1,946 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland, 2015

  • Review of the book: Progressives at War: William G. McAdoo and Newton D. Baker, 1863-1941, by Douglas B. Craig

    Taillon, Paul (2015-07)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Preparing emerging doctoral scholars for transdisciplinary research: A developmental approach

    Kemp, Susan; Nurius, PS (2015)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Research models that bridge disciplinary, theoretical, and methodological boundaries are increasingly common as funders and the public push for effective responses to pressing social problems. Although social work is inherently an integrative discipline, there is growing recognition of the need to better prepare emerging scholars for sophisticated transdisciplinary and translational research environments. This article outlines a developmental, competency-oriented approach to enhancing the readiness of doctoral students and emerging scholars in social work and allied disciplines for transdisciplinary research, describes an array of pedagogical tools applicable in doctoral course work, and urges coordinated attention to enhancing the field???s transdisciplinary training capacity.

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  • Strengthening the social response to the human impacts of climate change

    Kemp, Susan; Palinkas, LA; Wong, M; Wagner, K; Reyes Mason, L; Chi, I; Nurius, P; Floersch, J; Rechkemmer, A (2015-01)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    The United States and other contemporary societies face unprecedented environmental challenges as a result of climate change and escalating urbanization, ranging from acute hazards (e.g., natural disasters) to chronic, slow-onset stressors (e.g., prolonged drought, rising urban pollution levels, intransigent urban spatial inequities). These challenges threaten human health and well-being; destabilize assets, coping capacities, and response infrastructures; and substantially increase the number of socially, economically, and psychologically vulnerable individuals and communities. They disproportionately affect populations of lower economic privilege or social status, disrupting employment and income, escalating food insecurity, and degrading the ecologically vulnerable, inadequately resourced locations where poor and marginalized groups often live. Environmental inequities are also social inequities, with significant social justice implications. Social work is positioned to play a key role in developing and implementing innovative strategies to anticipate, mitigate, and respond to the social and human dimensions of environmental challenges. Core areas for social work leadership include (1) local, national, and international disaster preparedness and response; (2) assistance to dislocated populations; (3) collaborative capacity building to mobilize and strengthen place-based, community-level resilience, assets, and action; and (4) advocacy to elevate public and policy attention to the social and human dimensions of environmental change.

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  • Backscatter measurements by seafloor-mapping sonars. Guidelines and Recommendations

    Lurton, X; Lamarche, Geoffroy; Brown, C; Lucieer, V; Rice, G; Schimel, A; Weber, T (2015-05)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • GAAR (Anti-Avoidance) v GAAR (Anti-Abuse)

    Cassidy, Julie (2015-01-20)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Nations such as New Zealand and recently the United Kingdom have sought to tackle the problem of tax avoidance through General Anti-Avoidance Rules (???GAAR???s) rather than relying solely on specific Targeted Anti-Avoidance Rules (???TAAR???s). The New Zealand GAAR (ss BG1 and GA1 Income Tax Act 2007 (???ITA 2007???)) can be traced back to s 40 Land and Income Tax Assessment Act 1891. By contrast, the United Kingdom has long resisted calls for the enactment of a GAAR, relying instead on judicially developed doctrines. The comparatively recent enacted Part 5 of the Finance Act 2013 incorporates this Nation???s first GAAR, operative from 17 July 2013. This paper critically evaluates the GAARs in each of these Nations to determine which approach (anti-avoidance v anti-abuse) is preferable. It concludes that the United Kingdom GAAR is too narrow, being confined to abusive tax schemes. Whether an arrangement is ???abusive??? is subjective and uncertain, effectively being determined by a person???s tolerance for tax avoidance. The uncertainty under this GAAR is multiplied by the introduction of the ???double reasonableness??? test that excludes the tax arrangement from being considered abusive if it can reasonably be regarded as a reasonable exercise of choices of conduct afforded by the provisions of the Act. It is contended that this sets too high a threshold and significantly narrows the scope of the GAAR. Further, the burden of proving this double unreasonableness test lies with HMRC, not the taxpayer. Ultimately while the New Zealand GAAR has been subject to criticism, it is a more effective tool to combat tax avoidance.

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  • MicroRNA regulation in dentate gyrus subregions following induction of long-term potentiation in vivo

    Ryan, Brigid (2015-12-05)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, endogenous RNAs that are non-coding; that is, they are not translated into protein. Instead, they function primarily as post-transcriptional inhibitors of protein synthesis by base-pairing with specific target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Recently, miRNAs have been implicated in the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP), a biological substrate for memory. The late phase of LTP requires new protein synthesis, both rapidly via translation of extant synaptic mRNA, and more slowly via transcription. Our recent genome-wide studies have shown that mRNA levels are dramatically regulated in a temporally-specific manner between 20 minutes and 24 hours after LTP induction in vivo, and indicate that miRNAs may contribute to the regulation of these complex LTP-related gene networks. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to profile global miRNA expression in subregions of the dentate gyrus after LTP induction in vivo and investigate the functional significance of regulated miRNAs. Five hours after LTP induction in awake rats, microarrays and RNA sequencing were used to quantify global miRNA expression in laser-microdissected dentate gyrus middle molecular layer and granule cell layer, respectively. Differential expression was validated using the reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). I identified two miRNAs that were up-regulated specifically in the dentate gyrus middle molecular layer, containing activated synapses: miR-151-3p and miR-23a-3p. This result suggests that miR-23a-3p and miR-151-3p are ideally suited to couple synaptic activation, translational regulation, and LTP persistence. One miRNA, miR-132-3p, was up-regulated specifically in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer. To understand how miRNA regulation contributes to LTP maintenance, I used bioinformatics to identify potential targets of regulated miRNAs, and validated predicted miRNA:mRNA interactions using luciferase assays. Hn1 and Klhl11 were identified as novel targets of miR-132-3p. In addition, bioinformatic analysis identified nine putative novel miRNAs in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer, one of which was validated using RT-qPCR, and is predicted to target genes that function at the synapse. These data provide the first evidence of miRNA regulation in subcellular compartments after LTP induction in awake rats and support the hypothesis that miRNAs regulate LTP-related gene expression. For the first time, I have demonstrated regulation of miRNAs in isolated neuropil following LTP induction in vivo, indicating that miRNAs may regulate local dendritic protein synthesis.

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  • Flexible bronchoscopy in a small child

    Baker, Paul (2015-02-20)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Although the organization of the book may seem obvious or intuitive, this is the first time a textbook has been developed in this manner.

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  • Interprofessional supervision: Opportunities and challenges

    Davys, Allyson; Beddoe, Elizabeth (2015-12-11)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Why do the design stage elemental cost plan and final tender sum differ in New Zealand?

    Adafin, Johnson; Rotimi, JOB; Wilkinson, Suzanne (2015)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Purpose ??? The aim of this study is to investigate the reasons for disparity between design stage elemental cost plan and final tender sum (contract sum) in building procurement. A number of risk factors responsible for such variation were identified through case study projects from which data were extracted. Design/methodology/approach ??? Literature review determined the risk factors inherent in the preparation of design stage elemental cost plan. Interviews and thematic analysis identified the risk factors responsible for the disparity between design stage elemental cost plans and final tender sums. Analysis of documents obtained from the archives of study participants (consultant quantity surveyors) complemented responses from the interviews. Findings ??? The review revealed a number of inherent risks in the design stage elemental cost plan development. The interviews further indicated that risks have an impact on and are responsible for the deviations experienced. The assessment of these risk elements could assist in determining the final tender sum from cost plans. Research limitations/implications ??? Findings revealed disparity between elemental cost plans and final tender sums in the region of - 14 and + 16 per cent. The risk factors identified were responsible for the deviations observed. With this information, Quantity Surveyors are more able to accurately forecast final tender sums of building projects from cost plans through proper risk identification and analysis, thus increasing the accuracy of design stage elemental costing. Originality/value ??? To the best of the knowledge of the researchers, there is no recent documentary evidence of an investigation into the reasons for disparity between design stage elemental cost plan and final tender sum in traditional building procurement in New Zealand construction.

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  • Total synthesis of panicein A2

    Yeung, L; Pilkington, Lisa; Cadelis, Melissa; Copp, Brent; Barker, David (2015-10-26)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The first total synthesis of the unusual aromatic sesquiterpene panicein A2 is reported and the structure of the natural product has been confirmed. When tested by the NCI against a range of human cancer cell lines, it was found that panicein A2 exhibits very little antiproliferative activity at 10 ??M ??? an observation that is at odds with the earlier report that stated panicein A2 exhibits in vitro cytotoxicity against a number of tumour cell lines.

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  • Recombinant rat CC16 protein inhibits LPS-induced MMP-9 expression via NF-??B pathway in rat tracheal epithelial cells

    Pang, M; Wang, H; Bai, Jizhong; Cao, D; Jiang, Y; Zhang, C; Liu, Z; Zhang, X; Hu, X; Xu, J; Du, Y (2015-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Clara cell protein (CC16) is a well-known anti-inflammatory protein secreted by the epithelial Clara cells of the airways. It is involved in the development of airway inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Previous studies suggest that CC16 gene transfer suppresses expression of interleukin (IL)-8 in bronchial epithelial cells. However, its role in the function of these cells during inflammation is not well understood. In this study, we evaluated the effect of CC16 on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat tracheal epithelial cells and its underlying molecular mechanisms. We generated recombinant rat CC16 protein (rCC16) which was bioactive in inhibiting the activity of phospholipase A2. rCC16 inhibited LPS-induced MMP-9 expression at both mRNA and protein levels in a concentration-dependent (0-2?????g/mL) manner, as demonstrated by real time RT-PCR, ELISA, and zymography assays. Gene transcription and DNA binding studies demonstrated that rCC16 suppressed LPS-induced NF-??B activation and its binding of gene promoters as identified by luciferase reporter and gel mobility shift assays, respectively. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining analyses further revealed that rCC16 concentration dependently inhibited the effects of LPS on nuclear increase and cytosol reduction of NF-??B, on the phosphorylation and reduction of NF-??B inhibitory I??B??, and on p38 MAPK-dependent NF-??B activation by phosphorylation at Ser276 of its p65 subunit. These data indicate that inhibition of LPS-mediated NF-??B activation by rCC16 involves both translocation- and phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways. When the tracheal epithelial cells were pretreated with chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, cellular uptake of rCC16 and its inhibition of LPS-induced NF-??B nuclear translocation and also MMP-9 production were significantly abolished. Taken together, our data suggest that clathrin-mediated uptake of rCC16 suppresses LPS-mediated inflammatory MMP-9 production through inactivation of NF-??B and p38 MAPK pathways in tracheal epithelial cells.

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  • Potential neuroprotective strategies for perinatal infection and inflammation

    Ranchhod, Sonya; Gunn, Katherine; Fowke, TM; Davidson, Joanne; Lear, Christopher; Bai, Jizhong; Bennet, Laura; Mallard, C; Gunn, Alistair; Dean, Justin (2015-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Preterm born infants have high rates of brain injury, leading to motor and neurocognitive problems in later life. Infection and resulting inflammation of the fetus and newborn are highly associated with these disabilities. However, there are no established neuroprotective therapies. Microglial activation and expression of many cytokines play a key role in normal brain function and development, as well as being deleterious. Thus, treatment must achieve a delicate balance between possible beneficial and harmful effects. In this review, we discuss potential neuroprotective strategies targeting systemic infection or the resulting systemic and central inflammatory responses. We highlight the central importance of timing of treatment and the critical lack of studies of delayed treatment of infection/inflammation.

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  • Perioperative medicine - the second round will need a change of tactics

    Kehlet, H; Delaney, CP; Hill, Andrew (2015-07)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Validity and reliability of a pain location tool for pediatric abdominal surgery

    Hamill, James; Cole, AM; Liley, A; Hill, Andrew (2015-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    For children with surgical problems, pain location conveys important clinical information. We developed a Location and Level of Intensity of Postoperative Pain (Lolipops) tool consisting of a body outline with a seven-sector abdominal grid, the International Association for the Study of Pain Revised Faces Pain Scale, and a recording chart. The aim of the study was to assess the validity and reliability of Lolipops. Children aged 5-14 years who had undergone laparoscopic appendectomy took both nurse- and investigator-administered Lolipops, and an investigator administered Varni Thompson Pediatric Pain Questionnaires, within 24 hours of surgery. The average age of the 42 participants was 10.7 years; 64% were boys; 24 (57.1%) had acute appendicitis, 13 (31%) had perforated appendicitis, and 5 (11.9%) were uninflamed. Pain scores were higher at the laparoscopic port incision sites than in upper abdominal sites distant from incisions or expected inflammation, mean (SD) 3.3 (2.3) and 1.1 (1.8), respectively (p < .0001). In children with acute appendicitis, pain scores were higher in the right iliac fossa than in upper abdominal sites, mean (SD) 3.3 (2.5) and 0.4 (0.7), respectively (p = .001). In children with perforated appendicitis, Lolipops demonstrated a more widespread pain pattern. Correlations between nurse and investigator were fair to moderate with an overall intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.597. This study presents a new tool to measure the location of pain in pediatric surgical patients and shows it to be valid and reliable.

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  • Five year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial on warming and humidification of insufflation gas in laparoscopic colonic surgery - Impact on small bowel obstruction and oncologic outcomes

    Sammour, T; Hill, Andrew (2015-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Warming and humidification of insufflation gas has been shown to reduce adhesion formation and tumor implantation in the laboratory setting, but clinical evidence is lacking. We aimed to test the hypothesis that warming and humidification of insufflation CO2 would lead to reduced adhesion formation, and improve oncologic outcomes in laparoscopic colonic surgery. This was a 5-year follow-up of a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial investigating warming and humidification of insufflation gas. The study group received warmed (37??C), humidified (98%) insufflation carbon dioxide, and the control group received standard gas (19??C, 0%). All other aspects of patient care were standardized. Admissions for small bowel obstruction were recorded, as well as whether management was operative or nonoperative. Local and systemic cancer recurrence, 5-year overall survival, and cancer specific survival rates were also recorded. Eighty two patients were randomized, with 41 in each arm. Groups were well matched at baseline. There was no difference between the study and control groups in the rate of clinical small bowel obstruction (5.7% versus 0%, P 0.226); local recurrence (6.5% versus 6.1%, P 1.000); overall survival (85.7% versus 82.1%, P 0.759); or cancer-specific survival (90.3% versus 87.9%, P 1.000). Warming and humidification of insufflation CO2 in laparoscopic colonic surgery does not appear to confer a clinically significant long term benefit in terms of adhesion reduction or oncological outcomes, although a much larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) would be required to confirm this. ClinicalTrials.gov Trial identifier: NCT00642005; US National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA.

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  • Vinpocetine modulates metabolic activity and function during retinal ischemia

    Nivison-Smith, L; O'Brien, BJ; Truong, M; Guo, Xiaopeng; Kalloniatis, M; Acosta Etchebarne, Monica (2015-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Vinpocetine protects against a range of degenerative conditions and insults of the central nervous system via multiple modes of action. Little is known, however, of its effects on metabolism. This may be highly relevant, as vinpocetine is highly protective against ischemia, a process that inhibits normal metabolic function. This study uses the ischemic retina as a model to characterize vinpocetine's effects on metabolism. Vinpocetine reduced the metabolic demand of the retina following ex vivo hypoxia and ischemia to normal levels based on lactate dehydrogenase activity. Vinpocetine delivered similar effects in an in vivo model of retinal ischemia-reperfusion, possibly through increasing glucose availability. Vinpocetine's effects on glucose also appeared to improve glutamate homeostasis in ischemic M??ller cells. Other actions of vinpocetine following ischemia-reperfusion, such as reduced cell death and improved retinal function, were possibly a combination of the drug's actions on metabolism and other retinal pathways. Vinpocetine's metabolic effects appeared independent of its other known actions in ischemia, as it recovered retinal function in a separate metabolic model where the glutamate-to-glutamine metabolic pathway was inhibited in M??ller cells. The results of this study indicate that vinpocetine mediates ischemic damage partly through altered metabolism and has potential beneficial effects as a treatment for ischemia of neuronal tissues.

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  • The impact of enhanced recovery protocol compliance on elective colorectal cancer resection: Results from an international registry

    Currie, A; Burch, J; Jenkins, JT; Faiz, O; Kennedy, RH; Ljungqvist, O; Demartines, N; Hjern, F; Norderval, S; Lassen, K; Revhaug, A; Koczas, T; Nygren, J; Gustafsson, U; Kornfield, D; Slim, K; Hill, Andrew; Soop, Mattias; Carlander, J; Lundberg, O; Fearon, K (2015-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The ERAS (enhanced recovery after surgery) care has been shown in randomized clinical trials to improve outcome after colorectal surgery compared to traditional care. The impact of different levels of compliance and specific elements, particularly out with a trial setting, is poorly understood. Objective: This study evaluated the individual impact of specific patient factors and perioperative enhanced recovery protocol compliance on postoperative outcome after elective primary colorectal cancer resection. Methods: The international, multicenter ERAS registry data, collected between November 2008 and March 2013, was reviewed. Patient demographics, disease characteristics, and perioperative ERAS protocol compliance were assessed. Linear regression was undertaken for primary admission duration and logistic regression for the development of any postoperative complication. Findings: A total of 1509 colonic and 843 rectal resections were undertaken in 13 centers from 6 countries. Median length of stay for colorectal resections was 6 days, with readmissions in 216 (9.2%), complications in 948 (40%), and reoperation in 167 (7.1%) of 2352 patients. Laparoscopic surgery was associated with reduced complications [odds ratio (OR) = 0.68; P < 0.001] and length of stay (OR = 0.83, P < 0.001). Increasing ERAS compliance was correlated with fewer complications (OR = 0.69, P < 0.001) and shorter primary hospital admission (OR = 0.88, P < 0.001). Shorter hospital stay was associated with preoperative carbohydrate and fluid loading (OR = 0.89, P = 0.001), and totally intravenous anesthesia (OR = 0.86, P < 0.001); longer stay was associated with intraoperative epidural analgesia (OR = 1.07, P = 0.019). Reduced postoperative complications were associated with restrictive perioperative intravenous fluids (OR = 0.35, P < 0.001). Conclusions: This analysis has demonstrated that in a large, international cohort of patients, increasing compliance with an ERAS program and the use of laparoscopic surgery independently improve outcome.

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  • Familial colorectal cancer syndromes: An overview of clinical management

    Sammour, T; Hayes, IP; Hill, Andrew; Macrae, FA; Winter, DC (2015)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Familial colorectal cancer syndromes pose a complex challenge to the treating clinician. Once a syndrome is recognized, genetic testing is often required to confirm the clinical suspicion. Management from that point is usually based on disease-specific guideline recommendations targeting risk reduction for the patient and their relatives through surgery, surveillance and chemoprophylaxis. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-to-date summary of the most common familial syndromes and their medical and surgical management, with specific emphasis on evidence-based interventions that improve patient outcome, and to present the information in a manner that is easily readable and clinically relevant to the treating clinician.

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  • Retinal anatomy of the New Zealand kiwi: Structural traits consistent with their nocturnal behavior

    Corfield, JR; Parsons, Stuart; Harimoto, Y; Acosta Etchebarne, Monica (2015-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Kiwi (Apteryx spp.) have a visual system unlike that of other nocturnal birds, and have specializations to their auditory, olfactory, and tactile systems. Eye size, binocular visual fields and visual brain centers in kiwi are proportionally the smallest yet recorded among birds. Given the many unique features of the kiwi visual system, we examined the laminar organization of the kiwi retina to determine if they evolved increased light sensitivity with a shift to a nocturnal niche or if they retained features of their diurnal ancestor. The laminar organization of the kiwi retina was consistent with an ability to detect low light levels similar to that of other nocturnal species. In particular, the retina appeared to have a high proportion of rod photoreceptors as compared to diurnal species, as evidenced by a thick outer nuclear layer, and also numerous thin photoreceptor segments intercalated among the conical shaped cone photoreceptor inner segments. Therefore, the retinal structure of kiwi was consistent with increased light sensitivity, although other features of the visual system, such as eye size, suggest a reduced reliance on vision. The unique combination of a nocturnal retina and smaller than expected eye size, binocular visual fields, and brain regions make the kiwi visual system unlike that of any bird examined to date. Whether these features of their visual system are an evolutionary design that meets their specific visual needs or are a remnant of a kiwi ancestor that relied more heavily on vision is yet to be determined.

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  • Retinal Development and Ommin Pigment in the Cranchiid Squid Teuthowenia pellucida (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida)

    Evans, AB; Acosta Etchebarne, Monica; Bolstad, KS (2015-05-13)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The cranchiid Teuthowenia pellucida, like many deep-sea squid species, possesses large eyes that maximise light sensitivity in a nearly aphotic environment. To assess ontogenetic changes in the visual system, we conducted morphometric and histological analyses of the eyes using specimens from New Zealand collections. While the ratio between eye diameter and mantle length maintained a linear relationship throughout development, histological sections of the retina revealed that the outer photoreceptor layer became proportionally longer as the animal aged, coincident with a habitat shift into deeper, darker ocean strata. Other retinal layers maintained the same absolute thickness as was observed in paralarvae. Granules of the pigment ommin, normally located in the screening layer positioned at the base of the photoreceptors, were also observed at the outer end of the photoreceptor segments throughout the retina in young and mid-sized specimens. Early developmental stages of this species, dwelling in shallow waters, may therefore rely on migratory ommin to help shield photoreceptors from excess light and prevent over-stimulation. The oldest, deeper-dwelling specimens of T. pellucida examined had longer photoreceptors, and little or no migrated ommin was observed; we suggest therefore that short-term adaptive mechanisms for bright light conditions may be used primarily during epipelagic, early life stages in this species.

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