10,031 results for Massey Research Online

  • Glycerol production by various strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Microbiology at Massey University

    Munster, Rosalind Evelyn Gordon

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The influence of yeast strain, fermentation procedure and media on cell growth and the production of glycerol and ethanol was studied. Two fermentation procedures were compared (a) fermentation at a constant temperature of 15°C and (b) fermentation at higher temperatures (15–20°C) maintaining a constant rate of sugar utilization. Three wine-making yeasts and three high glycerol producing hybrid yeasts were fermented on two types of grape juice and a synthetic [control] media. The effect of the fermentation procedure on glycerol, ethanol production and cell growth was variable and appeared to depend on the yeast strain. Comparison of the yeast strains showed glycerol production to vary considerably depending on the yeast this effect was also dependent on the media. The yeast strain is important for maximum fermentation efficiency in a specific grape juice. Selective hybridisation of pure culture wine yeasts was employed to develop yeast strains capable of maximum glycerol yield, without jeopardising ethanol production in Muller Thurgau and in Chenin Blanc grape juices. Improved yields were achieved, but those yeasts selected for fermentation in one type of grape juice did not give outstanding yields when fermented in the other type of grape juice. This suggests that for wine-making it is possible to tailor yeasts for fermentation in specific grape juices. The addition of sulphur dioxide [0–300 ppm] and its influence on glycerol and ethanol production was studied using a wine-making yeast and a high glycerol producing hybrid. The effect was strain dependent and as expected, the addition of sulphur dioxide to the wine-making yeast showed enhanced glycerol production and depressed ethanol production. However, the converse was apparent with the high glycerol producing hybrid. The addition of glycerol to the media prior to fermentation at levels of 0 to 20 g/1 was tested in an attempt to simulate the conditions of grapes attacked by the fungus Botrytis cinerea [noble rot]. No inhibition or stimulation of glycerol or ethanol production was apparent by either the wine-making yeast or the high glycerol producing hybrid yeast tested.

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  • Framing "reality" : an exploration of how events become news items on television : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Media Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Slater, Graham

    Thesis
    Massey University

    "CD is unreadable"

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  • Fostering self-regulation and deep approaches to learning : end-user computing courses in higher education : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education (Special Education) at Massey University, New Zealand

    O'Connor, Maureen Jennifer

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines student approaches to learning and self-regulation within a higher education computing environment. Traditional end-user computing teaching methods emphasise a skills approach that does not encourage effective use of information technology as it evolves and does not consider how students approach their learning. This research was designed to promote student use of self-regulated learning to see if it would encourage deep approaches to learning. The revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) was used to measure approaches to learning, at the beginning and end of a semester, to see if students' learning had shifted towards a deeper approach. The sample was taken from two end-user computing classes in a diploma programme. The teaching of strategies to foster self-regulatory practices was introduced. Focus group discussions were held at the beginning, middle and end of the study to record student perceptions of learning. Academic journals, recording student reflection, were collected. The results from the R-SPQ-2F questionnaire showed no shift had occurred. The participants began the semester with a tendency toward a deeper learning approach, leaving little room for change. There was no difference found between approaches to learning of ethnic groupings. Qualitative results revealed deep and surface learning approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive and may overlap, suggesting a combined approach. The course grades suggested that the adoption of teaching strategies fostering self-regulation helped student learning in the researched classes. A link was suggested between strategy use and student approaches to learning.

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  • Fostering inter institutional knowledge sharing among students : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Smestad, Øyvind

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of this research was to develop a system to allow students from various tertiary educational institutions, taking similar courses, to share common discussion forums. This was seen as important to enable larger communities of learners which could help each other, encourage discussion and give exposure to a more diverse range of opinions. In general to create a system that would make it easier to find knowledge in large networks of information and people. For this purpose a special discussion forum system was developed that can easily be integrated with institutions existing software systems for course management. The system handles the inter-institutional communications transparently, and was developed to be flexible in how it can be installed on various server configurations. The special features of the system allow students to specify the type of message they are contributing, and the system then uses this information to adapt the user interface. For instance, when a question is added, the system searches for possible answers in the existing knowledge base and displays them. An evaluation of the system in three tertiary educational institutions in New Zealand showed positive feedback from students, indicating they would use a system like this if it was made available to them in their future studies. An evaluation among teachers also showed a generally positive response. In the evaluation of the system's automatic answer finding capabilities, it was identified that this functionality should be improved to increase the effectiveness of how the system identified and highlighted possible answers.

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  • From the outside looking in : identity in selected Fijian short stories written in English : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of a Master of Arts at Massey University

    Tuvuki, Sandra Dawn

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Construction of colonial identities in Fiji were built upon the premise of British superiority and difference from others, as they were in other parts of the colonised world. Colonial discourse regularly employed stereotypes to reduce other communities into simple and therefore controllable concepts. Fiji's post-colonial voices have had to write their ways out of these reduced roles and clear a space for representations of life in Fiji that differ from earlier elucidations. The body of writing which began to emerge in the 1960s is represented here by a selection of short stories by a number of authors writing from and about Fiji. The main focus here is on the ways identities which emerge from these stories pull the texts together into a definable body of writing, despite the diversity of writing positions, and despite some gender-based distinctions highlighted by Arlene Griffen and Shiasta Shameem. It is concluded that identities are more difficult to negotiate when outside opinions or forces are powerful. This observation is discussed in relation to the movement of characters from innocence to experience, the affect of progress on communities and individuals, the representation of women in the texts, and the position of individuals who travel to or from Fiji or who are descendants of migrants.

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  • From confrontation to civil war : conflict management in the Satsuma Rebellion, 1877 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Japanese at Massey University

    Tuffley, Peter

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The orthodox view of the outbreak of the 1877 Satsuma Rebellion characterises those actions of Japan's central government which provoked the insurrection as mistakes made in an effort to defuse the confrontational relationship that had developed between the government and Kagoshima prefecture. This thesis offers a critical reappraisal of this view, and examines the hypothesis—suggested by the Japanese historians Inoue Kiyoshi and Môri Toshihiko, as well as by the historical novelist Shiba Ryôtarô—that those actions were intentionally provocative, with the aim of promoting a military resolution of the confrontation. Rather than an accidental outbreak of violence, the Rebellion and the ensuing civil war are considered, in Clausewitzian terms, as "a continuation of (domestic) politics, with the addition of other means", in which the transition from non-violent to military confrontation was, arguably, engineered by the government leadership (in particular by the de-facto leader of the Meiji oligarchy, Ôkubo Toshimichi), just as Bismarck engineered the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War by means of the Ems Telegram, in order to bring about armed conflict without taking the role of aggressor. The thesis also examines the influence of unforced strategic error on the course of the civil war in its early stages. This leads to a reappraisal of the orthodox view that the imperial forces were never in danger of defeat, and to the conclusion that the Rebellion could well have succeeded but for major strategic error on the part of the rebel leaders.

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  • Ethnodevelopment within the Bolivian Aymara : a case study in Laja : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Rapson, Brent Timothy

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The Aymaran people have lived on the Andean altiplano between the valley where today's city of La Paz sits and Lake Titicaca for over 800 years. During that time they have been conquered by the Inca Kingdom, the Spanish Crown and the mestizo governors of the Republic of Bolivia. Despite this history of submission the Aymara have maintained their unique cultural identity strong and pure. Life on the altiplano has always been a challenge and today is no exception. Harsh weather conditions and isolation from mainstream Bolivian society have limited the possibility of economic development for the thousands of Aymaran communities spread across the altiplano. One such rural community is Laja, the original location of the city of La Paz, today home to an Aymaran population of 707. For decades, authors within the discipline of development studies have been seeking sustainable solutions for rural communities like Laja. The introduction of the theories of alternative development in the 1980s helped focus development studies on the issues that would truly impact on world poverty after the weaknesses of mainstream development theories became evident. Arising from the alternative development paradigm came the theory of ethnodevelopment. [From Introduction]

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  • A geographical study of the New Zealand textile manufacturing industry, with particular reference to the Wellington region

    Vickery, Evan Wakefield

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is a study of the New Zealand textile manufacturing industry and its components. It investigates the nature of location patterns, the changes within the components of the industry and the changes in industrial organisation which have occurred since 1950. The location of factories engaged in manufacturing textiles is detailed, shifts in components of the industry are analysed and early location factors in the industry are discussed. It is argued that technological advances in various facets of the industry have been influential in determining the present day location of the factories in the industry. The impact of technology and its requirements within the industry are examined specifically in terms of process product and organisational adjustments. The resulting developments, particularly the form of intra- and inter- industry linkages are outlined. In addition the form of industry intra-urban linkages are explored with particular reference to the Wellington Region.

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  • Extraction and structural study of hemicellulose B from tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Chemistry at Massey University

    Hensanghongs, Patana

    Thesis
    Massey University

    1.1 Hemicellulose The structural carbohydrates are mixtures of polysaccharides which together with lignin, constitute the cell wall. Usually they are divided into three fractions: pectic substances, hemicellulose and cellulose.1 Pectins, widely distributed in land plants are characterised by a main chain of 1 – 4 linked galacturonic acid units. They may also contain rhamnose, galactose, xylose, arabinose and fucose in varying amounts. These sugars form part the main chain in some pectins and branch chains in others.2 The pectic triad consists of galacturonan, araban and galactan. Pectic substances occur without exception in all higher plants. It is possible that pectic substances may serve as protective agents for natural rubber particles and may be important food reserve for the plant.3 They are found most abundantly in the primary cell walls and in the intercellular layer.4 [From Introduction]

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  • Frederick Pirani, M.H.R. Palmerston North, 1893-1902 : a study of his political career : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Symondson, Bruce

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is concerned with the political career of F. Pirani, who represented the Palmerston North electorate from 1894 to 1902. Pirani entered the House a liberal, but within a few years was in strong disagreement with the Liberal government on several issues, so in 1896 he stood as an independent liberal. From 1898 Pirani believed a change of government would be to New Zealand's advantage, and in 1902 he was an opposition candidate. Despite this transformation in political colours only on the land question was there a major change in Pirani's views in the years he was in the House. This at first sight is contradictory, and this thesis, by a detailed study of Pirani's political career and beliefs, is intended to clarify this situation. It is also hoped that the thesis would be a first step in the analysis of local Manawatu politics in the latter part of the nineteenth-century. Other regions, for example Canterbury, Taranaki and the Waikato, have been studied in depth, but the Manawatu's timing and pattern of development was, it is suggested, unique, and this alone suggests that a study of its local politics would prove fruitful to those considering the wider picture. The value, and the limitation, of a thesis are considerably determined by the methodology and the sources used. Sources are to an extent independent of methodology, but methodology frequently determines both the way and the extent to which different sources are used. The politics of the Canterbury region for the period 1870-1890 has been studied in detail in a number of theses. In all cases the theses were concerned with local politics usually with only a single election and hence a heavy reliance was placed upon local newspapers, and a booth-by-booth analysis of election results. This led Bohan, 1 in particular, to the conclusion that party played no role in the politics of the period. Millar 2 believed that the polling-booth method did not allow issues their due, and Evans pointed out that "there is no getting away from the fact that on some issues a two-party division existed, and in parliament with much more certainty than in the electorates." 3 I believe the comments of Millar and Evans to be very important, and I have therefore attempted to explain in detail Pirani's career at both the national and local level, and also the influence that each had on the other. 4 Because of this I believe the result is a better building block towards a more complete understanding of the politics of the period than would otherwise be the case. [FROM INTRODUCTION]

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  • Growth and competition studies with snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for a Master of Horticultural Science at Massey University

    Lallu, Pramda

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Overseas work suggests that substantial yield increases can occur when the density is increased and the rectangularity is changed to unity. Two trials were carried out to examine some effects of growing snap beans at four densities. The R.G.R. fell with time until pod swell where it showed a slight increase and then fell again. The N.A.R. followed a similar pattern whereas the L.A.R. increased and then fell earlier than either the N.A.R. or the R.G.R., indicating the dependence of the R.G.R. on the N.A.R. The L.A.R. appears to be dependent on the L.W.R. component rather than the S.L.A. component. Fertilizer had no effect on the R.G.R. or the N.A.R. As the level of fertilizer increases, the S.L.A. decreases and the L.W.R. increases, indicating that more leaves are produced and the leaves are 'thicker'. Both the L.W.R. and the L.A.R. are maintained at a higher level with increasing amounts of fertilizer. As density increases, the R.G.R., N.A.R. and L.W.R. fall whereas the L.A.R., S.L.A. and L.A.I. all increase. This shows that at the higher densities, more leaves are produced but they are less efficient at producing and/or utilizing assimilates. As density increases, the maturity of the beans tend to be delayed, yield/plant at high density is decreased through fewer flowers/plant, higher flower and pod abortion rate and a lower bean weight, all probably due to the lower N.A.R. There is also a negative correlation between the number of pods and pod size. The recipricol yield density relationships showed fertilizer to have no effect on the A and B parameters for either total plant dry matter or bean dry matter. The allometric log plant weight to log bean weight showed the ratio of beans to total plant weight decreases with increasing density. Fertilizer had no effect on the yield of beans. Density was also shown to have no effect on the yield of beans when the yields were compared at the same seed length. When yields were compared at the same chronological time, density did have an effect. The mean mature bean yield was 13.95 tonnes/ha but the mean harvestable yield was 18.6 tonnes/ha.

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  • Global game, local goals : football and the global-local nexus : a thesis in partial fulfilment of the degree of Master of Arts in Social Anthropology, Massey University, Albany

    McAdam, Stuart Graeme

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Association football is the most popular sport in the world with massive numbers of players and supporters, both male and female. The global spread of football coupled with its projection through mass media to global audiences suggests an analysis based on the discourse of globalisation. However. 'Global Games. Local Goals' shows that football is also highly-localised. with football clubs and national teams having great significance as centres of community and identity. Thus an anthropological analysis of football necessitates a dialectical approach that addresses the inter- relationship between the global and the local. 'Global Game, Local Goals' also argues that while the 'big picture' of globalisation studies offers relevant macro-analytical possibilities, the particularism of highly-localised ethnographic studies that have been part of the anthropological tradition should not be lost in the rush to larger scale studies of globalisation'. Thus the anthropological tradition of particularism is preserved but is also blended with the universalism of globalisation and theorisation.

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  • Free Methodists in colonial Christchurch : the church, community and commercial lives of some immigrants from Sunderland : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Thomas, William F. F

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis tells the story of a small group of immigrants to Canterbury from Sunderland, England in 1858 and follows their lives and the events in their community up to the time of the First World War. John Thompson Brown and his fellow-settlers belonged to an off-shoot of the Wesleyan Methodist Church – the Free Methodists. Their commitment to this denomination and its ethos and the influence of religion on their lives is a central theme in their story. Life in pioneer society was hard. The environment made it so as much as anything and there were many privations. The sacrifices made by the early settlers and the generation of colonials that followed them were invariably perceived from the perspective of both material conditions and social values. A new community cannot be built without a vision of what that community should be like. This blend of the visionary and the pragmatic co-existed in the beliefs and actions of the early settlers and the colonials, and probably to the generations beyond. The values of the Free Methodists emphasised self-improvement and self-reliance and were supportive of the development of New Zealand as a Christian community As with other denominations their church was a central part of their community which they fostered both spiritually and materially - a considerable commitment of heart and mind in the demanding colonial environment. [FROM INTRODUCTION]

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  • Genetic characterisation and transmission cycles of cryptosporidium species isolated in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Science in Microbiology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Learmonth, James Jeffrey

    Thesis
    Massey University

    PUBLICATIONS HAVE BEEN REMOVED DUE TO COPYRIGHT RESTRICTIONS. PRINT COPY AVAILABLE IN THE LIBRARY

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  • Gastric emptying and plasma glucose response in men following ingestion of milk from different species : thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Nutritional Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Schnell, Nicholas John

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The 13 C Octanoic acid breath test (OABT) was used to measure the rate of gastric emptying of whole goat's milk (WG), whole cow's milk (WC), goat's milk infant formula (GIF) and cow's milk infant formula (CIF) in healthy, adult men. Prior to the gastric emptying study, the integrity of the vacuum in two commonly used gas collection tubes was tested. The experiment showed that the Exetainer® brand of tube was more suitable for collecting expired air compared to the Vacutainer® brand based on the fact that it had less residual dead-space which could dilute expired air samples. Fifteen healthy men were given one of the four test milks containing 100μg 13 C octanoic acid after an overnight fast. Breath samples were collected at regular intervals for four hours. Following analysis by ratio isotope mass spectrometry, gastric emptying parameters were calculated. The gastric emptying half time (t 1/2 ) of CIF was significantly shorter (Ps milk did not appear to be sufficient to elicit different rates of gastric emptying. Thus any nutritional differences between milk from the two species may not be related to the rate at which they are emptied from the stomach.

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  • Functional analysis of PaxP and PaxQ, two cytochrome P450 monooxygenases required for paxilline biosynthesis in Penicillium paxilli : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Genetics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Lowe, Rohan George Thomas

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The indole-diterpene paxilline is a potent mammalian tremorgenic mycotoxin and a known inhibitor of maxi-K ion channels. The gene cluster encoding the enzymes for the synthesis of this compound was recently cloned from Penicillium paxilli (Young et al. 2001). The cluster comprises a set of core genes required for indole-diterpene biosynthesis, including two cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, paxP and paxQ. Targeted deletion of paxP and paxQ resulted in mutant strains that accumulate paspaline and 13-desoxypaxilline, respectively, confirming that both genes are involved in paxilline biosynthesis. The aim of the current work is to establish in vitro that PaxP and PaxQ catalyse the monooxygenation of paspaline and 13-desoxypaxilline, respectively. To achieve this, cDNA copies of both genes were cloned into pGEX-6P-3, to generate pRL2 and pRL4, and the corresponding glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins over-expressed in E. coli. However, both GST-fusion proteins accumulated as insoluble inclusion bodies when cultures were incubated at 18°C, 25°C and 37°C. Attempts to express a soluble form of the GST-PaxP by co-expressing this fusion with the chaperones, GroES and GroEL. or by expressing in E. coli, Origami B, a strain (trxB, gor, lacY) designed to facilitate expression of active and soluble proteins, were unsuccessful. GST-PaxP was able to be solubilised by the addition of 0.25% N-laurylsarcosine, and retained some glutathione binding activity, however, the yield was too low to carry out further experiments. GST and thioredoxin fusion expression constructs were designed in which the putative N-terminal trans-membrane region of PaxP and PaxQ was removed to aid solubility in E. coli. These N-terminal modified fusion proteins were still expressed as insoluble protein.

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  • Functional dependencies for XML : axiomatisation and normal form in the presence of frequencies and identifiers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Sciences in Information Sciences at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Trinh, Diem-Thu

    Thesis
    Massey University

    XML has gained popularity as a markup language for publishing and exchanging data on the web. Nowadays, there are also ongoing interests in using XML for representing and actually storing data. In particular, much effort has been directed towards turning XML into a real data model by improving the semantics that can be expressed about XML documents. Various works have addressed how to define different classes of integrity constraints and the development of a normalisation theory for XML. One area which received little to no attention from the research community up to five years ago is the study of functional dependencies in the context of XML [37]. Since then, there has been increasingly more research investigating functional dependencies in XML. Nevertheless, a comprehensive dependency theory and normalisation theory for XML have yet to emerge. Functional dependencies are an integral part of database theory in the relational data model (RDM). In particular, functional dependencies have been vital in the investigation of how to design "good" relational database schemas which avoid or minimise problems relating to data redundancy and data inconsistency. Since the same problems can be shown to exist in poorly designed XML schemas 1 , there is a need to investigate how these problems can be eliminated in the context of XML. We believe that the study of an analogy to relational functional dependencies in the context of XML is equally significant towards designing "good" XML schemas. [FROM INTRODUCTION]

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  • N₂O synthesis by microalgae : pathways, significance and mitigations : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Engineering at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Plouviez, Maxence

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Over the last decades, various studies have reported the occurrence of emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from aquatic ecosystems characterised by a high level of algal activity (e.g. eutrophic lakes) as well as from algal cultures representative of the processes used by the algae biotechnology industry. As N2O is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) and ozone depleting pollutant, these findings suggest that large scale microalgae cultivation (and possibly, eutrophic ecosystems) could contribute to the global N2O budget. Considering the current rapid development of microalgal biotechnologies and the ubiquity of microalgae in the environment, this PhD research was undertaken to determine the biochemical pathway of microalgal N2O synthesis and evaluate the potential significance of microalgal N2O emissions with regard to climate change. To determine the pathway of N2O synthesis in microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and its associated mutants were incubated in short-term (24 h) laboratory in vitro batch assays. For the first time, axenic C. reinhardtii cultures (i.e. culture free of other microorganisms such as bacteria) fed nitrite (NO2⁻) were shown to synthesise N2O under aerobic conditions. The results evidenced that N2O synthesis involves 1) NO2⁻ reduction into nitric oxide (NO), followed by 2) NO reduction into N2O by nitric oxide reductase (NOR). With regard to the first step, the results show that NO2⁻ reduction into NO could be catalysed by the dual system nitrate reductase-amidoxime reducing component (NR-ARC) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Based on our experimental evidence and published literature, we hypothesise that N2O is synthesised via NR-ARC-mediated NO2⁻ reduction under physiological conditions (i.e. low/moderate intracellular NO2⁻) but that under NO2⁻ stress (i.e. induced by high intracellular NO2⁻), N2O synthesis involves both NR-ARC-mediated and COXmediated NO2⁻ reductions. RNA sequencing analysis on C. reinhardtii samples confirmed that the genes encoding ARC, COX and NOR were expressed in NO2⁻-laden culture, although NO2⁻ addition did not trigger significant transcriptomic regulation of these genes. We therefore hypothesise that the microalgal N2O pathway may be involved in NO regulation in microalgae where NOR acts as a security valve to get rid of excess NO (or NO2⁻). To evaluate N2O emissions during microalgal cultivation, N2O emissions were quantified during the long term outdoor cultivation of commercially relevant microalgae species (Chlorella vulgaris, Neochloris sp. and Arthrospira platensis) in 50 L pilot scale tubular photobioreactors (92 days) and during secondary wastewater treatment in a 1000 L high rate algal pond (365 days). Highly variable N2O emissions were recorded from both systems (0.0 – 38 μmol N2O·m-2·h-1, n = 510 from the 50 L photobioreactors; 0.008 – 28 μmol N2O·m-2·h-1, n = 50 from the high rate algal pond). Based on these data, we estimated that the large scale cultivation of microalgae for biofuel production in order to, for example, replace 30% of USA transport fuel with algal-derived biofuel (i.e. a commonly used sustainability target), could generate N2O emissions representing up to 10% of the currently budgeted global anthropogenic N2O emissions. In contrast, N2O emissions from the microalgae-based pond systems commonly used for wastewater treatment would represent less than 2% of the currently budgeted global N2O emissions from wastewater treatment. As emission factors to predict N2O emissions during microalgae cultivation and microalgae-based wastewater treatment are currently lacking in Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change methodologies, we estimated these values to 0.1 – 0.4% (0.02 ̶ 0.11 g N-N2O·m-3·d-1) of the N load on synthetic media (NO3⁻) during commercial cultivation and 0.04 – 0.45% (0.002 ̶ 0.02 g N-N2O·m-3·d-1) of the N load during wastewater treatment. The accuracy of the emission factors estimated is still uncertain due to the variability in the N2O emissions recorded and by consequence further research is needed. Nevertheless, further monitoring showed that the use of ammonium as N source and/or the cultivation of microalgae species lacking the ability to generate N2O (e.g. A. platensis) could provide simple mitigation solutions.

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  • A "God-forsaken" wilderness? : the effects of isolation on the development of rural religion in the Wanganui hinterland, 1880-c1920 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Religious Studies at Massey University

    Attwell, Bruce Tristan

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Government policy after 1880 was to open up the Wanganui hinterland for settlement. Building of the Main Trunk railway greatly facilitated this. New villages sprang up along the route. Settlement was encouraged and yeomon farmers moved into the interior as land was allocated. Churches followed settlement. Most came from the Wanganui lowland area where "Wakefield" antecedents had bequeathed Anglican conservatism. Nevertheless, revivalist influence, and replication of English working-class chapel religion, ensured that hinterland townships gained strongly pro-active non-conformist churches. In reply to Government secular education, most churches operated Sabbath schools. Only the Catholics built their own primary schools. Inter-denominational competition for membership and competitive church-building created financial stress, with consequently poor remuneration for hard-worked pastors. There was little time to carry the Gospel out into the back-blocks. Primitive roading and scattered population were combined handicaps. Inability of churches to take advantage of the "Nelson System" and take the Bible into country schools, also meant that back-country children grew up without religious input from clergy or Sunday schools. Indications are that by the mid-1920's the churches had mostly lost the allegiance of a back-country generation. Improved communications had not improved congregations. Although the line was being held in the villages, the legendary, 'God-fearing pioneer' seems a rather chimerical figure. Whatever their beliefs, the back-blocks dwellers had reason to feel somewhat forsaken by their churches.

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  • The gulf between rhetoric & reality : an examination of the gap between development theory and development practice in the care of Cambodian orphans : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North Campus

    Greenfield, Craig

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Like many other Developing World countries. Cambodia is in the midst of an orphan crisis. At least 77,000 children have lost their parents to AIDS and many thousands more have been orphaned by civil war. landmines and other tragedies. These orphans face an uncertain future. Traditionally in Cambodia, most of these children have been cared for within the community in which they lived with their parents. Current development theory strongly promotes such community-based care for orphans and argues that Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) should use their resources to support and strengthen communities in that task instead of placing children in institutions such as orphanages. However, for every community-based orphan care program set up by NGOs in Cambodia, six orphanages are established. The development rhetoric on care for orphans is not matched by the development practice reality in Cambodia. There is a gap between theory and practice in the care of Cambodian orphans, a disconnection between what development theorists promote and what development practitioners implement. This research project examines the gap between development theory and practice in the care of Cambodian orphans. Results of the study will enhance understanding of the possible reasons for this disparity and suggest ways to close the gap and bring greater congruence between development theory and practice in this field. The study initially looked at the literature on care for orphans and established general principles as advanced by the development texts. Secondly, the study provided an overview of current practice in Cambodia in the care of orphans. Finally, an examination was made of the gap between theory and practice in Cambodia: in order to understand this gap, primary research has been conducted with development practitioners to establish possible reasons for it.

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