in the tidal reaches of major streams entering the harbour. Sediment textures reflect a gradual decrease in energy conditions passing, up the harbour from clean, well-sorted sands near the harbour entrance to mainly muddy sands and sandy muds that characterise the tidal flats. Tidal currents result in highly variable energy conditions. Modes of sediment transport and deposition and a generalised scheme of current patterns and relative current strengths throughout the harbour are interpreted from textural analyses. The coastal iron-sands are the principle source heavy minerals in sediments throughout Raglan Harbour. Bulk sediment mineralogies and clay mineralogies indicate detrital inheritance from hinterland rocks as the main source of terrigenous sediment supplied to the harbour as fluvial sediment load and by shoreline erosion. Benthonic organisms supply most of the carbonate and organic matter in the sediments, as well as causing considerable sediment reworking. Phosphatic concretions found in certain areas of the harbour appear to be of Recent to Sub-recent diagenetic origin. Much of the present aerial extent of Raglan Harbour is probably the result of shore platform development within the harbour during the last 8-10,000 years. The bulk of the material eroded during this process has been removed from the sedimentary system of the harbour and deposited on the continental shelf.

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  • The theory of S-functions and applications in quantum mechanics

    Butler, P.H. (1970)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    S-functions, as developed by D.E. Littlewood, are reviewed and their properties developed and extended. A computer programme has been written to perform most S-function operations. In particular, S-function division is defined, which produces many simplifications, and general methods for calculating both inner and outer plethysm are derived. The properties of matrix groups are similarly discussed using the theory of S-functions and programmes written to produce branching rules and Kronecker products. This required some new work on spin characters and on the difference characters of even dimensional rotation groups. Generalized Racah tensors are used to study the group properties of general mixed configurations of electrons. Some properties of factorized general coupling and recoupling coefficients are also derived. These properties are used to calculate part of general two body fractional parentage coefficients. The above methods are used to investigate the usefulness of the group R4 as an approximate symmetry for the first row atoms. It is found that the interaction with the underlying ls2 shell completely breaks this symmetry.

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  • Some studies of the theory and application of continuous groups in atomic spectroscopy

    Cunningham, M.J. (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis is concerned with the representation theory of continuous groups both compact and non-compact and its application to atomic spectroscopy. In Chapter I some atomic wavefunctions for equivalent electrons in the group scheme SU2 x (U2l+1 R2l+1 R3) are constructed in terms of electron fermion creation and annihilation operators. The concept of semiconjugacy is defined and shown to reduce the number of states that must be explicitly calculated. The states of the d shell are calculated and tabulated. In Chapter II it is shown how to extract n-body cfp's associated with arbitrary auxiliary quantum numbers from the n-body generalisation of Redmond's formula. The method is applied to give explicit formulae for the squares of one body cfp's of the atomic d-shell. Group theory is applied in Chapter III to extend the quasiparticle formalism developed by Armstrong and Judd to expose the complete group structure of the eigenfunctions of the equivalent electron l shell. A simple method for relating quasiparticle states to determinantal states and for calculating quasiparticle matrix elements is developed. The need for fractional parentage coefficients in calculating these matrix elements is eliminated. In Chapter IV the technique and formalism is extended to describe general mixed configurations. The hydrogen atom is factorised according to the scheme 0(4,2) 0(2,1) x 0(3) in Chapter V and the radial group 0(2,1) studied. It is shown that rkD n/(n+q) , where Da is a dilatation operator, is proportional to a tensor operator in this scheme, allowing a group theoretical study of the radial matrix element rk, including an explanation of the Pasternack and Sternheimer selection rule. The technique is extended in Chapter VI to solve a differential equation directly related to the generalised Kepler equation of Infeld and Hull in an 0(2,1) x 0(3) group scheme. This equation contains as special cases the Schrodinger, Klein-Gordan, and Dirac (two forms) hydrogen atoms. A generalised Pasternack and Sternheimer selection rule exists and some matrix elements can be evaluated group theoretically.

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  • A study of winds and waves

    Cherry, N.J. (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The project involved an observational program to study the lee waves produced over Canterbury due to the Southern Alps over the year 1970 using superpressure balloons and radar-wind/radiosonde balloons. The characteristics and performance of balloons (tetroons) and balloon systems were studied in detail. The data from the balloons was used to obtain a wave classification which may be used to predict the scale of wave motion from the radar-wind profile. It was also compared with solutions of two-, three- and exponential layer models to evaluate their applicability in predicting the wave motion. It was found that they gave a good correlation with observations when the atmosphere was approximated by layers but generally the airflow profiles were more complex and the layer theories at best predicted the scale of the wavelengths observed. The amplitudes of the waves were found to be mainly dependent on the resonance between the forcing periodicities of the mountains and the natural oscillations of the airflow.

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  • Upper atmospheric studies : some observations of the south tropical OI airglow phenomenon

    Malcolm, Roger K. (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An account is presented of a series of observations of the dynamic behaviour of a region of the south tropical airglow·arcs made from Rarotonga (Lat. 21.2° south, long. 159.8° west) with the aid of a large aperture (90 cms), high resolution (½° beamwidth) scanning photometer. The night airglow is found to be strongly disturbed on many nights, characteristically by elliptical areas of lower than normal intensity drifting in an easterly direction. It was possible to associate their passage with the occurrence of 'spread-F' as observed by the Rarotongan ionosonde. An attempt is made to account for the airglow processes; suggestions are made concerning the possible origin of the disturbances; and their presence is examined in the light of the trans-equatorial propagation of V.H.F. signals from Hawaii, as recorded at Rarotonga.

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  • Solid state spectroscopy : rare earth - hybride centres in the alkaline earth fluorides

    Jacobs, I.T. (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Both the optical and infrared spectra of cerium and praseodymium tri-positive ions in the alkaline earth fluorines have been studied. Various charge compensation mechanisms have been employed including negative hydride, deuteride and tritide ions. For the hydride centres the degenerate local mode lines are resolved into more than one component. These splittings are attributed to electron-phonon interaction effects between the low lying rare earth 4f electronic states and the hydride ion local mode phonons. The 4f-5d electronic transitions of the cerium hydride type centres show large isotope shifts up to 50 cm⁻¹. Only the non-degenerate hydride ion vibration appears in the 4f-5d optical spectra and the vibrational interval is increased from absorption to fluorescence by as much as 15%. Both the isotope and vibronic shifts for the tetragonal cerium sites are attributed to electron-phonon interaction effects. Simple models involving point charges and point dipoles account in a semi-quantitative way for several features of the spectra but fail to account for either the sign or magnitude of the isotope and vibronic shifts.

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  • Solid state spectroscopy : the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of gadolinium anderbium ions in hydrogenated alkaline earth fluoride crystals

    Edgar, A. (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Electron Paramagnetic Resonance technique has been used to study alkaline earth fluoride crystals doped with both hydride and gadolinium (or erbium) ions, and the spin Hamiltonian parameters have been determined for the various kinds of charge-compensated rare earth ion site which occur. In particular, two sites of tetragonal symmetry with the structures RE³⁺-FI⁻, RE³⁺-HI⁻ have been examined, and small shifts in the EPR spectra of the latter site have been measured when a deuteride or tritiide ion replaces the hydride ion. A crystal lattice model of point charges and point dipoles at distorted lattice sites predicts a value of the crystal field parameter B₀² for the tetraqonal sites which is only one half of that estimated from the observed spectra, but the model successfully accounts for the larger value of B₀² for the RE³⁺-HI⁻ site compared with the RE³⁺-FI⁻ site on the basis of the larger polarisability of the H⁻ ion. Isotope shifts are interpreted by the electron phonon interaction between the 4f electrons of the rare earth ion and the localised mode of vibration of the light anion. The magnitudes of the shifts, calculated on a point charge/point dipole model, are in good agreement with experiment. The reorientation of the tetragonal Gd³⁺-HI⁻ sites has been examined by EPR line broadening and dielectric loss techniques. No distinct dielectric loss peak corresponding to this site was observed, and it is proposed that it cannot be distinguished from that for Gd³⁺-FI⁻ sites. An interstitialcy model for the reorientation has been investigated and is found to be consistent with this explanation and with the observation of a metastable Gd³⁺-HS⁻-FI⁻ site in u.v. irradiated calcium fluoride.

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  • Atmospheric physics : electron density variations in the mesosphere

    Wratt, D.S. (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The theory of the differential absorption and differential phase experiments is examined, and it is found that the differences in predicted electron densities due to different hypothetical reflection processes are in general no larger than experimental uncertainties. Results of differential absorption and differential phase measurements are compared. It is found that electron densities in the mesosphere above Christchurch can be affected by energetic particle precipitation. Evidence is also found for increases in electron concentration associated with a stratospheric warming, but apart from this there is no clear evidence for stratosphere-ionosphere coupling above Christchurch. Model studies show that much of the variation over time scales of four days or more above Christchurch could be accounted for by vertical transport of nitric oxide. However, other results make it likely that other processes, such as variations in loss rate, are also important.

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  • The spectra of transition-metal ions in solids

    Johnstone, I.W. (1975)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The results of an investigation of the Raman and infrared spectra of cobaltous ions in cadmium-chloride, cadmium-bromide, and manganese-chloride, and of cobalt-chloride are presented. The cobalt ions substitute for the cation in these crystals and experience a trigonal crystal-field which splits the lowest ⁴T₁g (⁴F) cubic-field term into six Kramers doublets with energies in the range 0-1200 cm⁻¹. The Raman spectra, measured as a function of temperature and of cobalt concentration show all five single ion electronic transitions together with several lines due to cobalt ion pairs. The infrared spectra comprise both magnetic-dipole allowed electronic transitions and electric-dipole allowed vibronic lines and bands. They confirm the identity of the electronic transitions seen by Raman scattering and also yield information concerning the lattice modes of the host and the possible interactions within cobalt ion pairs. The strong field matrices of the trigonal crystal-field and Zeeman interactions are calculated for the d³ (d⁷) configuration and quantitatively explain the experimental data. The crystal-field analysis provides single ion wavefunctions for further calculations which successfully explain the spectra of antiferromagnetic CoCl₂ and exchange coupled colbalt pairs in CdCl₂ (Co²⁺) and CdBr₂ (Co²⁺). A preliminary investigation of the infrared absorption of an oxygen-induced impurity site in CdCl₂-type crystals is also presented.

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  • Upper atmospheric studies using radio meteors

    Wilkinson, Philip James (1973)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The atmospheric motions in the 80-110 km height region, and methods of measuring them are discussed. Wind measurements using radio meteor trails are then considered in greater detail and an account is given of the equipment at the field station of the Physics Department of Canterbury at Rolleston near Christchurch, as well as details of the data reduction methods used. An analysis of the errors associated with the collection of data indicates that approximately half the variance in an average of wind velocities observed in a thirty minute period is due to atmospheric variability. Results from the first year's observations suggest that the solar diurnal and semidiurnal tides are of roughly the same magnitude, this magnitude being in agreement with the latitudinal variations observed at other stations.

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  • The group theory of the harmonic oscillator with applications in physics.

    Haskell, T. G. (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The possibility of the group SU₃ being used in the description of the (d+s)N and (d+s)npm many-electron complexes is examined by symmetrization of the Coulomb Hamiltonian. By dividing the Coulomb interaction into symmetry conserving and symmetry violating terms it is found that while the SU₃ scheme tends to give a better description in the (d+s)N case it shows no improvement over the configurational scheme in the (d+s)npm complex. The scheme is, however, very useful for the calculation of matrix elements of operators normally found in atomic spectroscopy and a complete set of symmetrized , scalar, Hermitian spin-independent two particle operators acting within (d+s)npm configurations is constructed. The radial wavefunctions of the harmonic oscillator are found to form a basis for the representations of the group 0(2,1) in the group scheme Sp(6,R) ⊃ S0(3) x 0(2,1). The operators Tkp = r2k are shown to transform simply under the action of the group generators. The matrix elements of Tkq and a selection rule similar to that of Pasternack and Sternheimer are derived. Finally the rich group structure of the harmonic oscillator is investigated and a dynamical group proposed which contains, as subgroups, the groups Sp(6,R), SU(3), H₄ and the direct product 0(2,1) x S0(3). Some remarks are made about contractions of groups, semidirect and direct products, and the generalization of the method to n-dimensions.

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  • Erwin Strittmatter in reference to the agarian novel of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

    Gebbie, Ian William (1978)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study deals with two aspects of German literature: the agrarian novel from the early nineteenth century to National Socialism, and a comparison of capitalist and socialist ideology, using the works of the DDR author Erwin Strittmatter. In the first part of the thesis, chosen works are analysed with the aim of establishing a pattern of bourgeois idealism and of tracing its development in reference to the changing historical background. The political implications of the nationalist transformation and radicalisation of the conservative agrarian ideology, which grew up as a middle-class reaction to the emergence of modern industrial Germany, are illustrated by the combination of the heroic and the idyllic in fascist literature. The second part deals with the socialist agrarian novel, which is discussed, in the light of Marxist theory, as a departure from the conservative model, and in relation to different political ideals and objectives. Three agrarian novels of Erwin Strittmatter Ochsenkutscher, Tinko and Ole Bienkopp - are examined in detail as the basis for contrast with capitalist doctrine and for observations on the role of literature in the DDR. The concluding chapter illustrates how, in the established East German state of the 1960's, the disregard for the demands of authority, which is a feature of Strittmatter's Ole Bienkopp, indicates a return to the traditional pattern of bourgeois idealism within the confines of socialist morality.

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