45,108 results for 2010

  • Understandings of Social Investment in the Oil and Gas Sector

    Costa Camoes Rabello, Rafaela (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Every year, Oil and Gas (O&G) companies spend a significant amount of money on social investment programmes in communities that host their activities. Yet the benefits of these programmes are debatable. This thesis reports on a qualitative study, which explored O&G social investment experts’ discursive understandings of their social investment practices. The study involved 20 participants: 17 O&G social investment experts from 11 different countries, and three government representatives from two countries that hosted O&G companies. Participants were from all continents except for Asia. Data were collected through semi-structured and open-ended interviews. I also analysed the social investment guideline documents most frequently utilised by experts, namely the International Finance Corporation (IFC) Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability; and the World Bank Group (WBG) Community-Driven Development Principles. I used discourse analysis to examine and interpret the interviews and guideline documents. When participants talked about social investment, they adopted four main discourses, often in concurrent and conflicting ways. I describe these as working on, working around, working for, and working with discourses of social investment. Working on discourses revealed one-way and top-down understandings of social investment, where companies assumed they were the keepers of knowledge and the agents of development. Working around discourses positioned social investment as ultimately fulfilling the company’s operational interests, but also as benefitting communities. Working for discourses underpinned social investment developed for the purpose of meeting license compliance requirements, which tended to focus on the government’s agenda for social development. Working with discourses emphasised community-centred and participatory understandings of social investment. In this thesis, I argue that working with discourses represented the ideal approach to social investment. However, participants’ use of working with discourses was complicated by their simultaneous use of other discourses in discussing their social investment practices. Similarly, the guideline documents drew on all four discourses of social investment in complex and conflicting ways. Participants’ contradictory representations of social investment may have reflected the contradictions that were also evident in the guideline documents, which influenced their work. The experts’ use of the four discourses of social investment highlighted the contradictory nature of O&G social investment, and the complex positioning of social investment personnel, particularly when their personal views were at odds with institutional policies and practices. Overall, this research demonstrates the complexity of O&G social investment, which is often used as a single tool to address multiple issues, such as risk mitigation, compensation, license to operate, and community development. The thesis concludes with an alternative approach to O&G social investment, where social investment represents one of the main tools of social engagement, rather than its substitute; and where care, instead of profit, becomes the lynchpin of O&G social investment. I hope that this research serves as a starting point from which companies, social investment experts, communities, host country governments, and international banks can build more participatory and community-centred social investment programmes to promote positive futures for all people, rather than short-term gain for a few.

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  • First findings from phase one of the Child Welfare Decision-Making Variability Project: Research briefing paper.

    Keddell, Emily; Hyslop, Ian (2016)

    Report
    University of Otago

    Decision variability,that is,different decision outcomes when levels of harm are similar is a problem common to many child protection systems. The causes are many and varied: the expectation of the child protection system to respond to diverse family problems; the differing beliefs, values and worldviews of practitioners; differences in institutional cultures, sites, processes and resources; demographic inequalities; and conflicting discourses in the policy environment (Baumann et al., 2011; Keddell, 2014). This small (n = 67) exploratory mixed methods study examines if decision variability exists in Aotearoa New Zealand, and why this occurs. At the individual level, the perceptions of practitioners inform what decisions should be made in relation to specific children. This study found that there was a wide range of perceptions of levels of risk, safety, and future harm amongst frontline child welfare (both CYF and NGO) practitioners when responding to the same case vignette. These diverse perspectives were reflected in marked differences in the types of decisions recommended, and how close CYF respondents were to forming a belief that children are in need of care and protection. Problem explanations revolved around factors relating to the family socio economic circumstances, domestic violence, the children’s behaviour and parenting capacity. Despite broad similarities in problem explanations, diverse perceptions of risk remained.

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  • An Assessment of the Hydrology of the Pool Burn and the Management Opportunities for Restoring Stream Function

    Jackson, Henrietta Alice (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    New Zealand’s freshwaters have become increasingly scrutinised for reduced flows and deteriorating water quality, prompting more stringent management by regional authorities, and enforcement of environmental flow limits across all water bodies. A catchment of this nature is the Pool Burn, a channelised tributary of the Manuherikia River in Central Otago, New Zealand. Low flows have become characteristic of the Pool Burn during the warmer seasons, which has been exacerbated by the controlled releases from water storage systems and the increased abstraction for irrigation purposes. The primary objective of the study was to characterise the current state of the Pool Burn, through observing longitudinal and seasonal variations of key hydrologic parameters. Where water abstraction for irrigation and preservation of native fish species serve as two main values within the catchment, the outcome of the study aims to inform water users of potential management options to ensure water availability both spatially and seasonally. An empirical approach was adopted for this study, where hydrological, hydraulic, and water quality data were collected at seven sites established down a 20 km stretch of the Pool Burn, between October 2016–October 2017. A stable flow regime was evident for the irrigation season (October–April) for the Pool Burn, dominated by relatively low flows, varying between 0.04 – 0.14 m3 s-1 across all monitoring sites. Flow variability did increase between May–October, ranging between 0.06 – 0.57 m3 s- 1. Morphological responses to the low flow variability of the Pool Burn were most obvious through changes in depth compared to changes in width, which is characteristic of channelised streams, where reaches have become constrained to well-defined banks with relatively uniform beds. Temperatures exceeded the upper tolerance threshold (>19 ºC) at the lowest sampling site, which was attributed to the shallow, wide channel morphology, and lack of riparian planting. Furthermore, the absence of riparian planting and the stable flow regime were factors causing high phosphate concentrations (14 – 41 g P L-1) during the warmer seasons. However, a decrease in phosphate and an increase in nitrate and ammonium was observed during the wetter seasons, attributed to the greater export of nutrients to and from the stream. The effects of a regulated flow regime and abstraction for irrigation were most obvious in the downstream sections of the catchment. Therefore, proposed flow limits for the Manuherikia catchment were predicted for the Pool Burn, which showed that sufficient flows were not sustained if minimum flows (2 – 3 m3 s-1) for the Manuherikia were experienced. Alternative management options are required for the Pool Burn, to reach flow volumes suitable for providing habitat for the native fish species and improve the recreational use of the stream. Ensuring regular releases from the water storage infrastructure is implemented, as well as reducing all water takes proportionally will improve conditions observed at the downstream section of the catchment. Additionally, introducing a 2 – 4 m riparian buffer strip along the entire length of the stream will provide shading and habitat for aquatic species, and also behave as a nutrient sink, alleviating nutrient enrichment and periphyton growth in the stream. The results from the current research have highlighted the importance of adopting an integrated approach to understand the state of heavily influenced, agricultural streams, where a simple minimum flow approach will not ensure connectivity or improve restoration attempts.

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  • Collective writing: An inquiry into praxis

    Jandrić, Petar; Devine, Nesta; Jackson, Liz; Peters, Michael A.; Lăzăroiu, Georage; Mihăilă, Ramona; Locke, Kirsten; Heraud, Richard; Gibbons, Andrew; Grierson, Elizabeth; Forster, Daniella J.; White, Jayne; Stewart, Georgina; Tesar, Marek; Arndt, Sonja Kathrina; Brighouse, Susanne; Benade, Leon (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This is the second text in the series collectively written by members of the Editors' Collective, which comprises a series of individual and collaborative reflections upon the experience of contributing to the previous and first text written by the Editors' Collective: 'Towards a Philosophy of Academic Publishing.' In the article, contributors reflect upon their experience of collective writing and summarize the main themes and challenges. They show that the act of collective writing disturbs the existing systems of academic knowledge creation, and link these disturbances to the age of the digital reason. They conclude that the collaborative and collective action is a thing of learning-by-doing, and that collective writing seems to offer a possible way forward from the co-opting of academic activities by economics. Through detaching knowledge creation from economy, collaborative and collective writing address the problem of forming new collective intelligences.

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  • 2017 External monitoring report of the Te Paritūtanga o Te Reo – Bachelor of Māori Advancement programme offered by T.W.O.A.

    Manuirirangi, Hori (2017)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    In 2017, I was asked to return as an external monitor to conduct a follow-up monitoring visit of the Te Paritūtanga o Te Reo Bachelor of Māori Advancement programme, T.W.O.A. On the day of the visit, my role as external monitor entailed assessing, reviewing and interviewing the programme’s facilitators, students, associated teaching and management staff. Upon completion, I was required to submit a comprehensive written report of my findings to NZQA, for the purpose of meeting accreditation requirements.

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  • Formation and Mechanism of Inter-city Cooperation in China: Analysis of Three Sub-provincial Cases in Shandong

    Miao, Tingting (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    In the past decades, there has been an increasing trend towards inter-city cooperation. The cooperative approach to provide public service and products between local governments has been deemed as an efficient policy option to deal with the challenges from globalisation, regionalisation, and the externalities resulting from urban entrepreneurialism. Specific to China, the city governments, which in this thesis, mainly refers to the prefecture-level and county-level governments, have also made lots of attempts to cooperate over their local economic development and public affairs. Nevertheless, in terms of cooperation the results of these initiations tend to vary to a great extent. Aside from the potential economic benefits, sociological institutionalism argues that a broad range of institutions, which include the formal rules, procedures, norms, moral templates, symbol systems and cognitive scripts provide ???frames of meaning??? and have structural influences on human action. Following this explanation, this thesis reviews regional pollution governance in the Xiaoqing River area, tourism cooperation initiatives at Weishan Lake and transport integration between Jinan and Laiwu. The findings demonstrate that China???s idiosyncratic institutional background has a significant impact on the shaping and the effectiveness of inter-city cooperation. Although the selfishness of city officials is not favourable to collective action or to forming cooperation in this thesis, there is an affirmative correlation between the legal frameworks, stimulating policies, leading groups, the provincial and city leaders??? values and concept related to cooperation, and the achievement of cooperation. The persistent and sticky ???hierarchically administrative norm???, most especially, to a greater extent determines the model and as well as the effectiveness of inter-city cooperation.

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  • “Gimme Shelter”: “Othering” in the context of New Zealand multiculturalism : Pakeha, Maori, immigrants and refugees

    Kolesova, Elena (2018-01-06T13:30:12Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Who are the ‘others’ in New Zealand (historically and currently)? How does ‘othering’ Maori, immigrants and refugees influence how we construct ideas of who ‘we’ are? How does Edward Said’s Orientalism speak to the notion of ‘othering’ in the current context?

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  • A framework for evaluating anti spammer systems for Twitter

    Ho, K.; Liesaputra, Veronica; Yongchareon, Dr. Sira; Mohaghegh, Dr Mahsa (2018-01-09T13:30:09Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Despite several benefits to modern communities and businesses, Twitter has attracted many spammers overwhelming legitimate users with unwanted and disruptive advertising and fake information. Detecting spammers is always challenging because there is a huge volume of data that needs to be analyzed while at the mean time spammers continue learning and changing their ways to avoid being detected by anti-spammer systems. Several spam classification systems are proposed using various features extracted from the content and user’s information from their Tweets. Nevertheless, no comprehensive study has been done to compare and evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of these systems. It is not known what the best anti-spammer system is and why. This paper proposes an evaluation framework that allows researchers, developers, and practitioners to access existing user-based and content-based features, implement their own features, and evaluate the performance of their systems against other systems. Our framework helps identify the most effective and efficient spammer detection features, evaluate the impact of using different numbers of recent tweets, and therefore obtaining a faster and more accurate classifier model.

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  • Integrated conservation : the insitu/exsitu bridge

    Roberts, Lorne (2018-01-10T13:30:05Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

     Conservation based themed exhibits  Interpretation and engagement  Education programmes  Associate shops and catering facilities with conservation programmes  Raise funds to support field conservation projects or programmes

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  • Exploring efficiency improvements in a transitional hull form

    Shaw, Rob (2018-01-06T13:30:18Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This work looks at the potential to improve the efficiency of a powered monohull operating in the transitional speed zone between displacement and planing. It looks at the potential to make significant efficiency improvements through applying some of the conceptual characteristics of both modern performance yachts and fast displacement multihulls to influence the characteristics and hull form of a powered vessel. It also evaluates the characteristics and performance achievements of transitional hull forms developed for performance sail boats, in order to combine these with other characteristics found to be essential to efficiently extend the performance of these boats beyond displacement mode. With a focus on optimization in the transitional speed zone, a review of existing solutions to this problem are considered, including various hull forms, use of foils, and developments in mono and multihull performance yacht and powercraft design. This paper presents the development of a concept hull design that is influenced by performance yachts and multihulls, which is clearly reflected in its hull form and principal characteristics. To analyse this hypothesis the concept hull is developed and compared to more conventional monohull displacement and planing hull forms. Factors influencing performance such as appendage drag, displacement-length ratio and power to weight are compared and considered.

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  • ‘Death to Videodrome’: Cronenberg, Žižek and an ontology of the real

    Wilson, Scott (2018-01-05T13:30:01Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    The closing frames of David Cronenberg’s Videodrome (1983) show us the protagonist, Max Renn, seemingly in the act of suicide, his mutated flesh-hand-pistol pressed firmly against his head. Looking directly at us, Max utters the phrase ‘long live the new flesh’ before the film fades to black. This act ends the film, but the end of the film, despite this seemingly conclusive moment, might not mark the end of Max’s experience of the diegesis. In a film concerned with bodily transformation in response to media intervention, a film in which our heterosexual male protagonist develops a vaginal opening which generates and transforms objects subject to its own desires and agency, what are we to make of this film’s ending (and other similar moments in Cronenberg’s work)? What if the vaginal slit that appears in Max’s abdomen during the film opens not into his bodily interior but, instead, into a new ontology – the ontology of the Real? What if Videodrome ends not with Max’s death but with his movement beyond the Symbolic and into the Real, beyond signification, beyond ontology? This paper seeks to explore a select number of Cronenberg’s mid-period works in relation to what Slavoj Žižek refers to as the pre-ontological, a realm of signification that elsewhere links to the abject but which, equally, might provide a glimpse of the unsettling Real that so many of Cronenberg’s protagonists hurtle powerlessly towards and which lurks just outside the frame of his narratives, hinted at but always escaping our standard ontological practices.

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  • Seeking efficiency improvements for a motor-yacht transitional hull form

    Shaw, Rob (2018-01-06T13:30:17Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Experience in developing and refining custom high-performance race yachts unrestricted by rules has created an innovative approach to evaluating design challenges and considering potential solutions. This methodology has been applied to developing an efficient motor-yacht hull form with the potential for increased efficiency when operating in the transitional zone between displacement and planing speeds. This paper looks at the challenges to efficiency posed by increasing performance of a 50 metre super yacht beyond displacement speed and into the high-resistance transitional speed range. A review of existing solutions to this problem are considered, including various hull forms, use of foils and developments in multihull design. It also proposes a concept hull design, influenced conceptually by some fast displacement multihulls, which offers a solution to improved efficiency in the transitional zone. The concept hull is developed and compared to more conventional monohull displacement and planing hull forms. Particular attention is focused on the performance in the transitional speed zone. Factors influencing performance such as appendage drag, displacement-length ratio and power-to-weight ratio are considered. Further consideration is also given to other characteristics influenced by this design concept such as safety, comfort, maintenance and directional and static stability.

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  • Water restoration drones : applied research to date

    Buckley, Paula (2018-01-06T13:30:05Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    This Drone has been designed for real-time water testing. Traditional/current methods of water testing rely on fixed point sensors or samples taken from hand, but do not allow scientists to fully survey the changing water parameters of a large water body. The Airboat Drone has been specifically designed to skim above the water's surface ( its external propulsion system is above the water line, in order to reduce any water interference) The Airboat conducts full large-scale water surveys, with live sensor technology and records the changing water chemistry/parameters over a vast water body and GPS logs the vehicle's journey : Dissolved Oxygen, pH, Temp, Turbidity, ORP and Conductivity. This technology enables water scientists to record a waterways full journey ( a shallow creek to a stream, a full river and to the sea) and log real-time, diagnostic water testing. This also enables sciences to recognise and pinpoint key pollution sources which enter this waterway. ... The Restoration Drone is a novel environmental technology developed to remove surface pollution from Waterways (including rivers / lakes / entries/ harbours) This technology has been developed to conduct regular maintenance in pollution hot spots and also to be a‘ first response to environmental emergencies’ such as oils/ chemical spills, or serious outbreaks of toxic algae bloom. The Restoration drone is operated either by remote control or its navigation can be pre-programmed using Google earth coordinates.

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  • Dunedin’s Post Industrial Response

    Anderson, Conrad (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This study is grounded in the context of how Western cities have transitioned from the industrial era to the post-industrial era, and will specifically investigate how Dunedin in New Zealand has responded to these changes. The aim of the research is to investigate the overall success, or otherwise, of Dunedin’s transition. There is little literature or research on smaller cities which were not greatly affected by the post-industrialisation or did not make huge gains from the opportunities presented in the post-industrial era. This study is about one such city, namely the city of Dunedin. The qualitative methodology applied to this research was based firstly on a review of relevant literature and historical documents, and secondly on the use of key informant interviews with key opinion leaders in Dunedin, who come from a diverse range of backgrounds, including planning, real-estate, education, community organisations and local history. In addition, the key informants were selected in an attempt to seek opinions of individuals who could be considered proxies for the wider sector. This research will add to the body of literature surrounding the post-industrial era, and it will also serve as a practical guide for future decision making.

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  • Tumor Necrosis Factor α mediated Heterodendritic Metaplasticity in Rats and Alzheimer’s mice

    Singh, Anurag (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is an activity-dependent long-lasting increase in the efficacy of synaptic transmission. LTP is vital for learning and memory and must be regulated to keep synaptic strength within a dynamic range. LTP is proposed to be regulated in part by metaplasticity, i.e., the activity-dependent changes in neuronal state that orchestrate the magnitude of future synaptic plasticity. Previously, a type of metaplasticity has been described in the hippocampus called heterodendritic metaplasticity in which strong high-frequency priming stimulation in stratum oriens inhibits subsequent LTP in the stratum radiatum of area CA1. This form of metaplasticity is dependent on the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores during priming and independent of postsynaptic depolarization, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) activity, and postsynaptic action potential firing. Moreover, the non-selective gap junction blocker carbenoxolone, an astrocyte-specific peptide inhibitor of connexin-43 channels, plus an adenosine A2B receptor antagonist, all block the priming effect on LTP inhibition. Evidence so far suggests that astrocytes are activated in area CA1 of the hippocampus following priming stimulation in SO. All these experimental data indicate the involvement of non-neuronal cells, possibly astrocytes, in mediating the heterodendritic metaplasticity effect. One objective of this thesis addressed what signaling molecule may be feeding back to neurons to inhibit future LTP. Our electrophysiology experiments demonstrated that blocking tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) (but not interleukin-1β) and bath-applying antagonists of signaling molecules known to be activated by TNFα such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) blocked the heterodendritic metaplasticity effect. In addition, our western blot data complemented the electrophysiology findings and p38 MAPK, ERK, and JNK were significantly phosphorylated in the primed group when compared to the non-primed group. Surprisingly, the metaplastic inhibition of LTP was also protein-synthesis dependent, mediated via the mTOR pathway. However, the SO LTP was unaffected by the protein synthesis inhibitors, suggesting possible differential regulation of synaptic plasticity in apical and basal dendrites. The other objective of this thesis was to examine whether heterodendritic metaplasticity is dysregulated in APP/PS1 mouse model of the AD before (young mice) and after (aged mice) amyloid plaque formation. Since basal inhibition of LTP is reported in aged APP/PS1 mice, we predicted aberrant engagement of heterodendritic metaplasticity in aged mice but not in young mice. Surprisingly, LTP was already impaired in young mice, and this was perhaps due to the presence of soluble Aβ oligomers at this age in the APP/PS1 mice. TNFα antibody blocked the basal inhibition of LTP in aged mice, but not the basal impairment of LTP in young mice. In contrast, a block of IL-1β function did not affect LTP in aged APP/PS1 mice. This suggests TNFα-dependent, basal aberrant engagement of LTP in aged mice. However, the basal impairment of LTP in young mice was TNFα-independent. Consistent with the electrophysiological results, ELISA results demonstrated a significant elevation in the concentration of TNFα in aged Tg mice when compared to age-matched wt littermates, however, no such difference was observed in young mice. The SO LTP was impaired in aged but not in young APP/PS1 mice, perhaps indicating the age-dependent progressive loss of synaptic plasticity, at least in this part of the hippocampus. Interestingly, the TNFα antibody did not affect the impaired SO LTP in aged APP/PS1 mice indicating the involvement of TNFα-independent mechanisms mediating the impairment of SO LTP. Overall, our findings support a vital role of TNFα, possibly released from astrocytes, in mediating heterodendritic metaplasticity in rat and mouse hippocampus, and blocking TNFα might be of therapeutic value in AD.

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  • Columnar Ice versus Platelet Ice: Differences, Consequences, and Significance

    Wongpan, Pat (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Antarctic land-fast sea ice (fast ice) is sea ice fastened to land or ice shelves. Fast ice is an important component of Antarctic coastal marine ecosystems, providing a prolific habitat for ice algal communities. Columnar ice is the usual mode of fast ice growth in relatively calm waters. However, near an ice shelf, pelagic ice crystals accumulate as an unconsolidated sub-ice platelet layer beneath the columnar ice (CI), where they are subsumed by the advancing sea ice interface to form incorporated platelet ice (PI). We have mapped the full crystallographic orientation of sea ice using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to investigate the differences between CI and PI at the scale of ∼ 0.01 m. This is the first time EBSD has been used to study sea ice. Crystal preferred orientation in CI can be explained by ocean current as is well known from the literature. Analysis of misorientation between grains using EBSD data in PI indicates that the mechanical rotation of crystals at grain boundaries is the most likely explanation for preferred orientation in this case. We examine the consequences of the difference between CI and PI at the scale of ∼ 0.1 m. We demonstrate the feasibility of using temperature fluctuations as a proxy for fluid movement, a key process for supplying nutrients to Antarctic sea ice algal communities. CI and PI permeability distributions in the bottom 0.1 m of winter Antarctic sea ice are marginally different but their arithmetic means are both of order 10-9 m^2. We develop new observation-based algorithms to estimate Antarctic fast ice algal biomass and snow thickness from under-ice irradiance measurements. We analyse these high biomass measurements in CI and PI along transect lines (∼ km) at two contrasting fast ice sites, i.e., in McMurdo Sound and off Davis Station. These algorithms can be used for future non-invasive surveys for example by using moored sensors or underwater vehicles. Altogether the key message of this thesis is that we can apply the same parameterisation for CI and PI in thermodynamic sea ice models unless the crystal orientations are important. To demonstrate this we represent platelet ice processes in a one-dimensional model using the same permeability parameterisations for CI and PI. The results are in good agreement with observational data from an over-winter study in 2009 of McMurdo Sound. Ultimately, this model will improve our understanding of not only sea ice near ice shelves but also the biogeochemical significance of fast ice in Antarctic ecological system.

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  • Reversing the decay of preschool oral health: a mixed methods approach to examining the influences on preschool oral health.

    Dallas, Sarah (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The prevalence of early childhood caries is high in certain populations. Early childhood caries has a significant effect on an individual’s immediate oral health status as well as their oral health status later in life. It is important that good oral health behaviours are performed from an early age in order to protect both primary and secondary teeth. Preschoolers do not have the capacity to properly care for their oral health, and therefore are reliant on their caregivers to perform good oral health behaviours. Local and international health agencies have had an increasing focus on preschool oral health care. Despite its growing importance there is little research on what factors influence how a parent cares for their preschooler’s oral health. This thesis aims to fill part of this gap, especially within the New Zealand context. This research takes a closer look at the knowledge factors that parents have, and examines whether these factors have a direct impact on the preschool oral healthcare provided. This thesis uses a mixed methods approach. The research involved two phases, a quantitative phase (n=1056), where a secondary analysis of an existing dataset was carried out, and a qualitative phase (n=6), which consisted of individual interviews with parents from low income communities. The interview questions were developed after analysing the quantitative data, and were in line with the theoretical framework, the Fisher-Owens Model (Fisher-Owens et al., 2007). Overall the results showed a plethora of factors influence how a parent cares for their preschooler’s oral health. Impacting factors were found to exist on multiple levels. A significant relationship was seen between a parent having oral health knowledge and being more likely to perform recommended oral health behaviours on their preschooler. Differences in parents’ knowledge by population characteristics were also seen. Examples of this include parents who had older preschoolers and parents who brushed their own teeth at least twice a day, were both more likely to have the appropriate knowledge. Parents felt they had insufficient information on the recommended preschool oral health behaviours. Parents based a lot of their current knowledge on their own oral health behaviours, as well as information they received from Plunket Services. Parents often noted time pressures and the consumption of sugar as factors that hindered their ability to care for their preschooler’s teeth. Currently there is limited preschool oral health research in New Zealand. Overall, this research expands on the knowledge base for preschool oral health in New Zealand. Establishing factors that influence how a parent cares for their preschooler's oral health in New Zealand provides a good starting point to base future oral health promotion. In particular, identifying that knowledge has a positive effect on the oral health behaviours parents perform on their child provides a mandate to focus on increasing parents’ oral health knowledge. Confirming that factors other than knowledge impact how a parent cares for their preschooler’s oral health means that a broader approach to improving preschool oral health should be considered. This thesis will be beneficial for any individual who is involved in paediatric health care, as well as policy makers in this area. An increased focus on preventative action can have a beneficial effect by reducing the health care requirements an individual may have throughout their lifetime. Due to the significant cost (both financial and social) of poor oral health, any reduction in dental caries would result in cost benefits to the individual and the state.

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  • Quantifying Children's Exposure to Outdoor Food Advertising

    Barr, Michelle Lauren (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The marketing of unhealthy food is a key modifiable influence on children’s dietary behaviours and childhood obesity. The WHO Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity (ECHO) has recommended that settings where children gather be free of unhealthy food marketing. Internationally, there are no data available that quantify children’s exposure to outdoor food advertising in public places. This study investigated the extent and nature of children’s exposure to outdoor food advertising overall, and on the journey to and from school. A random sample of 168 children (aged 11-13y) from 16 randomly selected schools in Wellington, New Zealand wore cameras that took pictures automatically every 7s and a GPS device for four days. Using bespoke software, images were coded for outdoor food advertising using a pre-determined coding schedule. The advertised food products were classified as ‘core’ or ‘non-core’ using an accepted nutrient profiling system. The rate of core and non-core outdoor advertising exposures on journeys to and from school, and outside of school hours, were analysed overall, and by ethnicity and socioeconomic deprivation. Overall, children were exposed to a mean of 8.3 food advertisements for each hour they spent in outdoor settings. Of these advertisements, 7.4 (89.2%) were for non-core and 0.8 (9.6%) were for core food advertisements. Exposure to non-core outdoor food advertising was highest among Māori participants. The most frequent non-core exposures were advertisements for fast food, sweet drinks, ice creams, and cookies. Both non-core and core advertising exposures were concentrated around food outlets, convenience stores, and on main roads. On the journey to and from school, the extent of children’s exposure to non-core and core advertising was associated with the presence of convenience stores and shopping areas along the routes they travelled. To our knowledge, this is the first study internationally to objectively document and quantify the rate at which children encounter outdoor food advertising. The findings of this research suggest that outdoor food advertising is a significant source of children’s exposure to non-core food advertising, irrespective of whether they are the target audience. This research suggests that to reduce the extent and power of food advertising, as recommended by the ECHO report, urgent action must be taken by local government to remove unhealthy food advertisements from public places, particularly along major roadways and at shop fronts. This work extends previous research by providing evidence that children are exposed to unhealthy food advertising, not only in the places where they are known to gather but also across the spectrum of their everyday environments. Further, this research highlights that the advertising standards codes that regulate the promotion of food to New Zealand children are inadequate and must be strengthened to protect children from harmful food advertising. Implementing these measures would likely reduce the influence of food advertising on children and should be included as part of a comprehensive strategy to address childhood obesity in New Zealand. Although this study was conducted in New Zealand, the findings of this research are likely relevant for policy makers in other jurisdictions as outdoor advertising is a prominent feature in many cities across the world. Restricting outdoor advertising in cities and urban areas would, as part of a comprehensive strategy, likely improve dietary behaviours, reduce childhood obesity, and improve population health outcomes.

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  • Determinants of Child Wellbeing and Human Capital in Ethiopia

    Dinku, Yonatan Minuye (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Investment in early childhood health and education provide children with the resources necessary to develop the cognitive and social skills that enhance their productivity later in life, but unfortunately, most children in Ethiopia have limited access to education and healthcare. Rates of child mortality and child morbidity are high, there is a high prevalence of child labour, and school enrolment rates are low. There is a pressing need for policymakers to understand the factors which contribute to these outcomes. Therefore, this thesis aims to identify key determinants of child labour, health and education in Ethiopia. The thesis contains three main chapters. The first chapter examines the effects of harmful work on children’s health and education. We follow the guidelines set by the 18th International Conference of Labour Statisticians and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) to make a distinction between light and harmful domestic work, the latter defined as involvement in domestic chores for four hours a day or longer. Using data from the 2014 Young Lives survey and applying instrumental variables (IV) estimators, we find that involvement in harmful domestic chores is negatively associated with z-score of BMI-for-age and time spent in education. The second chapter investigates the impact of parental illness on the allocation of children’s time. Using panel data from Young Lives surveys and employing fixed effects estimation, we find that paternal illness reduces children’s time spent in school and increases their time spent in income-generating work, whereas maternal illness reduces time spent in play and increases time spent in domestic work. Maternal illness has a relatively large effect on girls, whereas paternal illness has a relatively large effect on boys. The third chapter estimates the effect of local ethnic diversity on child immunisation uptake and nutritional status. Using a nationally representative sample from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS-2011) and applying IV estimators, we find that children in relatively diverse communities are better nourished and more likely to receive full immunisation. There is also some evidence that women in more diverse communities are better informed about health issues and more empowered in making healthcare decisions.

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  • Expanding financial communication: Investor relations, crowdfunding, and democracy in the time of fintech

    Doan, Mai Anh (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis studied financial communication in the context of a globalised, technologized, and financialised world. It arose from two seemingly opposite trends in practice and in academia. In practice, not only are technology and finance becoming more pervasive on their own, they are also merging as fintech, which is further disrupting financial and social practices. In academia, financial communication, more commonly, if incorrectly, known as investor relations, does not connect with these realities. While the trends in practice hold the promise of making profound impacts in democratising finance and promoting egalitarianism, their neglect in academia not only does a disservice to the practice but also threatens to further segregate and lower the poor reputation of public relations, which is the umbrella discipline that contains financial communication. Accordingly, the thesis attempted to bring financial communication closer to practice and to make an original contribution to knowledge by examining financial communication in the context of fintech. Specifically, it sought answers to the following two research questions: (1) What is the current state of academic research on investor relations and financial communication? and (2) In what ways could investor relations and financial communication integrate crowdfunding to their practice and research to further democratise finance and contribute to a fully functioning society? The thesis with publication includes four publications – three published journal articles and one book chapter (in press) – and each arose from a research project relevant to the overall theme. These projects identified how financial communication continues to be academically insular and disconnected from technology. Their findings also suggested how individually and in concert, by incorporating fintech and crowdfunding, financial communication can open up ways that benefit both practice and research. The thesis also found evidence that crowdfunding has the potential to improve financial democracy across the globe. For it to harness that potential, however, the thesis proposes that financial communicators become advocates for increasing financial literacy and inclusiveness for individuals and for the greater good of the society. The function should not only provide tangible results for businesses but also expand and re-focus on building communities and on re-balancing power. The thesis argues that the online environment of crowdfunding and fintech with new players and rules needs researchers to change. The change means researchers need to re-examine the nature, characteristics, scope and impact of communication, to look outside of their own discipline to add resources, to diversify their approaches, and to go beyond the traditional organisation-centric orientation of investor relations and public relations. In so doing so, financial communication will also be advancing the movement for improving the academic and social reputation of public relations. The thesis concludes that what financial communication has not been able to accomplish today can also serve as a fertile ground for future research directions.

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