4,138 results for 1990

  • Learners' perceptions of learning gains in self-access

    Richards, Heather M. (1999)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Self-Access Language Learning (SALL) is now a significant part of many second language educational institutions world-wide. However, research findings reveal that there are clearly different views on the role of SALL and the contribution it makes to learners' development. The evaluation of self - access as a learning environment has been perceived as difficult for several reasons; self-access systems are complex, they are concerned with meeting a variety of learners' individual needs, and each learning environment is seen as unique. Most Self-Access Language Learning evaluation has been prompted by the main stakeholders and has largely been concerned with numbers attending the SALL facilities, the materials used, and general learner satisfaction with programmes and centres. More recent research shows that many Self - Access facilities make good attempts to help learners analyse their needs and establish learning goals and outcomes. However, before we can say that SALL is truly effective in developing leamers' proficiency, it is necessary to investigate learners perceptions of their gains in a SALL environment. This study investigates the perceptions of five adult second language learners from two different groups who used the SALL facility at a New Zealand university for one trimester. One group of students were native speakers of English from the school of European languages enrolled in a first year French course. The other group were non-native speakers of English from the English Language Institute enrolled in the English Proficiency Programme. This study explores the relationship between learner activity in the SALL facility and the learners' perception of its contribution to their (a) language proficiency and (b) their development as independent learners. The results show that self-selected, motivated, language learners perceive that work in a SALL environment contributes to both language proficiency and to the development of independent learning. The implications of the findings are that effective SALL requires, ongoing learner support, ongoing learner familiarisation and review of the SALL facilities, and programmes that promote understanding of the role and benefits of learner self-assessment. It suggests the teacher's role in ensuring the continued development of effective SALL is significant.

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  • Middlemarch, 1914-1918

    Inder, Sonia (1992)

    Other thesis
    University of Otago

    This dissertation attempts to provide a short overview of the effect of the Great War, 1914 - 1918, upon a small rural community in Central Otago. This work concentrates on the social aspects of the war's impact on the people of the township of Middlemarch and the outlying area, the Strath Taieri district. The first chapter outlines the area and its community on the eve of war, thus providing a basis for comparison to assess the impact of the war in the following chapters. Chapter Two : The Homefront, illustrates the initial response to the war, while the last chapter attempts to determine if anything has changed after four years of war. The third chapter, on the men who went to the war from the district, proved the most difficult to research. This chapter attempts to follow the exploits of the servicemen from Middlemarch, while also looking at the impact of their absence from the Middlemarch community. The study of men, who fought in the First World War from the district, is limited by the scarcity of military records. Service records were retained by defence authorities in order to grant war pensions and issue service medals amongst other things. The Ministry of Defence, however, has classified these files as personal information under Section 24 of the Official Infom1ation Act 1982. Thus, they are not available for research purposes. These files contain a great deal of useful information concerning New Zealand servicemen, including : their full name; date and place of birth, occupation, place and date of enlistment, next of kin, employer, a physical description, details of overseas service, date of discharge and the date of death. Trying to piece together the details of all the Middlemarch servicemen, from a variety of sources, produced a limited result. The name on a Roll of Honour or Nominal Roll was not always enough to go on and the men were not always specific about their details. For example, J. Gordon could have been one of twenty J. Gordons who enlisted from the Otago region. Hence, the figures used in relation to the Middlemarch servicemen are not accurate but they are the result of an estimate based on the limited information available. [Introduction]

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  • Professionalisation and industrial relations : the New Zealand Nurses Association in the 1960s

    Ford, Sonya (1992)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis examines the attempt by the New Zealand Registered Nurses Association to enhance nursing's professional status and its involvement in industrial relations in the 1960s. It is asserted that because nursing was a female-dominated occupation with a strong service ethic it would be very difficult for the Association to achieve its goal. After a long struggle the Association did increase its professional status as well as becoming more like a trade union. The first part of the thesis examines the professionalisation of nursing with regard to education and public relations. The second part deals with the Association's activities in industrial relations and its attitudes towards unionism.

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  • The Effects of Turbidity on Suspension Feeding Bivalves

    Teaioro, Iannang (1999)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis aimed to describe the relationship between suspended sediment concentration stimulating the turbidity caused by natural events or human activities, and the feeding behaviour and energetics of scallops (Pecten novaezelandiae), mussels (Perna canaliculus) and pipis (Paphies australis). A wide range of suspended sediment concentration with different organic content was used. In experiment 1, sediment with high organic content added to natural seston (12 - 733 mg 1−1) was used, whereas in experiment 2, sediment with very low organic content added to natural seston (20 - 196 mg 1−1) was used. Scallops enhanced the organic content of ingested matter by producing pseudofaeces with low organic content when the diet organic content had been diluted to~ 14% in both experiments. For the diet with high organic content, the clearance rate (the volume of water cleared of suspended particles) decreased with increasing sediment concentration (12 - 733 mg 1−1) ,but when the diet was composed of low organic content, clearance rate increased up to a concentration limit of 120-140 mg 1−1. Positive scope for growth was attained until suspended sediment concentration exceeded 190 mg 1−1. Similarly, mussels also enhanced the organic content of ingested matter by producing pseudofaeces with low organic content when the diet organic content had been diluted to ~ 16% in both experiments. The enhancement of ingested organic fraction was accomplished by two different feeding behaviours. When the diet had high organic content, mussels clear less water, reduce the volume of pseudofaeces produced, and reduce the amount of energy expired via low respiration rates. Consequently, the net energy gained was uniformly high as sediment concentrations increased to 322 mg 1−1. The low organic diet prompted high clearance rates and increase in pseudofaeces production as sediment concentration increased. Due to high feeding activities, energy expenditure was also high which was reflected in a low net energy gain. Pipis can only feed efficiently at very low sediment concentrations (<39 mg 1−1) in experiment I and 20.1 mg 1−1 in experiment 2). Beyond these values, pipis were unable to compensate for increased sediment concentration and therefore had very low scope for growth. From these results it was concluded that preferential selection of organic particles before ingestion, adjusting clearance and respiration rates, within limits, are the key elements that enable scallops and mussels to cope with high turbidity levels. Pipis have a low tolerance level to turbidity. The second aim of the study was to investigate the effects of resuspended sediments caused by dredging on seston quality (organic content and pigment concentration) and quantity. This was accomplished through water sampling at various places while dredging was in operation. The results indicated that suspended sediments caused by dredging had no significant effect on the seston quality and quantity, in relation to the seston characteristics observed naturally.

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  • Gully erosion control techniques for pumice lands

    Eyles, G. O. (1993)

    Book
    Landcare Research

    Pumice land environments occur in four regional council areas, Waikato, Bay of Plenty, Hawke's Bay and Manawatu-Wanganui, but there is no uniform approach to gully control in these areas. This handbook provides brief documentation of pumice land gully control measures but does not include techniques requiring engineering design. It is intended to provide a base for future soil conservators to build on.

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  • Images may show start of European-Africa plate collision

    Mascle, J; Hughen, C; Benkhelil, J; Chamot-Rooke, N; Chaumillon, E; Foucher, JP; Griboulard, R; Kopf, A; Lamarche, Geoffroy; Volkonskaia, A; Woodside, J; Zitter, T (1999)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • SunOS Minix: a tool for use in Operating System Laboratories

    Ashton, Paul; Ayers, Daniel; Smith, Peter (1993)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Laboratory work is an essential part of the learning experience in many areas of Computer Science, and this is particularly true in the area of operating systems. To support laboratory work in operating systems, we have created SunOS Minix, a version of the Minix operating system that runs as a process under Sun Unix (SunOS). To date, projects for two advanced classes on operating systems have involved extensive work with the SunOS Minix source code. Also, we are in the process of developing a novel graphical monitoring and control interface that will make SunOS Minix a powerful tool for use in introductory operating system laboratories.

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  • A Case Study in Specifying and Testing Architectural Features

    Krishnan, Padmanabhan (1993)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper studies the speci cation and testing of two main architectural features. We consider restricted forms of instruction pipelining and parallel memory models present in the SPARC speci cation. The feasibility of using an automatic tool, the concurrency work bench, has been demonstrated.

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  • A Generator of Pseudo-Random Self-Similar Sequences Based on SRA

    Jeong, H. D. J.; McNickle, D.; Pawlikowski, K. (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    It is generally accepted that self-similar (or fractal) processes may provide better models for teletraffic in modern computer networks than Poisson processes. If this is not taken into account, it can lead to inaccurate conclusions about performance of computer networks. Thus, an important requirement for conducting simulation studies of telecommunication networks is the ability to generate long synthetic stochastic self-similar sequences. A generator of pseudo-random self-similar sequences, based on the SRA method [5], is implemented and analysed in this report. Properties of this generator were experimentally studied in the sense of its statistical accuracy and the time required to produce sequences of a given (long) length. This generator shows acceptable level of accuracy of the output data (in the sense of relative accuracy of the Hurst parameter) and is fast. The theoretical algorithmic complexity is O(n) [20].

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  • Towards Computer-Supported Collaborative Software Engineering

    Cook, Carl (1993)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Software engineering is a fundamentally collaborative activity, yet most tools that support software engineers are designed only for single users. There are many foreseen benefits in using tools that support real time collaboration between software engineers, such as avoiding conflicting concurrent changes to source files and determining the impact of program changes immediately. Unfortunately, it is difficult to develop non-trivial tools that support real time Collaborative Software Engineering (CSE). Accordingly, the few CSE tools that do exist have restricted capabilities. Given the availability of powerful desktop workstations and recent advances in distributed computing technology, it is now possible to approach the challenges of CSE from a new perspective. The research goal in this thesis is to investigate mechanisms for supporting real time CSE, and to determine the potential gains for developers from the use of CSE tools. An infrastructure, Caise, is presented which supports the rapid development of real time CSE tools that were previously unobtainable, based on patterns of collaboration evident within software engineering. In this thesis, I discuss important design aspects of CSE tools, including the identification of candidate patterns of collaboration. I describe the Caise approach to supporting small teams of collaborating software engineers. This is by way of a shared semantic model of software, protocol for tool communication, and Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) facilities. I then introduce new types of synchronous semantic model-based tools that support various patterns of CSE. Finally, I present empirical and heuristic evaluations of typical development scenarios. Given the Caise infrastructure, it is envisaged that new aspects of collaborative work within software engineering can be explored, allowing the perceived benefits of CSE to be fully realised.

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  • MLSE Receiver for the Dispersive Rayleigh Fading Channel

    Leon, Wing Seng; Taylor, Desmond P. (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A maximum likelihood sequence estimator for the dispersive Rayleigh fading channel is developed. Following [1, 2], the MLSE uses a Kalman based channel estimator to acquire the channel parameters necessary to formulate the maximum likelihood metric. However, unlike the MLSE receiver presented in [1, 2], the proposed receiver uses the f-power series channel model [3, 4] to formulate the ML metric and the state space representation of the channel and the received samples. For channels with small delay spreads, this approach is advantageous because only a small number of parameters are required to be estimated by the Kalman channel estimator. Simulation results are presented for various channel parameters.

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  • DPSK Receiver with Implicit Diversity Gain for the Linearly Frequency-Selective Rayleigh Fading Channel

    Leon, Wing Seng; Taylor, Desmond P. (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper presents a simple DPSK receiver for the frequency-selective fading channel. The channel is modelled as an f-power series truncated to the first two terms [1,2]. Two time invariant receiver filters are used to remove the channel induced ISI and to separate the two implicit diversity branches. The received samples from each branch are then differentially decoded and combined. Analytical and simulation results for binary DPSK show that this receiver outperforms the conventional receiver using matched filtering and a product demodulator.

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  • Equalization of Linearly Frequency-Selective Fading Channels

    Leon, W. S.; Mengali, U.; Taylor, D. P. (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A simple technique for removing intersymbol interference (ISI) introduced by "linearly frequency-selective" fading channels is presented. The technique involves the optimization of the overall impulse response of the transmit and receive filters and effectively reduces the channel to one which is flat fading. Computer simulation results show that this equalization method works for channels with small delays.

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  • On Differentially Demodulated CPFSK

    Griffin, Anthony; Taylor, Desmond P. (1996)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper develops a differential encoder for differentially demodulated continuous phase frequency shift keying (CPFSK). CPFSK schemes with modulation index , where and are relatively prime positive integers, can be represented by a decomposed model consisting of a continuous phase encoder (CPE) and a memoryless modulator (MM). The differential encoder is shown to fit well with the CPE and form a decomposed model of differentially encoded CPFSK (DCPFSK). A basic receiver structure for differentially demodulating DCPFSK is presented along with simulation results. An exact formula for the minimum squared Euclidean distance (MSED) of differentially demodulated DCPFSK is also given.

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  • An Adaptive Receiver for the Time- and Frequency-Selective Fading Channel

    Leon, W. S.; Taylor, D. P. (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An adaptive receiver is presented in this paper for the reception of linearly modulated signals transmitted over a time- and frequency-selective fading channel. The channel is modelled as a truncated power series [1] which represents the dispersive fading channel as a sum of three elementary flat-fading channels. The proposed receiver consists of a sequence estimator with a parallel channel estimator. The channel estimator recovers the instantaneous fading processes associated with each elementary channel and filters them to generate one-step predictions of each fading process. Some implementation difficulties and solutions are also discussed. Computer simulations using quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) and channels with moderate delay spreads and fade rates have been used to evaluate the performance of the receiver. The results show that our technique has potential in channels with delay spread of about 20%, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) greater than 15dB, and applications requiring bit-error rates (BER's) less than 10-2.

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  • A Complete Optical Music Recognition System: Looking to the future

    Bainbridge, David (1994)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Reading music is something a child can learn, and once understood, it becomes such a natural process that it is no longer a conscious efforE If we were to dissect this •natural process,' we might hypothesise that reading music is demmposed into tux:) parts: the visual recognition of graphical shapes; and the application of our musical knowledge to derive its meaning A computer paradigm that models this structure would be a v:sxon system connected to a knowledge base Imagine an Optical Music Recognition (ONIR) system where the user describes the simple graphical shapes found in music using a customised drawing package, and expresses the musical knowledge necessary to correctly interpret these simple graphical shapes, using a specially designed musical language Such a system would capture the essence of reading music, forming a versatile foundation Music is rich in its diversity of notatiom instruments include specialised markings in a score, for example bowing information for a violinist, and in extreme situations a score is presented using a substantially different notation style, for example guitar tablature Moreover, music notation is evolving, so even if were possible to completely capture all the primitive shapes used in music today, the set uould eventually become incomplete Such attributes emphasize the dynamic nature of the problem domain of OMR The describes] system meets such demands by allowing the user to specify 'what makes up music' Consequently the system is itself dynamie Let us now consider the proposed system in more detail, by studying the roles of the customised drawing package and specially designed musical language in turn Reading music is something a child can learn, and once understood, it becomes such a natural process that it is no longer a conscious efforE If we were to dissect this •natural process,' we might hypothesise that reading music is demmposed into tux:) parts: the visual recognition of graphical shapes; and the application of our musical knowledge to derive its meaning A computer paradigm that models this structure would be a v:sxon system connected to a knowledge base Imagine an Optical Music Recognition (ONIR) system where the user describes the simple graphical shapes found in music using a customised drawing package, and expresses the musical knowledge necessary to correctly interpret these simple graphical shapes, using a specially designed musical language Such a system would capture the essence of reading music, forming a versatile foundation Music is rich in its diversity of notatiom instruments include specialised markings in a score, for example bowing information for a violinist, and in extreme situations a score is presented using a substantially different notation style, for example guitar tablature Moreover, music notation is evolving, so even if were possible to completely capture all the primitive shapes used in music today, the set uould eventually become incomplete Such attributes emphasize the dynamic nature of the problem domain of OMR The describes] system meets such demands by allowing the user to specify 'what makes up music' Consequently the system is itself dynamie Let us now consider the proposed system in more detail, by studying the roles of the customised drawing package and specially designed musical language in turn

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  • Akaroa2: Exploiting Network Computing by Distributing Stochastic Simulation

    Ewing, G.; Pawlikowski, K.; McNickle, D. (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this paper we discuss an application of network computing in the area of stochastic simulation. We focus on main programming issues associated with designing of the latest version of AKAROA2, a simulation package in which network computing is applied in a practical and user-friendly way. This implemention is based on Multiple Replications In Parallel (MRIP) scenario of distributed simulation, in which multiple computers of a network operate as concurrent simulation engines generating statistically equivalent simulation output data, and submitting them to global data analysers responsible for analysis of the final results and for stopping the simulation. The MRIP scenario can achieve speedup equal to the number of processors used. Keywords: distributed computing, distributed simulation, stochastic simulation

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  • A Comparative Study of Generators of Synthetic Self-Similar Teletraffic

    Jeong, H.-D. J.; McNickle, D.; Pawlikowski, K. (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    It is generally accepted that self-similar (or fractal) processes may provide better models for teletraffic in modern telecommunication networks than Poisson processes. If this is not taken into account, it can lead to inaccurate conclusions about performance of telecommunication networks. Thus, an important requirement for conducting simulation studies of telecommunication networks is the ability to generate long synthetic stochastic self-similar sequences. Three generators of pseudo-random self-similar sequences, based on the FFT [19], RMD [12] and SRA method [5], [10], are compared and analysed in this paper. Properties of these generators were experimentally studied in the sense of their statistical accuracy and times required to produce sequences of a given (long) length. While all three generators show similar levels of accuracy of the output data (in the sense of relative accuracy of the Hurst parameter), the RMD- and SRA-based generators appear to be much faster than the generator based on FFT. Our results also show that a robust method for comparative studies of self-similarity in pseudo-random sequences is needed.

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  • Visualisation Techniques for Collaborative GIS Browsers

    Churcher, Neville; Prachuabmoh, Parames; Churcher, Clare (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Visual information overload is a serious problem for users of geographical information systems (GIS), or other applications with complex displays, where the requirements of access to both local detail and wider context conflict. This problem is compounded for users of real-time groupware applications by the need to maintain awareness information about other users and their actions. In this paper, we describe our use of fisheye views to assist with visual information overload management in GROUPARC, a lightweight real-time groupware application for browsing and annotating GIS data.

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  • An Interaction Network Monitor For Amoeba

    Ashton, Paul (1995)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The interaction network has been proposed as a way of representing interactive processing in a distributed system, and an interaction network monitor for SunOS was developed in earlier work. This paper describes development of an interaction network monitor for Amoeba, the first interaction network monitor for a distributed operating system. Case studies are used to show some of the types of information the monitor can capture, and to show that the monitor is a valuable tool for monitoring complex modern systems.

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