6,506 results for Otago University Research Archive

  • It's Your Shout! A New Way of Measuring Use Wear on Glass Bottles

    Platts, Maeve (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    It was not until 1922 that glass manufacturing was available in New Zealand and prior to this, glass bottles were considered valuable and useful objects. This lack of glass encouraged reuse. Reuse has implications for consumption analyses and the interpretation of bottle glass assemblages but to date there has been no systematic method of documenting this. The following research examines if it is possible to quantify evidence of wear on glass bottles in a way that can be applied to archaeological specimens. With the presumption that continued use of a bottle will leave physical evidence, a scale was produced for measuring the use wear on glass bottles. The scale was then employed on five different sites located in Christchurch. These sites consisted of a warehouse/brewery, a pub/inn, a bottle exchange and two domestic sites. The aim was to discover if it was possible to measure use wear on glass bottles and to see if there was any variation in the extent of use wear and, therefore reuse, within these sites and among different bottle types. This enabled the results to be used to contribute to a broader interpretation of the social life of Victorian Christchurch with an emphasis on the drinking culture of the time.

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  • Seeking Climate Justice. Findings Report on Oil Free Activism and Oil and Gas Development 2013-2016

    Bond, Sophie; Diprose, Gradon; Thomas, Amanda C. (2018)

    Report
    University of Otago

    This research was conducted by Dr Sophie Bond (University of Otago), Dr Gradon Diprose (Open Polytechnic) and Dr Amanda Thomas (Victoria University of Wellington), with research assistance from Jule Barth and Sonja Bohn, funded by the University of Otago, Open Polytechnic and Victoria University of Wellington. Nga Mihi - Acknowledgements We would like to thank all of the research participants who volunteered their time and energy to take part in this research, and their ongoing work to demand and imagine a more just society. We are particularly grateful to a number of activist participants who provided feedback on earlier drafts of this report. We would also like to thank: The University of Otago, the Open Polytechnic and Victoria University of Wellington for funding this research Phillipa Clark for creating the illustrations throughout this publication, Seán Dunne for layout and design, and Oil Free Otago for granting us the use of the photograph on page four. To cite this report: Bond, S., Diprose, G., Thomas, AC., (2018) Seeking Climate Justice. Findings report on Oil Free Activism and Oil and Gas Developments 2013-2016. Published by the Climate Justice Research Collective, Dunedin and Wellington, Aotearoa New Zealand.

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  • The effect of emotion on false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm

    Zhang, Weiwei (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Over the past two decades, researchers have shown that human memory is not as accurate as we would like to believe. Sometimes we recall the gist of a particular event, but the details of that event are incorrect and sometimes we report entirely false memories for an event that never occurred. On many occasions, our false memories are of little significance, but sometimes they can have dire consequences, particularly if those false memories are reported in court. Given these consequences, it is important to understand the conditions under which memory errors are most likely to occur. The most widely-used procedure to investigate false memories in the laboratory is the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm; in this paradigm, participants who study lists of words (e.g., bed, rest, pillow) in which each word on the list is related to a critical lure (e.g., sleep) often report having seen that critical lure even though it did not appear on the original list. In fact, the false recognition rate of critical lures is nearly as high as the correct recognition rate of studied words. In many cases in which false memories really matter (e.g., eyewitness testimony or traumatic memories), the memories themselves are emotionally charged and are retrieved in a distinctive emotional context (mood). The overarching goal of my PhD research was to use the DRM procedure to investigate the effects of emotion on true and false memories in both children and adults, and to explore methods that might be used to reduce emotional false memories in laboratory settings. The first step in the research was to compile pure emotional DRM word lists in which all of the list words were semantically-related to the corresponding critical lure, and the list words and the critical lure share the same emotional valence (Chapter 4). The next step was to compare the magnitude of false memory produced by the new lists with the magnitude of false memory produced by hybrid emotional word lists used in previous research, and then to explore the effect of emotional content (i.e., new emotional word lists) on false recall (Chapter 5). To assess the effect of both emotional content and emotional state (i.e., mood) on false memory, I then used mood induction procedures to elicit a particular mood and asked participants to learn the new emotional DRM word lists (Chapter 6). In Chapter 7, I tested different theoretical predictions regarding the effect of participants’ mood on age-related increases in DRM false memories for emotional word lists. In the last two empirical chapters, I assessed whether warnings about the false memory phenomenon would reduce adults’ emotional false memories (Chapter 8), and whether directed-forgetting cues would reduce children’s emotional false memories (Chapter 9). Generally, I found that 1) pure emotional lists generated more true recognition but less false recognition, compared to the hybrid emotional lists; 2) false memories were higher for negative word lists than for positive or neutral word lists, regardless of the type of memory test; 3) there was a negative mood-congruent false memory effect; 4) the age-related increase in false memories was eliminated in positive moods, whereas this increase was maintained in negative moods for negative information; 5) warnings had no impact on true recognition, but could reduce false recognition, no matter whether warnings were presented before study, or after study but before test; 6) directed forgetting reduced only children’s true memory, but it did not influence either children’ or adults’ false memory. I also found that no single theory could account for all of these findings. In some cases, associative theories (i.e., Implicit Associative Response Theory, Spreading Activation Theory, Associative Activation Theory, and Activation-Monitoring Theory) provide the most suitable explanation for the findings, in some cases, Fuzzy-Trace Theory (FTT) is better and in other cases, both associative theories and FTT account for the findings. Taken together, the present findings not only have important theoretical implications for understanding the development of emotional false memories, but also have practical implications for understanding the formation of adults’ and children’s emotional false memories in forensic settings.

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  • Securities Class Actions as Disciplinary Mechanisms: Debt Financing, Political Lobbying and Innovation

    McCarten, Matthew (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis examines the role of securities class actions (SCAs) in corporate governance. Three empirical chapters are presented examining the relationship SCAs have with debt financing, lobbying and firm innovation. Chapter 2 examines the impact SCAs have on a firm’s debt financing and lending relationships, with particular focus on the lender’s reputation and a firm’s ex-ante relationship with its lenders. The results indicate that reputable lenders are better screeners and as a result are less likely to lend to high litigation risk firms. Turning to ex-ante relationships with lenders, the evidence indicates that firm’s that did not have a relationship with a lender are less likely to be able to develop one post-filing. On the other hand, if a firm had an established relationship with a lender before the filing, they are more likely to continue borrowing from that lender. Furthermore, for firms that had an existing relationship with a lender, loans initiated after the filing are larger in size and have smaller spreads relative to those firms without a relationship. Overall, it appears that corporate misconduct does not undermine a firm’s relationship with its providers of financial capital. Chapter 3 examines the impact of lobbying on the time it takes to detect managerial misconduct and the size of penalties associated with SCAs. Managers of lobbying firms are able to get away with misconduct for longer and are marginally less likely to have to settle a class action up to 2004. From 2005 onwards, lobbying no longer impacts the time it takes to detect misconduct or the outcome of the case. It is argued that regulatory action (the Sarbanes Oxley Act) has had the desirable effect of reducing the tacit power of lobbying firms. Finally, Chapter 4 examines the relationship between SCAs and firm innovation. The evidence indicates that innovative firms are relatively more likely to be sued. This chapter presents evidence that innovation may increase the opportunities and pressures to commit misconduct. Furthermore, investment in innovation immediately declines post-filing resulting in a decline in the quantity of patents. However, the filing has no impact on innovative quality or efficiency.

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  • Improving Student Achievement Through Feedback

    Price, Donna (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Ever since the groundbreaking work of Black and Wiliam (1998a), the question of how best to present feedback to students has been an international concern. Recent works by Andrade, (2005) and Lipnevich, McCallen, Miles, and Smith (2014) have shown that the use of annotated exemplars holds great promise. In this research, annotated exemplars were contrasted with personalized feedback in a randomized in situ study on writing development at the secondary school level. This study was designed to measure the impact of two different types of feedback on students writing achievement; personalised and annotated exemplars. A further objective was to determine which style of feedback students preferred, and why. Data for the study were gathered through four different sources; pre and post-tests, focus group interviews, student surveys, and a researcher journal. Each of two secondary school English classes, comprising one Year 9 and one Year 10 class, was divided randomly into two groups for teaching of writing. Two different styles of writing were taught during the year: transactional and creative. Each group was given one style of feedback (personalised or an annotated exemplar). This process was reversed when the second writing style was taught. Results of pre-testing and the final writing assessment were recorded. Each of the groups completed an anonymous survey asking them to answer questions around the feedback and their preferences. These data were expanded upon through having students participate in focus groups facilitated by the classroom teacher. The researcher’s journal provided an insight into the time taken to create and deliver the feedback, and record responses of the participants. Most students showed improvement as a result of receiving feedback. An interesting aspect of the results was that the Year 9 group improved most in the first cycle, regardless of the style of feedback given. In the Year 10 group of students, personalised feedback resulted in the highest level of improvement. These findings were supported by discussion in the focus groups. The significance of this study is that it is conducted experimentally in situ and contrasts two feedback styles. Evidence of effective feedback techniques is of importance for teachers seeking to enhance student learning and the quality of their teaching programmes.  

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  • The role of pelvis-thorax coupling in controlling within-golf club swing speed

    Lamb, Peter; Pataky, Todd (2018-02)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Pelvis-thorax coordination has been recognised to be associated with swing speed. Increasing angular separation between the pelvis and thorax has been thought to initiate the stretch shortening cycle and lead to a more forceful downswing. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pelvis-thorax coupling played a significant role in scaling single-club swing speed in a group of low-handicap golfers (mean handicap = 4.1). Sixteen participants played shots to target distances determined based on their typical 5- and 6-iron shot distances. Half the inter-club distance was used to create three swing effort conditions: `minus', `norm', and `plus'. Ten shots were played under each swing effort condition using both the 5-iron and 6-iron, resulting in six shot categories and 60 shots per participant. No significant differences were found for X-factor for either club or swing effort. X-factor stretch showed significant differences for both club and swing effort. Continuous relative phase (CRP) results mainly showed evidence of the stretch shortening cycle in the downswing and that it was more pronounced late in the downswing as swing effort increased. Inter-individual variability in CRP curves was substantial, demonstrating the need for individual analyses when investigating complex coordination patterns such as the golf swing.

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  • Using performance data to identify styles of play in netball: An alternative to performance indicators

    Croft, Hayden; Wilcox, Bobby; Lamb, Peter (2018-01)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    The advent of sports technology has led to large, high-dimensional, performance data sets, which pose decision-making challenges for coaches and performance analysts. If large data sets are managed poorly inaccurate and biased decision-making may actually be enabled. This paper outlines a process for capturing, organising, and analysing a large performance data set in professional netball. 250 ANZ Championship matches, from the 2012–2015 seasons, where analysed. Self-organising maps and a k-means clustering algorithm were used to describe seven games-styles, which were used in a case study to devise a strategy for an upcoming opponent. The team implemented a centre-pass (CP) defence strategy based on the opponent’s previous successful and unsuccessful performances. This strategy involved allowing the oppositions Wing-attack to receive the CP while allowing their Goal-attack to take the second pass. The strategy was monitored live by the coaches on a tablet computer via a custom-built dashboard, which tracks each component of the strategy. The process provides an alternative to use of conventional performance indicators and demonstrates a method for handling large high-dimensional performance data sets. Further work is needed to identify an ecologically valid method for variable selection.

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  • Sport, promotional culture and the crisis of masculinity

    Gee, Sarah; Jackson, Steve (2017)

    Book
    University of Otago

    ENDORSEMENTS: “This is the first book of its kind – focusing on the masculinity crisis, promotional culture, sport, and globalization. It draws together a rich collection of texts, tackling a number of broader media-related and cultural issues along the way.” (Kimberley S. Schimmel, Kent State University, USA) “Sport, Promotional Culture and the Crisis of Masculinity offers an intellectually challenging and theoretically nuanced trip through the complexities of masculinity in a world in which identity is increasingly turned into a commodity. Via five empirical case studies of the representation and circulation of masculinities in advertising and consumer culture, the authors challenge us to take seriously the value of nuanced investigations of what it means to be a man in the 21st century.” (Toni Bruce, University of Auckland, New Zealand) “While there has been much scholarly attention focused on the dynamics and inequalities of gender in sport, almost all has focused on the challenges and experiences of women. Recognizing that sport plays a role for all men, athletes or not, in defining their identities, and does so increasingly influenced by narrative logic of promotional culture, Gee and Jackson reset an important part of the scholarly agenda about sport and culture. In a far ranging tour de force, their work sets understanding sport's role in today's masculinity crisis in the political-economy of consumer culture, and offers convincing evidence in a series of case studies examining "flexy" David Beckham as celebrity, Molson and Speight's beer as manuals for masculinity, and promotional constructions of hockey and the Haka as reinventions of masculine warrior myths.” (Lawrence Wenner, Loyola Marymount University, USA) “Sport, Promotional Culture and the Crisis of Masculinity represents a telling, and indeed timely, contribution to the literature on sport as a form of promotional culture, foregrounding the masculinized and masculinizing discourses with which sport is inextricably linked. Through a series of theoretically and empirically-grounded analyses, Gee and Jackson vividly capture the local inflections of corporate sport’s default masculinity. The book cleverly elucidates the persistence of crisis narratives mobilized within, and through, promotional sporting discourse, and highlights their role in reproducing, oftentimes within the moment of purported crisis patriarchal relations. Not limited to a gender focus, this book importantly articulates the intersectionality of sporting masculinities, by underscoring their contingent interrelationship with, amongst other social categories, sexuality, race, ethnicity, and national identity. An important and insightful book.” (David L. Andrews, University of Maryland, USA) “Sarah Gee and Steven Jackson capture the contradictions in the relationships between sport and masculinity. Skilfully weaving theory through detailed empirical case studies, from sport celebrity to indigenous cultures and masculinities in sport, the book unpacks these complex sites of identity politics. In an era where much of the alleged crisis of masculinity is played out through global promotional culture, the book is essential reading for anyone seeking to understanding the interplay between sport, media and contemporary masculinities.” (Catherine Palmer, University of Tasmania, Australia) “Debates and social issues arising from the current “crisis of masculinity” are of paramount importance in research on gender and sport in late modern, post-industrial societies. Gee and Jackson’s Sport, Promotional Culture and the Crisis of Masculinity is an innovative, engaging and thorough investigation of the intersection between promotional culture, sport and masculinity. The book critically analyzes the mythologies generated globally by corporate industries with a vested interest in reproducing the emotional affinity between masculine identities, nationalism and professional sport. The case studies exploring indigenous knowledge and representations of sport and masculinity make a unique and valuable contribution to the field. This text sets a new standard in studies of masculinity, sport and the media. It is essential reading for anyone interested in critically understanding the contribution of promotional culture to the pervasiveness and popularity of sport among men and current crisis of masculinity globally.” (James Gillett, McMaster University, Canada)

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  • The IOC-State-Corporate Nexus: Corporate Diplomacy and the Olympic coup d’état, South African Journal for Research in Sport

    Jackson, Steve; Dawson, Marcelle (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Despite growing concerns about corruption, doping, negative environmental impact, labour exploitation, citizen displacement and other risks associated with costly ‘mega projects’, some nations continue to bid to host the Olympics. Aside from the aims of raising a nation’s international profile and promoting tourism, another possible explanation for the decision to host the Olympics is their increasingly important role in the area of diplomacy. In an era of neoliberal globalisation, we are witnessing emerging forms of ‘corporate diplomacy’. Corporate diplomacy recognises that while nation-states remain key players in international relations, there has been a gradual shift in influence from the public to the private, and from the national to the transnational realms. An exploratory analysis of the role of sport in international diplomacy related to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the Olympic Games is examined; more specifically, (1) the ways in which sport diplomacy operates; (2) the concept of ‘corporate diplomacy’ as it relates to the ‘IOC-state-corporate nexus’ in order to illustrate how the Olympics supports particular corporate and state interests; and (3) the dangers of a shift in power from nation-states to the IOC and transnational corporations, which signals a potential Olympic-corporate coup d’état.

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  • Underwater noise from pile-driving and its impact on Hector's dolphins in Lyttelton Harbour, New Zealand

    Leunissen, Eva (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Noise levels were measured in Lyttelton Harbour in order to study pile-driving noise produced during wharf reconstruction. Sound recordings were made throughout the harbour, using several moored and mobile recording systems. In addition, an autonomous system recorded sound over a one-month period. Ambient noise in Lyttelton was heavily influenced by anthropogenic sources such as large and small vessel traffic, particularly in the low frequency range, as well as natural sources such as wind, rain and snapping shrimp in the mid-to-high frequency range. Measured noise levels were highly variable in time and space, with an overall RMS broadband level of 118 dB re 1 μPa near the channel. Recordings made over a month-long period showed higher levels during the day across a broad frequency range. Compared to other places heavily influenced by anthropogenic activities, noise levels in Lyttelton harbour were similar, although some very busy ports show much higher levels. Repairs to the port of Lyttelton involved 15 months of pile-driving. At a range of 100 m, 1/3 octave-band levels were raised by up to 45 dB across a wide frequency range due to pile-driving noise, exceeding background levels over an area of up to 16.3 square km. The maximum source Sound Exposure Level was estimated to be 194 dB re 1 μPa2s @ 1 m (average 182 dB). Most of the energy was within the 100-1000 Hz frequency range, but with significant energy well above 100 kHz at close range. An empirically based propagation model was fitted to estimate the loss in dB with range, and to allow visualisation of how the noise spread throughout the harbour. The bathymetry of the harbour and the breakwater significantly influenced propagation of pile-driving noise. Levels measured in this study tended to be lower than in other studies of pile-driving noise, due mainly to smaller pile drivers and softer substrate in Lyttelton. The impact of this noise on Hector’s dolphins was investigated using passive acoustic monitoring devices (T-PODs). T-PODs were moored in the inner, mid and outer harbour for three months. Statistical analysis of dolphin positive minutes per day and per hour, and how these detection rates were influenced by pile-driving noise as well as environmental variables, was carried out using Generalised Additive Models. Hector’s dolphins showed a clear avoidance reaction to pile-driving noise. A decrease in the rate of detections was evident on days with piling. The detection rates recovered to pre-piling levels after 50-83 hours. A simultaneous increase in detections at the mid-harbour T-POD suggests that the animals disturbed by the noise were displaced toward the mid harbour. Based on hearing studies of harbour porpoise, pile-driving noise levels in Lyttelton could cause temporary hearing damage to Hector’s dolphins. The shallowness and form of the harbour restricted noise propagation and therefore reduced the potential zone of impact on hearing. Hector’s dolphin show avoidance reactions at slightly lower levels than estimated for harbour porpoise, indicating Hector’s dolphin may be more sensitive to the disturbance of pile-driving.

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  • Health and Bread Intervention Trials (HABIT): Is Nutrient-Rich Bread an Effective Way of Promoting Cognitive Functioning?

    Naldoza Drake, Phoebe (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Growing evidence demonstrates that regular consumption of dietary nutrients such as unsaturated fatty acids, nitrate, and reduced sodium can maintain the structural integrity of the brain and in doing so promote cognitive functioning. However, consuming sufficient amounts of such nutrients can be an economic and timely challenge. Incorporating nutrients into a dietary staple, such as bread, may be an effective way of introducing these into everyday diets. The present study investigated the effects of a 12-week dietary intervention involving the manipulation of 3 key nutrients in bread (increased unsaturated fatty acids from hazelnuts, increased nitrate from beetroot, and reduced sodium) on cognitive function. Participants (n=106) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 bread conditions (hazelnut, beetroot, low-sodium, or control). A neuropsychological battery was administered at 4 time points and consisted of 6 tasks measuring different aspects of cognitive functioning: Pro (choice reaction time), Anti (inhibitory control), Pro/Anti (task switching), Simon (selective attention), Forward and Backward Spatial Span (spatial short-term and working memory), and Forward and Backward Digit Span (verbal short-term and working memory). Three hypotheses were explored: (1) that consuming the hazelnut bread would be associated with performance improvements across the cognitive tasks, (2) that consuming the beetroot bread would be associated with improvements in speeded reaction time tasks, and (3) that consuming the low sodium bread would be associated with performance improvements across the cognitive tasks, but especially on Forward and Backward Spatial Span. Overall, no significant improvements in cognitive function were observed following the consumption of any of the 3 intervention breads when compared to the control bread. These findings contrast with previous research that has demonstrated links between the consumption of these nutrients and improved cognitive function. Possible reasons for the null results, as well as limitations and future directions, are discussed.

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  • A Fairy Tale or a True Story? Lie Detection and Leakage

    Iversen, Genevieve Rose (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Liars may try to act like they are telling the truth, yet these attempts may fail. Ekman (1992) has argued that liars may leak clues to their true feelings in fleeting expressions. This thesis tested this idea. Facial expression differences between university students’ lies and truths were examined with facial recognition software and behaviour rating scales. Study 1 examined if participants’ (N=102) facial expressions varied as a function of the content that they had viewed, when they honestly or deceptively described a film. When brief episodes of increased muscle tension were isolated in the computer analysis a clear trend emerged for there to be more muscle movement in lies than truths across the face (i.e. brow, eyes, nose and chin). However, the film content (which was designed to elicit feelings of amusement, disgust or no emotional response) did not contribute to this difference. The trend identified in Study 1, was replicated in Study 2, in which participants (n=41) were asked to discuss their opinions truthfully and deceptively. However, the findings did not generalise to a condition where participants (n=40) provided arguments that were consistent or inconsistent with their opinion, when lying was not required. Thus, factors specific to situations in which lying is required (e.g. attempts to manage deception cues) may account for the difference. Study 3 examined if students with better emotion recognition skills (n=68) may be better at detecting lies because they notice emotional expressions that others may miss. Participants (N=138) rated the behaviour of speakers from Study 1, and judged whether they were lying. The results suggest that lie judgements may be related to the participants’ expectations, and that those with better emotion recognition skills may not have special skills at distinguishing genuine and deceptive expressions. In Study 4, ratings were obtained for messages collected in Study 2 (N=100). Arguments (i.e. opinion-consistent/inconsistent) varied for emotional expression, but lies and truths did not. Thus, it appears impression management processes may contribute to the difference in facial lability identified in Study 1 and 2.

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  • Uncertainty in climate change impacts on Southern Alps river flow: the role of hydrological model complexity

    Jones, Ryan (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Climate change scenario modelling for New Zealand indicates a series of hydrological changes can be expected. Hydrological modelling is a critical tool to assess the likely impacts of future climate change on river runoff. A hydrological model no matter the complexity can be viewed as a simplified representation of the real-world environment. The most comprehensive hydrological models, i.e. fully-distributed (e.g. TopNet and MIKESHE), are generally complex and require large amounts of input data, computer power and time. The use of a semidistributed model like HBV-light to perform essentially the same function can yield a relatively efficient method of scenario hydrological modelling. As such, the aim of this research is to assess the use of the HBV-Light hydrological model to simulate observed river flow data from within the Shotover Catchment, situated in Queenstown, New Zealand, and compare projected changes to future river runoff under climate change conditions to that of a more complex hydrological model (TopNet). The HBV-Light model performed well in the Shotover Catchment when replicating an observed data set of 13 years (1972 ̶ 1984), returning a monthly NSE of 0.72 for the calibration period and 0.61 for the validation period (1985 ̶ 1997). The use of HBV-Light to simulate river flow under future climate change conditions, and the potential influence such changes could have on New Zealand’s freshwater resources were also assessed. HBV-Light, using an IPCC SRES A1B climate scenario, and an ensemble of 12 GCM’s suited to New Zealand’s climate conditions, projected runoff increases to the Shotover River in the magnitude of 13.43 % for 2040 over a 20-year average (2030 ̶ 2049), and 17.44 % in 2090 (2080 ̶ 2099). In comparison to the more complex model (TopNet) used assess the impact of climate change on river flow for the same future time periods using the same 12 GCM ensemble and IPCC SRES A1B climate scenario, HBV-Light simulates a yearly projection for 2040 that is 3.5 % higher than TopNet, 1.65 % lower in 2090. Monthly comparisons of future runoff show the HBV-Light model drastically over-simulates TopNets assessment of the Shotover Catchment (by 35 % in 2090 for August) and other research in the Clutha Catchment, in some cases by up to 50 %. HBV-Light under-simulated soil moisture by 300 mm/yr-1 and over-simulated AET consistently, but simulated snowmelt relatively well in comparison to TopNet. Therefore, the current research concludes that the role of hydrological model complexity outweighs the role of other modelling uncertainties such as input data. HBV-Light was run with physical input 3 data which is more accurate but limited in the spread of the catchment, whereas TopNet was run using interpolated data (VCSN) which covers the catchments upper reaches but is only an interpolation. TopNets performance was more in line with other research from the Clutha Catchment and its sub-catchments, such as the Matukituki and the Lindis. However, in the absence of large comprehensive data sets (VCSN) required to run complex models such as TopNet, HBV-Light could be an acceptable alternative for assessing future impacts to river runoff under climate change conditions in New Zealand.

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  • Hospital Admissions for Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Contributing factors, Risk prediction and Prognosis

    Ellis, Hollie Victoria (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Hospitalisations for acute exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are associated with high mortality. Clinical indicators and prognostic scores have been explored previously to identify patients at heightened risk, but may also be useful in detecting patients with a good prognosis that could avoid admission. However, there are often additional social and environmental factors at play that influence patients’ reasons for admission. This thesis aims to explore these potential contributing factors in conjunction with the development of a new prognostic tool Methods: Consecutive patients were recruited following hospitalisation with a primary diagnosis of acute exacerbation of COPD. Clinical data were collected and patient and admitting doctor questionnaires were completed to gather further information regarding the reasons for admission. This cohort was then used to validate a proposed prognostic tool, the CANT score, comprised of a composite score of CURB65 score ≥ 2, Acidaemia (pH 220pmol/L and Troponin >0.03µg/L. The primary outcomes related to this score were all-cause mortality at 30-days and 1-year and cardio-respiratory related re-admissions over the same time period. Results: 305 patients were recruited across 3 New Zealand sites. The majority of patients had severe COPD as classified by the GOLD spirometry guidelines, and 13.5% of patients had long-term oxygen therapy at home prior to admission. Inpatient mortality was 1.6% (n=5). At 30-days post admission, mortality was 3.6% (n=11) and at 1-year 19.0% (n = 52). Readmissions for cardiac or respiratory related illnesses were 22.6% and 62.8% at 30-days and 1-year respectively. Raised NT-proBNP (>220pmol/L) and troponin (>0.03µg/L) on admission were associated with death at 1-year (p <0.05). Elevated NT-proBNP was also associated with death at 30-days (OR 3.6, CI 1.06-12.22, p = 0.04). The area under the receiver operating curve for mortality at 30-days post admission for the CANT score in this cohort was 0.68, which was lower than in the derivation (0.86) and internal validation cohorts (0.82). The majority of patients were admitted due to the requirement for hospital level treatment, however the admitting doctors suggested that up to 30% of admissions could be avoided if additional support, such as acute personal cares or GP home visits, were available in the community. Over 40% of patients reported issues with GP availability, 25% reported avoiding seeing the GP due to cost and 17% due to lack of transport. Conclusion: We have been unable to externally validate the use of the CANT score as an effective short-term prognostic tool following acute COPD exacerbation, due to a lower than expected mortality rate at 30-days in this cohort. Elevated NT-proBNP and troponin on admission were associated with an increased mortality at 1-year and NT-proBNP with an increased mortality at 30-days, inferring that these cardiac biomarkers are predictors of short and long-term prognosis following COPD exacerbation. Cost, lack of transport and availability of GP services may contribute to patient admissions in addition to the clinical need for hospital level treatment. The majority of admissions are likely to be unavoidable, unless considerable increased resources can be provided in the community.

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  • In Pursuit of Beauty Within the Ageing Body: Voices from Older Korean Women in New Zealand

    Chung, Saemyi (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Researchers have attempted to explore the experience of ageing bodies and the use of beauty and anti ageing practices among older women. However, an insufficient number of such studies have focused on women from diverse ethnic groups, particularly older Asian women. Furthermore, even though some researchers have debated whether beauty practices are a form of oppression, these debates usually obfuscate the unique experiences of older women. These deficiencies result in a scarcity of discussions on anti-ageing practices and health management among older Asian migrant women. This study, using intersectionality as a conceptual lens, explored how older South Korean (Korean, hereafter) women in New Zealand who are located at the intersection of age (ageing) and gender perceived their ageing bodies and engaged in beauty, anti-ageing and health practices within diverse social positions and identities. The method involved conducting semi-structured individual interviews with thirty-one Korean women aged 50 to 84 living in Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Hamilton, and Queenstown. The findings were merged into two major themes: 1) the inevitable and unacceptable ageing body and 2) the tensions between choice and oppression. The first theme elucidates how attitudes towards the ageing body were paradoxical. On the one hand, the ageing body was something my participants understood as part of a natural/irresistible process. On the other hand, they consistently intervened in the natural process of ageing to transform their ageing bodies into more acceptable forms: healthy, functional, and feminine bodies with youthful and attractive appearance. They also adopted diverse lifestyles: active, productive, and successful later lives through health practices, life management, and beauty and anti-ageing practices. The second theme describes how power over their ageing bodies was exercised when they intervened at the intersection of age, gender, and/or race/ethnicity. The findings uncover how the interaction of biological attributes of the ageing body and socio-cultural climates of age and gender influenced my participants’ perceptions of their bodies. Additionally, the findings indicate how their engagements in beauty, anti-ageing, and health practices became complicated as they positioned themselves at the intersection of age/ageing, gender, race/ethnicity, and migration. The significance of this thesis lies in its contribution to illuminating the concept of the biosocial ageing body. Furthermore, it intends to challenge binary perspectives of the body, namely that between nature and culture, and to supply further knowledge to current discussions on whether women’s beauty practices are a form of oppression or choice. Lastly, this thesis discusses the implications of this research and recommendations for future research on the ageing body (ageing) and beauty practices.

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  • Assessing movement coordination

    Lamb, Peter; Bartlett, Roger (2017-12)

    Book item
    University of Otago

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  • On the use of continuous relative phase: Review of current approaches and outline for a new standard

    Lamb, Peter; Stöckl, Michael (2014-05)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    In this paper we review applications of continuous relative phase and commonly reported methods for calculating the phase angle. Signals with known properties as well as empirical data were used to compare methods for calculating the phase angle. Our results suggest that the most valid, robust and intuitive results are obtained from the following steps: 1) centering the amplitude of the original signals around zero, 2) creating analytic signals from the original signals using the Hilbert transform, 3) calculating the phase angle using the analytic signal and 4) calculating the continuous relative phase. The resulting continuous relative phase values are free of frequency artifacts, a problem associated with most normalization techniques, and the interpretation remains intuitive. We propose these methods for future research using continuous relative phase in studies and analyses of human movement coordination.

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  • Social moderation: Assessment for teacher professional learning

    Smaill, Esther Mary (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis addresses New Zealand’s unmet need for additional teacher professional learning opportunities in assessment. It reports on a yearlong, multi-case study involving the teachers at three New Zealand primary schools. This study investigated whether teachers, working within the National Standards context, could use their participation in social moderation to help the sector meet the need for professional learning in assessment. It asked: how and what do teachers learn about assessment through their involvement in social moderation? Drawing upon both social constructionism (Crotty, 1998) and Wenger’s (1998) social theory of learning, the study used observations, interviews, and a questionnaire to produce data about teachers’ experiences of social moderation. The analyses of these data, which utilised key elements of grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006), yielded important insights into how involvement in social moderation can strengthen teachers’ assessment capability. The study identified that teachers were able to use their participation in social moderation to improve their understandings of assessment for learning principles and practices. It also demonstrated that taking part in social moderation enabled the participating teachers to learn about factors that can affect the dependability of student assessment information. Moreover, it showed that teachers believed that involvement in social moderation had contributed positively to their assessment capability. This study also found that the teachers at the three participating schools garnered qualitatively different learning opportunities from their experiences of social moderation. These differences were linked to a series of school-specific conditions. These conditions included the amount of time that schools committed to moderation, the types of moderation activity that teachers engaged in, and the nature of the rationale that teachers developed to sustain their involvement in moderation. These school-specific factors shaped the extent to which participation in social moderation enabled teachers to take part in the formation of a school-wide, assessment-focused community of practice. The findings from this study indicate that using involvement in social moderation to develop such a community of practice increases the likelihood that all teachers are afforded opportunities to learn about assessment. The recommendations that arise from this study are intended to help schools strengthen their social moderation processes in ways that should enable teachers to harness additional, assessment-focused professional learning opportunities.

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  • Adrenergic stimulation of HK-2 proximal tubular cells in hyperglycaemic conditions

    Embury, Alexander (2018)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    One of the most commonly associated complications of Diabetes Mellitus is nephropathy, with one in five diabetics sustaining renal injury over their lives. Renal denervation has been shown to decrease systemic blood pressure and increase renal function, by removing sympathetic innervation to the kidneys. Our lab investigated the effects of renal denervation on diabetic nephropathy in hypertensive rats and found it decreased a range of injury markers, such as TGF-β1. It is possible that part of the renoprotection afforded by renal denervation in hypertensive diabetics is due to decreased adrenergic signalling. This study aimed to determine the effects of combined noradrenaline and glucose on proximal tubule cells and their profibrotic signalling, by measuring the excretion of the prosclerotic cytokine, TGF-β1. HK-2 cells were treated with a range of glucose concentrations (Control: None, Normoglycaemic: 6.1 mmol/L D- glucose, Hyperglycaemic: 25 mmol/L D-glucose, Osmotic Control: 6.1 mmol/L D-glucose + 18.9 mmol/L D-mannitol) in the presence of noradrenaline (1 nM) or a control (PBS or 0.1 nM ascorbic acid). After 48 hours the samples were harvested and levels of TGF-β1 measured via western blot. However, the cells were severely damaged by washing. The primary aim of investigation subsequently became the optimisation of plating protocols. Seeding densities, growth time and well size were increased, extensions to growth arrest and low serum (2%) growth arrest media used, as well as a range of different wash solutions and culture surfaces. By increasing the seeding density to 2x105 cells/mL and surface area up to a 100 mm culture dish a monolayer was formed that could repeatedly survive the wash phases (P<0.001). The initial study recommenced and western blotting was unable to find any trace of TGF-β1 in either the cell lysate or conditioned media. These findings suggest that neither alone nor together noradrenaline and glucose do not cause an upregulation of the production and excretion of TGF-β1.

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  • The human kinases mTOR, PKC-α, and their substrate Filamin A promote infection of human cells by Listeria monocytogenes

    Bhalla, Manmeet Pal Singh (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a food borne intracellular pathogen capable of causing gastroenteritis, abortions, or meningitis with a high mortality rate. Listeria is a facultative intracellular pathogen that is internalized into human cells, replicates inside cells, and spreads within host tissues. Listeria actively induces its internalisation (also known as “entry”) into cell types generally thought as non-phagocytic, such as intestinal epithelial cells, hepatocytes, trophoblast cells, and endothelial cells. One of the major pathways of Listeria entry into human cells is mediated by interaction of the bacterial surface protein Internalin B (InlB) with its host receptor, the Met tyrosine kinase. At least two host physiological processes are stimulated downstream of Met and contribute to internalisation of Listeria. One of these processes is actin polymerization, which is thought to provide a protrusive force that remodels the host plasma membrane, allowing the membrane to enwrap bacteria during entry. The second host process involved in InlB-mediated entry is exocytosis, the fusion of intracellular vesicles with the plasma membrane. Exocytosis controls internalisation of Listeria by delivering the human GTPase Dynamin2, and perhaps other host signalling proteins, to sites in the plasma membrane interacting with bacteria. The host type IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) pathway is activated downstream of the Met receptor and plays a critical role in actin polymerization during entry of Listeria. Recent RNA interference (RNAi)-based screens targeting components of the PI3-K pathway identified the serine/threonine kinase Mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) as a host signalling protein needed for efficient internalisation of Listeria. mTOR is present in two distinct complexes, termed mTORC1 or mTORC2. These complexes have different substrates and biological functions. The molecular mechanism by which mTORC1 or mTORC2 might control Listeria entry was not known and thus, formed the starting point of this dissertation. In Chapter 3 of this thesis, I present evidence indicating that mTOR acts together with PKC-α to promote exocytosis during InlB-mediated entry of Listeria into the human epithelial cell line HeLa. The specific findings in this chapter are as follows. First, Listeria was demonstrated to activate both mTORC1 and mTORC2, as assessed by phosphorylation of the substrates p70S6K or Akt, respectively. Activation of mTORC1 or mTORC2 was also caused by purified soluble InlB protein or InlB coupled to inert particles (latex beads). These InlB-coated beads were used as a model for Listeria entry in several experiments in this thesis. I also found that RNAi-mediated depletion of components specific to mTORC1 or mTORC2 (Raptor or Rictor) inhibited internalisation of Listeria. These results demonstrated important roles for both mTOR complexes in InlB-mediated entry. Further RNAi studies indicated that entry of Listeria is controlled by the mTORC1 effectors 4E-BP1 and HIF-1α, and the mTORC2 substrate PKC-α. The remaining studies in this chapter 3 focused on the mechanisms by which mTOR and PKC-α promote InlB-dependent internalisation. Infection of host cells with Listeria or treatment with InlB protein stimulated mTOR-dependent phosphorylation of PKC-α, suggesting that mTOR and PKC-α act together to control bacteria entry. Work with chemical inhibitors or a kinase dead form of PKC-α indicated that InlB-mediated entry requires the kinase activity of PKC-α. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to investigate the roles of mTOR and PKC-α in actin polymerization and exocytosis during InlB-mediated internalisation. Actin polymerization was assessed using fluorescently labeled phalloidin, whereas exocytosis was detected using a probe consisting of the vesicular SNARE protein VAMP3 fused to a GFP tag. The GFP moiety becomes surface-exposed upon fusion of exocytic vesicles with the plasma membrane. The effect of RNAi-mediated depletion of mTOR or PKC-α on exocytosis or actin polymerization during InlB-dependent entry was examined. My results indicate that both mTOR and PKC-α are required for efficient exocytosis during InlB-dependent entry. PKC-α also impacted actin polymerization during entry, whereas mTOR had no measurable effect on this process. In Chapter 4, I show that the human scaffolding protein Filamin A (FlnA) is regulated by mTOR and has an important role in InlB-dependent entry of Listeria into HeLa cells. Evidence is also presented suggesting that mTOR, PKC-α, FlnA, and a GTPase known as RalA may form a pathway that controls exocytosis during InlB-mediate uptake. The specific results are as follows. Results involving RNAi-mediated depletion of FlnA indicated an important role for this host protein in InlB-mediated entry and exocytosis in HeLa cells. In addition, phosphorylation of FlnA on Ser-2152 was stimulated during entry of InlB-coated beads into HeLa cells. Experiments with FlnA mutant protein unable to be phosphorylated on Ser-2152 indicated that phosphorylation at this site contributes to InlB-dependent entry. The GTPase RalA is a known binding partner of FlnA. Experiments involving RNAi-mediated depletion of RalA indicated an important role for this host protein in InlB-dependent entry and exocytosis. Using RNAi and confocal microscopy analysis, it was found that both RalA and mTOR are needed for recruitment of FlnA to areas in the plasma membrane surrounding InlB-coated beads. These latter results suggest that mTOR and RalA might control exocytosis, in part, by localizing FlnA to plasma membrane sites where InlB-dependent entry occurs. Collectively, my findings identify mTOR, PKC-α, FlnA and RalA as host signalling factors exploited by Listeria to promote its internalisation into host cells. These results also suggest that mTOR, PKC-α, FlnA and RalA may act together in a pathway to control host exocytosis during InlB-mediated entry.

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