1,533 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland, 2013

  • Whiripapa: T??niko, Wh??nau and K??rero-Based Film Analysis

    Wilson, Jani (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The content of this thesis is the representation of M??ori in New Zealand film and in New Zealand film studies. The thesis, however, goes much further than this, in that I explore film theory, film audiences and film history, three crucial areas in the film studies discipline, and I consider these important aspects by theorising them through m??tauranga M??ori and m??tauranga-??-iwi parallels. My motivation has been to ensure M??ori and Pacific Island students of Film, Television and Media Studies (MAPIS) have a pathway to a deeper understanding of film studies. In the current teaching of New Zealand film studies, there is very little about M??ori outside Post-Colonial theory discourse, there are no specifically ???M??ori??? film audience studies, and there are very few M??ori scholars writing specifically in film history. This thesis, therefore, explores ways film studies could become more relevant to MAPIs, simply by using cultural theories that are generally taken-for-granted knowledge, and writing their own stories into New Zealand film history. The project weaves a ???whiripapa,??? a three-stranded cord or rope, with each strand representing a specific tool developed primarily as a point-of-commencement to support MAPIs in their study of film. In the theory strand I look at mahi-toi, and more specifically Whatu T??niko, a fine-finger weaving process and technique, to discuss theory and to inspire a film analysis tool to aid in the close reading of film texts from a specific world-view. The methodologies strand focuses on wh??nau-centred research groups called R??p?? Wh??nau, which have been conducted in four Hunga M??takitaki or viewing audiences amongst my two predominant hap??. The history strand borrows the k??rero shared in the R??p?? Wh??nau to construct a k??rero-based New Zealand film history. These k??rero are divided into four cinematic eras (silent cinema to 1939, 1940-1969, 1970s and 1980s, and the 1990s). I use the t??niko-based film analysis tool to analyse a selection of films (generally two or three) from each era, and centre each one on a constant through-line of k??rero. Although each tool in this thesis can stand on its own, the whiripapa acknowledges that the tools are more useful when each one is understood and interconnected with the other. Therefore this thesis continually interweaves t??niko, wh??nau and k??rero as the unbroken whiripapa through the centre. In developing these tools, m??tauranga becomes relevant to film studies, and as a result MAPIs are more likely to see success and, I hope, will excel in the discipline.

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  • Sources of Potroom Dust Emissions From Aluminium Smelters

    Wong, David (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    'Potroom dust', the air-suspended particulates in the potrooms of aluminium smelters, is a major source of particulate emissions from a smelter to the environment. With regulatory limits for total particulates continually tightening, there is an increasing need for smelters to understand the sources and pathways by which potroom dust is generated. Only armed with this understanding can smelters develop targeted strategies to reduce these emissions. Research has been undertaken to determine: firstly, the major sources of dust, by examining the compositional, morphological and particle size nature of dust; secondly, the mechanisms and operations by which this dust is generated; and thirdly, strategies that smelters can employ to reduce potroom dust. The study examined dust generation across four modern pre-bake, point-fed smelters, with varying raw materials properties and transport systems, operating practices and cell technologies. A robust sampling strategy was developed and adapted for each smelter, targeting airborne and settled dust across multiple potroom locations and elevations, particularly the operating floor and roof levels. Suspected sources of dust (pot fume, cover material, alumina) were also collected, 'fingerprinted' using XRD, SEM-EDS and particle sizing techniques, and compared with collected dust samples. Real-time studies also characterised dust generation in response to operations in the potroom, over entire cycles of operation. The study found a remarkable level of consistency between the four smelters, in the composition and key operational contributors to dust. Airborne dust differed significantly in composition from settled dust. Airborne dust from all smelters were high in bath or electrolyte content, being dominated by ultrafine particles of pot fume and condensed bath vapour; these originate from open cells, pot fume leakages from closed cells and from emission sources external to the pot. In contrast, settled dust varied from being predominantly cover material to 50/50 mixtures of cover and alumina; these originate from the loading of raw materials to cells and were dependent on the granulometry of cover (more cover-based dust where cover material was 'fine' as opposed to 'coarse') and the delivery method for feed alumina (more alumina-based dust where alumina was loaded to cells by crane as opposed to being conveyed). Despite an initial industry hypothesis, alumina fines were not found to be a major factor to dusting; however their role in potroom dust could not be discounted due to the presence of gibbsite (uncalcined alumina) in both settled and airborne dust. The study confirmed that potroom dust is largely generated by process-related sources, rather than those external to the potroom. Differences in airborne and settled dust point to differences in the particle size and hence mobility (aeration vs. settling behaviour) of their contributing sources. The major contributors to dust at a general smelter, as found by real-time studies, differed at the potroom roof and operating floor elevations. At the roof level, anode change was by far the most significant contributor to total dust (up to 25-60% at different smelters), followed by metal tapping, cover application, bath transfers and background emissions (not attributed to any identifiable activity, from pot fume leakage and recirculating dust). In contrast, at the operating floor level, background emissions represented the greatest contributor (up to 50-80% at different smelters) to total dust, followed by anode change, cover application, bath transfers, metal tapping, pot tending and heavy vehicle movements. Contributors were classified under two pathways for dust generation: newly generated dust (primary generation) from open-cells, pot external sources and pot fume leakage, and old recirculating dust (secondary generation) from re-aeration of settled dust by vehicles, wind/air movement and housekeeping activities. Pot fume was a major source of newly generated dust, being generated from operations with open-cells and hot, fuming materials (cooling anodes, bath cleanings), and was well associated with HF. Being very fine in particle size, pot fume is highly mobile and tends to escape through the roof. While dusting from cover and alumina also formed newly generated dust, they are coarser in size and less mobile than pot fume; hence these tend to form settled dust, which ultimately becomes a source of old recirculating dust. The significant role of anode change, cover application and metal tapping led to a test of high pot draft vs. normal draft at two smelters during these open-cell operations. In general, emission reductions during the three operations can be achieved using high draft; however the reductions achieved are impacted by the actual rates of draft increase (from normal to high draft) and can be masked by other significant pot-external emission sources, particularly cooling spent anodes/bath cleanings and recirculating dust from external winds. Minimising the number and duration of hoods removed for open-cell operations was also confirmed as an important strategy for reducing dust. Progressive removal of hoods on two test cells resulted in a steady increase in both dust and HF. The use of high draft significantly reduced open-cell emissions (50-80% reductions in dust for 1-3 hoods, compared to normal draft), however its effectiveness rapidly deteriorates with more hoods removed. Emissions measured with even 1 hood removed demonstrate that no 'safe level' of removed hoods can be assumed (even with high draft), and highlights the importance of hooding quality and pot sealing to minimise background dust from leakages of pot fume. While not tested, reducing the role of fines in cover, e.g. by using coarser crushed bath, was also recommended as an important strategy to reduce the settled dust in potrooms. Other suggested dust reduction strategies included: (i) redesigning cover and alumina loading systems to reduce dusting; (iii) reducing emissions of bath fume from spent anodes, cavity cleanings and liquid bath moulds using passive lids/covers; (iv) diversion of crucible exhausts during tapping back to the cell; and (v) increased focus on housekeeping to reduce settled dust inventories in the potroom and hence reduce recirculating dust.

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  • A glimpse of reality - what mathematical modelling at secondary school could look like

    Spooner, Kerri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore authentic mathematical modelling and use that experience to develop and research a genuine mathematical modelling experience for secondary school students. A classroom activity was developed and trialled with a group of New Zealand year 12 average ability students at a decile 10 school. The focus of the unit was the process of mathematical modelling. Data was collected on the classroom learning activities and what parts of the mathematical modelling process was remembered. The three data sources were student diaries, classroom assessment and student interviews. The results showed that an authentic modelling process is achievable within the restricted classroom environment. With the prompts provided in the classroom activity students coped well identifying the essential aspects of the situation being modelled, and there was good recall by all students for strategies to identify the essential aspects of the situation. Students did not do as well forming a model once they had identified the essential aspects. Further work is recommended in developing strategies to help students with the model formation stage. To allow for a full experience of the process of mathematical modelling more time is needed than was given to this activity.

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  • Review of the book: Theodore Roosevelt and the American Political Tradition, by Jean M. Yarbrough

    Taillon, Paul (2013-08)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Managing the Cosmetic Patient

    Locke, Michelle; Nahai, F (2013)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Post Metropolitan? British Settler Societies and the End of Empire

    Barnes, Felicity (2013-08-26)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Composition and thermal analysis of crust formed from industrial anode cover

    Zhang, Q; Taylor, Mark; Chen, John; Cotton, D; Groutzo, T; Yang, X (2013)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    When the anode cover is heated up in the reduction cell, the crust formation from the anode cover commences at the bottom and the process is driven by thermo-chemical processes. It is important to study the composition and thermal stability properties of the crust in order to understand the mechanisms of crust formation and deterioration. Several crust pieces were taken from industrial prebaked anode cells. A number of vertical crust sections were sampled from these pieces, and each section was analyzed for composition and phase change temperature. Results show that the bottom layer is enriched in cryolite, consistent with results published in the literature. The upper region was found to contain more chiolite. Crushed bath-based anode crust has higher CR than alumina based anode crust. The melting of chiolite in the crust leaves substantial macro-porosity there, which contributes to the absorption of NaAlF 4 and the penetration of bath through it. The formation conditions of crystalline crust were discussed.

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  • Discovery and preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis of 1,14-sperminediphenylacetamides as potent and selective antimalarial lead compounds

    Liew, Lydia; Kaiser, M; Copp, Brent (2013-01-15)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Screening of synthesized and isolated marine natural products for in vitro activity against four parasitic protozoa has identified the ascidian metabolite 1,14-sperminedihomovanillamide (orthidine F, 1) as being a non-toxic, moderate growth inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum (IC(50) 0.89 ??M). Preliminary structure-activity relationship investigation identified essentiality of the spermine polyamine core and the requirement for 1,14-disubstitution for potent activity. One analogue, 1,14-spermine-di-(2-hydroxyphenylacetamide) (3), exhibited two orders of magnitude increased anti-P. f activity (IC(50) 8.6 nM) with no detectable in vitro toxicity. The ease of synthesis of phenylacetamido-polyamines, coupled with potent nM levels of activity towards dual drug resistant strains of P. falciparum makes this compound class of interest in the development of new antimalarial therapeutics.

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  • Retinal amino acid neurochemistry of the southern hemisphere lamprey, Geotria australis

    Nivison-Smith, L; Collin, SP; Zhu, Y; Ready, S; Acosta Etchebarne, Monica; Hunt, DM; Potter, IC; Kalloniatis, M (2013-03-13)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Lampreys are one of the two surviving groups of the agnathan (jawless) stages in vertebrate evolution and are thus ideal candidates for elucidating the evolution of visual systems. This study investigated the retinal amino acid neurochemistry of the southern hemisphere lamprey Geotria australis during the downstream migration of the young, recently-metamorphosed juveniles to the sea and during the upstream migration of the fully-grown and sexually-maturing adults to their spawning areas. Glutamate and taurine were distributed throughout the retina, whilst GABA and glycine were confined to neurons of the inner retina matching patterns seen in most other vertebrates. Glutamine and aspartate immunoreactivity was closely matched to M??ller cell morphology. Between the migratory phases, few differences were observed in the distribution of major neurotransmitters i.e. glutamate, GABA and glycine, but changes in amino acids associated with retinal metabolism i.e. glutamine and aspartate, were evident. Taurine immunoreactivity was mostly conserved between migrant stages, consistent with its role in primary cell functions such as osmoregulation. Further investigation of glutamate signalling using the probe agmatine (AGB) to map cation channel permeability revealed entry of AGB into photoreceptors and horizontal cells followed by accumulation in inner retinal neurons. Similarities in AGB profiles between upstream and downstream migrant of G. australis confirmed the conservation of glutamate neurotransmission. Finally, calcium binding proteins, calbindin and calretinin were localized to the inner retina whilst recoverin was localized to photoreceptors. Overall, conservation of major amino acid neurotransmitters and calcium-associated proteins in the lamprey retina confirms these elements as essential features of the vertebrate visual system. On the other hand, metabolic elements of the retina such as neurotransmitter precursor amino acids and M??ller cells are more sensitive to environmental changes associated with migration.

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  • Octodon degus (Molina 1782): A model in comparative biology and biomedicine

    Ardiles, AO; Ewer, J; Acosta Etchebarne, Monica; Kirkwood, A; Martinez, AD; Ebensperger, LA; Bozinovic, F; Lee, TM; Palacios, AG (2013-04-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    One major goal of integrative and comparative biology is to understand and explain the interaction between the performance and behavior of animals in their natural environment. The Caviomorph, Octodon degu, is a native rodent species from Chile, and represents a unique model to study physiological and behavioral traits, including cognitive and sensory abilities. Degus live in colonies and have a well-structured social organization, with a mostly diurnal???crepuscular circadian activity pattern. More notable is the fact that in captivity, they reproduce and live between 5 and 7 yr and show hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases (including Alzheimer's disease), diabetes, and cancer.

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  • Mapping cation entry in photoreceptors and inner retinal neurons during early degeneration in the P23H-3 rat retina

    Zhu, Y; Mistra, S; Nivison-Smith, L; Acosta Etchebarne, Monica; Fletcher, EL; Kalloniatis, M (2013-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The proline-23-histidine line 3 (P23H-3) transgenic rat carries a human opsin gene mutation leading to progressive photoreceptor loss characteristic of human autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. The aim of the present study was to evaluate neurochemical modifications in the P23H-3 retina as a function of development and degeneration. Specifically, we investigated the ion channel permeability of photoreceptors by tracking an organic cation, agmatine (1-amino-4-guanidobutane, AGB), which permeates through nonspecific cation channels. We also investigated the activity of ionotropic glutamate receptors in distinct populations of bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells using AGB tracking in combination with macromolecular markers. We found elevated cation channel permeation in photoreceptors as early as postnatal day 12 (P12) suggesting that AGB labeling is an early indicator of impending photoreceptor degeneration. However, bipolar, amacrine, or ganglion cells displayed normal responses secondary to ionotropic glutamate receptor activation even at P138 when about one half of the photoreceptor layer was lost and apoptosis and gliosis were observed. These results suggest that possible therapeutic windows as downstream neurons in inner retina appear to retain normal function with regard to AGB permeation when photoreceptors are significantly reduced but not lost.

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  • Design considerations for selecting the number of point feeders in modern reduction cells

    Walker, ML; Purdie, JM; Wai-Poi, NS; Welch, BJ; Chen, John (2013-04-08)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Point feeding systems are now installed in most modern reduction cells in preference to bar breakers. The main reason for this choice is that point feeders allow improved alumina dissolution. However complete alumina dissolution is not an explicit design criterion for selecting the size of the alumina dump or the number of feeders required. In this paper, three performance criteria for determining the number of point feeders required in a cell are investigated. These are: acceptable alumina dissolution, satisfactory mixing to avoid concentration gradients and a satisfactory rate of alumina concentration increase after anode effect. Using a combination of laboratory data and measurements from industrial cells, it is shown that the alumina dissolution requirement is likely to be the most difficult to satisfy. Complete alumina dissolution upon addition is unlikely to be achieved with the point feeder designs installed in most modern cells. ?? 2013 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society. Published 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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  • The interaction between current efficiency and energy balance in aluminium reduction cells

    Stevens, FJ; Zhang, W; Taylor, Mark; Chen, John (2013-04-08)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    In aluminium reduction cells the current efficiency interacts with the energy balance through both the thermodynamics and the hydrodynamics of the reduction process. The overall enthalpy for the reduction reaction is endothermic and increases with current efficiency due to lower heat evolution from the re-oxidation reaction. Changes in current efficiency due to changed mass transfer conditions will lead to an energy deficit or surplus. This will occur predominantly in the electrolyte channels where the largest proportion of mass transfer-driven current efficiency loss occurs. Other sources of current efficiency loss such as electronic loss of faradaic current will further reduce the endothermic contribution of the reaction enthalpy and may cause localised energy surpluses. The energy balance directly affects the electrolyte temperature and composition. It also affects the volume of the liquid electrolyte and the shape and thickness of side freeze and crust, which determine the shape of the operating cavity. Bath composition and temperature determine the physical properties of the electrolyte which, along with the geometry of the flow cavity, influence the turbulence of the bubble-driven circulation and the disturbance to the electrolyte-metal interface. Both factors influence the mass transfer and hence, metal reoxidation rate. ?? 2013 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.

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  • Operational and control improvements in reduction lines at Aluminium Delfzijl

    Stam, MA; Taylor, Mark; Chen, John; Van Dellen, S (2013-04-08)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Nowadays viability of smelters requires operation of cells at or beyond known performance limits. At Aldel over the last ten years the intensity of electrical energy dissipation and alumina dissolution per cubic centimeter of liquid bath have increased by 50% as production (+40%) and specific energy consumption (-6%) have improved. The cell imbalances resulting from this increased intensity must be sensed quickly and their causes corrected or removed to maintain the cells in their most efficient operating zone. This defines a new control objective for smelting relating to diagnosis of causes of abnormality in strongly interactive multivariate processes. Timely identification of these causes of variation is linked to operational practice improvement and better control decisions in reduction lines. This paper describes smelter based improvement of operational practices and control decisions using the above objective. Statistical multivariate control surfaces are presented for operating cells and identified abnormal behaviours are discussed. ?? 2013 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.

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  • A water-model study of the ledge heat transfer in an aluminium cell

    Chen, John; Wei, CC; Ackland, AD (2013-04-08)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    A heat transfer probe was developed for studying the ledge heat transfer in a full-scale 3-D air-water model. Quantitative measurements were conducted to determine the bath/ledge heat transfer characteristics at various positions and different operating conditions. A similitude analysis was carried out to relate the measured point results to data available in the literature. A suggested range of heat transfer coefficients for the reduction cell is presented. Variation of the heat transfer were examined as a function of the anode bottom inclination, the position on the side ledge relative to the anode slot, and positions in the vertical direction. ?? 2013 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.

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  • The impact of cell ventilation on the top heat losses and fugitive emissions in an aluminium smelting cell

    Abbas, H; Taylor, Mark; Farid, Mohammed; Chen, John (2013-04-08)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Problems associated with aluminium smelting cell ventilation, caused by leakage of fume gases through pots superstructure gaps into the potroom, are normally solved by increasing the fume suction rate (draught) above certain levels. It is also known that, fugitive emissions are associated with reducing the draught below certain critical levels. Top heat losses are increasing in smelting cells as line amperage is raised. This drives further fugitive emissions through greater buoyancy of the fume/air mixture. A quantitative understanding of the relationship between fugitive emissions, superstructure tightness, top heat loss, and cell draught is crucial in the environmental context. It is also important if this top heat loss could be recovered for re-use. This problem is studied here computationally using the ANSYS-CFX software. Possibilities to improve cell ventilation and to decrease fugitive emissions are analysed for a typical industrial cell. The computed cell emissions and temperatures are compared with measured values. The impact of draught on ventilation and heat loss is also discussed

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  • Mixed pedagogic modalities: The potential for increased student engagement and success

    McPhail, Graham (2013)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper utilises the three theoretical scenarios or ???educational futures??? developed by Michael Young and Johan Muller as reference points for discussing the curriculum conception approaches observed in a recent doctoral study in music education. In using Young and Muller???s model to move from case specifics to broader understandings of curriculum change I argue that cognisance of the relationship between informal and formal knowledge is a key issue in music education. Because of the growing role of popular music in the classroom (Green, 2008) providing access for students to varied forms of knowledge has become an important aspect of teachers??? work. This work involves making connections between aspects of the everyday informal knowledge that many music students bring to the classroom, and the conceptual knowledge of the discipline. The challenges involved in reframing informal knowledge may be relevant in other curriculum areas, particularly where knowledge content is susceptible to socio-cultural influences.

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  • Informal and formal knowledge: The curriculum conception of two rock graduates

    McPhail, Graham (2013-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Informal learning has become a prominent theme in music education literature in recent times. Many writers have called for a new emphasis on informal knowledge and pedagogy as the way forward for music education. The position taken in this paper is that a central issue for music education is the accommodation of a tension between types of knowledge and the ways of knowing strongly associated with popular and classical of music ??? socially acquired informal knowledge and socially developed but formally acquired disciplinary knowledge. Approaches to curriculum conception and realisation observed in a recent series of case studies in New Zealand secondary schools suggest that a key factor in student engagement is the degree to which teachers can create links between informal and formal knowledge so that students??? understanding and conceptual abilities can be extended across these knowledge boundaries. The teaching approaches of two recent graduates in rock music are discussed to support the social realist argument that a ???progressive??? approach to curriculum involves creating links between informal and formal knowledge rather than replacing one with the other or dissolving the boundaries between them. Through seeing the two types of knowledge as necessarily interconnected within educational contexts, the epistemic integrity of classroom music is maintained. In this way students are able to recognise themselves and their aspirations while also recognising the potential and power of the foundational knowledge of the discipline.

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  • Developing student autonomy in the one-to-one music lesson

    McPhail, Graham (2013-05-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    As a practitioner in both the classroom and in the instrumental studio, I am interested in how one educational context might inform the other. Within an action research paradigm, I gave a violin lesson in front of colleagues as a means to gain feedback and to open up discussion on the concept of student autonomy within the one-to-one lesson. The enquiry was informed by recent literature within the music education field that calls for a new emphasis on informal learning principles and pedagogy for engaging students. I consider some of the key concepts of informal music learning from the influential Musical Futures classroom project as a means to reflect on the potential for developing student autonomy within the instrumental teaching context. Forms of knowledge and the distinction between knowledge content (the curriculum or ???the what??? of teaching) and the pedagogy (???the how???) are identified as significant conceptual distinctions for theorizing and realizing teachers??? work in the one-to-one context. I suggest that while traditional instrumental teaching models can be enhanced by informal and constructivist approaches to pedagogy, there are limits to the application of these principles because of the nature of the knowledge required in this learning context.

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  • The canon or the kids: Teachers and the recontextualisation of classical and popular music in the secondary curriculum

    McPhail, Graham (2013-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article reports on some of the findings from case studies conducted with six secondary school music teachers in New Zealand. The purpose of the study was to investigate and explain the ways in which teachers manage the relationship between classical and popular music in their elective classroom programs, utilizing a theoretical framework drawn from the work of educational sociologist Basil Bernstein and more recent social realist theory. In each case, the focus of the research was the teacher and the influences on their curriculum decision-making. Students in each music department were interviewed to triangulate teacher interviews and observations. The findings indicate that a significant tension is present between the affirmation and validation of students??? musical interests and pre-existing skills, and the development of the knowledge considered fundamental within the discipline. It is teachers??? ability to ???find a balance??? between these central concerns of their educational work that is significant in maintaining the epistemic integrity of a subject which has become strongly influenced by socio-cultural influences.

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