1,801 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland, 2014

  • Dwelling within political violence: Palestinian women's narratives of home, mental health, and resilience.

    Sousa, CA; Kemp, Susan; El-Zuhairi, M (2014-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Political violence is increasingly played out within everyday civilian environments, particularly family homes. Yet, within the literature on political violence and mental health, the role of threats to home remains under-explored. Using focus group data from 32 Palestinian women, this paper explores the implications of violations to the home within political violence. Threats to the privacy, control, and constancy of the family home ??? key dimensions of ontological security (Giddens, 1990) emerged as central themes in women???s narratives. Surveillance, home invasions, and actual or threatened destruction of women???s home environments provoked fear, anxiety, grief, humiliation, and helplessness, particularly as women struggled to protect their children. Women also described how they mobilized the home for economic, familial and cultural survival. Study findings illuminate the impact of threats to intimate environments on the well-being of women and their families living with chronic political violence, and underscore the importance of attention to violations of place and home in research on civilian experiences of and responses to political violence.

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  • Strengths-based practice and parental engagement in child welfare services: An empirical examination

    Kemp, Susan; Marcenko, MO; Lyons, SJ; Kruzich, JM (2014-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Child welfare policy and practice increasingly emphasize the use of strength-based practice in concert with efforts to reduce identified risks to child safety. Compared with strategies for assessing risk, however, strength-based child welfare interventions lack a robust empirical foundation. Using data from a linked sample of primary caregivers (n = 679) and child welfare caseworkers (n = 327), the present study used path analysis to examine the relationship between parent report of workers' use of strength-based practice and parent investment in child welfare services. The study also examined the role of worker characteristics, organizational factors, child placement status, and parent risk factors. As hypothesized, parents' perceptions regarding their workers' use of strength-based practices robustly predicted their buy-in to services. Furthermore, those parents with a child in out-of-home placement, compared to those receiving in-home services, were less likely to perceive their worker as strength-based or to engage in services. The only significant organizational variable was workers' positive challenge, directly influencing strength-based practices and indirectly affecting parent engagement. Further, parents who reported using substances and those experiencing more economic hardship were more likely to buy-in to services. The findings provide empirical support for the link between parents' willingness to engage in services and the use of strength-based interventions, and contribute to current discussions regarding the appropriate balance between reducing risks to child safety and strengthening family capacities.

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  • Review of the book: Weavers of Dreams, Unite! Actors' Unionism in Early Twentieth-Century America, by Sean P. Holmes

    Taillon, Paul (2014-06-01)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Grand accomplishments in social work

    Sherraden, M; Stuart, P; Angell, B; Barth, RP; Mahoney, K; Kemp, Susan; Brekke, J; Lubben, J; Padilla, Y; Hawkins, JD; DiNitto, D; Coulton, C; Padgett, D; McRoy, R; Schroepfer, T; Walters, K; Catalano, R; Healy, L (2014-02)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Partial protective effect of intranasal immunization with recombinant Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein 17 against toxoplasmosis in mice

    Wang, H-L; Zhang, T-E; Yin, L-T; Pang, M; Guan, L; Liu, H-L; Zhang, J-H; Meng, X-L; Bai, Jizhong; Zheng, G-P; Yin, G-R (2014-09-25)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a variety of mammals, including humans. An effective vaccine for this parasite is therefore needed. In this study, RH strain T. gondii rhoptry protein 17 was expressed in bacteria as a fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the recombinant proteins (rTgROP17) were purified via GST-affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice were nasally immunised with rTgROP17, and induction of immune responses and protection against chronic and lethal T. gondii infections were investigated. The results revealed that mice immunised with rTgROP17 produced high levels of specific anti-rTgROP17 IgGs and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response of IgG2a predominance. The systemic immune response was associated with increased production of Th1 (IFN-??and IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines, and enhanced lymphoproliferation (stimulation index, SI) in the mice immunised with rTgROP17. Strong mucosal immune responses with increased secretion of TgROP17-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes were also observed in these mice. The vaccinated mice displayed apparent protection against chronic RH strain infection as evidenced by their lower liver and brain parasite burdens (59.17% and 49.08%, respectively) than those of the controls. The vaccinated mice also exhibited significant protection against lethal infection of the virulent RH strain (survival increased by 50%) compared to the controls. Our data demonstrate that rTgROP17 can trigger strong systemic and mucosal immune responses against T. gondii and that ROP17 is a promising candidate vaccine for toxoplasmosis.

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  • Climate change and health: on the latest IPCC report

    Woodward, Alistair; Smith, KR; Campbell-Lendrum, D; Chadee, DD; Honda, Y; Liu, Q; Olwoch, J; Revich, B; Sauerborn, R; Chafe, Z; Confalonieri, U; Haines, A (2014-04-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Florida Automated Water Conservation Estimation Tool overview

    Castaneda, MA; Mason, Andrew; Geursen, V (2014-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Sildenafil alters retinal function in mouse carriers of Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Nivison-Smith, L; Zhu, Y; Whatham, A; Bui, BV; Fletcher, EL; Acosta Etchebarne, Monica; Kalloniatis, Michael (2014-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Sildenafil, the active ingredient in Viagra, has been reported to cause transient visual disturbance from inhibition of phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6), a key enzyme in the visual phototransduction pathway. This study investigated the effects of sildenafil on the rd1(+/-) mouse, a model for carriers of Retinitis Pigmentosa which exhibit normal vision but may have a lower threshold for cellular stress caused by sildenafil due to a heterozygous mutation in PDE6. Sildenafil caused a dose-dependent decrease in electroretinogram (ERG) responses of normal mice which mostly recovered two days post administration. In contrast, rd1(+/-) mice exhibited a significantly reduced photoreceptor and a supernormal bipolar cell response to sildenafil within 1 h of treatment. Carrier mice retinae took two weeks to return to baseline levels suggesting sildenafil has direct effects on both the inner and outer retina and these effects differ significantly between normal and carrier mice. Anatomically, an increase in expression of the early apoptotic marker, cytochrome C in rd1(+/-) mice indicated that the effects of sildenafil on visual function may lead to degeneration. The results of this study are significant considering approximately 1 in 50 people are likely to be carriers of recessive traits leading to retinal degeneration.

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  • Vinpocetine regulates cation channel permeability of inner retinal neurons in the ischaemic retina

    Nivison-Smith, L; Acosta Etchebarne, Monica; Misra, Stuti; O'Brien, BJ; Kalloniatis, Michael (2014-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Vinpocetine is a natural drug which exerts neuroprotective effects in ischaemia of the brain through actions on cation channels, glutamate receptors and other pathways. This study investigated the effect of vinpocetine on cation channel permeability of inner retinal neurons after acute retinal metabolic insult. We focused on amacrine and ganglion cells immunoreactive for calretinin or parvalbumin due to their previously documented susceptibility to ischaemia. Using the probe, 1-amino-4-guanidobutane (AGB), we observed increased cation channel permeability across amacrine and ganglion cells under ischaemia and hypoglycaemia but not anoxia. Calretinin and parvalbumin immunoreactivity was also reduced during ischaemia and hypoglyacemia but not anoxia. Vinpocetine decreased AGB entry into ischaemic and hypoglycaemic ganglion cells indicating that the drug can modulate unregulated cation entry. In addition, vinpocetine prevented the loss of calretinin and parvalbumin immunoreactivity following ischaemia suggesting it may indirectly regulate intracellular calcium. Vinpocetine also reduced AGB permeability in selected amacrine and ganglion cell populations following N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) but not kainate activation suggesting that vinpocetine's regulation of cation channel permeability may partly involve NMDA sensitive glutamate receptors.

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  • Gap junction proteins in the light-damaged albino rat

    Guo, Xiaopeng; Tran, H; Green, Colin; Danesh-Meyer, Helen; Acosta Etchebarne, Monica (2014-05-27)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    PURPOSE: Changes in connexin expression are associated with many pathological conditions seen in animal models and in humans. We hypothesized that gap junctions are important mediators in tissue dysfunction and injury processes in the retina, and therefore, we investigated the pattern of connexin protein expression in the light-damaged albino rat eye. METHODS: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intense light for 24 h. The animals were euthanized, and ocular tissue was harvested at 0 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 7 days after light damage. The tissues were processed for immunohistochemistry and western blotting to analyze the expression of the gap junction proteins in the light-damaged condition compared to the non-light-damaged condition. Cell death was detected using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique. RESULTS: Intense light exposure caused increased TUNEL labeling of photoreceptor cells. Immunocytochemistry revealed that connexin 36 (Cx36) was significantly increased in the inner plexiform layer and Cx45 was significantly decreased in the light-damaged retina. The pattern of Cx36 and Cx45 labeling returned to normal 7 days after light damage. Cx43 significantly increased in the RPE and the choroid in the light-damaged tissue, and decreased but not significantly in the retina. This elevated Cx43 expression in the choroid colocalized with markers of nitration-related oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine) and inflammation (CD45 and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1) in the choroid. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that connexins are regulated differently in the retina than in the choroid in response to photoreceptor damage. Changes in connexins, including Cx36, Cx43, and Cx45, may contribute to the damage process. Specifically, Cx43 was associated with inflammatory damage. Therefore, connexins may be candidate targets for treatment for ameliorating disease progression.

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  • Alzheimer's disease in the human eye. Clinical tests that identify ocular and visual information processing deficit as biomarkers

    Chang, Yu-Li; Lowe, J; Ardiles, A; Lim, Julie; Grey, Angus; Robertson, K; Danesh-Meyer, Helen; Palacios, AG; Acosta Etchebarne, Monica (2014-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia with progressive deterioration of memory and cognition. Complaints related to vision are common among AD patients. Several changes in the retina, lens, and in the vasculature have been noted in the AD eye that may be the cause of visual symptoms experienced by the AD patient. Anatomical changes have been detected within the eye before signs of cognitive impairment and memory loss are apparent. Unlike the brain, the eye is a unique organ that can be visualized noninvasively at the cellular level because of its transparent nature, which allows for inexpensive testing of biomarkers in a clinical setting. In this review, we have searched for candidate biomarkers that could enable diagnosis of AD, covering ocular neurodegeneration associated with functional tests. We explore the evidence that suggests that inexpensive, noninvasive clinical tests could be used to detect AD ocular biomarkers.

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  • The melting behaviour of aluminium smelter crust

    Zhang, Q; Taylor, Mark; Chen, John (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Crust is the bottom consolidated part of the anode cover, which plays an important role in the performance of aluminium reduction cells. The melting of the crust contributes to the deterioration of the anode cover. Several crust samples were taken from an aluminium smelter. A DTA system was established, and calibrated by measuring the melting temperature of cryolite. The DTA test results show that the melting temperature of the crust samples is depressed due to low cryolite ratio (CR) and high fluoride additives content. In chiolite enriched crust, incongruently melting of chiolite component at 725 ??C was detected. Because of the melting of cryolite in the liquid, the chiolite enriched crust had a broader melting temperature range than that with high CR. To our knowledge, few studies have discussed the melting temperature range of the crust and its impact on crust thermal stability at cell operating temperatures.

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  • Editor's note

    Burkart, P; Christensen, M; Semati, M; Zuberi, Nabeel (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Jo Haynes, (2013). Music, difference and the residue of race [Book review]

    Zuberi, Nabeel (2014)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • New throat fe chat: The voices and media of MC culture

    Zuberi, Nabeel (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Black popular music in Britain since 1945: An introduction

    Stratton, J; Zuberi, Nabeel (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Internet-based guided self-help versus group cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic tinnitus: A randomized controlled trial

    Jasper, K; Weise, C; Conrad, I; Andersson, G; Hiller, W; Kleinst??uber, Maria (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effects of conventional face-to-face group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) and an Internet-delivered guided self-help treatment (Internet-based CBT, ICBT) on tinnitus distress. Methods: A total of 128 adults with at least mild levels of chronic tinnitus distress were randomly assigned to GCBT (n = 43), ICBT (n = 41), or a web-based discussion forum (DF) that served as a control condition (n = 44). Standardized self-report measures [the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Mini-Tinnitus Questionnaire (Mini-TQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Index and Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire] were completed at the pre- and post-assessments and at the 6-month follow-up. Results: Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed significant time ?? group interaction effects on the primary outcomes (THI and Mini-TQ scores) in favor of both CBT interventions compared with the DF at post-assessment (0.56 ??? g ??? 0.93; all p ??? 0.001). There were no significant differences between GCBT and ICBT (all p > 0.05) and the treatment effects remained stable at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that ICBT might be an equally effective alternative to conventional CBT in the management of chronic tinnitus. Despite encouraging results, further research is necessary to determine the actual potential of ICBT as a viable alternative to CBT, and under which circumstances it is effective.

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  • Music teachers talking: views on secondary school curriculum content

    McPhail, Graham (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article reports on the views of secondary school music teachers in relation to curriculum content in New Zealand. We know very little about music teachers??? response to the cultural and educational changes of recent times and how these changes are being reflected and managed in their curriculum decision making. The article outlines and discusses responses obtained in a recent survey (N = 99). The data suggest that music teachers remain committed to progressive student-centred ideals as they struggle to balance demands for relevance in a crowded music curriculum with the changing nature of musical knowledge itself.

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  • Pharmacological interventions for somatoform disorders in adults

    Kleinst??uber, Maria; Witth??ft, M; Steffanowski, A; Van Marwijk, H; Hiller, W; Lambert, MJ (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Somatoform disorders are characterised by chronic, medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). Although different medications are part of treatment routines for people with somatoform disorders in clinics and private practices, there exists no systematic review or meta-analysis on the efficacy and tolerability of these medications. We aimed to synthesise to improve optimal treatment decisions. Objectives To assess the effects of pharmacological interventions for somatoform disorders (specifically somatisation disorder, undifferentiated somatoform disorder, somatoform autonomic dysfunction, and pain disorder) in adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group's Specialised Register (CCDANCTR) (to 17 January 2014). This register includes relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from The Cochrane Library (all years), MEDLINE (1950 to date), EMBASE (1974 to date), and PsycINFO (1967 to date). To identify ongoing trials, we searched ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials metaRegister, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and the Chinese Clinical Trials Registry. For grey literature, we searched ProQuest Dissertation & Theses Database, OpenGrey, and BIOSIS Previews. We handsearched conference proceedings and reference lists of potentially relevant papers and systematic reviews and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria We selected RCTs or cluster RCTs of pharmacological interventions versus placebo, treatment as usual, another medication, or a combination of different medications for somatoform disorders in adults. We included people fulfilling standardised diagnostic criteria for somatisation disorder, undifferentiated somatoform disorder, somatoform autonomic dysfunction, or somatoform pain disorder. Data collection and analysis One review author and one research assistant independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Primary outcomes included the severity of MUPS on a continuous measure, and acceptability of treatment. Main results We included 26 RCTs (33 reports), with 2159 participants, in the review. They examined the efficacy of different types of antidepressants, the combination of an antidepressant and an antipsychotic, antipsychotics alone, or natural products (NPs). The duration of the studies ranged between two and 12 weeks. One meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies showed no clear evidence of a significant difference between tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and placebo for the outcome severity of MUPS (SMD -0.13; 95% CI -0.39 to 0.13; 2 studies, 239 participants; I2 = 2%; low-quality evidence). For new-generation antidepressants (NGAs), there was very low-quality evidence showing they were effective in reducing the severity of MUPS (SMD -0.91; 95% CI -1.36 to -0.46; 3 studies, 243 participants; I2 = 63%). For NPs there was low-quality evidence that they were effective in reducing the severity of MUPS (SMD -0.74; 95% CI -0.97 to -0.51; 2 studies, 322 participants; I2 = 0%). One meta-analysis showed no clear evidence of a difference between TCAs and NGAs for severity of MUPS (SMD -0.16; 95% CI -0.55 to 0.23; 3 studies, 177 participants; I2 = 42%; low-quality evidence). There was also no difference between NGAs and other NGAs for severity of MUPS (SMD -0.16; 95% CI -0.45 to 0.14; 4 studies, 182 participants; I2 = 0%). Finally, one meta-analysis comparing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) with a combination of SSRIs and antipsychotics showed low-quality evidence in favour of combined treatment for severity of MUPS (SMD 0.77; 95% CI 0.32 to 1.22; 2 studies, 107 participants; I2 = 23%). Differences regarding the acceptability of the treatment (rate of all-cause drop-outs) were neither found between NGAs and placebo (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.61; 2 studies, 163 participants; I2 = 0%; low-quality evidence) or NPs and placebo (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.78; 3 studies, 506 participants; I2 = 0%; low-quality evidence); nor between TCAs and other medication (RR 1.48, 95% CI 0.59 to 3.72; 8 studies, 556 participants; I2 =14%; low-quality evidence); nor between antidepressants and the combination of an antidepressant and an antipsychotic (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.25 to 2.52; 2 studies, 118 participants; I2 = 0%; low-quality evidence). Percental attrition rates due to adverse effects were high in all antidepressant treatments (0% to 32%), but low for NPs (0% to 1.7%). The risk of bias was high in many domains across studies. Seventeen trials (65.4%) gave no information about random sequence generation and only two (7.7%) provided information about allocation concealment. Eighteen studies (69.2%) revealed a high or unclear risk in blinding participants and study personnel; 23 studies had high risk of bias relating to blinding assessors. For the comparison NGA versus placebo, there was relatively high imprecision and heterogeneity due to one outlier study. Although we identified 26 studies, each comparison only contained a few studies and small numbers of participants so the results were imprecise. Authors' conclusions The current review found very low-quality evidence for NGAs and low-quality evidence for NPs being effective in treating somatoform symptoms in adults when compared with placebo. There was some evidence that different classes of antidepressants did not differ in efficacy; however, this was limited and of low to very low quality. These results had serious shortcomings such as the high risk of bias, strong heterogeneity in the data, and small sample sizes. Furthermore, the significant effects of antidepressant treatment have to be balanced against the relatively high rates of adverse effects. Adverse effects produced by medication can have amplifying effects on symptom perceptions, particularly in people focusing on somatic symptoms without medical causes. We can only draw conclusions about short-term efficacy of the pharmacological interventions because no trial included follow-up assessments. For each of the comparisons where there were available data on acceptability rates (NGAs versus placebo, NPs versus placebo, TCAs versus other medication, and antidepressants versus a combination of an antidepressant and an antipsychotic), no clear differences between the intervention and comparator were found. Future high-quality research should be carried out to determine the effectiveness of medications other than antidepressants, to compare antidepressants more thoroughly, and to follow-up participants over longer periods (the longest follow up was just 12 weeks). Another idea for future research would be to include other outcomes such as functional impairment or dysfunctional behaviours and cognitions as well as the classical outcomes such as symptom severity, depression, or anxiety.

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  • Comparison of mechanical behaviors of several bulk metallic glasses for biomedical application

    Sun, Y; Huang, Y; Fan, H; Liu, F; Shen, J; Sun, J; Chen, John (2014-12-15)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Bulk metallic glass (BMG), Zr46Cu37.6Ag8.4Al8 (ZrCuAlAg), has been systematically evaluated in terms of microstructure, compressive properties, andwear resistance, aimed at exploring its use as a novel biomedical material. For comparison, the above-mentioned tests were also performed on Zr51.9Cu23.3Ni10.5Al14.3, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9, and Ti40Zr25Ni12Cu3Be20BMGs, pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. ZrCuAlAg BMGexhibits higher strength, higher hardness, and better wear resistance than other materials. All the results imply that the Ag-bearing ZrCuAlAg BMG with excellent mechanocompatibility will open up a new path for biomedical applications.

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