2,844 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland, 2016

  • Autonomic reflex control of dominant pacemaker location and impulse propagation in the right atrium

    Ashton, Jesse (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Reflex vagal control is a fundamental component of the autonomic regulation of heart rate, and loss of function in the vagal reflex arc is a negative prognostic indicator of cardiovascular health. Vagal activation can cause rapid and profound heart rate slowing and a concomitant caudal shift of the impulse origin within the sino-atrial node (SAN). The research presented in this thesis furthers our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to pacemaker shift in the SAN. This advance has been accomplished through mapping impulse propagation in the right atrium (RA) during reflex activation with higher precision than previously achieved. For the first time, high-resolution extracellular and optical mapping techniques have been employed in a rat arterially perfused working heart-brainstem preparation (WHBP). Autonomic reflex pathways in the WHBP were kept intact, which enabled stimulation of the baroreceptor reflex under tightly controlled conditions, free of the confounding effects of anaesthetic agents on neural function. TheWHBP spontaneously produced eupneiclike phrenic nerve activity, characteristic of adequate oxygenation of the brainstem, and central cardiorespiratory coupling was preserved. The baroreflex was activated systematically by applying pressure challenges of increasing magnitude. Distinct dominant pacemaker (DP) regions with preferential conduction pathways were identified and related to the underlying distribution of cholinergic nerves fluorescently labelled using antibodies. There is a wide-spread notion that the DP is the SAN region with the highest intrinsic rate, and that ACh-induced pacemaker shift occurs when cells in the central node slow, allowing caudal pacemaker cells less sensitive to ACh to assume control at a higher rate. Our findings for the baroreflex onset are not consistent with this view. Baroreflex induced caudal DP shifts were synchronous with substantial increases in cycle length (CL). On the other hand, rostral pacemaker shifts during baroreflex recovery were coincident with small decreases in CL. We also observed competitive pacemaker activity between rostral and caudal regions immediately before DP shifts in recovery, but during onset only subthreshold depolarisation was detected in the rostral pacemaker region. Activation spread from caudal pacemaker sites through distinct conduction pathways to the crista terminalis (CT), but propagation toward the rostral SAN was slow. Taken together, these results are consistent with low safety factor for electrical propagation in the rostral SAN during baroreflex and suggest caudal DP shift occurs as a result of failure of central pacemaker cells to drive activation in surrounding myocardium. To probe this mechanism further, we compared baroreflex results to responses recorded during stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors with arterial injection of KCN and homogeneous stimulation of muscarinic (M2) receptors with an arterial bolus of carbachol (CCh). The dynamics of DP shift during onset and recovery of chemoreflex activation were comparable to that recorded during baroreflex responses, but larger fluctuations in CL and DP shifts were seen in synchrony with inspiratory motor drive, consistent with enhanced respiratory coupling as a result of the hypoxic stimulus. Compared to baroreflex and chemoreflex responses, CCh induced more gradual changes in CL, and DP shifts during onset and recovery occurred with small changes in CL that were not significantly different. This result led us to hypothesise that the speed of onset of cholinergic stimulation is an important factor in determining whether DP shift occurs due to failure of impulse propagation from the central SAN. To test this hypothesis, we explored changes in the dynamics of DP shift following inhibition of If with the HCN-channel specific blocker ivabradine (IVB). Post-IVB, baseline CL increased on average by ???19%, indicating effective If inhibition in the SAN. The onset of CL responses to reflex and CCh stimulation was faster post-IVB, with a shorter time to maximum CL. There was a trend toward larger increases in CL with DP shifts during onset and recovery but this was not significant over all stimulation methods. The trend was most evident for CCh responses, where the range of CL increases with DP shift was augmented. In some reflex responses, the increase in CL was attenuated post-IVB and caudal DP shifts did not occur or occurred with small changes in CL later in the response, suggesting IVB could have altered reflex function. Here, our findings show If acts to buffer the rate slowing effects of cholinergic stimulation and thereby modulates the timing of DP shift during periods of increasing CL. Lastly, we attempted to develop a toxic cardiomyopathy model of atrial structural remodelling in order to assess the effects of SAN fibrosis on reflex control of pacemaker function in the WHBP. We delivered single isoprenaline injections on two consecutive days across a dosage range from 150 to 340 mg kg???1. In vivo cardiac cine-MRI demonstrated a slightly lower left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction at 340 mg kg???1 compared to control (66% vs. 71%), and less contraction of the LV lumen at end systole. Measurements of LV pressure at this dose showed an elevation of mean change in diastolic pressure compared to control (9.58 vs. 3.54 mmHg). Picrosirius red staining of collagen in LV tissue sections showed patchy interstitial fibrosis which was not present on sections from control samples. Our results are consistent with the development of ventricular dysfunction and structural remodelling after isoprenaline injection, but the very low mortality rate observed (5%) suggests the effects of isoprenaline in the juvenile rats used here are more moderate than those reported for adult rats. In conclusion, we have completed the first high-resolution analysis of SAN function during vagal reflex activity in a strictly controlled preparation with intact autonomic reflex pathways. Our most novel finding is that reflex-induced caudal DP shift is not driven by rate entrainment alone and appears instead to be the result of failure of impulse propagation from the central SAN. We hypothesise that the DP is therefore the region with the highest intrinsic rate in the SAN that has the capacity to drive electrical activity in the surrounding atrial myocardium.

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  • Review of the book: Free Labor. The Civil War and the Making of an American Working Class, by Mark A. Lause

    Taillon, Paul (2016-12)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The maintenance of Maori classical literature on the marae

    Edmonds, Catherine (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The marae and the institutions of tangihanga (funereal customs) have maintained and sustained the M??ori language, its attendant culture and the M??ori classical literature that survives today. On these occasions the M??ori world view is given full expression in an authentic setting in the 21st century. Tangihanga (or tangi) therefore play an important role in sustaining M??ori identity. This article provides an annotated account of the tangi process that demonstrates the M??ori world view, gives examples of specific oral literatures from the classical M??ori world, and notes educational aspects of how traditional M??ori knowledge and language is transmitted and acquired during the tangi process.

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  • Should the teaching of the Holocaust be compulsory in New Zealand schools?

    Abbenhuis, Maartje (2016-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Social work using information and communication technology

    Beddoe, Elizabeth (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Social policy, moral panics and the media

    Beddoe, Elizabeth (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Critical pedagogy, physical education, and obesity discourse: More advocacy than pedagogy

    Tinning, R; Philpot,, RA; Cameron, E (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Estimating the abundance of scampi in SCI 1 (Bay of Plenty) and SCI 2 (Wairarapa / Hawke Bay) in 2015

    Tuck, Ian; Parkinson, D; Armiger, H; Smith, M; Miller, A; Rush, N; Spong, K (2016-04)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Photographic and trawl surveys of scampi in SCI 1 and 2 were conducted in February/March 2015. For SCI 1 both surveys suggest that population biomass and abundance has remained relatively stable since the early 2000s. For SCI 2 both surveys suggest that population biomass and abundance has increased since 2006. About 5600 scampi were tagged and released to investigate growth, and recaptures to date have been low. Scampi emergence patterns were investigated with acoustic tags.

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  • Fringing reef growth on the central Great Barrier Reef: signatures of sea-level change, storms and sedimentation

    Ryan, Emma (2016-09-01)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Coral reefs globally are impacted by a range of natural and anthropogenic stressors. Inshore reefs on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are widely argued as degraded following a decline in coral cover and diversity over the past few decades. Inshore reefs are located between the 20 m isobath and the coast, where they are exposed to a variety of natural stressors, including high turbidity and/or sedimentation, as well as episodic cyclones and associated freshwater flood events. The impacts of these natural stressors may have been amplified by anthropogenic factors since European settlement of coastal catchments along the GBR, both directly as a result of activities such as modified land use within the catchments, and indirectly via the effects of human-induced global climate change. Anthropogenic factors are commonly implicated as drivers of recent ecological changes on inshore reefs, though isolating the various effects of natural and anthropogenic stressors remains difficult and poorly understood, partly due to a paucity of long-term data on baseline reef condition and variability prior to European settlement. Long-term records from coral reefs have great potential to address this deficit, and to detail past variability in reef growth and ecology to improve our understanding of present and future reef condition. However, such records are rare. The main aim of this research was to investigate in detail the Holocene development of fringing reefs over a cross-shelf transect in the central GBR, as baseline context for understanding present reef condition. In particular, the objectives of this research were to: 1) determine reef initiation ages and antecedent substrates; 2) reconstruct the chronostratigraphy of the fringing reefs along this transect to establish past rates and styles of reef development and any variability over time, including detailed examinations of the palaeo-ecological coral community compositions; 3) investigate the influence of Holocene sea-level change and cyclones on reef development; 4) describe and quantify the contemporary ecological community composition and structure and determine whether this has changed since European settlement; and 5) investigate Holocene reef development and present reef condition across the shelf, to identify variability and similarities across this gradient, and to examine how such patterns reflect the influence of key environmental parameters. This research focused on fringing reefs at four sites in the central GBR near Bowen that extend across a 40 km gradient from the mainland coast to the mid-shelf. The fringing reefs were located at: a) the mainland-attached Bramston Reef; b) Stone Island, ~3 km further offshore; c) Middle Island, ~10 km offshore; and d) Holbourne Island, ~40 km north of Bramston Reef. These sites were chosen because they provide a unique opportunity to examine Holocene fringing reef development across a mainland to mid-shelf transect within the central GBR where valuable historical records of reef condition are also available that extend back to the end of the 19th Century. In total, 42 reef cores were collected across the four sites. Sedimentological and palaeoecological analyses, coupled with uranium-thorium (U-Th) dating were used to develop chronostratigraphic records of reef growth. In addition, the ages and elevations (measured very precisely using a Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System) of un-moated fossil Porites microatolls were used as a proxy for past sea level and documented the minimum age for reef flat development. Contemporary reef geomorphology and ecological community structure were quantified using a variety of techniques, including precise topographic surveying, underwater videography and photo quadrat surveys. The chronostratigraphic records of reef growth revealed that all of the reefs examined in this study initiated in the early- to mid-Holocene, between 5,396 ?? 51 yBP (Bramston Reef) and 7,873 ?? 17 yBP (Middle Island). Generally, initiation occurred earlier at the further offshore sites, probably as a result of the pre-reefal foundations being flooded earlier during the postglacial transgression. The reefs established over a variety of substrates, including unconsolidated transgressive sands and gravels (Bramston Reef), compacted regolith (Middle Island), and last interglacial reef (Holbourne Island). The mode of reef development varied subtly between sites and was affected by the shape of the underlying pre-Holocene surface, variations in sedimentation, the degree of exposure to cyclones, and Holocene sea-level instability. All reefs rapidly accreted vertically and began to form a reef flat at sea level within ~1,000 years of initiation, regardless of the reef start-up time. Average rates of vertical reef accretion were highest at the inshore locations (up to 9.5 mm/yr), where the non-framework reef matrix sediments include a high proportion of mud (up to 53.8 ?? 17.4% on average). The high mud content contributed to rapid net reef accretion by burying the reef framework, enhancing coral framework preservation, limiting the impacts of bioerosion and contributing to reef structure volume. Reef flat development began in the mid-Holocene when sea levels were up to 1.0 m higher than present, as recorded by back reef fossil microatolls at Stone Island and Bramston Reef, and accretion continued as sea-level fell and stabilised at the present level. This late-Holocene sea-level fall is reflected in the slowing of reef accretion at most sites after the majority of the reef flat was emplaced. At Stone Island, the reef flat was entirely emplaced by ~5,000 yBP and little reef accretion has occurred since. Similar patterns were observed at other locations where relatively little reef growth occurred over the past 5,000 years (Middle Island and Holbourne Island) to 2,000 years (Bramston Reef). Palaeo-ecological analyses of the coral framework within the cores revealed the inshore sites were comprised of a diverse coral assemblage that persisted throughout the Holocene. Twenty-five and 28 coral genera were firmly identified in the cores from Bramston Reef and Stone Island, respectively, while 15 and 10 genera were identified in the cores from Middle and Holbourne Island, respectively. These estimates of diversity are likely to be conservative, as a considerable proportion of the material in most cores, particularly from Middle and Holbourne Islands, was comprised of detrital material, which was hard to confidently identify to genera. The geomorphological impacts of cyclones on past reef development were most evident at the two locations furthest offshore (Holbourne and Middle Islands). Chronological gaps in the internal reef structure during the mid-Holocene of 3,500 or 5,000 years at Holbourne Island and Middle Island, respectively, are attributed to stripping of the outer reef flat and upper reef slope by cyclones. Geomorphological features on the reef flats and islands at these locations, including shingle ridges and basset edges, provide complementary depositional evidence to support the hypothesis that the outer reef framework was stripped by cyclones. Radiometric dating of fossil microatolls on the reef flat at these two sites indicates that the fossil microatolls are relatively young (s reef slopes (46.0 ?? 36.2% cover). This spatial variability in reef condition within a small geographic area suggests that the current poor condition of Stone Island reef flats may more likely reflect localised reef-scale stressors rather than regional environmental or water quality conditions within Edgecumbe Bay. This research provides the first records of long-term reef growth from Edgecumbe Bay in the central GBR, developed using high-precision dating and topographic survey techniques. Crossshelf variations in the timing and mode of Holocene reef development are identified and discussed and the influences of sea-level change and exposure to cyclones and sedimentation are examined. This research emphasises the value of combining data over various temporal scales (millennial-scale core records, centennial-scale historical records and contemporary ecological data) to provide a more detailed understanding of present reef condition and recent changes in reef environments. This examination of five fringing reefs revealed some consistencies in reef development through time, which were comparable with other fringing reefs in the GBR and globally, but also revealed diversity in modes of development, palaeoecology and present condition.

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  • Airs and solids : Aires mateus

    Jenner, Gordon (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Beginning counsellors??? performances of self to client audiences

    Bray, Peter (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This chapter suggests the counselling environment could be viewed as a professional and social stage upon which counsellors make performance works that communicate and model experiences of their authentic selves. Counselling provides unusually safe and controlled environments in which personal realities are commonly communicated, assessed, and challenged. Its processes also rely upon clear communication, mutual understanding, and the successful co-construction of narratives that recognise client needs, goals, and outcomes. It is arguable that the act of counselling, founded upon truly fundamental values, conditions, and aspirations of human relationships, may at best be described as a mutually believable performance in a defined yet temporary relational moment. However, for the beginning counsellor the therapeutic encounter may be just that. Constrained by the need to maintain harmonious relations that enhance client disclosure and therapeutic change, new counsellors may feel that to present their actual selves, a self that they perceive incongruent with the counsellor identity and expectations of the client, could be counter-productive. Consequently, for the purposes of the service relationship they may withhold self in favour of a more acceptable, personally safer, yet less effective counsellor persona. Carl Rogers???s person-centred counselling foregrounds a discussion in which Erving Goffman???s common-sense notion of the self contextualises the inner conflict that results from beginning counsellors??? struggles to present both their professional personas and their authentic selves.1 It suggests that performing the role and becoming the role is a natural step in counsellor development, and invites comment on the humanistic counsellor???s struggle toward authenticity in the therapeutic relationship. Whilst the exercise of counselling seems to contradict the seeming artifice of a performance, this chapter suggests that personal truths may be influenced moment-to-moment by the emergent self in both personally and professionally congruent and relationally authentic performances.

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  • Kicking at the Habitus: Exploring staff and student ???readings??? of a socially critical physical education teacher education (PETE) programme

    Philpot, Roderick (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    While social justice and equity are themes foregrounded in many initial teacher education (ITE) programmes, there are a myriad of ways in which ITE draws attention to inequities and supports future teachers with the skills, knowledge and desire to address these issues. Critical pedagogy, with roots steeped in critical theory and the emancipatory literature of Paulo Freire is an orientation to ITE that privileges such aims. This thesis examines how critical pedagogy is understood and enacted by physical education teacher education (PETE) teacher educators in a single PETE programme that is underpinned by a critical orientation, and also the sense that the students in the programme have made of the critical pedagogies they encounter. At one level this thesis is an attempt to understand the enactment and subsequent reading of critical approaches to PETE. At a deeper level this research has the emancipatory aims of producing physical education (PE) teachers who aspire to, and who are equipped with, the required skills and dispositions for foregrounding social justice in their own teaching. In this thesis I draw on critical theory, specifically the work of Paulo Freire, Jurgen Habermas and Pierre Bourdieu, to illustrate both the synergy and tensions associated with the enactment of critical pedagogies by several teacher educators who teach within a single ITE programme. The teacher educators??? varying understandings and subsequent enactments of critical pedagogy ensure that their students are exposed to numerous critical approaches. At the same time, the encounters between individual student biographies and multiple, often unique, critical approaches, have led to uncertainty within students in their ability to coherently explain what critical pedagogy is, and how they could teach from a critical perspective. Each student claims that critical approaches in the PETE programme have made a difference, yet it is a different difference for each student. Complex life histories have served to filter the sense that students have made of the PETE programme. Some students understand critical pedagogy as taking action against structural injustices. These students have the eyes to recognise, and the will to address, some issues of social inequity, most often those issues they have encountered through their own lives. Other students conceive of critical pedagogy as a process of problematising knowledge and reflecting on their own teaching.

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  • Human gastric slow wave activity redefined through high-resolution mapping

    Berry, Rachel (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Gastric contractions are initiated, propagated and coordinated by underlying rhythmic bioelectrical potentials termed slow waves. Slow waves propagate through the musculature via conduction networks comprised of specialised cells, and act in combination with the enteric nervous system to regulate peristalsis. Disordered slow wave activity has been associated with the pathophysiology of several motility disorders, and occurs as a result of the abnormal function of, or disruption to these specialised cells and their distribution pathways. This thesis aimed to: i) define regional variations in slow wave characteristics in the distal stomach, identified during previous high resolution (HR) mapping research, ii) explore the consequences of disruption to the bioelectrical conduction pathways and removal of the primary gastric pacemaker, and iii) develop new laparoscopic recording arrays with a view to increasing coverage and accuracy of slow wave mapping. The investigation of slow wave characteristics in the distal stomach was performed using HR mapping techniques and flexible printed circuit (FPC) electrode arrays. The arrays were positioned on the antrum and used to detect significant increases in the velocity (3.3 ?? 0.1 mm s-1 vs 7.5 ?? 0.6 mm s-1; p0.05) and amplitude (1.7 ?? 0.2 vs 1.6 ?? 0.6 mV; p>=0.05) of slow wave cycles was unaffected, however velocity increased significantly (3.8 ?? 0.8 vs 12.5 ?? 0.8 mm s-1; p=0.01) following surgery. These data show that primary pacemaker removal and disruption of slow wave conduction networks causes dysrhythmic activation and propagation patterns. These may resolve naturally or potentially lead to the development of gastric motility disorders. HR mapping of a previous LSG patient reporting ongoing pain, acid reflux and food intolerance 15-months postoperatively revealed a persistent ectopic pacemaker in the antral region of the sleeve. Slow waves were found to consistently propagate around an area conduction block, and were of a higher velocity (12.6 ?? 4.8 mm s-1) than anticipated. However, frequency (2.2 ?? 0.01 cpm) and amplitude (2.3 ?? 1.9 mV) were within normal ranges. The results suggest that pain, reflux and food intolerance following LSG may be associated with a deviation from normal bioelectrical activity patterns occurring following removal of the gastric pacemaker. The increasing adoption of minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases prompted the development of a laparoscopic device capable of recording slow wave activity directly from the serosal surface of the target organ. This device improved on previous designs with a larger coverage area and a greater number of electrodes; a larger field of electrodes is particularly relevant when attempting to characterise dysrhythmias, and reduce error when calculating the direction and velocity of slow waves. Simultaneous recordings from the improved design and a FPC array in pigs were identical in frequency (2.6 cpm; p>0.05). Activation patterns and velocities were also consistent (8.9 ?? 0.2 vs 8.7 ?? 0.1 mm s-1; p>0.05). Device and reference amplitudes were comparable (1.3 ?? 0.1 vs 1.4 ?? 0.1 mV; p>0.05), although the device signal to noise ratio (SNR) was higher (17.5 ?? 0.6 vs 12.8 ?? 0.6 dB; p<0.01). Slow wave activity was also recorded and mapped from the corpus of a human patient and was within the known physiological range for human gastric slow waves (frequency 2.7 ?? 0.03 cpm), amplitude 0.8 ?? 0.4 mV, velocity 2.3 ?? 0.9 mm s-1). The laparoscopic device achieved high-quality gastric serosal slow wave recordings and demonstrated its potential for documenting slow wave characteristics in patients with gastric dysmotility disorders. The work within this thesis presents a series of advances that enhance our investigation and understanding of gastric slow waves. It is anticipated that these novel mapping tools, combined with improved knowledge of both normal and dysrhythmic activity will progress clinical diagnoses and patient treatment options.

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  • Site-specific effects of loading on the osteochondral tissues of the equine distal metacarpus

    Turley, Sean (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The distal end of the third metacarpal bone is among the most highly loaded sites in the equine appendicular skeleton, and a common site of injury and degeneration. The objective of this thesis was to investigate site-specific changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties of the osteochondral tissues of the distal third metacarpal in response to in vivo loading, and how such changes may precede lesion development in the palmar region. Osteochondral tissue changes were evaluated in terms of mechanical and morphological parameters, including in athletically trained horses. Mechanical testing included indentation testing to determine cartilage modulus, and impact testing. Tissue morphology was assessed using bright field microscopy and differential interference contrast microscopy to view thick osteochondral sections in a full hydrated state. Regions of higher in vivo loading were associated with thinner calcified cartilage, reduced cartilage mechanical properties, and greater cement line rugosity and subchondral bone volume fraction. High subchondral bone volume fraction, high cement line rugosity, and reduced cartilage mechanical properties were identified as possible precursors of degenerative change in the articular cartilage of the palmar region. The progression of repetitive overload-induced lesions in the palmar aspect of the third metacarpal of Thoroughbred racehorses was documented from initial microcrack formation through to severe subchondral bone collapse. Extensive levels of microdamage were frequently concealed beneath outwardly intact hyaline cartilage. Notably, fibrous repair tissue was found at the articular surface in cases where subsidence of the subchondral bone had occurred, suggesting a repair response aimed at maintaining articular surface congruity. However, there was some evidence to suggest that this repair tissue was vulnerable to mechanical disruption when exposed to continued loading. This thesis makes a contribution to the literature by: (i) Providing detailed information on site-specific adaptations in osteochondral morphology and mechanical properties in relation to load, including in athletically trained animals; (ii) Identifying osteochondral changes that may predispose towards degeneration; (iii) Documenting the morphological progression of damage accumulation and lesion development in the palmar aspect of racing Thoroughbreds; and (iv) Presenting detailed images of the aforementioned lesions in the full context of the joint tissue complex, spanning from the articular surface to the subchondral bone.

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  • Adherence to Secondary Prophylaxis for Patients Diagnosed With Rheumatic Heart Disease by Echocardiographic Screening

    Culliford-Semmens, N; Tilton, E; Webb, Rachel; Lennon, D; Paku, B; Long, F; Malcolm, J; French, S; Blair, N; Wilson, N (2016-06)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The formation of Malled-kampung as the new urban element: Reconciliation the public life in private space by the development of traditional market into shopping mall in Surabaya, Indonesia

    Manfredini, Manfredo; Jusmartinah, Raja (2016)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Shaping the present, crafting the past: imaging self-narrative in the life and work of Toyohara Kunichika (1835???1900)

    Newland, Amy (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The artist Toyohara Kunichika (1835???1900) is today recognised as one of the leading figures in the history of Meiji-era nishiki-e prints, and particularly in the field of kabuki actor imagery. He belonged to a generation of nishiki-e woodblock print designers born and trained in the late Edo period (1603???1867[1868]) who came to artistic maturity during the following Meiji era (1867[1868]???1912). The socio-political, technological, and cultural changes occurring in the Meiji era posed new challenges to the long-established industry of woodblock prints. By the end of the nineteenth century figures like Kunichika came to be seen as representatives of past Edo-period culture operating in a present Meiji cultural milieu. This was despite the fact that many connoisseurs, collectors, and scholars from this time to the early to mid-twentieth centuries dismissed woodblock prints created in the late Edo and Meiji periods. The aim of this study of Kunichika???s life and art is two-fold. First, it seeks to redress the stereotypical view that late Edo and Meiji prints embody a period of ???decline??? and ???decadence???, as upheld by writers from the later nineteenth century onwards, and advances our understanding of the qualities of nishiki-e of this period. It will show that the Meiji commercial print industry, although subject to different cultural considerations and economic hurdles, remained buoyant until the end of Kunichika???s life, and that print designers, writers, and actors of the age actively collaborated in the production of prints. Secondly, an examination of Kunichika???s October 1898 ???Meiji no Edokko??? interview in the Yomiuri shinbun, as well as contemporary newspaper reports and his prolific body of work in the genre of nigao-e (???likeness pictures???), sheds light on this artist???s views regarding his own place within the nineteenth-century woodblock print tradition and his self-identification (and self-narrative) as a ???master of kabuki actor prints??? (nigao-e shi).

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  • Childhood outcomes in children at risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia

    Burakevych, Nataliia (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aim The aims of this thesis are to (1) describe growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born at risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia, a common condition that may be associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome; (2) investigate methods used for data collection in paediatric longitudinal studies; and (3) determine the relationships between glycaemic response to neonatal hypoglycaemia, its treatment, and later neurodevelopmental outcome. Methods Prospective study of children born at risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia at Waikato hospital (2006-2010), the CHYLD study. Intermittent blood and continuous interstitial glucose concentrations were recorded in the neonatal period. Hypoglycaemia (blood glucose concentration <2.6 mmol/l) was treated with breast milk, formula, dextrose gel, and intravenous dextrose. At 2 and 4.5 years??? corrected age children were assessed for neurodevelopmental and general health status. Caregivers completed questionnaires about the medical history and social-emotional health of their children. Children???s hospital records were accessed and preschool screening data was obtained from the Before School Check programme. Findings Children in our study lived in more deprived areas compared to the national average, and approximately a third had neurosensory impairment at both 2 and 4.5 years. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were not related to neonatal risk factors. We identified problems with several of the methods commonly used for follow-up assessments. Caregivers could not accurately recall previous hospital admissions at the 4.5 year assessment when compared to hospital records. Referral criteria for developmental and emotional health problems were not applied consistently in the Before School Check, and children who had problems often missed out on screening. In addition, assessment of motor function at 2 years was not predictive of motor difficulties at 4.5 years. We found that treatment of neonatal hypoglycaemia was associated with different glycaemic responses in the six hour period after hypoglycaemia, and the rate of change in glucose concentrations was related to later neurodevelopmental outcome. Conclusions Our findings in an at-risk cohort of children with high impairment rates will help researchers and clinicians to plan future studies, draw attention to some limitations of the New Zealand preschool screening programme, and guide future research on treatment of neonatal hypoglycaemia to improve later outcomes.

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  • Speech Profile of School-age Children with Hearing Loss in Comparison to Children with Normal Hearing in New Zealand

    Asad, Areej (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aims of doctoral thesis were to: 1) describe the phonetic inventory of New Zealand English (NZE) of early school-age children with mild-to-profound HL in comparison to their peers, 2) examine vowel and consonant production accuracy of school-age children with mild-to-profound HL in comparison to their normal hearing peers and to examine, 3) identify the phonological processes that persist in the speech of school-age children with hearing loss (CWHL) in comparison to their peers, and 4) investigate how the speech-intelligibility of CWHL and children with normal hearing (CWNH) is rated by adult listeners with differing levels of familiarity with a child???s speech characteristics. Methods: Children with hearing loss (CWHL, N=25; mean age of identification=25.9) were compared with children with normal hearing (CWNH, N=30) with similar age, gender, linguistic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Productions of English words were elicited in a picture-naming task using a list of 88 words, derived from three standardized speech tests. Parents (N=24), teachers (N=24), inexperienced listeners (N=24) and experienced listeners (N=24) rated children???s speech intelligibility on a 6-point scale. Results: The first study showed that CWHL produced fewer stops, fricatives, affricates, and liquids than CWNH. CWHL had acquired more sounds in onset than coda position. Most CWHL had similar vowel repertoires to CWNH. The second study showed that CWHL and CWNH had similar vowel production accuracy. CWHL had lower percentage of consonant correct than CWNH. Consonant production accuracy for CI users was better than for HA users. Children with moderate-to-severe HL were the least accurate in phonemic production. The third study revealed that there was distinctive differences between CWNH and CWHL in the amount of processes produced by younger and older CWHL. CWHL showed a similar trend of age of suppression to CWNH but at a slower rate. Final consonant deletion, weak syllable deletion, backing, and glottal replacement were present in the speech of HA users which would affect their overall speech intelligibility. The fourth study showed that parents, teachers, and experienced listeners rated speech intelligibility of CWHL better than inexperienced listeners. Conclusions: Some children with mild to profound hearing loss had reduced phonetic repertoires compared to their peers at early school age. Children with moderate-to-severe hearing loss who are fitted with hearing aids need comprehensive assessment and intervention services. The findings indicate that it is important for clinicians to consider phonological assessment in CWHL and the use of evidence-based speech therapy for pre-school CWHL to reduce the presence of non-developmental and non-age-appropriate developmental processes in order to enhance their speech intelligibility. Finally, it is helpful in clinical contexts to consider the perceptions of parents and other listeners who are familiar with a child???s speech, and the perceptions of less familiar listeners when evaluating the intelligibility of CWHL.

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  • Combined abutment and contraction scour in compound channels for extreme flood events

    Xiong, Xiaozhou (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this PhD project, the combination of abutment and contraction scour is investigated to better understand the scour mechanisms and scour patterns for extreme floods. Close-toreality scour events were physically simulated using models built at 1:45 and 1:30 geometric scales of two-lane bridge prototypes. Scour and flow-measurement experiments under submerged orifice and overtopping flows were carried out. To better understand the effect of vertical contraction on abutment scour, free surface flows were also investigated for similar experimental conditions. The majority of the experiments were carried out in compound channels, simulating abutments set back from the main channel. Spill-through abutments were used in the live-bed scour regime, and both spill-through and wing-wall abutments were used in the clear-water regime. In addition, to better understand the effect of contraction length on abutment scour, and also to verify the long contraction theory for apron-protected, abrupt abutments, a series of long contraction experiments were carried out with vertical-wall abutments. Several major conclusions can be drawn from the results of this project. For the investigated conditions, results show that vertical contraction significantly affects the flow pattern, the temporal development of scour and the final scour bathymetry. Comparing with submerged orifice flows, flow relief of the overtopping flows has a small effect on the near-bottom turbulence and the scour. Flow patterns at the initial state are found to correlate with scour patterns at the equilibrium state. In the bridge section, a ???retreating??? behaviour of the main channel bank is observed; at the equilibrium state, the side slope of the ???retreated??? main channel bank is observed to be invariant, presenting a simple geometric relationship between the depth of the scour hole and its location. For unprotected abutments, scour is centred at the upstream corner of the abutment, regardless of contraction length; and for apron-protected abutments, scour differs significantly with contraction length. Numerical and physical modelling work is required in the future to broaden the knowledge of abutment and contraction scour. Also, further research is required to improve the scour countermeasure design for abutments under pressure flows.

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