1,530 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland, 2013

  • Review of the book: Theodore Roosevelt and the American Political Tradition, by Jean M. Yarbrough

    Taillon, Paul (2013-08)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Managing the Cosmetic Patient

    Locke, Michelle; Nahai, F (2013)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Post Metropolitan? British Settler Societies and the End of Empire

    Barnes, Felicity (2013-08-26)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Composition and thermal analysis of crust formed from industrial anode cover

    Zhang, Q; Taylor, Mark; Chen, John; Cotton, D; Groutzo, T; Yang, X (2013)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    When the anode cover is heated up in the reduction cell, the crust formation from the anode cover commences at the bottom and the process is driven by thermo-chemical processes. It is important to study the composition and thermal stability properties of the crust in order to understand the mechanisms of crust formation and deterioration. Several crust pieces were taken from industrial prebaked anode cells. A number of vertical crust sections were sampled from these pieces, and each section was analyzed for composition and phase change temperature. Results show that the bottom layer is enriched in cryolite, consistent with results published in the literature. The upper region was found to contain more chiolite. Crushed bath-based anode crust has higher CR than alumina based anode crust. The melting of chiolite in the crust leaves substantial macro-porosity there, which contributes to the absorption of NaAlF 4 and the penetration of bath through it. The formation conditions of crystalline crust were discussed.

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  • Discovery and preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis of 1,14-sperminediphenylacetamides as potent and selective antimalarial lead compounds

    Liew, Lydia; Kaiser, M; Copp, Brent (2013-01-15)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Screening of synthesized and isolated marine natural products for in vitro activity against four parasitic protozoa has identified the ascidian metabolite 1,14-sperminedihomovanillamide (orthidine F, 1) as being a non-toxic, moderate growth inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum (IC(50) 0.89 ??M). Preliminary structure-activity relationship investigation identified essentiality of the spermine polyamine core and the requirement for 1,14-disubstitution for potent activity. One analogue, 1,14-spermine-di-(2-hydroxyphenylacetamide) (3), exhibited two orders of magnitude increased anti-P. f activity (IC(50) 8.6 nM) with no detectable in vitro toxicity. The ease of synthesis of phenylacetamido-polyamines, coupled with potent nM levels of activity towards dual drug resistant strains of P. falciparum makes this compound class of interest in the development of new antimalarial therapeutics.

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  • Retinal amino acid neurochemistry of the southern hemisphere lamprey, Geotria australis

    Nivison-Smith, L; Collin, SP; Zhu, Y; Ready, S; Acosta Etchebarne, Monica; Hunt, DM; Potter, IC; Kalloniatis, M (2013-03-13)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Lampreys are one of the two surviving groups of the agnathan (jawless) stages in vertebrate evolution and are thus ideal candidates for elucidating the evolution of visual systems. This study investigated the retinal amino acid neurochemistry of the southern hemisphere lamprey Geotria australis during the downstream migration of the young, recently-metamorphosed juveniles to the sea and during the upstream migration of the fully-grown and sexually-maturing adults to their spawning areas. Glutamate and taurine were distributed throughout the retina, whilst GABA and glycine were confined to neurons of the inner retina matching patterns seen in most other vertebrates. Glutamine and aspartate immunoreactivity was closely matched to M??ller cell morphology. Between the migratory phases, few differences were observed in the distribution of major neurotransmitters i.e. glutamate, GABA and glycine, but changes in amino acids associated with retinal metabolism i.e. glutamine and aspartate, were evident. Taurine immunoreactivity was mostly conserved between migrant stages, consistent with its role in primary cell functions such as osmoregulation. Further investigation of glutamate signalling using the probe agmatine (AGB) to map cation channel permeability revealed entry of AGB into photoreceptors and horizontal cells followed by accumulation in inner retinal neurons. Similarities in AGB profiles between upstream and downstream migrant of G. australis confirmed the conservation of glutamate neurotransmission. Finally, calcium binding proteins, calbindin and calretinin were localized to the inner retina whilst recoverin was localized to photoreceptors. Overall, conservation of major amino acid neurotransmitters and calcium-associated proteins in the lamprey retina confirms these elements as essential features of the vertebrate visual system. On the other hand, metabolic elements of the retina such as neurotransmitter precursor amino acids and M??ller cells are more sensitive to environmental changes associated with migration.

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  • Mapping cation entry in photoreceptors and inner retinal neurons during early degeneration in the P23H-3 rat retina

    Zhu, Y; Mistra, S; Nivison-Smith, L; Acosta Etchebarne, Monica; Fletcher, EL; Kalloniatis, M (2013-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The proline-23-histidine line 3 (P23H-3) transgenic rat carries a human opsin gene mutation leading to progressive photoreceptor loss characteristic of human autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. The aim of the present study was to evaluate neurochemical modifications in the P23H-3 retina as a function of development and degeneration. Specifically, we investigated the ion channel permeability of photoreceptors by tracking an organic cation, agmatine (1-amino-4-guanidobutane, AGB), which permeates through nonspecific cation channels. We also investigated the activity of ionotropic glutamate receptors in distinct populations of bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells using AGB tracking in combination with macromolecular markers. We found elevated cation channel permeation in photoreceptors as early as postnatal day 12 (P12) suggesting that AGB labeling is an early indicator of impending photoreceptor degeneration. However, bipolar, amacrine, or ganglion cells displayed normal responses secondary to ionotropic glutamate receptor activation even at P138 when about one half of the photoreceptor layer was lost and apoptosis and gliosis were observed. These results suggest that possible therapeutic windows as downstream neurons in inner retina appear to retain normal function with regard to AGB permeation when photoreceptors are significantly reduced but not lost.

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  • Octodon degus (Molina 1782): A model in comparative biology and biomedicine

    Ardiles, AO; Ewer, J; Acosta Etchebarne, Monica; Kirkwood, A; Martinez, AD; Ebensperger, LA; Bozinovic, F; Lee, TM; Palacios, AG (2013-04-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    One major goal of integrative and comparative biology is to understand and explain the interaction between the performance and behavior of animals in their natural environment. The Caviomorph, Octodon degu, is a native rodent species from Chile, and represents a unique model to study physiological and behavioral traits, including cognitive and sensory abilities. Degus live in colonies and have a well-structured social organization, with a mostly diurnal???crepuscular circadian activity pattern. More notable is the fact that in captivity, they reproduce and live between 5 and 7 yr and show hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases (including Alzheimer's disease), diabetes, and cancer.

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  • The impact of cell ventilation on the top heat losses and fugitive emissions in an aluminium smelting cell

    Abbas, H; Taylor, Mark; Farid, Mohammed; Chen, John (2013-04-08)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Problems associated with aluminium smelting cell ventilation, caused by leakage of fume gases through pots superstructure gaps into the potroom, are normally solved by increasing the fume suction rate (draught) above certain levels. It is also known that, fugitive emissions are associated with reducing the draught below certain critical levels. Top heat losses are increasing in smelting cells as line amperage is raised. This drives further fugitive emissions through greater buoyancy of the fume/air mixture. A quantitative understanding of the relationship between fugitive emissions, superstructure tightness, top heat loss, and cell draught is crucial in the environmental context. It is also important if this top heat loss could be recovered for re-use. This problem is studied here computationally using the ANSYS-CFX software. Possibilities to improve cell ventilation and to decrease fugitive emissions are analysed for a typical industrial cell. The computed cell emissions and temperatures are compared with measured values. The impact of draught on ventilation and heat loss is also discussed

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  • Design considerations for selecting the number of point feeders in modern reduction cells

    Walker, ML; Purdie, JM; Wai-Poi, NS; Welch, BJ; Chen, John (2013-04-08)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Point feeding systems are now installed in most modern reduction cells in preference to bar breakers. The main reason for this choice is that point feeders allow improved alumina dissolution. However complete alumina dissolution is not an explicit design criterion for selecting the size of the alumina dump or the number of feeders required. In this paper, three performance criteria for determining the number of point feeders required in a cell are investigated. These are: acceptable alumina dissolution, satisfactory mixing to avoid concentration gradients and a satisfactory rate of alumina concentration increase after anode effect. Using a combination of laboratory data and measurements from industrial cells, it is shown that the alumina dissolution requirement is likely to be the most difficult to satisfy. Complete alumina dissolution upon addition is unlikely to be achieved with the point feeder designs installed in most modern cells. ?? 2013 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society. Published 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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  • The interaction between current efficiency and energy balance in aluminium reduction cells

    Stevens, FJ; Zhang, W; Taylor, Mark; Chen, John (2013-04-08)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    In aluminium reduction cells the current efficiency interacts with the energy balance through both the thermodynamics and the hydrodynamics of the reduction process. The overall enthalpy for the reduction reaction is endothermic and increases with current efficiency due to lower heat evolution from the re-oxidation reaction. Changes in current efficiency due to changed mass transfer conditions will lead to an energy deficit or surplus. This will occur predominantly in the electrolyte channels where the largest proportion of mass transfer-driven current efficiency loss occurs. Other sources of current efficiency loss such as electronic loss of faradaic current will further reduce the endothermic contribution of the reaction enthalpy and may cause localised energy surpluses. The energy balance directly affects the electrolyte temperature and composition. It also affects the volume of the liquid electrolyte and the shape and thickness of side freeze and crust, which determine the shape of the operating cavity. Bath composition and temperature determine the physical properties of the electrolyte which, along with the geometry of the flow cavity, influence the turbulence of the bubble-driven circulation and the disturbance to the electrolyte-metal interface. Both factors influence the mass transfer and hence, metal reoxidation rate. ?? 2013 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.

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  • Operational and control improvements in reduction lines at Aluminium Delfzijl

    Stam, MA; Taylor, Mark; Chen, John; Van Dellen, S (2013-04-08)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Nowadays viability of smelters requires operation of cells at or beyond known performance limits. At Aldel over the last ten years the intensity of electrical energy dissipation and alumina dissolution per cubic centimeter of liquid bath have increased by 50% as production (+40%) and specific energy consumption (-6%) have improved. The cell imbalances resulting from this increased intensity must be sensed quickly and their causes corrected or removed to maintain the cells in their most efficient operating zone. This defines a new control objective for smelting relating to diagnosis of causes of abnormality in strongly interactive multivariate processes. Timely identification of these causes of variation is linked to operational practice improvement and better control decisions in reduction lines. This paper describes smelter based improvement of operational practices and control decisions using the above objective. Statistical multivariate control surfaces are presented for operating cells and identified abnormal behaviours are discussed. ?? 2013 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.

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  • A water-model study of the ledge heat transfer in an aluminium cell

    Chen, John; Wei, CC; Ackland, AD (2013-04-08)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    A heat transfer probe was developed for studying the ledge heat transfer in a full-scale 3-D air-water model. Quantitative measurements were conducted to determine the bath/ledge heat transfer characteristics at various positions and different operating conditions. A similitude analysis was carried out to relate the measured point results to data available in the literature. A suggested range of heat transfer coefficients for the reduction cell is presented. Variation of the heat transfer were examined as a function of the anode bottom inclination, the position on the side ledge relative to the anode slot, and positions in the vertical direction. ?? 2013 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.

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  • Mixed pedagogic modalities: The potential for increased student engagement and success

    McPhail, Graham (2013)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper utilises the three theoretical scenarios or ???educational futures??? developed by Michael Young and Johan Muller as reference points for discussing the curriculum conception approaches observed in a recent doctoral study in music education. In using Young and Muller???s model to move from case specifics to broader understandings of curriculum change I argue that cognisance of the relationship between informal and formal knowledge is a key issue in music education. Because of the growing role of popular music in the classroom (Green, 2008) providing access for students to varied forms of knowledge has become an important aspect of teachers??? work. This work involves making connections between aspects of the everyday informal knowledge that many music students bring to the classroom, and the conceptual knowledge of the discipline. The challenges involved in reframing informal knowledge may be relevant in other curriculum areas, particularly where knowledge content is susceptible to socio-cultural influences.

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  • Informal and formal knowledge: The curriculum conception of two rock graduates

    McPhail, Graham (2013-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Informal learning has become a prominent theme in music education literature in recent times. Many writers have called for a new emphasis on informal knowledge and pedagogy as the way forward for music education. The position taken in this paper is that a central issue for music education is the accommodation of a tension between types of knowledge and the ways of knowing strongly associated with popular and classical of music ??? socially acquired informal knowledge and socially developed but formally acquired disciplinary knowledge. Approaches to curriculum conception and realisation observed in a recent series of case studies in New Zealand secondary schools suggest that a key factor in student engagement is the degree to which teachers can create links between informal and formal knowledge so that students??? understanding and conceptual abilities can be extended across these knowledge boundaries. The teaching approaches of two recent graduates in rock music are discussed to support the social realist argument that a ???progressive??? approach to curriculum involves creating links between informal and formal knowledge rather than replacing one with the other or dissolving the boundaries between them. Through seeing the two types of knowledge as necessarily interconnected within educational contexts, the epistemic integrity of classroom music is maintained. In this way students are able to recognise themselves and their aspirations while also recognising the potential and power of the foundational knowledge of the discipline.

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  • Developing student autonomy in the one-to-one music lesson

    McPhail, Graham (2013-05-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    As a practitioner in both the classroom and in the instrumental studio, I am interested in how one educational context might inform the other. Within an action research paradigm, I gave a violin lesson in front of colleagues as a means to gain feedback and to open up discussion on the concept of student autonomy within the one-to-one lesson. The enquiry was informed by recent literature within the music education field that calls for a new emphasis on informal learning principles and pedagogy for engaging students. I consider some of the key concepts of informal music learning from the influential Musical Futures classroom project as a means to reflect on the potential for developing student autonomy within the instrumental teaching context. Forms of knowledge and the distinction between knowledge content (the curriculum or ???the what??? of teaching) and the pedagogy (???the how???) are identified as significant conceptual distinctions for theorizing and realizing teachers??? work in the one-to-one context. I suggest that while traditional instrumental teaching models can be enhanced by informal and constructivist approaches to pedagogy, there are limits to the application of these principles because of the nature of the knowledge required in this learning context.

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  • The canon or the kids: Teachers and the recontextualisation of classical and popular music in the secondary curriculum

    McPhail, Graham (2013-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article reports on some of the findings from case studies conducted with six secondary school music teachers in New Zealand. The purpose of the study was to investigate and explain the ways in which teachers manage the relationship between classical and popular music in their elective classroom programs, utilizing a theoretical framework drawn from the work of educational sociologist Basil Bernstein and more recent social realist theory. In each case, the focus of the research was the teacher and the influences on their curriculum decision-making. Students in each music department were interviewed to triangulate teacher interviews and observations. The findings indicate that a significant tension is present between the affirmation and validation of students??? musical interests and pre-existing skills, and the development of the knowledge considered fundamental within the discipline. It is teachers??? ability to ???find a balance??? between these central concerns of their educational work that is significant in maintaining the epistemic integrity of a subject which has become strongly influenced by socio-cultural influences.

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  • Design of optimized hypoxia-activated prodrugs using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling

    Foehrenbacher, A; Secomb, TW; Wilson, William; Hicks, Kevin (2013-12-27)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Hypoxia contributes to resistance of tumors to some cytotoxic drugs and to radiotherapy, but can in principle be exploited with hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP). HAP in clinical development fall into two broad groups. Class I HAP (like the benzotriazine N-oxides tirapazamine and SN30000), are activated under relatively mild hypoxia. In contrast, Class II HAP (such as the nitro compounds PR-104A or TH-302) are maximally activated only under extreme hypoxia, but their active metabolites (effectors) diffuse to cells at intermediate O2 and thus also eliminate moderately hypoxic cells. Here, we use a spatially resolved pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (SR-PK/PD) model to compare these two strategies and to identify the features required in an optimal Class II HAP. The model uses a Green's function approach to calculate spatial and longitudinal gradients of O2, prodrug, and effector concentrations, and resulting killing in a digitized 3D tumor microregion to estimate activity as monotherapy and in combination with radiotherapy. An analogous model for a normal tissue with mild hypoxia and short intervessel distances (based on a cremaster muscle microvessel network) was used to estimate tumor selectivity of cell killing. This showed that Class II HAP offer advantages over Class I including higher tumor selectivity and greater freedom to vary prodrug diffusibility and rate of metabolic activation. The model suggests that the largest gains in class II HAP antitumor activity could be realized by optimizing effector stability and prodrug activation rates. We also use the model to show that diffusion of effector into blood vessels is unlikely to materially increase systemic exposure for realistic tumor burdens and effector clearances. However, we show that the tumor selectivity achievable by hypoxia-dependent prodrug activation alone is limited if dose-limiting normal tissues are even mildly hypoxic.

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  • Engagement and recruitment of M??ori and non-M??ori people of advanced age to LiLACS NZ

    Dyall, Lorna; Kepa, M; Hayman, Karen; Teh, Ruth; Moyes, Simon; Broad, Joanna; Kerse, Ngaire (2013-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand (LiLACS NZ) aims to determine the predictors of successful advanced ageing and understand the trajectories of wellbeing in advanced age. This paper reports recruitment strategies used to enrol 600 M??ori aged 80-90 years and 600 non-M??ori aged 85 years living within a defined geographic boundary.

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  • Self-organizing roles on Agile software development teams

    Hoda, Rashina; Noble, J; Marshall, S (2013)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Self-organizing teams have been recognized and studied in various forms-as autonomous groups in socio-technical systems, enablers of organizational theories, agents of knowledge management, and as examples of complex-adaptive systems. Over the last decade, self-organizing teams have taken center stage in software engineering when they were incorporated as a hallmark of Agile methods. Despite the long and rich history of self-organizing teams and their recent popularity with Agile methods, there has been little research on the topic within software wngineering. Particularly, there is a dearth of research on how Agile teams organize themselves in practice. Through a Grounded Theory research involving 58 Agile practitioners from 23 software organizations in New Zealand and India over a period of four years, we identified informal, implicit, transient, and spontaneous roles that make Agile teams self-organizing. These roles-Mentor, Coordinator, Translator, Champion, Promoter, and Terminator-are focused toward providing initial guidance and encouraging continued adherence to Agile methods, effectively managing customer expectations and coordinating customer collaboration, securing and sustaining senior management support, and identifying and removing team members threatening the self-organizing ability of the team. Understanding these roles will help software development teams and their managers better comprehend and execute their roles and responsibilities as a self-organizing team.

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