9,048 results for 2000, ResearchSpace@Auckland

  • Is there a difference in airway clearance practices between children with non cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis?

    Butler, SA; Hill, LJ; Harrison, J; Reed, P; Nikora, Gwen; Takai, C; Byrnes, Catherine; Edwards, EA (2008-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Studies have investigated airway clearance techniques in CF but few exist for non-CF bronchiectasis, particularly in children. The aim of this study si to compare airway clerance praactices in NZ children with CF and non-CF bronchiectasis. The study was conducted in the context of a clinical quality assurance audit of a hospital clinic service. Children and their families living in Greater Auckland and attending tertiary respiratory clinics were interviewed by a physiotherapist, who completed a questionnaire on frequency of cough, amount and type of airway clearance performed. Demographic data, age at diagnosis, duration of disease and the NZ Deprivation Index were noted. Children were grouped according to age-appropriate airway clearance techniques. 106 questionnaires were completed (81 bronchiectasis; 21 CF). Significant differences were demonstrated for ethnicity, depreivation score and duration of disease between groups. In teh 9-17 year olds 75% used a positive expiratory pressure device (23/35 bronchiectasis; 13/13 CF). in the 0-4 year olds 60% perfromed modified postural draining (13/25 bronchiectasis; 5/5 CF). When well, children wwith CF did more regular airway clearance than those with bronchiectasis (p=0.0004). Both groups increased the amount of airway clearance when unwell (p=>0.005). Similar numbers (<8%) reported doing no airway clearance techniques. The implications of the findings for paediatric physiotherapy practice in NZ are discussed.

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  • Listening strategies of Singaporean primary school pupils

    Gu, PY; Hu, G; Zhang, Lawrence (2009)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Correction: In Arroll B, Kenealy T, Kerse N.(2003) Do delayed prescriptions reduce antibiotic use in respiratory tract infections? A systematic review (Br J Gen Pract 2003; 53: 871???877)

    Arroll, Bruce; Kenealy, Timothy; Kerse, Ngaire (2004-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Kinectin participates in microtubule-dependent hormone secretion in pancreatic islet beta-cells

    Bai, Jizhong; Mon, Y; Krissansen, Geoffrey (2006)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We investigated roles of KNT and isoform KNTvd4 in the transport of amylin, insulin-containing secretory vesicles in RINm5F cells. Results suggest that both KNT and KNTvd4 participate in microtubule-dependent secretion of amylin in islet ??-cells.

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  • A technique for collecting and examining a large number of eggs

    Acosta Etchebarne, Monica; Go??i, B (2000-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    When examining egg hatchability in relation to the genetic background and age of the parental flies, it is necessary to examine a large number of eggs and also to minimize factors that may affect the egg hatchability. It is known that the availability of food affects the female fecundity (David et al., 1971), so it is important to keep the parental flies well fed during the egg collection period. In this communication, we present an easy way of manipulating flies and collecting their eggs without harassment. A disposable egg collection container made of a Blue MaxTM 50 ml polypropylene conical tube (30 mm diameter Falcon tubes, Becton Dickinson Labware) was adapted as follows: the tube is cut to its conical base and replaced by a ???soft drink??? plastic cap (only a few brands do not fit). The screw end of the tube is then sealed with a cotton or sponge cork. The plastic caps are partially filled with the agar-apple juice egg collection medium reported by N??sslein-Volhard and Wieschaus (1986) to which Methylene blue or another vital stain is added to improve the visualization of the eggs. A few grains of dry yeast are also added to the medium before its solidification in the caps. When applying the yeast in this way, the grains are deep in the solidifying medium and do not become viscose, still allowing the visualization of the eggs. The females can be kept well fed during the egg collection period since the plastic caps can be replaced daily or at shorter intervals. For the collection or replacement of the plastic caps, the flies are gently shaken into the cork end of the tube. The eggs can now be collected from the medium with a thin needle and further incubated on humid paper placed in a chamber at 25??C (Roberts, 1986). We found it useful to count the eggs directly in the caps, and further incubate the caps in a humid Tupperware chamber at 25??C. After 24 hours from the collection time, the eggs that have not hatched are examined under a stereomicroscope or microscope in a drop of Voltaleff oil to check the stage of death (N??sslein-Volhard and Wieschaus ,1986).

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  • Short- and long-term enzymatic regulation secondary to metabolic insult in the rat retina

    Acosta Etchebarne, Monica; Kalloniatis, Michael (2005-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Changes in oxygen and/or glucose availability may result in altered levels of ATP production and amino acid levels, and alteration in lactic acid production. However, under certain metabolic insults, the retina demonstrates considerable resilience and maintains ATP production, and/or retinal function. We wanted to investigate whether this resilience would be reflected in alterations in the activity of key enzymes of retinal metabolism, or enzymes associated with amino acid production that may supply their carbon skeleton for energy production. Enzymatic assays were conducted to determine the activity of key retinal metabolic enzymes total ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. In vitro anoxia led to an increase in retinal lactate dehydrogenase activity and to a decrease in retinal aspartate aminotransferase activity, without significant changes in Na+/K+-ATPase activity. In vivo inhibition of glutamine synthetase resulted in a short-term significant decrease in retinal aspartate aminotransferase activity. An increase in retinal aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities was accompanied by altered levels of amino acids in neurons and glia after partial inhibition of glial metabolism, implying that short- and long-term up- and down-regulation of key metabolic enzymes occurs to supply carbon skeletons for retinal metabolism. ATPase activity does not appear to fluctuate under the metabolic stresses employed in our experimental procedures.

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  • Inherited retinal degenerations

    Fletcher, EL; Acosta Etchebarne, Monica; Kalloniatis, Michael (2009)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Is there a temporal pattern in the occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage in the Southern Hemisphere? Pooled data from 3 large, population-based incidence studies in Australasia, 1981 to 1997

    Feigin, V; Anderson, CS; Anderson, NA; Broad, Joanna; Pledger, M; Bonita, R (2001)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background and Purpose???Publications on the temporal pattern of the occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have produced conflicting results. Variations between studies may relate to the relatively small numbers of SAH cases analyzed, including those in meta-analyses. Methods???We identified all cases of SAH from 3 well-designed population-based studies in Australia (Adelaide, Hobart, and Perth) and New Zealand (Auckland) during 3 periods between 1981 and 1997. The diagnosis of SAH was confirmed with CT, cerebral angiography, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, or autopsy in all cases. Information on the time of occurrence of each event was obtained. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated using Poisson regression, with age, sex, smoking status, and history of hypertension entered in the model as covariates. Results???A total of 783 cases of SAH were registered. Age- and sex-adjusted RRs of SAH occurrence were highest in the period between 6 AM and 12 MIDNIGHT (RR 3.2, 95% CI 2.4???4.3) and in winter and spring (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1???1.5; RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1???1.5; respectively). No particular pattern of SAH occurrence was observed according to the day of the week. Restriction of the analyses to proved aneurysmal SAH did not substantially change the point estimates. Conclusions???Circadian and circaseptan (weekly) fluctuations of SAH occurrence in the southern hemisphere are similar to those in the northern hemisphere, but the occurrence of SAH in Australasia exhibits clear seasonal (winter and spring) peaks.

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  • Creatine transporter localization in developing and adult retina: Importance of creatine to retinal function

    Acosta Etchebarne, Monica; Kalloniatis, Michael; Christie, David (2005-09-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Creatine and phosphocreatine are required to maintain ATP needed for normal retinal function and development. The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of the creatine transporter (CRT) to gain insight to how creatine is transported into the retina. An affinity-purified antibody raised against the CRT was applied to adult vertebrate retinas and to mouse retina during development. Confocal microscopy was used to identify the localization pattern as well as co-localization patterns with a range of retinal neurochemical markers. Strong labeling of the CRT was seen in the photoreceptor inner segments in all species studied and labeling of a variety of inner neuronal cells (amacrine, bipolar, and ganglion cells), the retinal nerve fibers and sites of creatine transport into the retina (retinal pigment epithelium, inner retinal blood vessels, and perivascular astrocytes). The CRT was not expressed in M??ller cells of any of the species studied. The lack of labeling of M??ller cells suggests that neurons are independent of this glial cell in accumulating creatine. During mouse retinal development, expression of the CRT progressively increased throughout the retina until approximately postnatal day 10, with a subsequent decrease. Comparison of the distribution patterns of the CRT in vascular and avascular vertebrate retinas and studies of the mouse retina during development indicate that creatine and phosphocreatine are important for ATP homeostasis.

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  • Early markers of retinal degeneration in rd/rd mice

    Acosta Etchebarne, Monica; Fletcher, EL; Azizoglu, Serap; Foster, LE; Farber, DB; Kalloniatis, Michael (2005-09-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    PURPOSE: In the rd/rd mouse, the cell death of rod photoreceptors has been correlated to abnormal levels of the cyclic nucleotide cGMP within photoreceptors. Given that cGMP is required for opening of the cationic channels, there is the possibility that a high cGMP concentration would maintain these channels open, at a high energy cost for the retina. METHODS: We investigated whether cation channels were maintained in an open state in the rd/rd mouse retina by determining the labeling pattern of an organic cationic probe (agmatine, AGB) which selectively enters cells through open cationic channels. The metabolic activity of the rd/rd mice was measured by assaying lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in several tissues and Na+/K+ ATPase activity was measured as a function of development and degeneration of the retina. RESULTS: AGB neuronal labeling showed a systematic increase consistent with the known neuronal functional maturation in the normal retina. There was a significant higher AGB labeling of photoreceptors in the rd/rd mouse retina from P6 supporting the possibility of open cationic channels from an early age. There were no changes in the LDH activity of tissues that contain PDE6 or that have a similar LDH distribution as the retina. However, LDH activity was significantly higher in the rd/rd mouse retina than in those of control mice from birth to P6, and it dramatically decreased from P9 as the photoreceptors degenerated. The predominant LDH isoenzyme changes and loss after degeneration appeared to be LDH5. ATPase activity increased with age, reaching adult levels by P16. Unlike LDH activity, there was no significant difference in Na+/K+ ATPase activity between control and rd/rd mice at any age examined. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that AGB is a useful marker of photoreceptors destined to degenerate. We discard the possibility of a generalized metabolic effect in the rd/rd mice. However, the elevated LDH activity present before photoreceptor differentiation indicated altered retinal metabolic activity that could not be associated with open cationic channels alone. Therefore, altered metabolic activity as indicated by LDH measurements in the retina appeared to be the earliest sensitive sign of future photoreceptor dysfunction in the rd/rd mice.

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  • Anti-inflammatory agents from New Zealand marine organisms

    Pearce, Allison; Berridge, MV; Harper, JL; Maas, E; Perry, NB; Webb, VL; Copp, Brent (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Searching for standards in the NCEA: Assessing musical performance

    McPhail, Graham (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this paper it is argued that the theory and practice of standardsbased assessment within the context of the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) has not been clearly articulated for teachers. The difficulty of specifying and promulgating standards in appropriate forms and the lack of clarity present in the support materials and training provided for teachers are examined. Through the analysis of an internally assessed Music Achievement Standard currently available in the NCEA, it will be argued that standards can be neither definitively described nor easily assessed, but that a credible standard is reliant on a number of components. It is the combination of these components that is significant if standards are to function effectively in summative contexts, particularly for high stakes national qualifications. The support materials and training music teachers received during the introduction of the NCEA lacked clarity and this has resulted in a weak link in the chain of components required for a robust assessment system. Teachers need access to quality support materials and the opportunity for on-going professional development in relation to standardsbased assessment.

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  • Zebrafish: At the nexus of functional and chemical genomics

    Dodd, A; Greenwood, David; Miller, AL; Webb, Sarah; Chambers, Stephen; Copp, Brent; Love, Donald (2006)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Usability methods and mobile devices: An evaluation of MoFax

    Wright, T; Yoong, P; Noble, J; Cliffe, R; Hoda, Rashina; Gordon, D; Andreae, C (2005)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    When researchers extend a conventional communication application to mobile devices, the communication becomes ubiquitous. We recently examined a mobile communication application from a usability perspective. We found that despite the potentially high utility of the mobile communication application, it had usability issues that required user interface redesign. This paper is an alert for mobile and ubiquitous multimedia designers that they must not ignore usability considerations when designing software and hardware solutions for ubiquitous mobility.

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  • Negotiating contracts for Agile projects: A practical perspective

    Hoda, Rashina; Noble, J; Marshall, S (2009)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Agile Manifesto values ???customer collaboration over contract negotiation???. However, in many real projects, Agile practitioners spend considerable time and effort negotiating contracts with customers. We have conducted grounded theory research in India with Agile practitioners. In this paper we present the strategies these practitioners use to overcome the problems of negotiating contracts. These strategies include changing the customers??? mindset, providing different options of working, and ??? in the worst case scenario ??? keeping the customers unaware of internal Agile practices.

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  • Agile Project Management

    Hoda, Rashina; Noble, J; Marshall, S (2008)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    As agile software development gains awareness and popularity in the software industry, it also continues to capture the interest of the research community. There are several topics within the agile software development area that demand deeper understanding and research. One such topic is 'Agile Project Management' which relates to the management of software projects that are developed using various agile frameworks such as eXtreme Programming (XP) and Scrum. This paper outlines proposed research on agile project management. In particular we hope to explore the role of the project manager, the process and problems of transitioning into an agile framework, and the management of outsourced agile projects.

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  • 11-Methylpyrido[2,3-b]acridine-5,12-dione

    Copp, Brent; Lindsay, Brent; Oliver, Allen; Rickard, Clifton (2000-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The title molecule, C17H10N2O2, is a synthetic precursor to the cytotoxic marine alkaloid ascididemin and is also structurally related to cleistopholine, a plant-derived antifungal agent. The molecule was found to be essentially planar with the only significant deviations from planarity being for the quinone O atoms.

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  • Transforming rural water governance: Towards deliberative and polycentric models?

    Neef, Andreas (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In recent years, many countries have experienced a formal shift from command-and-control and prescriptive management of natural resources towards policy making and planning processes that build on collaboration, negotiation and deliberation among policy-makers, scientists and local stakeholders (Bouwen and Tallieu, 2004; Warner, 2006; Ansell and Gash, 2008). Public participation in environmental decision-making and implementation has become part and parcel of the environmental governance rhetoric in many industrialised countries (Sabatier et al., 2005; Messner et al., 2006; Cronin and Ostergren, 2007; Ferreyra et al., 2008; Medd and Marvin, 2008; Marshall, in press). In emerging economies and developing countries 'participatory environmental governance' has also been discussed as an alternative to centralised, top-down approaches towards natural resource conservation and management (e.g. Gupte and Bartlett, 2007; Neaera Abers, 2007; Huang et al., 2009). At the international policy level, the Rio Declaration and the Agenda 21 (1992), the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (2002), and the 1998 UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) "Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters" (the so-called Aarhus Convention) have been the most important drivers for enhanced citizen participation in environmental governance.

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  • Chemical discovery and global gene expression analysis in zebrafish

    Pichler, Franz; Laurenson, S; Williams, Liam; Dodd, A; Copp, Brent; Love, Donald (2003-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) provides an excellent model for studying vertebrate development and human disease because of its ex utero, optically transparent embryogenesis and amenability to in vivo manipulation. The rapid embryonic developmental cycle, large clutch sizes and ease of maintenance at large numbers also add to the appeal of this species. Considerable genomic data has recently become publicly available that is aiding the construction of zebrafish microarrays, thus permitting global gene expression analysis. The zebrafish is also suitable for chemical genomics, in part as a result of the permeability of its embryos to small molecules and consequent avoidance of external confounding maternal effects. Finally, there is increasing characterization and analysis of zebrafish models of human disease. Thus, the zebrafish offers a high-quality, high-throughput bioassay tool for determining the biological effect of small molecules as well as for dissecting biological pathways.

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  • Antiparasitic activity of marine pyridoacridone alkaloids related to the ascididemins

    Copp, Brent; Kayser, O; Brun, R; Kiderlen, AF (2003-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A series of pyridoacridone alkaloids, including the marine alkaloid ascididemin were tested in vitro for antiparasitic activity against P. falciparum (K1, NF54), L. donovani, T. cruzi, T. b. rhodesiense and two mammalian cell lines (L6, RAW 264.7). Most compounds showed high antiplasmodial activity, moderate antileishmanial activity against both extra- and intracellular forms, and significant trypanocidal effects against T. cruzi and T. b. brucei. However, when tested against mammalian cell lines, most of the compounds were also toxic for macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells and skeletal muscle myoblast L6 cells. Correlations between molecular structures and antiparasitic activity are discussed in detail. Specific compounds are illustrated with emphasis on their potential as new antiparasitic drug leads.

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