1,790 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland, 2014

  • Alzheimer's disease in the human eye. Clinical tests that identify ocular and visual information processing deficit as biomarkers

    Chang, Yu-Li; Lowe, J; Ardiles, A; Lim, Julie; Grey, Angus; Robertson, K; Danesh-Meyer, Helen; Palacios, AG; Acosta Etchebarne, Monica (2014-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia with progressive deterioration of memory and cognition. Complaints related to vision are common among AD patients. Several changes in the retina, lens, and in the vasculature have been noted in the AD eye that may be the cause of visual symptoms experienced by the AD patient. Anatomical changes have been detected within the eye before signs of cognitive impairment and memory loss are apparent. Unlike the brain, the eye is a unique organ that can be visualized noninvasively at the cellular level because of its transparent nature, which allows for inexpensive testing of biomarkers in a clinical setting. In this review, we have searched for candidate biomarkers that could enable diagnosis of AD, covering ocular neurodegeneration associated with functional tests. We explore the evidence that suggests that inexpensive, noninvasive clinical tests could be used to detect AD ocular biomarkers.

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  • The melting behaviour of aluminium smelter crust

    Zhang, Q; Taylor, Mark; Chen, John (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Crust is the bottom consolidated part of the anode cover, which plays an important role in the performance of aluminium reduction cells. The melting of the crust contributes to the deterioration of the anode cover. Several crust samples were taken from an aluminium smelter. A DTA system was established, and calibrated by measuring the melting temperature of cryolite. The DTA test results show that the melting temperature of the crust samples is depressed due to low cryolite ratio (CR) and high fluoride additives content. In chiolite enriched crust, incongruently melting of chiolite component at 725 ??C was detected. Because of the melting of cryolite in the liquid, the chiolite enriched crust had a broader melting temperature range than that with high CR. To our knowledge, few studies have discussed the melting temperature range of the crust and its impact on crust thermal stability at cell operating temperatures.

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  • Editor's note

    Burkart, P; Christensen, M; Semati, M; Zuberi, Nabeel (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Jo Haynes, (2013). Music, difference and the residue of race [Book review]

    Zuberi, Nabeel (2014)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • New throat fe chat: The voices and media of MC culture

    Zuberi, Nabeel (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Black popular music in Britain since 1945: An introduction

    Stratton, J; Zuberi, Nabeel (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Internet-based guided self-help versus group cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic tinnitus: A randomized controlled trial

    Jasper, K; Weise, C; Conrad, I; Andersson, G; Hiller, W; Kleinst??uber, Maria (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effects of conventional face-to-face group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) and an Internet-delivered guided self-help treatment (Internet-based CBT, ICBT) on tinnitus distress. Methods: A total of 128 adults with at least mild levels of chronic tinnitus distress were randomly assigned to GCBT (n = 43), ICBT (n = 41), or a web-based discussion forum (DF) that served as a control condition (n = 44). Standardized self-report measures [the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Mini-Tinnitus Questionnaire (Mini-TQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Index and Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire] were completed at the pre- and post-assessments and at the 6-month follow-up. Results: Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed significant time ?? group interaction effects on the primary outcomes (THI and Mini-TQ scores) in favor of both CBT interventions compared with the DF at post-assessment (0.56 ??? g ??? 0.93; all p ??? 0.001). There were no significant differences between GCBT and ICBT (all p > 0.05) and the treatment effects remained stable at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that ICBT might be an equally effective alternative to conventional CBT in the management of chronic tinnitus. Despite encouraging results, further research is necessary to determine the actual potential of ICBT as a viable alternative to CBT, and under which circumstances it is effective.

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  • Music teachers talking: views on secondary school curriculum content

    McPhail, Graham (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article reports on the views of secondary school music teachers in relation to curriculum content in New Zealand. We know very little about music teachers??? response to the cultural and educational changes of recent times and how these changes are being reflected and managed in their curriculum decision making. The article outlines and discusses responses obtained in a recent survey (N = 99). The data suggest that music teachers remain committed to progressive student-centred ideals as they struggle to balance demands for relevance in a crowded music curriculum with the changing nature of musical knowledge itself.

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  • Pharmacological interventions for somatoform disorders in adults

    Kleinst??uber, Maria; Witth??ft, M; Steffanowski, A; Van Marwijk, H; Hiller, W; Lambert, MJ (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Somatoform disorders are characterised by chronic, medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). Although different medications are part of treatment routines for people with somatoform disorders in clinics and private practices, there exists no systematic review or meta-analysis on the efficacy and tolerability of these medications. We aimed to synthesise to improve optimal treatment decisions. Objectives To assess the effects of pharmacological interventions for somatoform disorders (specifically somatisation disorder, undifferentiated somatoform disorder, somatoform autonomic dysfunction, and pain disorder) in adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group's Specialised Register (CCDANCTR) (to 17 January 2014). This register includes relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from The Cochrane Library (all years), MEDLINE (1950 to date), EMBASE (1974 to date), and PsycINFO (1967 to date). To identify ongoing trials, we searched ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials metaRegister, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and the Chinese Clinical Trials Registry. For grey literature, we searched ProQuest Dissertation & Theses Database, OpenGrey, and BIOSIS Previews. We handsearched conference proceedings and reference lists of potentially relevant papers and systematic reviews and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria We selected RCTs or cluster RCTs of pharmacological interventions versus placebo, treatment as usual, another medication, or a combination of different medications for somatoform disorders in adults. We included people fulfilling standardised diagnostic criteria for somatisation disorder, undifferentiated somatoform disorder, somatoform autonomic dysfunction, or somatoform pain disorder. Data collection and analysis One review author and one research assistant independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Primary outcomes included the severity of MUPS on a continuous measure, and acceptability of treatment. Main results We included 26 RCTs (33 reports), with 2159 participants, in the review. They examined the efficacy of different types of antidepressants, the combination of an antidepressant and an antipsychotic, antipsychotics alone, or natural products (NPs). The duration of the studies ranged between two and 12 weeks. One meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies showed no clear evidence of a significant difference between tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and placebo for the outcome severity of MUPS (SMD -0.13; 95% CI -0.39 to 0.13; 2 studies, 239 participants; I2 = 2%; low-quality evidence). For new-generation antidepressants (NGAs), there was very low-quality evidence showing they were effective in reducing the severity of MUPS (SMD -0.91; 95% CI -1.36 to -0.46; 3 studies, 243 participants; I2 = 63%). For NPs there was low-quality evidence that they were effective in reducing the severity of MUPS (SMD -0.74; 95% CI -0.97 to -0.51; 2 studies, 322 participants; I2 = 0%). One meta-analysis showed no clear evidence of a difference between TCAs and NGAs for severity of MUPS (SMD -0.16; 95% CI -0.55 to 0.23; 3 studies, 177 participants; I2 = 42%; low-quality evidence). There was also no difference between NGAs and other NGAs for severity of MUPS (SMD -0.16; 95% CI -0.45 to 0.14; 4 studies, 182 participants; I2 = 0%). Finally, one meta-analysis comparing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) with a combination of SSRIs and antipsychotics showed low-quality evidence in favour of combined treatment for severity of MUPS (SMD 0.77; 95% CI 0.32 to 1.22; 2 studies, 107 participants; I2 = 23%). Differences regarding the acceptability of the treatment (rate of all-cause drop-outs) were neither found between NGAs and placebo (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.61; 2 studies, 163 participants; I2 = 0%; low-quality evidence) or NPs and placebo (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.78; 3 studies, 506 participants; I2 = 0%; low-quality evidence); nor between TCAs and other medication (RR 1.48, 95% CI 0.59 to 3.72; 8 studies, 556 participants; I2 =14%; low-quality evidence); nor between antidepressants and the combination of an antidepressant and an antipsychotic (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.25 to 2.52; 2 studies, 118 participants; I2 = 0%; low-quality evidence). Percental attrition rates due to adverse effects were high in all antidepressant treatments (0% to 32%), but low for NPs (0% to 1.7%). The risk of bias was high in many domains across studies. Seventeen trials (65.4%) gave no information about random sequence generation and only two (7.7%) provided information about allocation concealment. Eighteen studies (69.2%) revealed a high or unclear risk in blinding participants and study personnel; 23 studies had high risk of bias relating to blinding assessors. For the comparison NGA versus placebo, there was relatively high imprecision and heterogeneity due to one outlier study. Although we identified 26 studies, each comparison only contained a few studies and small numbers of participants so the results were imprecise. Authors' conclusions The current review found very low-quality evidence for NGAs and low-quality evidence for NPs being effective in treating somatoform symptoms in adults when compared with placebo. There was some evidence that different classes of antidepressants did not differ in efficacy; however, this was limited and of low to very low quality. These results had serious shortcomings such as the high risk of bias, strong heterogeneity in the data, and small sample sizes. Furthermore, the significant effects of antidepressant treatment have to be balanced against the relatively high rates of adverse effects. Adverse effects produced by medication can have amplifying effects on symptom perceptions, particularly in people focusing on somatic symptoms without medical causes. We can only draw conclusions about short-term efficacy of the pharmacological interventions because no trial included follow-up assessments. For each of the comparisons where there were available data on acceptability rates (NGAs versus placebo, NPs versus placebo, TCAs versus other medication, and antidepressants versus a combination of an antidepressant and an antipsychotic), no clear differences between the intervention and comparator were found. Future high-quality research should be carried out to determine the effectiveness of medications other than antidepressants, to compare antidepressants more thoroughly, and to follow-up participants over longer periods (the longest follow up was just 12 weeks). Another idea for future research would be to include other outcomes such as functional impairment or dysfunctional behaviours and cognitions as well as the classical outcomes such as symptom severity, depression, or anxiety.

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  • Comparison of mechanical behaviors of several bulk metallic glasses for biomedical application

    Sun, Y; Huang, Y; Fan, H; Liu, F; Shen, J; Sun, J; Chen, John (2014-12-15)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Bulk metallic glass (BMG), Zr46Cu37.6Ag8.4Al8 (ZrCuAlAg), has been systematically evaluated in terms of microstructure, compressive properties, andwear resistance, aimed at exploring its use as a novel biomedical material. For comparison, the above-mentioned tests were also performed on Zr51.9Cu23.3Ni10.5Al14.3, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9, and Ti40Zr25Ni12Cu3Be20BMGs, pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. ZrCuAlAg BMGexhibits higher strength, higher hardness, and better wear resistance than other materials. All the results imply that the Ag-bearing ZrCuAlAg BMG with excellent mechanocompatibility will open up a new path for biomedical applications.

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  • The right to enhancement: Students talking about music knowledge in the secondary curriculum

    McPhail, Graham (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this paper the idea of social entitlement to conceptual knowledge is considered in relation to some data collected from students in a recent doctoral study centred on secondary school music teachers??? beliefs and actions in relation to curriculum conception. The data from students was collected as a means of triangulating the key focus of the study, the beliefs and actions of teachers; however, the student focus groups provide a rich source of information about students??? views of music at secondary school in New Zealand. In interpreting the student data I utilise thematic categories developed in the study but also Bernstein???s concepts of pedagogic rights and identities to consider whether students??? experience of the curriculum empowered them to look beyond what they already know to consider alternatives (Bernstein, 2000). Most students were able to recognise themselves and their aspirations within their school music departments while also recognising the potential importance of the theoretical knowledge of the discipline. The interplay between enabling pedagogy and curriculum content appears to be pivotal in developing these rights for students.

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  • Making connections: The nature and occurrence of links in literacy teaching and learning

    Parr, Judith; McNaughton, Stuart (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Making connections can facilitate learning in several ways, for example, linking new ideas to existing schema or cueing the use of available skills for use in different contexts. The paper focuses on links between reading and writing. Theory suggests common processes operate in reading and writing that are mutually supportive in learning; empirically the relationship between performance in reading and writing is significant. There is evidence that specific writing practices can improve reading and, similarly, that reading can impact writing. This paper presents and applies empirically a framework for analysing the nature of the links that teachers make in literacy learning settings. The framework encompasses both the sites for, and the types of, connection; it is applied using observations and the associated transcripts from two corpora of literacy lessons from guided reading and teacher-led segments of writing lessons at the primary school level. The framework and these data provide a tentative indication of typical practice and important information for professional learning.

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  • Exploring the impact of personal connections and selected Individual factors on the ethical judgment and behavioural intentions of Nigerian Estate Surveyors and Valuers

    Amidu, Abdul-Rasheed; Agboola, AO; Gbadegesin, JT (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study focused on two components (ethical judgment and behavioural intentions) of Rest???s (1986) four-component model of ethical decision-making. More speci cally, the study investigated ethical judgment of valuers and the impact of personal factors and personal connections on their ethical judgment and behavioural intentions. The results of this study, though somewhat counterintuitive, suggest that responding estate surveyors and valuers who have attained the highest level of professional certi cation are more likely to develop unethical behavioural intentions. However, the results of the study do provide new insights into the relationship between an estate surveyor and valuer???s ethical judgment and personal connections orientation.

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  • EA: Research-infused teaching of parallel programming concepts for undergraduate Software Engineering students

    Giacaman, Nasser; Sinnen, Oliver (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper presents experience using a research-infused teaching approach towards an undergraduate parallel programming course. The research-teaching nexus is applied at various levels, first by using research-led teaching of core parallel programming concepts, as well as teaching the latest developments from the affiliated research group. The bulk of the course, however, focuses more on the student-driven research-based and research-tutored teaching approaches, where students actively participate in groups on research projects, students are fully immersed in the learning activity of their respective project, while at the same time participating in discussions of wider parallel programming topics across other groups. This intimate affiliation between the undergraduate course and the research group results in a wide range of benefits for all those involved.

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  • Advanced dual composition control for high-purity multi-component distillation column

    Udugama, IA; Munir, TM; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Young, Brent; Yu, Wei (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The control of industrial dual high-purity methanol distillation columns is complicated since there are non-linearities involved. Due to economic factors, these distillation columns have strict product ethanol specification (less than 10 ppm), and require a high level of product recovery. Because of environmental factors the bottoms flow cannot contain more than 5 ppm of methanol for a prolonged period. Industrial methanol producers achieve this target by over refluxing the distillation column which creates a plant bottleneck. In this work, a control scheme was proposed to control a real life industrial dual high-purity methanol distillation column without exceeding specifications set by a commercial methanol producer with minimal reflux ratio. The control scheme keeps the product specification at the top by controlling the product flow, while an ethanol profile composition analyser located nearby the side draw is used to control the reboiler duty. The simulation results show that the proposed method can provide a reliable set-point track performance.

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  • Effect of catalyst performance on high purity industrial methanol distillation

    Udugama, IA; Roberts, A; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Yu, Wei; Young, Brent (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The industrial synthesis of crude methanol from natural gas has improved a great deal in past decades due to improvements in catalyst performance. This has significantly reduced the ethanol in distillation feed from 600 ppm to 150 ppm, making the separation much easier. However most plants in operation today date back decades and some operate the distillation columns under outdated operating ideologies. This paper uses a reliable multicomponent high purity distillation model built using commercial simulator software to investigate the effect of improvements in catalyst performance on distillation. This information is then used to determine optimal recovery and throughput operating conditions for different economic situations.

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  • A texture-processing model of the 'visual sense of number'

    Morgan, M; Raphael, S; Tibber, M; Dakin, Steven (2014-09-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    It has been suggested that numerosity is an elementary quality of perception, similar to colour. If so (and despite considerable investigation), its mechanism remains unknown. Here, we show that observers require on average a massive difference of approximately 40% to detect a change in the number of objects that vary irrelevantly in blur, contrast and spatial separation, and that some naive observers require even more than this. We suggest that relative numerosity is a type of texture discrimination and that a simple model computing the contrast energy at fine spatial scales in the image can perform at least as well as human observers. Like some human observers, this mechanism finds it harder to discriminate relative numerosity in two patterns with different degrees of blur, but it still outpaces the human. We propose energy discrimination as a benchmark model against which more complex models and new data can be tested.

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  • Ontogeny and control of the heart rate power spectrum in the last third of gestation in fetal sheep

    Koome, ME; Bennet, Laura; Booth, LC; Davidson, Joanne; Wassink, Guido; Gunn, Alistair (2014-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Power spectral analysis of fetal heart rate variability has been proposed to provide a non-invasive estimate of autonomic balance. However, there are few systematic data before birth. We therefore examined developmental changes in the frequency power spectrum at very low (0-0.04 Hz), low (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high (0.15-0.4 Hz) frequencies, and the ratio of low- to high-frequency power (LF/HF) in chronically catheterised, healthy fetal sheep at 0.6 (n = 8), 0.7 (n = 7) and 0.8 gestation age (ga, n = 11). In a second study, 0.8 ga fetuses received either atropine (4.8 mg bolus, then 4.8 mg/h for 30 minutes, n = 6) or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 20 mg/ml at 2.5 ml/h for 3 h, n = 9). Data were analysed by sleep state defined by low voltage-high frequency (LV) or high voltage-low frequency (HV) EEG. Total spectral power increased with gestational age (P < 0.05), while LF/HF decreased from 0.6 to 0.7 ga. At 0.8 ga, heart rate and LF/HF were significantly higher during HV than LV sleep (P < 0.05). Consistent with this, although total spectral power was not significantly greater during HV sleep, there was a significant interaction between sleep state and frequency band (P = 0.02). Both atropine (P = 0.05) and 6-OHDA (P < 0.05) were associated with an overall reduction in spectral power but no significant effect on the LF/HF ratio. This study does not support substantial, consistent differences between the frequencies of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity in late gestation fetal sheep.

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  • Parallel scheduling of task trees with limited memory

    Eyraud-Dubois, L; Marchal, L; Sinnen, Oliver; Vivien, F (2014-10-01)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper investigates the execution of tree-shaped task graphs using multiple processors. Each edge of such a tree represents some large data. A task can only be executed if all input and output data fit into memory, and a data can only be removed from memory after the completion of the task that uses it as an input data. Such trees arise, for instance, in the multifrontal method of sparse matrix factorization. The peak memory needed for the processing of the entire tree depends on the execution order of the tasks. With one processor the objective of the tree traversal is to minimize the required memory. This problem was well studied and optimal polynomial algorithms were proposed. Here, we extend the problem by considering multiple processors, which is of obvious interest in the application area of matrix factorization. With multiple processors comes the additional objective to minimize the time needed to traverse the tree, i.e., to minimize the makespan. Not surprisingly, this problem proves to be much harder than the sequential one. We study the computational complexity of this problem and provide inapproximability results even for unit weight trees. We design a series of practical heuristics achieving different trade-offs between the minimization of peak memory usage and makespan. Some of these heuristics are able to process a tree while keeping the memory usage under a given memory limit. The different heuristics are evaluated in an extensive experimental evaluation using realistic trees.

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  • Electrical circuit creation on Android

    Xu, DD; Hy, M; Kalra, S; Yan, D; Giacaman, Nasser; Sinnen, Oliver (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Most modern circuit design applications use a drag-and-drop approach to circuit creation. This can be both slow and unintuitive. This paper presents Voltique Designer, an Android-based circuit creation tool. The app seeks to combine the benefit of electronic circuit creation with the ease of hand drawing. Using RATA.SSR, Voltique Designer can recognize hand-drawn circuit components. The app analyses the circuit on the fly with a localized version of NGSPICE. User testing shows that Voltique Designer is quick to learn and easy to use compared to existing applications. An electronic logbook app called Montique is developed in conjunction with Voltique Designer.

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