2,303 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland, 2010

  • Crossing boundaries: Sharing concepts of music teaching from classroom to studio

    McPhail, Graham (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study demonstrates how action research can provide a means for teachers to undertake research for themselves to inform and enhance their work. The focus of the research was the self-critique of pedagogical practice in one-to-one classical instrumental music teaching within the context of the author???s private studio. A series of lessons were videotaped and analysed, and each week goals were set for the improvement of practice in relation to theoretical propositions derived from both one-to-one teaching and general pedagogical literature. The author is an experienced classroom teacher as well as a violin teacher so is well placed to explore potential links between these teaching contexts. The development of a model of teaching modes, greater awareness of feedback quality and type and the challenge of monitoring change in action emerged as the key themes. Student engagement increased and teaching was enriched by perspectives and practices from wider educational theory and practice.

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  • Finding the balance: teachers as recontextualising agents in the struggle between classical and popular music in the secondary school curriculum.

    McPhail, Graham (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Many commentators have argued that Western music education is in a state of crisis. Within the field, traditional views centred on classical traditions and cultural reproduction, are contrasted with alternative conceptions centred on popular music and rights of ownership. This paper discusses the application of Basil Bernstein???s concept of recontextualisation to an exploratory study of seven experienced New Zealand secondary school music teachers??? perceptions and experiences of these two accounts of music education. It considers the role that pedagogic autonomy plays in maintaining the tension experienced by these teachers in their curriculum realisation as they continually seek balance in recontextualising musical and educational values for pedagogic purposes.

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  • Using Grounded Theory to study the human aspects of Software Engineering

    Hoda, Rashina; Noble, J; Marshall, S (2010)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Grounded Theory (GT) is increasingly being used to study the human aspects of Software Engineering. Unfortunately, the Grounded Theory method is still not widely understood in the Software Engineering discipline. We present an overview of the Grounded Theory method and discuss its use.

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  • How much is just enough? Some documentation patterns on Agile projects

    Hoda, Rashina; Noble, J; Marshall, S (2010)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Agile methods advocate "just enough" documentation on Agile projects. Unfortunately, there are no clear guidelines on what is "just enough" documentation. We describe a set of patterns to help Agile software development teams define "just enough" in their own contexts. Teams can also employ these documentation patterns as strategies to overcome common challenges of adopting Agile methods.

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  • Agile undercover: When customers don't collaborate

    Hoda, Rashina; Noble, J; Marshall, S (2010)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Customer collaboration is vital to Agile projects. Through a Grounded Theory study of New Zealand and Indian Agile teams we discovered that lack of customer involvement was causing problems in gathering and clarifying requirements, loss of productivity, and business loss. ???Agile Undercover??? allows development teams to practice Agile despite insufficient or ineffective customer involvement. We present the causes and consequences of lack of customer involvement on Agile projects and describe the Agile Undercover strategies used to overcome them.

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  • Balancing acts: Walking the Agile tightrope

    Hoda, Rashina; Noble, J; Marshall, S (2010)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Self-organizing teams are one of the critical success factors on Agile projects - and yet, little is known about the self-organizing nature of Agile teams and the challenges they face in industrial practice. Based on a Grounded Theory study of 40 Agile practitioners across 16 software development organizations in New Zealand and India, we describe how self-organizing Agile teams perform balancing acts between (a) freedom and responsibility (b) cross-functionality and specialization, and (c) continuous learning and iteration pressure, in an effort to maintain their self-organizing nature. We discuss the relationship between these three balancing acts and the fundamental conditions of self-organizing teams - autonomy, cross-fertilization, and self-transcendence.

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  • Ecosystem services supporting livelihoods in Cambodia

    Persson, L; Phirun, N; Ngin, C; Pilgrim, J; Sam, C; Noel, S (2010)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Final evaluation of "Project to Support Democratic Development through Decentralization and Deconcentration (PSDD)"

    Evans, H; Ngin, C; Lang, H; Min, M (2010)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Marine Natural Products

    Blunt, JW; Copp, Brent; Munro, MHG; Northcote, PT; Prinsep, MR (2010-02-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Covering: 2008.

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  • New bioactive halenaquinone derivatives from South Pacific marine sponges of the genus Xestospongia

    Longeon, A; Copp, Brent; Roue, M; Dubois, J; Valentin, A; Petek, S; Debitus, C; Bourguet-Kondracki, M-L (2010-08-15)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of South Pacific marine sponges of the genus Xestospongia has led to the isolation of a number of halenaquinone-type polyketides, including two new derivatives named xestosaprol C methylacetal 7 and orhalquinone 8. Chemical characterization of these two new compounds was achieved by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic studies. Evaluation of anti-phospholipase A2, anti-farnesyltransferase and antiplasmodial activities of this series is presented and structure/activity relationships are discussed. Orhalquinone 8 displayed a significant inhibition of both human and yeast farnesyltransferase enzymes, with IC50 value of 0.40 ??M and was a moderate growth inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum.

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  • anti-Tuberculosis natural products: synthesis and biological evaluation of pyridoacridine alkaloids related to ascididemin

    Appleton, DR; Pearce, Allison; Copp, Brent (2010-07-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    There is an urgent need for novel therapeutics possessing new modes of action to treat tuberculosis (TB) infections. In this study we report on the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of pyrido[2,3,4-kl]acridin-6-one alkaloids related to the anti-TB (MIC 0.35 ??M) but cytotoxic (IC50 25 ??M). Another analogue (10) was evaluated against a range of singly-drug-resistant strains of Mtb and was found to exhibit no cross-resistance. These results suggest that the pyrido[2,3,4-kl]acridin-6-one skeleton may provide a useful scaffold for future studies directed towards possible anti-TB drugs.

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  • Isolation and Characterization of Diastereomers of Discorhabdins H and K and Assignment of Absolute Configuration to Discorhabdins D, N, Q, S, T, and U

    Grkovic, T; Pearce, Allison; Munro, MHG; Blunt, JW; Davies-Coleman, MT; Copp, Brent (2010-10-22)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Investigations of four different sponge populations of Latrunculia species collected in New Zealand waters has led to the characterization of a new diastereomer of discorhabdin H, named discorhabdin H2, confirmation of the structure of discorhabdin K ((+)-7), and presentation of a new diastereomer, discorhabdin K2 ((???)-8). In each case the structures were established by extensive NMR and MS studies and the absolute configurations interrogated by electronic circular dichroism (ECD). Absolute configurations were assigned to the known metabolites discorhabdins H, D, 2-hydroxy-D, N, and Q by comparison of ECD spectra with those recorded for discorhabdin alkaloids of defined absolute configuration, while the configurations of discorhabdins S, T, and U were assigned by semisynthesis from (+)-(6S,8S)-discorhabdin B.

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  • Direct microscopic observation of forward osmosis membrane fouling

    Wang, Y; Wicaksana, Filicia; Tang, CY; Fane, AG (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study describes the application of a noninvasive direct microscopic observation method for characterizing fouling of a forward osmosis (FO) membrane. The effect of the draw solution concentration, membrane orientation, and feed spacer on FO fouling was systematically investigated in a cross-flow setup using latex particles as model foulant in the feedwater. Higher draw solution (DS) concentrations (and thus increased flux levels) resulted in dramatic increase in the surface coverage by latex particles, suggesting that the critical flux concept might be applicable even for the osmotically driven FO process. Under identical draw solution concentrations, the active-layer-facing-the-feed-solution orientation (AL-FS) experienced significantly less fouling compared to the alternative orientation. This may be explained by the lower water flux in AL-FS, which is consistent with the critical flux concept. The use of a feed spacer not only dramatically enhanced the initial flux of the FO membrane, but also significantly improved the flux stability during FO fouling. Despite such beneficial effects of using the feed spacer, a significant amount of particle accumulation was found near the spacer filament, suggesting further opportunities for improved spacer design. To the best of the authors??? knowledge, this is the first direct microscopic observation study on FO fouling.

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  • Phase Behavior in Blends of Asymmetrical Polyolefins

    Nedoma, Alisyn (2010-12-17)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Polymer composites combine the physical properties of two or more distinct chemical species into a single material. Blends of two homopolymers, mixed homogeneously or structured on the nanoscale, are particularly useful nanocomposite materials because ordering occurs via thermodynamic equilibration rather than costly nanofabrication. However, the majority of homopolymer pairs are immiscible, leading to mechanically unstable materials. This work explores one route for compatibilizing two immiscible homopolymers (components A and B) via the addition of a tailored diblock copolymer surfactant (component A-C). The A-block of the copolymer was selected on the basis of having a neutral interaction with the A homopolymer, and the C-block had a favorable interaction with the B homopolymer. The favorable interaction between species B and C was first examined by preparing binary blends of B and C homopolymers. A detailed thermodynamic study explored the effects of blend composition and homopolymer chain length on the thermodynamic phase behavior of binary B/C blends. The results were used to design A/B/A-C ternary blends where the favorable interaction between homopolymer B and the C-block enabled the copolymer surfactant to efficiently stabilize the interface between nanoscale-ordered domains of A and B. The phase behavior of the resulting polymer nanocomposites was studied as a function of the composition of the blend and the chain lengths of the A and B homopolymers. These studies provide new insight into the tunability of of polymer nanocomposite materials by controlling parameters that have not been studied previously. Polymer pairs that are miscible over a large range of chain lengths, N B and N C , are interesting to thermodynamic studies because the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, ?? , can be measured using scattering techniques and the theoretical framework of the Random Phase Approximation. Most tabulated ?? values have been measured over a limited range of chain lengths small enough for the polymers to homogenize; such studies are largely constrained to the vicinity of N B ??? N C . This dissertation presents the most comprehensive study of ?? to date for a single pair of homopolymers. Polyisobutylene (component B) and deuterated polybutadiene with 63 % 1,2 addition (component C) were selected for this study because they exhibit a large window of miscibility and may be tailored to cross the spinodal at experimentally accessible temperatures. Binary blends were designed across a range of values for N B / N C and the composition of the blend, ?? B , to study the effect of these parameters on the measured value, ?? sc . In addition to the strict temperature dependence presumed for ?? , this study documented a composition and molecular weight dependence. The empirical expression for ?? sc , measured 2 using small angle neutron scattering, was three times more dependent on composition then the expression for ?? used to predict thermodynamic behavior. Despite this three-fold diminished dependence on ?? B , the composition-dependent ?? profoundly affected the phase behavior of binary blends. Binary B/C blends exhibited macrophase separation upon heating (above a threshold chain length), enabling experimental determination of the binodal and spinodal. These measured quantities were compared to predictions using Flory-Huggins Theory with the composition- and molecular weight-dependent ?? . Phase diagrams are expected to be symmetric in the vicinity of N B ??? N C , with the critical point located at ?? B,crit = 0.5. However, both the measured and predicted phase diagrams were asymmetric in the vicinity of N B ??? N C , and increasingly symmetric as the value of N B / N C was decreased. A range of values was studied for N B / N C ??? 1, a nd in all cases ?? B,crit was found to be < 0.5, in stark contrast to the expectation of Flory-Huggins Theory that ?? B,crit ??? 0.5. This effect was shown to result from the comb ined effects of a composition-dependent ?? and N B / N C removed from values of 1. Remarkable agreement was obtained between the predicted phase diagrams and measured phase transitions, over a range of values for N B / N C and ?? B , by accounting for the composition and molecular weight dependence of ?? . The miscibility of binary B/C blends was used as the basis for designing a diblock copolymer (component A-C) to order immiscible binary blends of polyisobutylene and deuterated polybutadiene with 89 % 1,2 addition (component A). The copolymer comprised one block chemically identical to component C (miscible in component B) and one block chemically identical to component A. This is in contrast to the majority of ternary blend studies which comprise A/B/A-B polymer systems with neutral interactions between each homopolymer and the corresponding block of the diblock copolymer. Ternary A/B/A-C blends exhibit a favorable interaction between the B homopolymer and C block, demonstrated by the miscibility of B/C blends. The A-C diblock copolymer surfactant can produce microstructures when added to A/B blends at much lower concentrations of copolymer than for an analagous A-B copolymer. Previous studies have only considered the case N A ??? N B and a symmetric diblock copolymer ( N A-block ??? N C-block ). In the present work, symmetric diblock copolymers were added to critical A/B blends. The values of N A / N B were varied over two orders of magnitude. For each blend, the ratio of A:B was fixed by the Flory-Huggins Theory prediction for the critical point (which depends only on N A / N B ), and a constant amount of copolymer was used for all blends. By creating blends with a wide range of values for N A / N B , the study accessed critical compositions, ?? A,crit , well removed from the typical value of 0.5 (on a copolymer-free basis). The resulting phase behavior correlated directly with N A / N B , suggesting that the microstructures observed in a blend could be tuned not only by the conventional method of changing the amount of copolymer, but also by adjusting the ratio N A / N B . Lamellar or microemulsion phases were observed over a temperature window for nearly all of the A/B/A-C blends studied. The former represent an ordered microphase and the latter a disordered microphase, each with unique applications. Previous work has attempted to distinguish the scattering profiles of lamellar phases from those of microemulsions by fitting both with the Teubner-Strey equation for microemulsions. The lamellar phase was judged to exist when the microemulsion fit did not capture the entire range of the scattering profile, otherwise the phase was presumed to be a microemulsion. This dissertation introduces the use of 3 lamellar structure factor that fits scattering profiles unsuitable for the microemulsion fit. In addition, the lamellar fits include as adjustable parameters the size of each microdomain and corresponding interfacial width. These fit values agree quantitatively with independently generated predictions using self-consistent field theory, indicating a broad understanding of the physical parameters that affect thermodynamic behavior in the A/B/A-C system studied. The composition of a blend, in particular the concentration of diblock copolymer, is known to affect the phase behavior, however most studies have only considered blends where equal amounts of A and B are blended with copolymer and ?? A,crit = 0.5 (on a copolymer-free basis). This dissertation presents a study for which the concentration of diblock copolymer was fixed and the composition of the A and B homopolymers was systematically varied across a range of compositions including ?? A,crit . The experiment corresponded to tracing the copolymer isopleth on a ternary phase prism. Theoretical groups have predicted a rich phase behavior along the isopleth for similar ternary systems, however, the observed phase behavior was quantitatively identical for all blends studied. Self-consistent field theory predictions agreed with fit values of the domain spacing and microdomain widths. There was no discernible correlation between ?? A and phase behavior. This finding, and that of the study with critical A/B/A-C blends, together suggest that N A / N B correlates strongly with the phase behavior of a blend, while ?? A does not. This relationship, captured by mean-field theory, provides a simple method for tuning the phase behavior of polymer nanocomposites without using additional surfactant.

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  • No evidence of differential effects of SFA, MUFA or PUFA on post-ingestive satiety and energy intake: A randomised trial of fatty acid saturation

    Poppitt, Sally; Lithander, FE; McGill, Anne-Thea; MacGibbon, AK; McArdle, Brian; Poppitt, SD (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background High fat diets have long been associated with weight gain and obesity, and the weak satiety response elicited in response to dietary lipids is likely to play a role. Suppression of appetite and food intake has consistently been shown to be diminished with high fat relative to either high protein or carbohydrate meals. There is however some evidence that the satiating capacity of lipids may be modulated when physicochemical properties are altered, but studies investigating the effect of lipid saturation on appetite have generated inconsistent findings. This study investigated the effects of changes in fatty acid saturation on post-ingestive satiety and energy intake. Methods High-fat (HF) test breakfasts (2.0 MJ) containing 26 g lipid were given to 18 healthy, lean men in a 3 treatment randomised cross-over design, each treatment separated by a washout of at least 3 days. The breakfasts were high in saturated (SFA, 65% of total fat), polyunsaturated (PUFA, 76%) or monounsaturated (MUFA, 76%) fatty acids, and comprised 2 savoury muffins. Participants rated appetite sensations using visual analogue scales (VAS) to assess palatability immediately following the meals, and hunger and fullness prior to the HF breakfast and throughout the day. Energy intake was measured by covert weighing of a lunch meal which was served 3.5 h after the breakfast, and from which the participants ate ad libitum. Results There was no difference in VAS ratings of pleasantness, visual appearance, smell, taste, aftertaste and overall palatability between the 3 high-fat test breakfasts. However, there was also no differential effect of the 3 treatments on ratings of hunger, fullness, satisfaction or prospective food consumption during the 3.5 h following the breakfast meal and over the full 6 h experiment. Energy and macronutrient intake at lunch also did not differ between treatments (mean, sem; SFA: 5275.9 ?? 286.5 kJ; PUFA: 5227.7 ?? 403.9 kJ; MUFA: 5215.6 ?? 329.5 kJ; P > 0.05). The maximum difference in energy intake between treatments was less than 2%. Conclusions There was no evidence of a difference in post-ingestion satiety between high fat meals which differed in saturation profile in this group of lean, healthy men.

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  • Role of anesthesiologists in WHO safe surgery programs

    Merry, AF (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Anesthesiologists everywhere are involved in projects aimed at improving the quality and safety of anesthesia. The World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists (WFSA) is an organization that links anesthesia societies from over 120 countries. It is affiliated to the World Health Organization (WHO). In this chapter, I describe some of the recent activities of anesthesiologists under the auspices of the WHO. The individuals concerned are involved in these projects in their own rights, and not as representatives of any organization. It is perhaps no accident that all are also involved with other organizations, notably their own national anesthesia socieities or colleges, and the WFSA. The projects carried out under the WHO have overlapped with or been supported by some of these other organizations, and I have tried to reflect this in the chapter. The quality and safety of healthcare falls short of acceptable standards not only in areas with restricted resurces, but also in the wealthiest parts of the world.1 There are huge differences between the deficiencies assocaited with (eg) psychiatry in Boston and those faced by obstetricians in Zambia???but there are also commonalities. Improving the standard of healthcare, affordably, is an imperative everywhere, and the WHO was established exactly for this purpose. Anesthesiologists have an enviable track record in promoting the safety of their patients, at least in well-resourced countries, but clearly they, like all other healthcare professionals, still have much work to do to. Adequate access to safe and effective anesthesia should be a universal human right; sadly, for many people of the world, access to any form of anesthesia is difficult, let alone access to safe anesthesia. It is up to practitioners from each field of healthcare to address the most pressing deficiencies in their own area. Anesthesiologists are no exception. However, the key to better global healthcare lies not in the hands of any one speciality, group of individuals, or organization (even as substantial and influential an organization as the WHO). Healthcare today is a collaborative enterprise, and it is principally through collaboration and networking (formally and informally)2 that substantial progress can be made. This chapter is about collaborative work that has included anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, technicians, administrators, and politicians. The unifying motivation of these individuals has been, not the advancement of their own specialities, but rather a common interest in better patient care.

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  • Respiratory infections in Tamariki (children) and Taitamariki (young people) Maori, New Zealand

    Byrnes, Catherine; Trenholme, A (2010-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The M??ori population is young, with 53% aged less than 25 years and with a higher prevalence of both acute (bronchiolitis, pneumonia, pertussis, tuberculosis) and chronic (bronchiectasis) respiratory tract infections than non-M??ori. Environmental, economic and poorer access to health promotion programmes and health care rather than specific or genetic underlying disorders appear to contribute to this burden. While new initiatives are needed, we can do better with current public health programmes and building on regional initiatives that have already proven successful.

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  • Derechos linguisticos como derechos humanos: Language rights as human rights

    May, Stephen (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In the last 60 years, we have seen the growing development and articulation of human rights, particularly within international law and within and across supranational organizations. However, in that period, the right to maintain one???s language(s), without discrimination, remains peculiarly under???represented and/or problematized as a key human right. This is primarily because the recognition of language rights presupposes a recognition of the importance of wider group memberships and social contexts ??? conceptions that ostensibly militate against the primacy of individual rights in the post???Second World War era. This paper will explore the arguments for and against language rights, particularly for minority groups within Europe, arguing that language rights can and should be recognized as an important human right. In so doing, the paper will draw on theoretical debates in political theory and international law, as well as the substantive empirical example of Catalonia.

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  • Recompression and Adjunctive Therapy for Decompression Illness: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Bennett, MH; Lehm, JP; Mitchell, Simon; Wasiak, J (2010-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    INTRODUCTION: Decompression illness (DCI) is caused by bubble formation in the blood or tissues after a reduction in ambient pressure. Clinically, DCI may range from a trivial illness to paralysis, loss of consciousness, cardiovascular collapse, and death. Recompression is the universally accepted standard for the treatment of DCI. When recompression is delayed, a number of strategies have been suggested to improve the outcome. We examined the effectiveness and safety of both recompression and adjunctive therapies in the treatment of DCI. METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2); MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online) (1966 to July 2009); CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) (1982 to July 2009); EMBASE (Excerpta Medica Database) (1980 to July 2009); the Database of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) in Hyperbaric Medicine (July 2009); and hand-searched journals and texts. We included RCTs that compared the effect of any recompression schedule or adjunctive therapy with a standard recompression schedule and applied no language restrictions. Three authors extracted the data independently. We assessed each trial for internal validity and resolved differences by discussion. Data were entered into RevMan 5.0 software (Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008). RESULTS: Two RCTs satisfied the inclusion criteria. Pooling of data was not possible. In one study, there was no evidence of improved effectiveness with the addition of a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug to routine recompression therapy (at 6 weeks: relative risk 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90???1.20, P = 0.58), but there was a reduction in the number of recompression treatments required when tenoxicam was added (P = 0.01, 95% CI: 0???1). In the other study, the odds of multiple recompressions were lower with a helium and oxygen (heliox) table compared with an oxygen treatment table (relative risk 0.56, 95% CI: 0.31???1.00, P = 0.05). DISCUSSION: Recompression therapy is the standard for treatment of DCI, but there is no RCT evidence. The addition of a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (tenoxicam) or the use of heliox may reduce the number of recompressions required, but neither improves the odds of recovery. The application of either of these strategies may be justified. The modest number of patients studied demands a cautious interpretation. Benefits may be largely economic, and an economic analysis should be undertaken. There is a case for large randomized trials of high methodological rigor to define any benefit from the use of different breathing gases and pressure profiles during recompression.

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  • Risk factors and immunity in a nationally representative population following the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic

    Bandaranayake, D; Huang, S; Bissielo, A; Wood, T; Mackereth, G; Baker, MG; Beasley, R; Reid, S; Roberts, S; Hope, V; on behalf of 2009 H1N1 serosurvey investigation team (2010-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: Understanding immunity, incidence and risk factors of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic (2009 H1N1) through a national seroprevalence study is necessary for informing public health interventions and disease modelling. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected 1687 serum samples and individual risk factor data between November-2009 to March-2010, three months after the end of the 2009 H1N1 wave in New Zealand. Participants were randomly sampled from selected general practices countrywide and hospitals in the Auckland region. Baseline immunity was measured from 521 sera collected during 2004 to April-2009. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titres of ???1:40 against 2009 H1N1 were considered seroprotective as well as seropositive. The overall community seroprevalence was 26.7% (CI:22.6-29.4). The seroprevalence varied across age and ethnicity. Children aged 5-19 years had the highest seroprevalence (46.7%;CI:38.3-55.0), a significant increase from the baseline (14%;CI:7.2-20.8). Older adults aged ???60 had no significant difference in seroprevalence between the serosurvey (24.8%;CI:18.7-30.9) and baseline (22.6%;CI:15.3-30.0). Pacific peoples had the highest seroprevalence (49.5%;CI:35.1-64.0). There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between both primary (29.6%;CI:22.6-36.5) and secondary healthcare workers (25.3%;CI:20.8-29.8) and community participants. No significant regional variation was observed. Multivariate analysis indicated age as the most important risk factor followed by ethnicity. Previous seasonal influenza vaccination was associated with higher HI titres. Approximately 45.2% of seropositive individuals reported no symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Based on age and ethnicity standardisation to the New Zealand Population, about 29.5% of New Zealanders had antibody titers at a level consistent with immunity to 2009 H1N1. Around 18.3% of New Zealanders were infected with the virus during the first wave including about one child in every three. Older people were protected due to pre-existing immunity. Age was the most important factor associated with infection followed by ethnicity. Healthcare workers did not appear to have an increased risk of infection compared with the general population.

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