3,991 results for 1990

  • Does the employment environment further disable people with disabilities? : a study of selected Christchurch employers and their perspectives of the employment situation for people with disabilities

    Studholme, Susan Jan (1994)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study examined the employment experiences of people with disabilities and focused specifically on the service industries. In the research (predominantly overseas based) it has been noted that people with disabilities generally have greater difficulties obtaining and retaining employment and so are more likely to be unemployed or underemployed. Many factors contribute to this situation, but of particular interest to this study were the attitudes and behaviour of employers. Attitudes seemed to vary according to the type of disability and whether or not the employer had had experience of employing people with disabilities. Those with negative attitudes tended to behave in a more discriminatory manner. The discrimination shown to people with disabilities who seek employment has led to the recognition that they are part of what has been termed minority groups. Those groups will hopefully benefit from anti-discrimination legislation such as the Human Rights Act 1993. By means of a questionnaire, a selection of Christchurch employers were surveyed to see what the employment situation was for people with disabilities. The major findings were as follows. In relation to the attitude factors, employers with experience of employing people with disabilities generally displayed more positive attitudes than did those with no experience. Significantly more employers with experience expressed a greater willingness to employ people with disabilities, had incorporated disability into Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) policies, and were prepared to make modification to the workplace. However, there was little difference in the ratings given by employers regarding the importance of certain selection criteria, indicating that employers placed great importance on the selection criteria. Although not significant, attitudes were also found to vary according to the type of disability (obvious versus non-obvious) in relation to the position held by the employee with a disability. So those with obvious disabilities were less likely to have jobs which required face-to-face and phone contact with customers, clients or the public. General information on the employment of people with disabilities was also obtained. Occupations held by people with disabilities varied between men and women. Women with disabilities were more often in clerical positions, while men worked as technicians, associate professionals, plant and machine assemblers and elementary workers. Larger organisations were found to be more likely to employ people with disabilities. Even though employers with experience were generally more receptive to employing people with disabilities, some still held negative attitudes. It is fair to say that people with disabilities did experience difficulties in employment as a result of the employment environment. As EEO policies increase and anti-discrimination legislation is implemented, these problems will hopefully be addressed. However, it will take more than new laws and policies to change the employment situation faced by people with disabilities. Fundamental social, economic and political changes are called for if the constraints which society places on people with disabilities are to be overcome. In the meantime, these constraints have the effect of compounding the disablement of people with disabilities who seek employment.

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  • An Animated Pedagogical Agent for SQL-Tutor

    Suraweera, Pramuditha (1999)


    University of Canterbury Library

    Animated pedagogical agents are animated characters that inhabit interactive learning environments. In addition to providing problem-solving advice in response to a student’s actions, they are also able to play a powerful motivational role. This project develops an animated pedagogical agent for the computer based teaching system, SQL-Tutor. The introduction of a pedagogical agent to SQL-Tutor enables it to provide higher motivational support to the students and enhances their quality of learning. An evaluation of the impact of the agent on the student’s learning experience was carried out with second year Computer Science students from the University of Canterbury. The study revealed that the presence of an animated character with an interesting personality has a strong positive effect on student’s perception of the learning experience. The study also demonstrated that students were more motivated to interact with the system equipped with the agent compared with the SQL-Tutor with no agent.

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  • Styelsamines A - D: New tetracyclic pyridoacridine alkaloids from the Indonesian ascidian Eusynstyela latericius

    Copp, Brent; Jompa, J; Tahir, A; Ireland, CM (1998)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Crystal structure of the cytotoxic marine alkaloid 2-bromoleptoclinidinone

    Lindsay, Brent; Oliver, Allen; Rickard, Clifton; Copp, Brent (1998)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    2-Bromoleptoclinidinone methanol solvate, C18H8BrN3O??CH4O, crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with a = 15.7013(2), b = 7.3308(1), and c = 26.9326(1) ??. The molecule is essentially planar, with the largest deviations occurring at bromine (???0.21 ??), carbonyl oxygen O(l) (+0.19 ??) and in ring-A (C(9) ???0.15 ??, C(10) ???0.15 ??). Methanol occupies the 1,10-phenanthroline-like metal binding site of the title compound.

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  • Structural requirements for biological activity of the marine alkaloid ascididemin

    Lindsay, BS; Barrows, LR; Copp, Brent (1995-04-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Comparison of the biological activities observed for ascididemin (2) and synthetic precursors/analogs has established the importance of N-8 in ring A, and a completed ring E, to topoisomerase II enzyme inhibition, human tumor cytotoxicity and antifungal/antibacterial properties. The results also suggest the presence of multiple mechanisms of toxicity by 2 towards mammalian cell systems.

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  • Efficient and convenient pyridine ring-E formation of the cytotoxic marine alkaloid ascididemin and related analogues

    Lindsay, Brent; Pearce, Allison; Copp, Brent (1997)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Conversion of tetracyclic quinone 1 to the cytotoxic pentacyclic alkaloid ascididemin (2) in 80% yield is achieved by reaction with paraformaldehyde and ammonium chloride in refluxing acetic acid. High yielding annelations are also observed for the related analogues N-8 deaza ascididemin (3) and kuanoniamine A (4).

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  • Bolinaquinone: A novel cytotoxic sesquiterpene hydroxyquinone from a Philippine Dysidea sponge

    De Guzman, FS; Copp, Brent; Mayne, CL; Concepcion, GP; Mangalindan, GC; Barrows, LR; Ireland, CM (1998)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Sesquiterpene hydroxyquinones and hydroquinones have been isolated from various sponges.3-16 The sesquiterpene moiety of these metabolites usually have the normal drimane skeleton, as exemplified by spongiaquinone (1),3 a rearranged drimane skeleton, as in ilimaquinone (2)4 and isospongiaquinone (3),3.5 or a monocyclic sesquiterpenoid skeleton, as in metachromin C (4)6 (Chart 1). Recently, Patil and co-workers isolated related sesquiterpene derivatives, frondosins A???E, which feature a 6,7-bicyclic skeleton, as exemplified by frondosin A (5).7 We report here the isolation and structure determination of a cytotoxic sesquiterpene hydroxyquinone, bolinaquinone (6), which showed a rearranged drimane skeleton but with a different position for the hydroxyquinone moiety.

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  • Natural and synthetic derivatives of discorhabdin C, a cytotoxic pigment from the New Zealand sponge Latrunculia cf. bocagei

    Copp, Brent; Fulton, KF; Perry, NB; Blunt, JW; Munro, MHG (1994-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Modification of the spiro-cyclohexadienone skeleton of discorhabdin C (3) led to a series of derivatives 6???11. The biological properties of this series were evaluated in a wide range of screens for selective cytotoxicity, antifungal, and antimicrobial properties. The structure and biological properties of a further discorhabdin, discorhabdin E (5), from a New Zealand sponge Latrunculia cf. bocagei are also presented.

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  • Isolation of 2-(3 '-bromo-4 '-hydroxyphenyl)ethanamine from the New Zealand ascidian Cnemidocarpa bicornuta

    Lindsay, Brent; Battershill, Christopher; Copp, Brent (1998)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    From the ascidian Cnemidocarpa bicornuta, 2-(3'-bromo-4'-hydroxyphenol)ethanamine (3'-bromotyramine) (1) has been isolated along with the previously reported sponge metabolite, 1,3-dimethylisoguanine. The structure of 1 was confirmed by synthesis.

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  • 1,3-dimethylguanine, a new purine from the New Zealand ascidian Botrylloides leachi

    Lindsay, Brent; Battershill, Christopher; Copp, Brent (1999)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The new purine 1,3-dimethylguanine (1) has been isolated from the ascidian Botrylloides leachi. The structure of 1 was elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data, by comparison with the regioisomeric purine 1,3-dimethylisoguanine (2), and by hydrolysis to theophylline (3).

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  • Panel versus individual interviews: A meta-analytic investigation of employment interview validity

    Guilford, Justine Rebecca (1997)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Further analysis using a similar data set to the McDaniel, Whetzel, Schmidt and Maurer (1994) meta-analysis of employment interviews was performed in the present study, in order to investigate four possible causes for the apparent superiority of individual employment interviews. These causes included (a) criterion contamination of individual interview studies, (b) greater prevalence of psychologists performing individual interviews, (c) greater number of trained/experienced individual interviewers, and (d) greater prevalence of high proximity to target positions in individual interviews. A research question was also proposed to investigate whether all interview panel sizes were inferior to individual interviews in terms of validity. Meta-analyses using 204 job and training performance validity coefficients indicated that individual interviews were superior in validity to panel interviews, but only when the criterion was training performance. Training/experience was the only explanation for the superiority of individual interview validity, such that individual interviewers were more likely to be trained/experienced, suggesting that individual interview validity was superior as a result. The explanation that the use of psychologists in interviews may account for superior individual interview validity was only partially supported. While psychologists were more prevalent in individual interviews, individual interview validity was lower than that of panel interviews, when the criterion was job performance. Only when training was the criterion was individual interview validity higher when psychologists were interviewers. Two hypotheses were not supported. Firstly, there was no evidence of criterion contamination inflating individual interview validity. Secondly, no relationship between interviewer proximity and interview validity was found. Investigations of whether all panel sizes were inferior in terms of validity found that panel sizes of more than three members were superior in validity to individual interviews, when the criterion was job performance.

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  • Volcanic geology and hydrothermal alteration of the Onemana Area, Eastern Coromandel Peninsula

    Aldrich, Sean Mark (1995)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Onemana Peninsula is located on the eastern side of the Coromandel Peninsula north of the township of Whangamata. This study investigates the volcanology, structure and hydrothermal alteration of the northern half of the Onemana Peninsula. The study area is dominated by rhyolite domes and lava flows, with minor andesite lavas, rhyolite pyroclastics and lake sediments. The central region is extensively hydrothermally altered, with high levels of the original system preserved including hydrothermal eruption breccias and sinters. The Onemana area is dominated by three rhyolite dome complexes: Pohakahaka, Pokohino, and Wharekawa. The Pohakahaka Dome Complex in the south of the study area consists of pyroxene rhyolite domes, lavas and autoclastic breccias. The Pokohino Dome Complex in the central region of the study area consists of biotite rhyolite domes, lavas and autoclastic breccias. Lavas appear to have erupted as coulees and have flowed in a SE direction from a NE-trending ridge. The Wharekawa Dome Complex and Eastern Flows are dominated by biotite rhyolites. Pyroclastic and epiclastic material is overlain by rhyolite lavas in coastal sections north of Pokohino Beach, suggesting explosive activity preceded the eruption of some lavas. Some Eastern Flow lavas have flowed into water and produced a hyaloclastite in the north of the area. The deposition of the Glassy Dome Pyroclastics is thought to have resulted from the collapse of a rhyolite dome. Andesite lavas occur in the west of the study area, and their compositions suggest that they are related to the McBeths Andesite which outcrops 6 km to the NW. A hornblende-biotite ignimbrite is exposed in the north of the area, and is thought to have been erupted from outside the area. Thick lake sediments occur between the Pokohino and Wharekawa dome complexes and infill a graben structure. A hydrothermal eruption breccia resulting from over-pressuring of a geothermal system overlies the lake sediments. The structure of the area is dominated by NW, N, and NE striking faults, and minor EW striking faults. The local structure plays an important role in controlling the locations of volcanism and hydrothermal activity. Older N-striking structures appear to have controlled vent locations for the pyroxene rhyolites, while NE-striking structures have controlled the location the biotite rhyolites and hydrothermal alteration. Mineralised structures are controlled by NW and N striking faults between the NE striking Whitipirorua and Pokohino Faults. XRF analysis of selected volcanic rocks from Onemana show the area to be dominated by medium-K to high-K rhyolites (75-78 wt% SiO₂), with minor andesite (56-58 wt% SiO₂). On the basis of Zr abundance the rhyolites can be divided into high Zr (pyroxene rhyolites) and low Zr (biotite rhyolites, Glassy Dome Rhyolite). The rhyolites are thought to be closely associated with partial melting of the continental crust in a rifting environment. Pervasive to weak alteration occurs within a NE-trending corridor bounded by the Whitipirorua and Pokohino Faults. There are two main alteration types in the area which represent different hydrothermal environments: alkaline and acid alteration. Alkaline alteration consists of an inner core of quartz silicification, surrounded by quartz+ K-feldspar alteration, which grades out into epidote and weak clay alteration assemblages. Zeolites also occur as an overprinting alteration assemblage. Acid alteration consists of pervasive kaolinite alteration, with small areas of quartz + illite/smectite ± pyrophyllite alteration and opaline quartz silicification. The Onemana area shows many volcanic and hydrothermal features that are typical of caldera settings and are comparable with the rhyolite volcanic centres in the TVZ. It is suggested that the rhyolitic volcanism at Onemana resulted from late stage volcanism along the ring fracture of a large caldera structure.

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  • A preliminary assessment of the Metriguard 239A stress wave timer

    Dunn, David (1992)

    Bachelors thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Considerable effort has gone into developing non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques for assessing the performance properties of wood. This research has established a relationship between certain NDT parameters and the strength characteristics of individual wood members. To date, NDT techniques have shown the most promise for this type of in-place assessment of wood structures. This report assesses the validity of non-destructive testing using the Metriguard Model 239A Stress Wave Timer recently purchased by the School of Forestry. Three pieces of Douglas fir and four pieces of radiata (each 2.0 m x 100 mm x 50 mm) have been used in various experiments to determine the accuracy of the stress wave timer. The modulus of elasticity of the pieces of timber was calculated and the results were compared to a separate 3-point mechanical bending test carried out on the same timber. These results showed that on average the stress wave timer (compared to the mechanical test) over-estimated the modulus of elasticity by 17.5%. This difference is considered to be systematic and therefore the stress wave timer appears to be accurate. Although the stress wave timer accurately indicates the strength properties of wood it remains to be seen if, in its present stage of development, it is of use on a practical basis in the industry.

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  • Product costing using activity-based costing : a case study

    Cattermole, Clinton Wayne (1990)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    As manufacturing enterprises have become less labour-paced the process of recovering overheads by allocation on the basis of direct labour costs has been challenged. It has been claimed by proponents of Activity-based Costing (ABC) that it is possible to identify the real cost of production by careful identification of 'cost-drivers'. This thesis examines the conceptual relations between ABC and traditional product costing models. It analyses the ABC model to determine whether it produces results from different from allocation-based models. The thesis reports the results of implementing activity-based costing in parallel with an existing costing system in a New Zealand manufacturing company.

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  • Rates of deformation, uplift, and landscape development associated with active folding in the Waipara area of North Canterbury, New Zealand

    Nicol, A; Alloway, Brent; Tonkin, P (1994-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Analysis of the geometry and ages of faulted and tilted late Quaternary fluvial terraces and their associated cover beds provide evidence of active folding at three localities in the Waipara area of North Canterbury, New Zealand, Terrace survey data, the occurrence of the approximately 22.6-kyr-old Aokautere Ash, and examination of soil profiles indicate that folding has continued into the late Holocene but that the amounts and rates of deformation are locally variable. Rates of uplift in the Waipara area are compared with those derived from marine terraces preserved at the Pacific coast, east of the study area. Results indicate that rates of measurable deformation reach a maximum along the Waipara range front, where bedrock deformation is most intense and shortening rates of up to 5.57??0.69%/100 kyr occur. Across the coastal ranges the average rate of shortening is 0.8??0.4%/100 kyr, which corresponds with an absolute shortening rate of 1.4??0.6 m/kyr and represents only a small proportion of the predicted plate motion vector in this region. Uplift rates range from 0???1.83 m/kyr for a late last glacial fluvial terrace and from 1.36???2.16 m/kyr for three marine terraces. Fluvial and marine terrace uplift rates vary in accord with the geometries of the folds in bedrock, and the spatial pattern of uplift directly reflects fold growth. The structure contour pattern of folded surfaces provides a first approximation to the spatial pattern of uplift. Differential uplift due to folding accounts for up to approximately 55???75% of the total uplift and has produced folds with structural relief of about 1300 m (i.e., amplitudes of 600???700 m). These folds have formed over the last 0.8??0.4 m.y. since the onset of Quaternary deformation in the Waipara region.

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  • Volcanic-debris-avalanche deposits in New Zealand - Lithofacies organization in unconfined, wet-avalanche flows

    Palmer, BA; Alloway, Brent; Neall, VE (1991)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The lithofacies represent division of the debris-avalanche deposits into megaclast-rich (axial-A) and interclast matrix-rich (axial-B) parts and transformation of the avalanches into lahars (marginal lithofacies). Megaclasts preserving original volcanic stratigraphy in axial-A represent collapse and transport of coherent pieces of the edifice by the debris avalanches. Transformation into lahars occurred as the coarse avalanche debris came to rest and the finer portion continued to flow, enhanced by a secondary component eroded from underlying deposits. In general, flow across relatively featureless ring plains allowed multidirectional-lithofacies development, so that lobes of axial-A are surrounded by axial-B and marginal lithofacies both laterally and, where visible, distally. Variations in avalanche size and ring-plain physiography produced different lithofacies architectures in the New Zealand deposits. Large debris avalanches were little affected by physiography and spread out in fan-shaped sheets comprising near-concentric zones of each lithofacies. Smaller avalanches were confined at some point during flow, so that central parts of the deposit are shoestring diamictons of axial-B and the marginal lithofacies. The tripartite axial-A through axial ?? and marginal lithofacies associations are present in proximal areas of these deposits. Distal areas are usually axial-B and marginal lithofacies.

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  • Revision of the marine chronology in the Wanganui Basin, New Zealand, based on the isothermal plateau fission-track dating of tephra horizons

    Alloway, Brent; Pillans, BJ; Sandhu, AS; Westgate, JA (1993-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The occurrence of tephra horizons in basins adjacent to volcanic arcs provide an excellent opportunity for establishing a reliable chronostratigraphic framework for detailed sedimentological studies. In this study, three widespread and stratigraphically important rhyolitic tephra horizons interbedded in Plio/Pleistocene strata of the Wanganui Basin, New Zealand, are dated by application of the isothermal plateau fission-track (ITPFT) technique to hydrated glass shards. All glass samples were corrected for annealing and consequently yield reliable ages. Rangitawa Tephra yielded statistically indistinguishable ages from three localities that are in excellent agreement with recently determined zircon fission-track age estimates of ca. 0.35 Ma. ITPFT ages of 1.05 ?? 0.05 and 1.63 ?? 0.15 Ma for Potaka Pumice and Pakihikura Pumice, respectively, are considerably older than previous FT estimates but consistent with new magnetostratigraphic data that places the Potaka within the Jaramillo Subchron, and Pakihikura within the Matuyama Chron between the Cobb Mountain and Olduvai Subchrons. Combining our fission-track ages with the magnetostratigraphy, the true age of sediments within the Wanganui Basin is found to be significantly underestimated. Sedimentation rates of between ca. 680-630 m/Ma from 1.63 Ma to 0.35 Ma are calculated in the eastern part of the basin and are much lower than those calculated using the previous FT chronology. This new ITPFT-age data demonstrates that the existing Plio/Pleistocene marine chronology in New Zealand will require age revision and has important implications when considering the evolution of several other sedimentary basins in southern North Island that contain the same ITPFT-dated tephra horizons.

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  • The role of Egmont-sourced tephra in evaluating the paleoclimatic correspondence between the bio- and soil-stratigraphic records of central Taranaki, New Zealand

    Alloway, Brent; McGlone, MS; Neall, VE; Vucetich, CG (1992)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    On the lower eastern flanks of Egmont Volcano, western North Island, New Zealand, several Egmont-sourced tephras have been correlated to a radiocarbon dated peat site that provides a late last-glacial to early post-glacial record of vegetation and climate change in central Taranaki. The pollen spectra at this site indicates a mosaic of grassland-shrubland and Prumnopitys taxifolia-dominant forest at ca. 13,100 BP and suggests a climate cooler and drier than at present. The ominance of tall podocarp forest by ca. 12,900 BP suggests that climatic amelioration was rapid towards the end of the last glacial period. Initially this forest was dominated by Prumnopitys taxifolia but at ca. 11,000 BP was succeeded by Dacrydium cupressinum indicating a steady shift to warmer and moister climate. Tephra interbedded with peat allows precise chrono-correlation into the Andisol-forming environment. The rapidity of climatic amelioration identified from variations in Andisol morphology and mineralogy concurs with that indicated from pollen changes in the peat.

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  • Particle size analyses of Late Quaternary allophane-dominated andesitic deposits from New Zealand

    Alloway, Brent; Neall, VE; Vucetich, CG (1992)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    On the western North Island, New Zealand, a Late Quaternary sequence of allophane-dominated cover-bed (Andisol) deposits have accumulated from intermittent accretion and rapid, subsequent weathering of aerially transported detritus of dominantly andesitic provenance. Particle size analyses of Andisol samples were attempted for textural classification and provenance studies. The hydrometer and sedigraph techniques were unsuccessful due to difficulties arising from the flocculation of short-range order clay and organic constituents (SROCO), which prevented complete particle dispersion. Neither acidic (HCl) nor alkaline (NH4OH or NaOH) solutions were effective in completely dispersing samples, so an alternative chemical procedure was devised. This alternative pretreatment involves the selective dissolution of Andisol SROCO constituents by 0.2 mol acid-oxalate reagent (pH 3.0???3.5), and has considerable potential in the determination of particle size, soil textural classification and provenance of allophane-dominated andesitic deposits.

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  • Climate of the last glaciation in New Zealand, based on aerosolic quartz influx in an andesitic terrain

    Alloway, Brent; Stewart, RB; Neall, VE; Vucetich, CG (1992-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    On western North Island, New Zealand, a record of climatic change during the last glaciation is preserved in a terrestrial coverbed sequence of dominantly andesitic provenance. Here, a succession of five loess-like Andisol units postdates the global high sea-level stand of oxygen isotope substage 5e (<125,000 yr). Tephra erupted from western and central North Island allow precise chronological correlation of the loess-like units. Aerosolic quartz additions determined by quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) record two major peaks that correlate with oxygen isotope stages 2 and 4. The most likely source of quartz-rich dust at these times is the surrounding continental shelf, then exposed by low sea level; however, quartz of Australian provenance may also be represented. This study provides the first confirmation from the terrestrial New Zealand record that rates of atmospherically transported particles increase during glacial stages.

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