9,044 results for 2000, ResearchSpace@Auckland

  • Is there a temporal pattern in the occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage in the Southern Hemisphere? Pooled data From 3 large, population-based incidence studies in Australasia, 1981 to 1997

    Feigin, V; Anderson, CS; Anderson, NA; Broad, Joanna; Pledger, M; Bonita, R (2001)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background and Purpose???Publications on the temporal pattern of the occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have produced conflicting results. Variations between studies may relate to the relatively small numbers of SAH cases analyzed, including those in meta-analyses. Methods???We identified all cases of SAH from 3 well-designed population-based studies in Australia (Adelaide, Hobart, and Perth) and New Zealand (Auckland) during 3 periods between 1981 and 1997. The diagnosis of SAH was confirmed with CT, cerebral angiography, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, or autopsy in all cases. Information on the time of occurrence of each event was obtained. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated using Poisson regression, with age, sex, smoking status, and history of hypertension entered in the model as covariates. Results???A total of 783 cases of SAH were registered. Age- and sex-adjusted RRs of SAH occurrence were highest in the period between 6 AM and 12 MIDNIGHT (RR 3.2, 95% CI 2.4???4.3) and in winter and spring (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1???1.5; RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1???1.5; respectively). No particular pattern of SAH occurrence was observed according to the day of the week. Restriction of the analyses to proved aneurysmal SAH did not substantially change the point estimates. Conclusions???Circadian and circaseptan (weekly) fluctuations of SAH occurrence in the southern hemisphere are similar to those in the northern hemisphere, but the occurrence of SAH in Australasia exhibits clear seasonal (winter and spring) peaks.

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  • Creatine transporter localization in developing and adult retina: Importance of creatine to retinal function

    Acosta Etchebarne, Monica; Kalloniatis, Michael; Christie, David (2005-09-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Creatine and phosphocreatine are required to maintain ATP needed for normal retinal function and development. The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of the creatine transporter (CRT) to gain insight to how creatine is transported into the retina. An affinity-purified antibody raised against the CRT was applied to adult vertebrate retinas and to mouse retina during development. Confocal microscopy was used to identify the localization pattern as well as co-localization patterns with a range of retinal neurochemical markers. Strong labeling of the CRT was seen in the photoreceptor inner segments in all species studied and labeling of a variety of inner neuronal cells (amacrine, bipolar, and ganglion cells), the retinal nerve fibers and sites of creatine transport into the retina (retinal pigment epithelium, inner retinal blood vessels, and perivascular astrocytes). The CRT was not expressed in M??ller cells of any of the species studied. The lack of labeling of M??ller cells suggests that neurons are independent of this glial cell in accumulating creatine. During mouse retinal development, expression of the CRT progressively increased throughout the retina until approximately postnatal day 10, with a subsequent decrease. Comparison of the distribution patterns of the CRT in vascular and avascular vertebrate retinas and studies of the mouse retina during development indicate that creatine and phosphocreatine are important for ATP homeostasis.

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  • Early markers of retinal degeneration in rd/rd mice

    Acosta Etchebarne, Monica; Fletcher, EL; Azizoglu, Serap; Foster, LE; Farber, DB; Kalloniatis, Michael (2005-09-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    PURPOSE: In the rd/rd mouse, the cell death of rod photoreceptors has been correlated to abnormal levels of the cyclic nucleotide cGMP within photoreceptors. Given that cGMP is required for opening of the cationic channels, there is the possibility that a high cGMP concentration would maintain these channels open, at a high energy cost for the retina. METHODS: We investigated whether cation channels were maintained in an open state in the rd/rd mouse retina by determining the labeling pattern of an organic cationic probe (agmatine, AGB) which selectively enters cells through open cationic channels. The metabolic activity of the rd/rd mice was measured by assaying lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in several tissues and Na+/K+ ATPase activity was measured as a function of development and degeneration of the retina. RESULTS: AGB neuronal labeling showed a systematic increase consistent with the known neuronal functional maturation in the normal retina. There was a significant higher AGB labeling of photoreceptors in the rd/rd mouse retina from P6 supporting the possibility of open cationic channels from an early age. There were no changes in the LDH activity of tissues that contain PDE6 or that have a similar LDH distribution as the retina. However, LDH activity was significantly higher in the rd/rd mouse retina than in those of control mice from birth to P6, and it dramatically decreased from P9 as the photoreceptors degenerated. The predominant LDH isoenzyme changes and loss after degeneration appeared to be LDH5. ATPase activity increased with age, reaching adult levels by P16. Unlike LDH activity, there was no significant difference in Na+/K+ ATPase activity between control and rd/rd mice at any age examined. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that AGB is a useful marker of photoreceptors destined to degenerate. We discard the possibility of a generalized metabolic effect in the rd/rd mice. However, the elevated LDH activity present before photoreceptor differentiation indicated altered retinal metabolic activity that could not be associated with open cationic channels alone. Therefore, altered metabolic activity as indicated by LDH measurements in the retina appeared to be the earliest sensitive sign of future photoreceptor dysfunction in the rd/rd mice.

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  • Anti-inflammatory agents from New Zealand marine organisms

    Pearce, Allison; Berridge, MV; Harper, JL; Maas, E; Perry, NB; Webb, VL; Copp, Brent (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Searching for standards in the NCEA: Assessing musical performance

    McPhail, Graham (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this paper it is argued that the theory and practice of standardsbased assessment within the context of the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) has not been clearly articulated for teachers. The difficulty of specifying and promulgating standards in appropriate forms and the lack of clarity present in the support materials and training provided for teachers are examined. Through the analysis of an internally assessed Music Achievement Standard currently available in the NCEA, it will be argued that standards can be neither definitively described nor easily assessed, but that a credible standard is reliant on a number of components. It is the combination of these components that is significant if standards are to function effectively in summative contexts, particularly for high stakes national qualifications. The support materials and training music teachers received during the introduction of the NCEA lacked clarity and this has resulted in a weak link in the chain of components required for a robust assessment system. Teachers need access to quality support materials and the opportunity for on-going professional development in relation to standardsbased assessment.

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  • Zebrafish: At the nexus of functional and chemical genomics

    Dodd, A; Greenwood, David; Miller, AL; Webb, Sarah; Chambers, Stephen; Copp, Brent; Love, Donald (2006)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Usability methods and mobile devices: An evaluation of MoFax

    Wright, T; Yoong, P; Noble, J; Cliffe, R; Hoda, Rashina; Gordon, D; Andreae, C (2005)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    When researchers extend a conventional communication application to mobile devices, the communication becomes ubiquitous. We recently examined a mobile communication application from a usability perspective. We found that despite the potentially high utility of the mobile communication application, it had usability issues that required user interface redesign. This paper is an alert for mobile and ubiquitous multimedia designers that they must not ignore usability considerations when designing software and hardware solutions for ubiquitous mobility.

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  • Negotiating contracts for Agile projects: A practical perspective

    Hoda, Rashina; Noble, J; Marshall, S (2009)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Agile Manifesto values ???customer collaboration over contract negotiation???. However, in many real projects, Agile practitioners spend considerable time and effort negotiating contracts with customers. We have conducted grounded theory research in India with Agile practitioners. In this paper we present the strategies these practitioners use to overcome the problems of negotiating contracts. These strategies include changing the customers??? mindset, providing different options of working, and ??? in the worst case scenario ??? keeping the customers unaware of internal Agile practices.

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  • Agile Project Management

    Hoda, Rashina; Noble, J; Marshall, S (2008)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    As agile software development gains awareness and popularity in the software industry, it also continues to capture the interest of the research community. There are several topics within the agile software development area that demand deeper understanding and research. One such topic is 'Agile Project Management' which relates to the management of software projects that are developed using various agile frameworks such as eXtreme Programming (XP) and Scrum. This paper outlines proposed research on agile project management. In particular we hope to explore the role of the project manager, the process and problems of transitioning into an agile framework, and the management of outsourced agile projects.

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  • 11-Methylpyrido[2,3-b]acridine-5,12-dione

    Copp, Brent; Lindsay, Brent; Oliver, Allen; Rickard, Clifton (2000-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The title molecule, C17H10N2O2, is a synthetic precursor to the cytotoxic marine alkaloid ascididemin and is also structurally related to cleistopholine, a plant-derived antifungal agent. The molecule was found to be essentially planar with the only significant deviations from planarity being for the quinone O atoms.

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  • Transforming rural water governance: Towards deliberative and polycentric models?

    Neef, Andreas (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In recent years, many countries have experienced a formal shift from command-and-control and prescriptive management of natural resources towards policy making and planning processes that build on collaboration, negotiation and deliberation among policy-makers, scientists and local stakeholders (Bouwen and Tallieu, 2004; Warner, 2006; Ansell and Gash, 2008). Public participation in environmental decision-making and implementation has become part and parcel of the environmental governance rhetoric in many industrialised countries (Sabatier et al., 2005; Messner et al., 2006; Cronin and Ostergren, 2007; Ferreyra et al., 2008; Medd and Marvin, 2008; Marshall, in press). In emerging economies and developing countries 'participatory environmental governance' has also been discussed as an alternative to centralised, top-down approaches towards natural resource conservation and management (e.g. Gupte and Bartlett, 2007; Neaera Abers, 2007; Huang et al., 2009). At the international policy level, the Rio Declaration and the Agenda 21 (1992), the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (2002), and the 1998 UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) "Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters" (the so-called Aarhus Convention) have been the most important drivers for enhanced citizen participation in environmental governance.

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  • Antimycobacterial natural products

    Copp, Brent (2003-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Covering: 1990???2002

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  • Antiparasitic activity of marine pyridoacridone alkaloids related to the ascididemins

    Copp, Brent; Kayser, O; Brun, R; Kiderlen, AF (2003-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A series of pyridoacridone alkaloids, including the marine alkaloid ascididemin were tested in vitro for antiparasitic activity against P. falciparum (K1, NF54), L. donovani, T. cruzi, T. b. rhodesiense and two mammalian cell lines (L6, RAW 264.7). Most compounds showed high antiplasmodial activity, moderate antileishmanial activity against both extra- and intracellular forms, and significant trypanocidal effects against T. cruzi and T. b. brucei. However, when tested against mammalian cell lines, most of the compounds were also toxic for macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells and skeletal muscle myoblast L6 cells. Correlations between molecular structures and antiparasitic activity are discussed in detail. Specific compounds are illustrated with emphasis on their potential as new antiparasitic drug leads.

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  • Chemical discovery and global gene expression analysis in zebrafish

    Pichler, Franz; Laurenson, S; Williams, Liam; Dodd, A; Copp, Brent; Love, Donald (2003-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) provides an excellent model for studying vertebrate development and human disease because of its ex utero, optically transparent embryogenesis and amenability to in vivo manipulation. The rapid embryonic developmental cycle, large clutch sizes and ease of maintenance at large numbers also add to the appeal of this species. Considerable genomic data has recently become publicly available that is aiding the construction of zebrafish microarrays, thus permitting global gene expression analysis. The zebrafish is also suitable for chemical genomics, in part as a result of the permeability of its embryos to small molecules and consequent avoidance of external confounding maternal effects. Finally, there is increasing characterization and analysis of zebrafish models of human disease. Thus, the zebrafish offers a high-quality, high-throughput bioassay tool for determining the biological effect of small molecules as well as for dissecting biological pathways.

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  • Distomadines A and B, novel 6-hydroxyquinoline alkaloids from the New Zealand ascidian, Pseudodistoma aureum

    Pearce, Allison; Appleton, David; Babcock, Russell; Copp, Brent (2003-05-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Distomadines A and B, novel tetracyclic guanidine-containing 6-hydroxyquinoline alkaloids were isolated from the New Zealand ascidian Pseudodistoma aureum and characterised by interpretation of spectroscopic data and chemical derivatisation. Distomadine A exhibited mild antifungal activity but failed to exhibit any biological activity in a range of antitumour, cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory, and antimycobacterial tests. The known methyl esters of fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid and eicosatetraenoic acid were also identified in the extract with EPA methyl ester exhibiting mild cytotoxicity to a non-malignant cell line.

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  • 1,3-dimethyl-8-oxoisoguanine, a new purine from the New Zealand ascidian Pseudodistoma Cereum

    Appleton, David; Page, MJ; Lambert, G; Copp, Brent (2004-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A new purine, 1,3-dimethyl-8-oxoisoguanine (2) was isolated from the New Zealand ascidian Pseudodistoma cereum. The structure of 2 was elucidated by the use of standard spectroscopic techniques, including natural abundance H-1-N-15 2D NMR.

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  • Kottamide E, the first example of a natural product bearing the amino acid 4-amino-1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid (Adt)

    Appleton, David; Copp, Brent (2003-12-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Kottamide E, a novel alkaloid containing dibrominated indole enamide, oxalic acid diamide and 4-amino-1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxamide moieties, has been isolated from the New Zealand ascidian Pycnoclavella kottae. Characterisation was achieved by interpretation of spectroscopic data.

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  • AK37: the first pyridoacridine described capable of stabilizing the topoisomerase I cleavable complex

    Marshall, KM; Holden, JA; Koller, A; Kashman, Y; Copp, Brent; Barrows, LR (2004-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Pyridoacridines are marine natural products that contain planar structures. Almost all are cytotoxic and capable of DNA intercalation. Several pyridoacridines have demonstrated anti-cancer activity, being able to generate reactive oxygen species or to inhibit topoisomerase (Topo) II. Synthetic pyridoacridines were characterized and compared to other pyridoacridines as well as the Topo-inhibiting drugs (etoposide, 9-aminocamptothecin and wakayin) in a series of in vitro enzyme systems. We found AK37 was able to stabilize a DNA???Topo I cleavable complex, but not a DNA???Topo II cleavable complex. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a DNA???Topo I cleavable complex stabilizing pyridoacridine. Structure comparison studies demonstrated that this activity was lost when an extra ???F??? ring was added, but activity was not affected when the ???D??? ring was removed. AK37 inhibited the catalytic activity of both human Topo I and II.

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  • Marine natural products

    Blunt, JW; Copp, Brent; Munro, MHG; Northcote, PT; Prinsep, MR (2003-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This review covers the literature published in 2001 for marine natural products, with 497 citations (373 for the period January to December 2001) and includes 793 compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green algae, brown algae, red algae, sponges, coelenterates, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates and echinoderms. The emphasis is on new compounds and new stereochemical assignments (683 for 2001), together with relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Syntheses that confirm or revise structures or stereochemistries have been included (95), including any first total synthesis of a marine natural product.

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  • Mechanism of ascididemin-induced cytotoxicity

    Matsumoto, SS; Biggs, J; Copp, Brent; Holden, JA; Barrows, LR (2003-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Some marine animals are rich sources of unique polycyclic aromatic alkaloids that are cytotoxic against tumor cell lines and effective in mouse tumor xenograft models. Ascididemin is a pyridoacridine alkaloid originally derived from a Didemnum sp. tunicate. It has potent cytotoxicity against tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Preclinical screening at NCI revealed the antineoplastic activities of ascididemin and a synthetic analogue 48. Ascididemin has been reported to inhibit topoisomerase II and induce topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage. This study, however, focuses on the unique ability of ascididemin and two synthetic analogues (48 and 109) to cleave DNA in the absence of topoisomerase I or II. An in vitro assay revealed their concentration-dependent ability to cleave DNA and identified dithiothreitol as the sole requirement for maximal activity. On the basis of shared structural features of the three analogues, a double N-bay region and iminoquinone heterocyclic ring, two possible mechanisms of action were hypothesized:??? (1) generation of reactive oxygen species facilitated by metal binding to the common phenanthroline bay region, and (2) production of reactive oxygen species by direct reduction of the iminoquinone moiety. Experimental results supported direct iminoquinone reduction and ROS generation as the mechanism of ascididemin cytotoxicity. Antioxidants protected against DNA cleavage in vitro and protected cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells from toxicity. Additionally, it was shown that cells deficient in the ability to repair reactive oxygen species damage to their DNA were more susceptible to ascididemin and analogues than repair competent cells. Ascididemin-treated cells were also shown to induce oxygen-stress related proteins, further implicating the production of reactive oxygen species as the mechanism of cytotoxicity for these molecules.

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