42,324 results for 2010

  • Microfinance Institutions’ Transparency, Governance and Risk in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Gebremariam, Haileslasie Tadele (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Several microfinance crises (e.g., in 2010 in India) and the Centre for the Study of Financial Innovation (2014) survey results have identified some of the major challenges facing the microfinance industry. Over-indebtedness, high credit risk, weak regulatory and governance environment coupled with poor information disclosure and transparency continue to be major challenges within the industry. Despite the importance of greater transparency and strong governance for MFI sustainability, the existing literature lacks evidence about the factors affecting MFIs’ transparency and whether transparency and governance could impact MFIs’ risk. This thesis is composed of four essays and fills the gap in the literature in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). My first essay provides empirical evidence on whether ownership structure and macro-level factors affect MFIs’ transparency in SSA using a self-constructed transparency index composed of 35 items and the five sub-indices of Mix Market reporting, website accessibility, MFI network membership, rating and price transparency. My second essay investigates the factors that affect the sub-index of MFI website accessibility globally, and whether these factors differ between SSA MFIs and MFIs in other regions. The MFI website is one medium of information communication. I use a three-item index that measures whether an MFI has a website and if the website is accessible to diverse information users. Following the findings of essay 1 and 2, essay 3 examines the impact of transparency on MFIs’ risk based on MFI profit orientation – for-profit (FP) and not-for-profit (NFP) MFIs. Transparency is measured using two proxies: MFI-level transparency measured by the Mix Market rating, and a country-level business disclosure index developed by the World Bank. I use three measures of risk: credit risk, financial risk and failure risk. My fourth essay assesses the effect of MFI-level governance on MFIs’ risk based on MFI profit orientation. This chapter emanates from the findings of essay 3 and uses the three risk measures previously defined there. I measure MFI-level governance using six board characteristic indicators: board size, availability of independent directors, international directors, female CEO, board risk committee and the proportion of female directors. The empirical results indicate that SSA MFIs’ transparency is very low. MFI size and external funding are essential in improving MFIs’ transparency. I also find that MFIs’ transparency and governance have a differential impact on FP and NFP MFIs’ risk. Greater MFIs’ transparency and the availability of a board risk committee reduce NFP MFIs’ financial risks. In addition, greater transparency and the availability of independent and international directors increase FP and NFP MFIs’ credit and failure risk, respectively. This thesis contributes to the development of MFIs’ transparency literature by providing insights into the factors that affect MFIs’ transparency and highlighting the importance of transparency for MFI sustainability. It also contributes to the literature in terms of providing evidence on how transparency and governance affect MFIs’ risk behaviour, and provides the motivation for further research to add to this area of emerging research.

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  • Exploring the Prospects for Adaptive Co-management of Wildlife Tourism: The case of Shark Cage Diving on Stewart Island, New Zealand

    Oyarzun, Fernando (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Wildlife tourism consists of people viewing and/or encountering wildlife (Newsome et al., 2005). These often close encounters with wildlife tourism can produce direct and significant negative impacts on wildlife, their habitat, and adjacent communities (Higginbottom, 2004). With this in mind, it is important to ensure that wildlife tourism developments are undertaken following sustainable principles, to avoid or at least minimise potential negative impacts. In a similar way to many other activities based on the utilisation of natural resources, wildlife tourism faces a range of challenges to the way that it has been practised, with calls for new and innovative approaches. The utilitarian anthropocentric paradigm of ‘dominion over nature’ (Gadgil and Berkes, 1991) and the use of reductionist approaches to deal with complex problems (Ruitenbeek and Cartier, 2001) are considered to be increasingly less applicable in contemporary natural resource management. There has been a call for a shift from conventional reductionist approaches, to new nonlinear complex adaptive system approaches. These ideas also challenge the paradigm of sustainability, from its focus on achieving and maintaining stability to a focus on enhancing resilience to disturbance, based on the understanding that the world is constantly changing and evolving and therefore, characterised by uncertainty. The management of natural resources, including activities such as nature-based tourism, requires a better understanding of the relationship between human and natural systems, and a better knowledge of methods to address complex social-ecological systems (Farrell and Twining-Ward, 2004). In this context, the adaptive co-management framework, which combines the ideas of collaboration amongst stakeholders and learning-by-doing, presents itself as a useful interdisciplinary approach. The overall experience to date with ACM suggests it may be a useful framework for addressing uncertainty and complexity in the management of natural resources such as forestry, fishery, farming and the management of protected areas. Since tourism systems are described as Complex Adaptive Tourism Systems (CATS) and tourist destinations can be regarded as social-ecological systems (Farrell and Twining-Ward, 2004), the prospects for adaptive co-management in tourism seem are strong (Plummer and Fennell, 2009, Plummer et al., 2013b). This thesis aims to critically examine prospects for the sustainable management of wildlife tourism using adaptive co-management. Given that the object of study falls into the domain, critical realism was chosen as research paradigm, since it provides an adequate philosophical ontology for the study of complexity (Harvey and Reed, 1997, Byrne, 1998, Bhaskar, 2008, Jörg, 2011). The research takes a qualitative approach, conducted through an instrumental case study that examines the wildlife tourism activity of shark cage diving near Stewart Island, New Zealand. Shark cage diving consists of close encounters with sharks in their own habitat carried out by divers submerged in a shark-proof cage built of steel. This wildlife tourism activity is carried out to see great white sharks in several places around the world, including Stewart Island, New Zealand. There are contentious issues concerning the use of food to attract the sharks to the cage due to the possible Pavlovian conditioning of the sharks to the sound of boat motors (Dobson, 2006), which may in turn generate an aggressive behaviour toward divers and other marine users, endangering their livelihoods (Burgess, 1998, Dobson, 2008). On Stewart Island, several members of the community are concerned about the possibility of sharks being conditioned by the use of food during shark cage diving, due to its possible negative effects. They fear that their safety and livelihoods can be put in jeopardy if the sharks become more aggressive. Social issues are the fear and social tension that the shark cage diving operations have produced within the community; ecological issues are the potential changes in the behaviour and safety of wildlife. As can be noted, this case was chosen because it presents a particularly interesting situation characterised by some contentious issues regarding the management of wildlife and the effects –actual and potentials– that it is producing on the local community. The complexity of the situation and the wide variety of stakeholders involved generate interesting prospects for the application of an adaptive co-management framework. Three methods of data collection were used: semi-structured in-depth interviews, archival research, and participant observation. The subsequent interpretation of the data collected was conducted using a process of ‘thematic analysis’ which consisted of the coding of the qualitative information based on patterns. These patterns arise from the identification of the key elements of the ACM framework, and the roles of the stakeholders identified in the Integrated Conceptual Model of Adaptive co-management of Wildlife Tourism proposed in this thesis. The analysis included the study of the role, relevance and involvement of each stakeholder, the presence of the core components of adaptive co-management in the case study, and the analysis of the roles that the stakeholders play, and the relations among them in the context of the shark cage diving operations. The analysis aims to identify the favourable conditions and constraints for the implementation of an ACM framework. The analysis reveals that prospects for an ACM approach to wildlife tourism, in general, are strong, with ACM presenting itself as a useful framework to address issues in which conventional resources management frameworks are failing to address, such as multi-stakeholders conflicts and the management of common-pool resources. Critical factors were identified in relation to the potential implementation of an adaptive co-management framework for the case study and arguably wildlife tourism in general. Issues related to communication channels, the need for community engagement, the need for leadership, the involvement of tourists and the tourism industry, the representation of wildlife in adaptive co-management, and the need for flexible adaptive frameworks, offer several challenges for the implementation of adaptive co-management. However, other facilitating factors regarding rich social capital and evidence of successful co-management in related natural resource management provide evidence for optimism that the implementation of adaptive co-management may be fruitful in such settings.

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  • Widening the theoretical lens on talk and writing pedagogy

    Parr, Judith; Wilkinson, I (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article discusses the contributions to this special edition where authors explore the dialogic spaces opened when writing instruction and professional learning facilitate opportunities for ???meta-talk,??? talk about writing as a mechanism for deepening thinking about writing. Given the prevalent theme of the notion of dialogic space, particular note is given in our discussion to each article???s description, both theoretically and empirically, of this construct. We consider the articles in terms of their commonalities and differences and evaluate their collective contribution which we see broadly in terms of illustrating methods and analyses that allow researchers to explore pedagogy and the nature of talk that potentially opens up dialogic spaces. We offer some thoughts of our own regarding dialogic space.

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  • Systematic review of the systemic concentrations of local anaesthetic after transversus abdominis plane block and rectus sheath block

    Rahiri, Jamie-Lee; Tuhoe, J; Svirskis, Darren; Lightfoot, NJ; Lirk, PB; Hill, Andrew (2017-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Safe and efficacious modalities of perioperative analgesia are essential for enhanced recovery after surgery. Truncal nerve blocks are one potential adjunct for analgesia of the abdominal wall, and in recent years their popularity has increased. Transversus abdominis plane block (TAPB) and rectus sheath block (RSB) have been shown to reduce morphine consumption and improve pain relief after abdominal surgery. These blocks typically require large volumes of local anaesthetic (LA). We aimed to synthesize studies evaluating systemic concentrations of LA after perioperative TAP and RSB to enhance our understanding of systemic LA absorption and the risk of systemic toxicity.An independent literature review was performed in accordance with the methods outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. An electronic search of four databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and PubMed) was conducted. Primary articles measuring systemic concentrations of LA after single-shot bolus TAPB or RSB were included.Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Rapid systemic LA absorption was observed in all studies. Of a total of 381 patients, mean peak concentrations of LA exceeded toxic thresholds in 33 patients, of whom three reported mild adverse effects. The addition of epinephrine reduced systemic absorption of LA. No instances of seizure or cardiac instability were observed.Local anaesthetic in TAPB and RSB can lead to detectable systemic concentrations that exceed commonly accepted thresholds of LA systemic toxicity. Our study highlights that these techniques are relatively safe with regard to LA systemic toxicity.

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  • Early Writers in Northern Communities: Ways Teachers Might View and Reflect on Writers??? Representations

    Parr, Judith (2017)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    ???What did I write???? is the title of a seminal book (Clay, 1975), illustrating how we can learn what children know about print, in part, from their representations. Children???s writing is socially and culturally situated; play is one context shown to help develop the use of symbol systems. A framing with several lenses is designed and applied to illustrate to teachers ways to consider the samples of early writing accompanying the play of young children in remote Northern communities in Canada. There is consideration of how information could be used to inform and optimize educative actions in such learning contexts.

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  • It's all about Baxter: task orientation in the effective teaching of writing

    Gadd, M; Parr, Judith (2016-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This New Zealand-based study of the classroom practice of nine exemplary teachers of writing to upper primary-age students explored the significance of task orientation as a component of effective teacher instruction and the instructional strategies or actions that effective teachers utilise to promote such. Effectiveness pertains to teachers being able to generate a positive impact on learners' engagement and academic outcomes. Particular attention was given to the content and organisation of the tasks and activities that teachers required of their students. Analysis of observed teacher practice in relation to learner gains showed actions associated with task orientation to be strongly associated with student progress in writing. Two indicators linked particularly with learner gains in writing. They relate to teachers being able to select and promote learning tasks that are purposeful and challenging for students and to students being involved in the selection or construction of learning tasks. There were relatively high levels of proficiency with regard to teachers being able to select and promote purposeful and challenging tasks but significant operational variability with regard to teachers involving their students in task selection or construction. Classroom illustrations are provided on how effective teachers promote learner involvement in task selection or construction.

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  • Gender and literacy issues and research: Placing the spotlight on writing

    Peterson, SS; Parr, Judith (2012-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Writing Research, we review four decades of research, bringing writing to the forefront in conversations devoted to gender and literacy. We identify the impetus for much of the research on gender and writing and situate the four articles in this special issue within three themes: gender patterns in what and how students write, cognitive and socio-cultural factors influencing gender differences in student writing, and attempts to provide alternatives to stereotypical gender patterns in student writing. These interdisciplinary themes, further developed within the four articles, underscore the need to consider gender as a complex social, cognitive and linguistic characteristic of both reading and writing.

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  • Exemplifying a Continuum of Collaborative Engagement: Raising Literacy Achievement of At-Risk Students in New Zealand

    Parr, Judith; Timperley, Helen (2015)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article reports different ways researchers work with stakeholders in national projects targeted at raising achievement of students. Specifically, New Zealand has a persistent high performance???low equity profile in international tests, with indigenous M??ori students and immigrants from the Pacific Islands most at risk of underachievement and of leaving school without qualifications. Policy has aimed to address this issue largely through provision of high-quality professional development to enhance effectiveness of practice. The notion of a continuum of collaboration is proposed; examples are presented that are positioned at different points in terms of the ideal of coconstructed, evidence-based judgments and decisions. The examples represent models or ways of working and the analysis captures both the varied nature of the interface that researchers have with policy makers, ministry officials, deliverers of professional development, and schools, and the affordances and tensions that accompany each model. Student achievement outcomes are identified.

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  • Making connections: The nature and occurrence of links in literacy teaching and learning

    Parr, Judith; McNaughton, Stuart (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Making connections can facilitate learning in several ways, for example, linking new ideas to existing schema or cueing the use of available skills for use in different contexts. The paper focuses on links between reading and writing. Theory suggests common processes operate in reading and writing that are mutually supportive in learning; empirically the relationship between performance in reading and writing is significant. There is evidence that specific writing practices can improve reading and, similarly, that reading can impact writing. This paper presents and applies empirically a framework for analysing the nature of the links that teachers make in literacy learning settings. The framework encompasses both the sites for, and the types of, connection; it is applied using observations and the associated transcripts from two corpora of literacy lessons from guided reading and teacher-led segments of writing lessons at the primary school level. The framework and these data provide a tentative indication of typical practice and important information for professional learning.

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  • Intraperitoneal Local Anesthetic for Laparoscopic Appendectomy in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Hamill, JK; Liley, A; Hill, AG (2017-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of intraperitoneal local anesthetic (IPLA) on pain after acute laparoscopic appendectomy in children.IPLA reduces pain in adult elective surgery. It has not been well studied in acute peritoneal inflammatory conditions. We hypothesized that IPLA would improve recovery in pediatric acute laparoscopic appendectomy.This randomized controlled trial in acute laparoscopic appendectomy recruited children aged 8 to 14 years to receive 20???mL 0.25% or 0.125% bupivacaine (according to weight) atomized onto the peritoneum of the right iliac fossa and pelvis, or 20???mL 0.9% NaCl control. Unrestricted computer-generated randomization was implemented by surgical nurses. Participants, caregivers, and outcome assessors were blinded. The primary outcome was pain score. Analysis was by a linear mixed-effects model.Of 184 randomized participants (92 to each group), the final analysis included 88 IPLA and 87 control participants. There was no statistically significant difference in overall pain scores (effect estimate 0.004, standard error 0.028, 95% confidence interval -0.052, 0.061), and no difference in right iliac fossa or suprapubic site-specific pain scores, opioid use, recovery parameters, or complications. No child experienced a complication related to the intervention.IPLA imparted no clinical benefit to children undergoing acute laparoscopic appendectomy and cannot be recommended in this setting.

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  • Exploring the impact of personal connections and selected Individual factors on the ethical judgment and behavioural intentions of Nigerian Estate Surveyors and Valuers

    Amidu, Abdul-Rasheed; Agboola, AO; Gbadegesin, JT (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study focused on two components (ethical judgment and behavioural intentions) of Rest???s (1986) four-component model of ethical decision-making. More speci cally, the study investigated ethical judgment of valuers and the impact of personal factors and personal connections on their ethical judgment and behavioural intentions. The results of this study, though somewhat counterintuitive, suggest that responding estate surveyors and valuers who have attained the highest level of professional certi cation are more likely to develop unethical behavioural intentions. However, the results of the study do provide new insights into the relationship between an estate surveyor and valuer???s ethical judgment and personal connections orientation.

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  • The Principle of Sustainability: Transforming law and governance

    Bosselmann, Klaus (2017)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    This book investigates how sustainability informs key principles and concepts of domestic and international law. It calls for the recognition of ecological sustainability as a fundamental principle to guide the entire legal system rather than just legislation (...). This 2nd edition has been fully revised and update to take account of recent developments and new case law.

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  • Aotearoa New Zealand

    Gaffney, Janet; Morton, M; Hart, SM (2017)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • How much is just enough? Some documentation patterns on Agile projects

    Hoda, Rashina; Noble, J; Marshall, S (2010)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Agile methods advocate "just enough" documentation on Agile projects. Unfortunately, there are no clear guidelines on what is "just enough" documentation. We describe a set of patterns to help Agile software development teams define "just enough" in their own contexts. Teams can also employ these documentation patterns as strategies to overcome common challenges of adopting Agile methods.

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  • Agile undercover: When customers don't collaborate

    Hoda, Rashina; Noble, J; Marshall, S (2010)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Customer collaboration is vital to Agile projects. Through a Grounded Theory study of New Zealand and Indian Agile teams we discovered that lack of customer involvement was causing problems in gathering and clarifying requirements, loss of productivity, and business loss. ???Agile Undercover??? allows development teams to practice Agile despite insufficient or ineffective customer involvement. We present the causes and consequences of lack of customer involvement on Agile projects and describe the Agile Undercover strategies used to overcome them.

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  • Speaking urban things

    Waghorn, Kathy; Houghton, C (2015-04)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper discusses Come Join the Circus, an urban-space performance workshop in which a group of children, working collaboratively with the authors, produced a performance walk. In making this site-specific choreographic work the group collectively investigated, imagined and enacted the social and spatial history of a suburban town centre. This event contributed to make believe: imagining a new park for New Lynn, a two-year long project with Auckland Council to generate and employ novel approaches for the publics??? engagement in the design of a new urban park. In this paper Come Join the Circus will be considered as opening a form of strategic practice, a term borrowed from the philosopher Freya Matthews. Matthews, concerned by the specular distance maintained through western practices of theory, in which we ???look at the world and imagine it as spread out passively for our epistemic gaze,??? instead proposes the use of ???addressive modes??? to generate ???close attention and adaptiveness to shifting patterns in a localized field of agency???. Performance making, as central to the framework of Come Join the Circus opened the space for such agency. This paper will speculate that in Come Join the Circus knowledge of the urban realm was thus developed and shared through such a strategic practice.

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  • Balancing acts: Walking the Agile tightrope

    Hoda, Rashina; Noble, J; Marshall, S (2010)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Self-organizing teams are one of the critical success factors on Agile projects - and yet, little is known about the self-organizing nature of Agile teams and the challenges they face in industrial practice. Based on a Grounded Theory study of 40 Agile practitioners across 16 software development organizations in New Zealand and India, we describe how self-organizing Agile teams perform balancing acts between (a) freedom and responsibility (b) cross-functionality and specialization, and (c) continuous learning and iteration pressure, in an effort to maintain their self-organizing nature. We discuss the relationship between these three balancing acts and the fundamental conditions of self-organizing teams - autonomy, cross-fertilization, and self-transcendence.

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  • Future islands: Unsettled archipelagos of research and practice

    Walker, C; Waghorn, Kathy (2015-12-01)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Make believe: Activating a strategic practice

    Waghorn, Kathy (2015-10)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • EA: Research-infused teaching of parallel programming concepts for undergraduate Software Engineering students

    Giacaman, Nasser; Sinnen, Oliver (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper presents experience using a research-infused teaching approach towards an undergraduate parallel programming course. The research-teaching nexus is applied at various levels, first by using research-led teaching of core parallel programming concepts, as well as teaching the latest developments from the affiliated research group. The bulk of the course, however, focuses more on the student-driven research-based and research-tutored teaching approaches, where students actively participate in groups on research projects, students are fully immersed in the learning activity of their respective project, while at the same time participating in discussions of wider parallel programming topics across other groups. This intimate affiliation between the undergraduate course and the research group results in a wide range of benefits for all those involved.

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