2,792 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland, 2016

  • Sedimentology and formation of lagoonal platform reef islands in Huvadhoo Atoll, Maldives

    Liang, Yiqing (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Sediment samples from the reef platform and island cores were collected from two lagoonal reef islands in Huvadhoo Atoll, Maldives, in order to investigate island evolution and building processes in a region where detailed sedimentary and chronology data do not yet exist. The chronostratigraphy of the study islands was resolved using sedimentary data from field samples, combined with radiocarbon ages of sediments and ground penetrating radar records of the island subsurface. Further, this study is the first to apply scanning electron microscopy and elemental mapping in the evaluation of single constituent dating of Halimeda spp. in order to investigate its suitability for inferring depositional chronology on reef islands. Chronostratigraphic results indicate that the lagoonal reef islands on Huvadhoo Atoll formed around 3000 years ago and reached their current dimensions by 350 cal yr BP. A three-phase model of island evolution was developed in relation to mid-Holocene sea-level rise, which presents the first incidence of island building over multiple phases of sea-level change in the Indian Ocean. Medium-scale (decadal) shoreline sediment redistribution identified from morphological field mapping and satellite imagery provide clues to the building processes that occurred during island evolution, and suggest frequent reworking of island sediments over the course of island building. Similar compositional properties of reef flat and island sediments suggest a reef-island link and that the study islands are still being maintained by their surrounding reefs at present. The formation of the lagoonal reef islands in Huvadhoo Atoll during various stages of sea-level change, along with the potential for shoreline adjustment and evidence of contemporary reef connectivity, suggest enhanced resilience of Maldivian reef islands in response to projected sea-level rise.

    View record details
  • Kindness Matters: Investigating the mental and physical health benefits of self-compassion in diabetes

    Friis, Anna (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Mood disturbances among diabetes patients are both common and problematic, compounding emotional suffering and potentially leading to complications in physical health. Despite high prevalence, however, current treatment options for the management of depression are limited; evidence for psychosocial interventions that concurrently improve both psychological and physiological health metrics is sorely lacking. The work presented in the context of this thesis sought to address this deficit by investigating the mental and physical health benefits of self-compassion in diabetes patients through a series of theoretical, cross-sectional, and experimental studies. The primary aims of this programme of study were to establish: (1) whether selfcompassion predicts better mental and physical health outcomes among diabetes patients and, if so, (2) whether a self-compassion intervention improved these outcomes for patients. The first contribution (Study 1) reviewed the literature pertaining to depression and low mood among diabetes patients and presented a theoretical rationale suggesting that self-compassion is well-suited to the challenges of diabetes selfmanagement, and that enhancing this characteristic should have psychological, behavioural, and physiological benefits. Study 2, a cross-sectional study conducted primarily with Type 1 diabetes patients then tested some of these hypothesized relationships. Analysis showed (1), that diabetes-specific distress was a better predictor of HbA1c than depression and (2), that self-compassion moderated the link between diabetes-specific distress and HbA1c such that the link between distress and poorer metabolic outcomes was weakened among those with greater trait selfcompassion. In Study 3, the effects of a brief self-compassion induction on mood and motivation to undertake a common health behaviour were tested in a laboratory study among healthy participants. While the self-compassion intervention improved mood, results were not consistent with the notion that self-compassion, compared to selfcriticism, would positively improve behavioural motivation, Thus, the final study (Study 4), a randomized controlled trial, tested the effects of a more substantial and standardized ???dose??? of self-compassion training ??? mindful self-compassion. Analyses showed that the eight-week training intervention improved both psychological and physiological outcomes, with reductions in depression, distress, and HbA1c in the intervention arm; effects were sustained at three months follow-up. Taken together, these studies are the first to demonstrate that self-compassion both predicts and causes reductions in depression and diabetes-specific distress among diabetes patients while concurrently improving metabolic outcomes. The RCT provides further evidence that self-compassion is a characteristic that can be developed with training. However, while highlighting the relevance of self-compassion to a patient population that often struggles with mood issues and related complications, further work is required to understand the pathways by which benefits might be exerted; effects on behavioural motivations in the laboratory study were not clearly evident. Overall, while self-compassion may be an important clinical aid for assisting patients more effectively cope with the distress of their condition, further work is required to better understand mediating psychological, behavioural, and biological pathways.

    View record details
  • Improving adherence and asthma outcomes in school aged children with asthma

    Chan, Amy (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic conditions in children. Effective treatments are available, the most important of which are inhaled corticosteroids, which reduce morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of effective preventive therapies, asthma control continues to be poor, primarily due to poor adherence. Interventions have been developed to improve adherence; however, changes have been modest, or not sustained. Where there have been significant increases in adherence, these have not translated to improvements in outcomes. A novel approach to adherence support is needed. Electronic monitoring devices (EMDs) have risen to prominence over the last decade, assuming an important role in adherence measurement and intervention. The ability of EMDs to provide objective, real-time data and user feedback places EMDs at the forefront of contemporary adherence interventions. This thesis discusses adherence in chronic disease, specifically asthma, and the role of EMDs in adherence promotion. Studies using EMDs to improve adherence in asthma have shown improvements in adherence, but the link to outcomes has been inconclusive. This thesis presents the main findings from a randomised controlled trial (RCT) investigating the use of an EMD in children with asthma. The results from this trial provide the first unequivocal evidence of the beneficial effects of EMDs on clinical outcomes. It provides a direction for future adherence research, focusing on the effect of EMDs on clinical outcomes, beyond adherence promotion. This thesis also presents the first performance and patient acceptability data for EMDs in children. The positive findings highlight the potential for EMDs to be used outside of the research setting, though key issues of quality control, usability and cost-effectiveness need to be addressed before EMDs can be integrated into practice. Other factors influencing adherence are also discussed. This study found associations between higher adherence and female sex, Asian ethnicity, smaller household size and a younger age at diagnosis. These findings can help identify those at risk of nonadherence to help target adherence interventions. This thesis highlights areas of knowledge growth and areas where questions remain unanswered. It provides a platform for future research, presenting new possibilities for improving medication adherence and clinical outcomes

    View record details
  • The cardiovascular effects of preterm birth and neonatal anaemia in sheep

    Tay, Kai Yie (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Preterm birth has been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The heart is in a stage of rapid development in the last trimester when preterm birth occurs. It is not known how cardiac structure and vessels remodel to enable the immature myocardium and cardiac vasculature to adapt to the haemodynamic transition at birth. We hypothesised that preterm birth would induce permanent changes in cardiac structure and function. We further hypothesised that neonatal anaemia, a common complication of prematurity which affects blood flow and thus may act as a stressor on the developing heart, would have long-term effects on autonomic cardiac regulation, cardiac blood flow (assessed via coronary conductance) and the microcirculation. Compared to lambs born at term, preterm lambs had decreased capillary-to-myocyte ratio in the myocardium, reduced muscle layer width within the left ventricular myocardium and larger cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area. Qualitative analysis of coronary blood vessels found that fetal lambs studied at term, and lambs born preterm studied at term-corrected age, have fewer branches compared to hearts of lambs born at term. However, induction of preterm birth with steroids rather than an anti-progestogen was protective for this effect. Preterm birth and neonatal anaemia resulted in greater indices of parasympathetic function (lower heart rate at rest and greater Log root mean square of successive differences between adjacent heart beatto- beat intervals (RMSSD), Log difference between adjacent R-R intervals that are greater than 50 ms (NN50) and normalized high frequency (HFnu)); however, in contrast, neonatal anaemia in term lambs resulted in greater sympathetic modulation in young adult and adult sheep. The existence of lower heart rate after vagal blockade with atropine in adult sheep born preterm with neonatal anaemia suggests that the impact of anaemia on autonomic nervous system maturation differs according to maturational stage and may be most marked on the parasympathetic nervous system. Greater maximal coronary conductance and retinal vasculature bifurcation angles were observed in adult sheep born preterm and with neonatal anaemia, indicating alteration of microcirculation architecture in both the heart and the retina. Thus, visualisation of the retina may provide a window into structural changes in the microcirculation elsewhere in the body. Findings of these studies suggest that the combination of neonatal anaemia and preterm birth may have an effect on the autonomic regulation of cardiac function, coronary blood flow and the development of the microcirculation that persists into adult life.

    View record details
  • Sharing Prescription Medicines: An Exploration Of Patients??? and Health Professionals??? Perspectives

    Beyene, Kebede (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Prescription medicine sharing has been defined as giving one???s own medicine to someone else (lending) or using someone else???s medicine (borrowing).Medicines can be shared for non-medical purposes (recreational sharing or drug abuse) or for their intended therapeutic benefits (non-recreational sharing, e.g. sharing antibiotics or asthma inhaler to self-treat). Although most forms of sharing are non-recreational in nature, recreational sharing has been the focus of past research. Limited research evidence is available around nonrecreational sharing. Therefore, this thesis aimed to explore adults??? non-sharing behaviours and to propose the content of interventions to reduce potential risks and harms of sharing. Methods A sequential, exploratory, mixed-methods research design was employed, in which findings from a systematic review, qualitative studies with patients (N=17) and health professionals (N=18) and a theory-based, secondary analysis of qualitative data informed the design and conduct of an online survey (N=233) which measured various dimensions of sharing behaviour. Results Participants reported sharing a range of prescription medicines; medicines used to treat pain, allergies, asthma and infections were chief among them. The qualitative research participants reported both real and perceived positive and negative consequences of sharing, and they suggested several factors which might contribute to sharing, including lack of access to healthcare, lack of information about risks of sharing, altruism, forgetting to carry around own medicines, and concern about missing regular doses of medicines. Having the same illness or symptoms as the other person and having leftover medicines were reported as possible opportunities for sharing. The online survey findings showed that female gender, older age, and history of asthma, allergies, sleep problems or chronic pain were the main non-modifiable predictors of sharing behaviours, whereas the modifiable risk factors for sharing included access-related issues, stronger emotional belief about borrowing, higher concern about missing doses, higher concern for the wellbeing of others, stronger beliefs about the benefits and safety of lending. Conversely, higher perceived risk of harm of borrowing and lending had protective effect on medicine borrowing and lending. Based on the data, different interventions are proposed to reduce potential risks of sharing, including increasing patients and health professional awareness about the risks of sharing, improving access to healthcare, collecting leftover medicines from households, and limiting the supply of prescription medicines to the actual need of the patient. Conclusions The findings suggest that medicine sharing is a complex behaviour and abolishing sharing practices might not be possible. Therefore, minimising the potential risks/harms of sharing should be a priority whilst also acknowledging the positive attributes of sharing.

    View record details
  • Super Resolution Imaging of Cardiac Ventricular Myocyte Calcium Handling Systems

    Hou, Yufeng (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The ventricular cardiac myocyte is the most prominent cell of the heart by volume and weight and is responsible for the contractive force necessary to pump blood around the body. Operation of the ventricular myocyte centre occurs through the coupling of electrical activity and the subsequent mechanical contraction, a process known as excitation contraction coupling (EC Coupling). EC coupling centre around the precise handling of both extracellular and internal calcium ion stores in a process called calcium induced calcium release (CICR). This process is dependent on the precise nanometer scale arrangement of the Ryanodine receptor (RyR) protein within the SR membrane which act as the primary calcium release channel for the SR calcium stores. This thesis aims to investigate the ryanodine receptor and associated structures using super resolution imaging modality to investigate nanoscale changes in structural distribution. Section one focuses on the imaging of the Z disc ??? the region of localisation for RyR release sites. Results show thicknesses of z disc were measured at 100 nm with transverse arrangement showing all fibril cores being within a unified 500 nm distance band. The second section demonstrates the distribution of RyR proteins in transverse rat cardiac myocyte tissue sections. Results demonstrated a large variation in cluster sizes with approximate exponential distribution. Mean cluster size was 63 RyR with mean edge to edge separation of 130 nm in general agreement with previous confocal data. Colocalisation of RyR with the T-tubule ??? SR crosslinking protein JPH showed a high level of colocalisation compared with an idealised colocalisation simulation of RyR vs RyR (61% vs 78%). Data is consolidated with diffraction limited data highlighting the detection falloff at smaller cluster sizes. The final section investigated differences in human RyR distribution for normal, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, and rat cells. Results showed little change in cluster size distribution between all three cases, however a change in nearest adjacent neighbour distances were observed. A reduction in colocalisation between JPH and RYR is further seen in humans as compared with rats. These results highlight the subtle structural features seen in the arrangement of RyR clusters, and how super resolution imaging provides greater clarity and additional details on top of the previous attempts at analysis with conventional microscopes.

    View record details
  • ???The Quid Pro Quo???: Why did the Crown decide to settle M??ori historical treaty claims?

    McDowell, Tiopira (2016-06-27)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Between 1991 and 1994, Minister in Charge of Treaty of Waitangi Negotiations Douglas Graham and the recently established Treaty of Waitangi Policy Unit developed a series of policy proposals that outlined an ambitious plan to settle M??ori historical treaty claims. These papers were refined via extensive consultation and discussion with Cabinet Ministers and government officials: M??ori as treaty partner were not consulted. In late 1994 the proposed policy was approved by Cabinet and published as Crown Proposals for the Settlement of Treaty of Waitangi Claims. Why did the Crown decide to settle M??ori historical treaty claims in the early 1990s? What did it expect to gain from settling treaty claims? Why, after nearly a century and a half of relative complacency, and nearly two decades after the establishment of the Waitangi Tribunal to hear and make recommendations on M??ori grievances, was the Crown suddenly prompted into action? And why would a right wing National government with little support from M??ori voters and few current or previous M??ori MPs launch a treaty claims settlement policy that would greatly antagonize its traditional voting base? These questions will be addressed via an examination of Cabinet papers, policy documents, legislation, deeds of settlement, published accounts and interviews with some of the key players. It will be argued that the treaty claims settlement policy was initiated as a consequence of New Zealand M??ori Council v Attorney-General 1987, popularly known as the Lands case, and developed to achieve three specific outcomes: diversion of claimants away from the Waitangi Tribunal, containment of the financial risks posed by the Tribunal???s newly found binding and resumptive powers, and a progressive ???winding back??? of M??ori rights and Crown obligations embedded in legislation.

    View record details
  • Music and discovery

    McCourt, T; Zuberi, Nabeel (2016-07-27)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • E-cigarettes and smoking cessation

    Hajek, P; McRobbie, H; Bullen, Christopher (2016-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Editors??? note

    Burkart, P; Christensen, M; Semati, M; Zuberi, Nabeel (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • E-cigarettes for the management of nicotine addiction

    Knight-West, O; Bullen, Christopher (2016-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this review, we discuss current evidence on electronic cigarettes (ECs), a rapidly evolving class of nicotine delivery system, and their role in managing nicotine addiction, specifically in helping smokers to quit smoking and/or reduce the amount of tobacco they smoke. The current evidence base is limited to three randomized trials (only one compares ECs with nicotine replacement therapy) and a growing number of EC user surveys (n=6), case reports (n=4), and cohort studies (n=8). Collectively, these studies suggest modest cessation efficacy and a few adverse effects, at least with the short-term use. On this basis, we provide advice for health care providers on providing balanced information for patients who enquire about ECs. More research, specifically well-conducted large efficacy trials comparing ECs with standard smoking cessation management (eg, nicotine replacement therapy plus behavioral support) and long-term prospective studies for adverse events, are urgently needed to fill critical knowledge gaps on these products.

    View record details
  • Patient resistance as a resource: candidate obstacles in diabetes consultations

    Barton, J; Dew, K; Dowell, A; Sheridan, Nicolette; Kenealy, Timothy; Macdonald, L; Docherty, B; Tester, R; Raphael, Deborah; Gray, L; Stubbe, M (2016-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study uses conversation analysis to explore 'candidate obstacles', a practice observed in sequences of patient resistance to lifestyle advice within health professional consultations. This article presents illustrative analyses of selected data excerpts drawn from audio-visual recordings of 116 tracked consultations between health professionals and 34 patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in New Zealand. The analysis shows that in consultations where health promotion activities are central, patient resistance can provide space for patients to identify obstacles to their compliance with lifestyle advice. Identifying candidate obstacles provides opportunities for health professionals to align advice with concerns of patients and potentially improve patient outcomes.

    View record details
  • National identity and the flag change referendum: Examining the latent profiles underlying New Zealanders??? flag change support

    Osborne, Daniel; Lees-Marshment, Jennifer; Van Der Linden, C (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The flag change referenda concluded with New Zealanders voting to retain their traditional flag. Within this context, we assess variability in flag change support across different ???types??? (i.e., latent profiles) of New Zealanders. Participants (N = 220,318) indicated their support for eight core aspects of New Zealand???s socio-political landscape: M??ori rights, immigration, internationalism, economic equality, the Commonwealth, nationalism, sport and secularism. Latent profile analyses identified six unique response patterns underlying support for these issues: Global Egalitarians, Domestic Egalitarians, Religious, Moderates, Secularists and National Secularists. Domestic and Global Egalitarians expressed socially and economically progressive views directed towards home and abroad (respectively), whereas the remaining profiles reported relatively conservative issue positions. That said, only Moderates supported (albeit reservedly) changing the flag. Results demonstrate the diversity of New Zealanders??? socio-political views and uncover previously-unknown dynamics behind attitudes toward the flag change.

    View record details
  • Access to diabetes drugs in New Zealand is inadequate

    Krebs, J; Coppell, KJ; Cresswell, P; Downie, M; Drury, P; Gregory, A; Kenealy, Timothy; McNamara, C; Miller, SC; Smallman, K (2016-06-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    New Zealand is well behind the rest of the developed world in access to funded drugs for managing type 2 diabetes. Over the last 12 years three new classes of glucose-lowering drugs have come through clinical trials to market. The principal strengths of all three novel classes of medicine are their lack of hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar), their frequent acceptability in patients intolerant of or contraindicated for existing funded drugs, and avoidance of weight gain. International guidelines focus on individualization of treatment and avoidance of hypoglycaemia. This is extremely difficult for New Zealanders with type 2 diabetes when we do not have access to modern drug treatments.

    View record details
  • Pharmacokinetic and anti-cancer properties of high dose ascorbate in solid tumours of ascorbate-dependent mice

    Campbell, EJ; Vissers, MCM; Wohlrab, C; Hicks, Kevin; Strother, RM; Bozonet, SM; Robinson, BA; Dachs, Gabriele (2016-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Despite recent evidence for an anti-tumour role for high-dose ascorbate, potential mechanisms of action are still unclear. At mM concentrations that are achieved with high-dose intravenous administration, autoxidation of ascorbate can generate cytotoxic levels of H2O2. Ascorbate is also a required co-factor for the hydroxylases that suppress the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1). HIF-1 supports an aggressive tumour phenotype and is associated with poor prognosis, and previous studies have shown that optimizing intracellular ascorbate levels down-regulates HIF-1 activation. In this study we have simultaneously measured ascorbate concentrations and the HIF-1 pathway activity in tumour tissue following high dose ascorbate administration, and have studied tumour growth and physiology. Gulo-/- mice, a model of the human ascorbate dependency condition, were implanted with syngeneic Lewis lung tumours, 1g/kg ascorbate was administered into the peritoneum, and ascorbate concentrations were monitored in plasma, liver and tumours. Ascorbate levels peaked within 30min, and although plasma and liver ascorbate returned to baseline within 16h, tumour levels remained elevated for 48h, possibly reflecting increased stability in the hypoxic tumour environment. The expression of HIF-1 and its target proteins was down-regulated with tumour ascorbate uptake. Elevated tumour ascorbate levels could be maintained with daily administration, and HIF-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor protein levels were reduced in these conditions. Increased tumour ascorbate was associated with slowed tumour growth, reduced tumour microvessel density and decreased hypoxia. Alternate day administration of ascorbate resulted in lower tumour levels and did not consistently decrease HIF-1 pathway activity. Levels of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters 1 and 2 were not clearly associated with ascorbate accumulation by murine tumour cells in vitro or in vivo. Our results support the suppression of the hypoxic response by ascorbate as a plausible mechanism of action of its anti-tumour activity, and this may be useful in a clinical setting.

    View record details
  • Health System Regionalization ??? the New Zealand Experience

    Tenbensel, Timothy (2016-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    New Zealand's health system has many similarities with Canada, and also has longstanding experience with regionalization of healthcare services. Since 2001, the most important change has been the development of regional primary healthcare organizations funded according to population characteristics. This significant change has created the potential for a more integrated health system. However, barriers remain in realizing this potential. The key challenges include dealing with inter-organizational complexity and finding the right balance between hierarchical and collaborative relationships between the state and non-government providers. Although New Zealand governments have greater capacity to make changes to organizational and policy changes, professional interests retain considerable capacity to shape policy outcomes through implementation.

    View record details
  • Enriching Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Emotion Regulation Training for Patients with Multiple Medically Unexplained Symptoms (ENCERT): Design and implementation of a multicenter, randomized, active-controlled trial

    Kleinst??uber, Maria; Gottschalk, JM; Berking, M; Rau, J; Rief, W (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Introduction Although cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the best evidenced psychological treatment for medically unexplained symptoms (MUS), effect sizes are rather moderate. Empirically evidenced deficits in emotion processing in patients with MUS make a CBT enriched with an emotion regulation training (ENCERT) a promising approach to increase treatment effects. Methods and design This protocol describes the development and implementation of a multicenter, randomized, active-controlled study with blinded outcome assessors to compare the efficacy of ENCERT with a conventional CBT for MUS. Individuals presenting with ??? 3 disabling, chronic MUS and fulfilling other predefined inclusion criteria are randomized to 20 sessions either of ENCERT or conventional CBT. Power calculations are based on the severity index of the Screening of Somatoform Disorders-7T and obtained an optimal sample size of N = 244. Questionnaires on symptom severity, symptom-related psychological features, and emotion regulation skills are administered at baseline, end of therapy, and 6-months follow-up. An every-session monitoring of therapy progress, and regular patients'/therapists' ratings of quality of therapy, working alliance, outcome expectations, and adverse events are conducted. Primary statistical analysis shall verify the hypothesis of ENCERT being more efficacious than conventional CBT regarding symptom severity. Discussion Enriching CBT with transdiagnostic therapeutic strategies addressing emotion regulation is a promising and new approach to target not only somatic symptom coping but also symptom-associated problems and comorbid mental disorders. The current trial will not only allow examining the efficacy of ENCERT but also important variables and mechanisms of the process of therapy. Trial registration: NCT01908855

    View record details
  • Emotion regulation in women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS): Explicit and implicit assessments

    Eggert, L; Witth??ft, M; Hiller, W; Kleinst??uber, Maria (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Psychological factors, such as cognitive-emotional processes, are proposed to play an important role in the etiology of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Our aim was to determine whether there are differences in emotion regulation between women with PMS and non-PMS controls. The study included 54 women who suffered from PMS (confirmed by prospective daily ratings during two menstrual cycles), as well as 52 non-PMS controls. All participants completed the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) as an explicit and the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) as an implicit measure of emotion regulation. Each participant conducted the self-report as well as the experimental assessments twice, once during the follicular phase and once during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The AMP was conducted with neutral and negative picture and facial stimuli. Three different interstimulus intervals (100, 500, 1500 ms) were used to examine implicit emotion regulation processes. Women with PMS reported a significantly higher use of three dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies in the CERQ (p values < .001). In the AMP with picture stimuli, women with PMS showed stronger implicit negative affective reactions compared to non-PMS women, independent of menstrual cycle phase (p = .008). In the AMP with facial stimuli, this stronger negative affect misattribution appeared in women with PMS compared to the control group only in the luteal phase and only for medium interstimulus intervals of 500 ms (p = .050). The results suggest that PMS is associated with alterations in the processes of emotion regulation, as assessed both on an explicit and on an implicit level. Further research on the etiology of PMS should focus more on cognitive-emotional processing and its interaction with biological changes relating to the menstrual cycle.

    View record details
  • Internet-delivered cognitive-behavior therapy for tinnitus: A randomized controlled trial

    Weise, C; Kleinst??uber, Maria; Andersson, G (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objectives: Tinnitus has a substantially negative impact on quality of life in up to 5% of the general population. Internet-based cognitive-behavioral treatment (iCBT) has been shown to be effective in a few trials. The aim of our study was to investigate iCBT for tinnitus by using a randomized controlled trial. Methods: Patients with severe tinnitus-related distress were randomly assigned to therapist-guided iCBT (n = 62) or to a moderated online discussion forum (n = 62). Standardized self-report measures for tinnitus-related distress (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Mini-Tinnitus Questionnaire) and associated symptoms (tinnitus acceptance, anxiety, depression, and insomnia) were assessed at pretreatment and posttreatment, 6-month-, and 1-year follow-up. Clinical significance was assessed with the Reliable Change Index. Results: Multivariate analyses of variance revealed significant main effects for time, group, and interaction in favor of the iCBT group. With regard to tinnitus-related distress, the significant univariate interaction effects (time by group) were supported by large effect sizes (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory: g = 0.83, 95% confidence interval = 0.47???1.20; Mini-Tinnitus Questionnaire: g = 1.08, 95% confidence interval = 0.71???1.64). For the secondary outcomes, significant interactions with small to medium effect sizes were found. Within-group effects for the iCBT, from pretreatment to follow-up, were substantial in regard to tinnitus-related distress (1.38 ??? d ??? 1.81) and small to large for secondary outcomes (0.39 ??? d ??? 1.04). Conclusions: Using a randomized controlled trial design, we replicated prior findings regarding positive effects of Internet-delivered CBT on tinnitus-related distress and associated symptoms. Implementing iCBT for tinnitus into regular health care will be an important next step to increase access to treatment for patients with tinnitus.

    View record details
  • The future just happened: Lessons for 21st-century learning from the secondary school music classroom

    McPhail, Graham (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Many ideas from the discourse of 21st-century learning are already present in much secondary school music teaching in New Zealand and have been for some time. The adoption of these ideas has resulted in many positive changes in students??? experiences of music at secondary school. On the other hand, there have been some unintended consequences which are potentially less positive. The changes in music education therefore may be instructive for educators in a range of subject contexts in negotiating the tensions between different understandings of knowledge and pedagogy in the shift towards 21st-century learning. A case is made for finding a balance between music education???s practical application and conceptual knowledge. There is a risk that in the drive for relevance, the subject has become less able to provide the grounding and conceptual depth necessary for access to the discipline???s generative concepts.

    View record details