1,771 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland, 2008

  • Searching for standards in the NCEA: Assessing musical performance

    McPhail, Graham (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this paper it is argued that the theory and practice of standardsbased assessment within the context of the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) has not been clearly articulated for teachers. The difficulty of specifying and promulgating standards in appropriate forms and the lack of clarity present in the support materials and training provided for teachers are examined. Through the analysis of an internally assessed Music Achievement Standard currently available in the NCEA, it will be argued that standards can be neither definitively described nor easily assessed, but that a credible standard is reliant on a number of components. It is the combination of these components that is significant if standards are to function effectively in summative contexts, particularly for high stakes national qualifications. The support materials and training music teachers received during the introduction of the NCEA lacked clarity and this has resulted in a weak link in the chain of components required for a robust assessment system. Teachers need access to quality support materials and the opportunity for on-going professional development in relation to standardsbased assessment.

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  • Agile Project Management

    Hoda, Rashina; Noble, J; Marshall, S (2008)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    As agile software development gains awareness and popularity in the software industry, it also continues to capture the interest of the research community. There are several topics within the agile software development area that demand deeper understanding and research. One such topic is 'Agile Project Management' which relates to the management of software projects that are developed using various agile frameworks such as eXtreme Programming (XP) and Scrum. This paper outlines proposed research on agile project management. In particular we hope to explore the role of the project manager, the process and problems of transitioning into an agile framework, and the management of outsourced agile projects.

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  • Marine Natural Products

    Blunt, JW; Copp, Brent; Hu, W; Munro, MHG; Northcote, Peter; Prinsep, Michele (2008-01-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Covering: 2006.

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  • Allantoin as a Biomarker of Inflammation in an Inflammatory Bowel Disease Mouse Model: NMR Analysis of Urine

    Dryland, Philippa; Love, Donald; Walker, Michael; Dommels, Y; Butts, C; Rowan, D; Roy, NC; Helsby, Nuala; Browning, Brian; Zhu, Shuotun; Copp, Brent; Ferguson, Lynnette (2008-06-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Crohn???s disease (CD) is an Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) that is characterised by destructive inflammation of the intestinal wall. Current methods for determining inflammation of the bowel are costly, time consuming and can cause discomfort to the patients. In order to address these problems, biomarker analysis of more accessible tissues is receiving increasing attention. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the promotion of inflammation. Allantoin has recently been reported as a biomarker for oxidative stress in human serum and urine. This paper investigates allantoin as a biomarker of inflammation in a mouse model of CD. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy was used to analyse allantoin in urine from the mdr1a -/- mouse which is a model of CD. The data show that the levels of allantoin are strongly correlated with histological injury scores of mouse colonic tissue samples. Allantoin appears to be a useful biomarker of gut inflammation, involving oxidative stress, in a mouse model of CD and may be a potential biomarker in human CD studies

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  • Palisade [Fence]

    Jack, Fiona (2008-04)

    Artefact
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • An association between ethnicity and cardiovascular outcomes for people with Type 2 diabetes in New Zealand

    Kenealy, Timothy; Elley, Carolyn; Robinson, Elizabeth; Bramley, Dale; Drury, Paul; Kerse, Ngaire; Moyes, Simon; Arroll, Bruce (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aims To investigate the association between ethnicity and risk of first cardiovascular (CV) event for people with Type 2 diabetes in New Zealand. Methods A prospective cohort study using routinely collected data from a national primary health care diabetes annual review programme linked to national hospital admission and mortality data. Ethnicity was recorded as European, Maori, Pacific, Indo-Asian, East-Asian or Other. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate factors associated with first CV event. Data was collected from 48 444 patients with Type 2 diabetes, with first data collected between 1 January 2000 and 20 December 2005, no previous cardiovascular event at entry and with complete measurements. Risk factors included ethnicity, gender, socio-economic status, body mass index, smoking, age at diagnosis, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, serum lipids, glycated haemoglobin and urine albumin : creatinine ratio. The main outcome measures were time to first fatal or non-fatal CV event. Results Median follow-up was 2.4 years. Using combined European and Other ethnicities as a reference, hazard ratios for first CV event were 1.30 for Maori (95% confidence interval 1.19???1.41), 1.04 for Pacific (0.95???1.13), 1.06 for Indo-Asian (0.91???1.24) and 0.73 for East-Asian (0.62???0.85) after controlling for all other risk factors. Conclusions Ethnicity was independently associated with time to first CV event in people with Type 2 diabetes. Maori were at 30% higher risk of first CV event and East-Asian 27% lower risk compared with European/Other, with no significant difference in risk for Pacific and Indo-Asian peoples.

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  • Governing for the good: What does it really mean?

    Thomas, Steven (2008)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Safety of bronchoalveolar lavage in young children with cystic fibrosis.

    Wainwright, CE; Grimwood, K; Carlin, JB; Vidmar, S; Cooper, PJ; Francis, PW; Byrnes, Catherine; Whitehead, BF; Martin, AJ; Robertson, IF; Cooper, DM; Dakin, CJ; Masters, IB; Massie, RJ; Robinson, PJ; Ranganathan, S; Armstrong, DS; Patterson, LK; Robertson, CF (2008-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objective: Our aim was to determine the safety of BAL in young children <38.5??C). Low percentage BAL return (P???=???0.002) and focal bronchitis (P???=???0.02) were associated with clinically significant deterioration. Multivariable analysis identified Streptococcus pneumoniae (OR 22.3; 95% confidence interval (CI); 6.9,72), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.0, 5.8), respiratory signs (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.7, 14.6) and focal bronchitis (OR 5.9; 95% CI 1.2, 29.8) as independent risk factors for post-bronchoscopy fever ???38.5??C. Conclusions: Adverse events are common with BAL in young CF children, but are usually transient and well tolerated. Parents should be counseled that signs of a pre-existing lower respiratory infection are associated with increased risk of post-BAL fever.

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  • Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, vascular tone and autoregulation of cerebral blood flow

    Brayden, JE; Earley, S; Nelson, MT; Reading, Stacey (2008-09)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily are present in vascular smooth muscle cells and play important roles in the regulation of vascular contractility. The TRPC3 and TRPC6 channels are activated by stimulation of several excitatory receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells. Activation of these channels leads to myocyte depolarization, which stimulates Ca2+ entry via voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCC), leading to vasoconstriction. The TRPV4 channels in arterial myocytes are activated by epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, and activation of the channels enhances Ca2+ spark and transient Ca2+-sensitive K+ channel activity, thereby hyperpolarizing and relaxing vascular smooth muscle cells. The TRPC6 and TRPM4 channels are activated by mechanical stimulation of cerebral artery myocytes. Subsequent depolarization and activation of VDCC Ca2+ entry is directly linked to the development of myogenic tone in vitro and to autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in vivo. These findings imply a fundamental importance of TRP channels in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle tone and suggest that TRP channels could be important targets for drug therapy under conditions in which vascular contractility is disturbed (e.g. hypertension, stroke, vasospasm).

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  • ‘Approve to Decline’: A feminist critique of ‘Fairness’ and ‘Discrimination’ in a case study of EEO in the New Zealand Public Sector

    Simon-Kumar, Rachel (2008-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The present paper aims to look at the contexts of meanings that surround Equal Employment Opportunities (EEO) in practice, particularly for issues of gender justice. At the heart of the paper is a critical appraisal of one EEO event; an example drawn from the New Zealand public sector where claims to ‘gender disadvantage’ is made by an employee and responded to by the agency to which the claim is made. The event is representative of an instance where all parties are equally claiming the need to further EEO and fairness. By deconstructing the language and context of EEO in practice, the paper argues the point that EEO policy is not implemented in discursively uncontested contexts. At a substantive level, the paper builds on feminist theoretical perspectives of social justice, and questions if the contemporary frameworks of meaning in the public sector can support transformations of relationships of disadvantage. More pertinently, it asks if the “removal of unfair disadvantage”, on which EEO strategies are based, constitutes the promotion of social and gender justice.

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  • Riding in a motor vehicle with a driver under the influence of alcohol and drinking patterns: findings from a national survey of New Zealand youth

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Watson, Peter (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objective. To investigate the relationships between the risks of riding in a motor vehicle with a driver under the influence of alcohol and young people's drinking patterns and usual drinking locations. Methods. A secondary analysis was undertaken of Youth2000 data - the first nationally representative youth health survey conducted in 2001. The study base comprised all secondary schools with more than 50 students enrolled in years 9 to 13 (ages 12 to 18 years). An anonymous multi-media computer-assisted interview survey collected information on drinking patterns, locations, and if the respondent had ridden in a motor vehicle with a driver who was under the influence of alcohol during the previous 30 days. Results. Of the 9,567 respondents, 27.8% reported riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol and 27.4% reported riding with a driver who had consumed more than two glasses of alcohol in the two hours before travel (36.4% responded 'yes' to one or other item). After adjusting for age and gender, binge drinking, drinking in cars, at parties and outdoors, and drinking in the company of friends were associated with a significantly increased risk of riding in a motor vehicle driven by a driver under the influence of alcohol. This risk was not apparent among adolescents who usually consumed alcohol at home and those who usually drank with family. Conclusions. The findings indicate the need to consider how and where adolescents drink to inform effective public policies that can reduce alcohol-related harm and road traffic injury.

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  • Use of health care by young Asian New Zealanders: findings from a national youth health survey

    Ameratunga, Shanthi; Tin Tin, S; Rasanathan, Kumanan; Robinson, Elizabeth; Watson, Peter (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aim: To examine the use of health services and perceived barriers to accessing health care among young Asian New Zealanders. Methods: Secondary analysis of data from Youth2000, a cross-sectional survey of secondary school students in New Zealand (NZ) conducted in 2001. Of the 9567 survey participants (aged 12???18 years), this study was restricted to students who identified with an ???Asian??? ethnic category (n = 922). Results: Chinese and Indian students (the largest Asian ethnic groups in NZ) reported levels of overall health comparable to NZ European (NZE) students. However, relative to NZE students, Chinese students were more likely to report (i) not having a usual location for health care (adjusted OR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.51???4.43); and (ii) having problems getting health care when they needed it (adjusted OR 1.61; 95% CI: 1.32???1.96). Asian students who had been in NZ for 5 years or less (compared with NZ-born students), as well as those who did not speak English at home (compared with those who did) were less likely to report having a usual source of health care, even after adjusting for their overall health (adjusted OR 2.13, 95% CI: 1.27???3.56; and adjusted OR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.11???2.56, respectively). Conclusion: Young Asian New Zealanders are less likely to access health care than their NZE counterparts. The perceived barriers require explicit attention within the broader platforms of health-care quality, and professional and cultural competence of health-care services.

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  • Injury risk behaviours among young Asian New Zealanders: a national survey of secondary school students

    Rasanathan, Kumanan; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Tin Tin, Sandar; Robinson, Elizabeth; Chen, J; Young, W; Watson, Peter (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objective: To investigate injury risk behaviours among young Asian New Zealanders. Method: Secondary analysis of data from Youth2000, a nationwide cross-sectional youth health survey conducted in 2001 in a random sample of New Zealand (NZ) secondary schools using a multimedia, computer-assisted, self-administered interview. Of the 9,567 survey participants (aged 12 to 18 years), this study was restricted to students who identified with an ???Asian??? ethnic category (n=922). Results: Many young Asian New Zealanders report engaging in injury risk behaviours, including: not using helmets when cycling; dangerous drink and drug driving; and being intentionally physically harmed by others. NZ-born Asian students are more likely than overseas-born Asian students to report most of these risky behaviours. Chinese and Indian students are less likely to engage in most of these behaviours than their NZ European peers. Conclusion: While young Asian New Zealanders are a relatively healthy population, many engage in well-recognised injury risk behaviours. The lower levels of these risky behaviours in Indian and Chinese students compared with NZ European students, and the positive dose-response effect seen in relation to duration of residence in NZ, are likely to be due to the effect of acculturation. Implications: Injury prevention strategies for young people in NZ need to specifically consider the diversity, context and specific risk profiles of young Asian New Zealanders. Health promotion efforts for this group should target the use of safety equipment and risky driving behaviours and consider traditional cultural practices that may be protective.

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  • Drink driving and the patterns and context of drinking among New Zealand adolescents

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Robinson, Elizabeth; Crengle, Suzanne; Schaaf, David; Watson, Peter (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aim: To examine the association between drink driving and the patterns and locations of usual drinking among New Zealand adolescents. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from a nationally representative youth health survey, the sampling frame for which was all New Zealand secondary schools with more than 50 students enrolled in years 9 to 13 (ages 12 to 18 years) in 2001. The analysis was restricted to the 3408 survey respondents aged 15 years or older who were current drinkers and drivers. Results: In total, 17.3% of participants reported drink driving in the previous month. Drink driving was significantly associated with frequent (at least weekly) alcohol use, binge drinking and usually drinking away from home, that is in cars, outdoors, at bars or nightclubs, at parties, at school and at work. Students' perception that parents and schools care about them, parental monitoring, and high academic achievement was associated with a reduced risk of drink driving while having friends who drink alcohol increased this risk. These associations were similar among boys and girls. Conclusion: The findings support calls to address how and where young people drink, and indicate the potential gains to be made with family- and school-based interventions.

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  • Factor structure and response bias of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) in a female undergraduate sample from New Zealand

    Roberts, Marion; Wilson, MS (2008-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    As self-report measures of clinical constructs are increasingly administered to student populations, it is important that the psychometric properties of such measures are investigated. Additionally, the response bias intrinsic in self-report responses requires further understanding. The factor structure and response bias of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) is investigated in a subclinical sample of 282 female students from New Zealand. The present study adds to previous research by using not only standard confirmatory factor analysis but also hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis, in parallel with an investigation of response bias. The six-factor model provided the most appropriate fit to the data, with a single latent factor driving the six differential factors. Further support is provided for strong internal reliability of the OCI-R. Overall, subscales of the OCI-R were robustly unrelated to the response bias of impression management.

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  • Directors' duty of care in Australia- a reform model?

    Cassidy, Julie (2008-12-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Unlike in Hong Kong, the Australian responses to corporate collapses in the modern commercial world have been implemented at both judicial and legislative levels over a period of decades. Hong Kong has lagged behind the reform process, only relatively recently announcing that it will review its company laws with a view to reforming, inter alia, directors' duties. Such a review naturally leads to an examination of options utilised in other nations. This article looks at the directors' duty of care in Australia, analysing whether the approach taken there provides any useful guidance in regard to options for reforming jurisdictions such as Hong Kong. It is concluded that instruction may be gained from both statutory reforms of the duty of care and the judicial development of an objective standard of care in Australia. Ultimately, the Australian legislative regime is not without legitimate criticism and reforming jurisdictions should only selectively adopt certain changes that have been made. Nevertheless, there are clearly lessons that places such as Hong Kong can learn from the corporate law reform process in Australia.

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  • Quantifying the effect of age on short and long term case fatality in 14,000 patients with incident cardiovascular disease

    Marshall, Roger; Milne, Richard; Lynn, R; Jackson, Rodney (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Age is a major determinant of case fatality following acute cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Its impact, however, varies by time after the event, sex and diagnostic category. We were able to quantify these effects with good precision in a large cohort of patients. Design A national cohort of 14227 CVD patients representing all the recorded first-CVD events in people aged 35???84 years in New Zealand in 1995 were examined, using electronic linkage of routine health data. Methods Case fatality by age was assessed in three phases: prehospital deaths, fatality after hospitalization up to 28 days and from 28 days up to 5 years after the event. It was assessed in these phases by sex and by the diagnostic categories: acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke and other coronary heart diseases. Results Case fatality in the prehospital phase showed substantial age differences. In particular, a strong positive monotonic age gradient was observed for AMI, but a U-shaped age-case-fatality gradient for stroke. From admission to 28 days, AMI case fatality demonstrated the strongest age gradient. In contrast, there was minimal age effect on 28-day stroke mortality, and case fatality for other coronary heart diseases was low. From 28 days to 5 years, there was a substantial positive monotonic age by case-fatality gradient for all diagnoses. Conclusion Age has a large impact on case fatality following cardiovascular events, although the effect varies significantly by time elapsed after the event, diagnostic category and sex. As the lifetime benefits of many cardiovascular interventions depend on preintervention risk and case fatality, the role of age needs careful attention while making treatment decisions.

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  • Watchdog or Paper Tiger: The Enforcement of Human Rights in International Forums

    Cassidy, Julie (2008-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The admission of international human rights is illusory unless they can be enforced. The enforcement of international human rights law has always been seen as the weak link in the international legal system. This article considers the enforceability of international law in such international forums. It will be seen that, inter alia, jurisdictional limitations reflect the traditional view that international law is concerned with Nation-States, not individuals. Ultimately the ineffectiveness of international forums to act as a watchdog for the enforcement of international human rights heightens the importance of domestic forums for the protection of human rights.

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  • Cooperative communications for energy efficient wireless sensor networks

    Simic, Ljiljana; Berber, Stevan; Sowerby, Kevin (2008)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Energy efficient communication is a key requirement of energy-constrained wireless sensor networks. In this chapter we show that cooperative communication can be deployed in wireless sensor networks as an effective practical energy saving technique. In cooperative communication a partner node is recruited to help with communicating a source node???s message by overhearing and repeating it to the destination receiver. We present an energy analysis of cooperation to demonstrate that cooperative communication has the potential to significantly reduce the total energy cost of wireless communication, provided the transmission range is beyond a certain threshold. We examine the feasibility of practically exploiting this energy saving potential in a wireless sensor network by considering the energy savings achieved for a given source node cooperating with a range of potential partners, using optimal power allocation for the cooperative transmission. We demonstrate that the partner choice region for energy efficient cooperation is large relative to the source-destination separation, meaning that significant energy savings can be achieved in practice from cooperation with a wide range of partners. We present a simple distributed cooperation protocol for wireless sensor networks, whereby each source node autonomously makes cooperation decisions based on a simple yet near-optimally energy efficient cooperation strategy. We thus show that large network-wide energy savings can be attained via cooperative communication without the need for central coordination.

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  • Technical support to EU strategy on invasive species (IAS) - Assessment of the impacts of IAS in Europe and the EU (final module report for the European Commission)

    Kettunen, M; Genovesi, P; Gollasch, S; Pagad, Shyama; Starfinger, U; Ten Brink, P; Shine, C (2008)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This assessment provides a picture of the different environmental, social and economic costs and benefits of invasive alien species (IAS) in Europe, constituting the first full assessment of all types of IAS impacts at the pan-European scale. The report is part of the work led by IEEP to support the development of the EU Strategy on IAS.

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