27,434 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland

  • Constructing Multi-View Editing Environments Using MViews

    Grundy, J.C.; Hosking, J.G. (1993-02)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    MViews abstracts out common features of multi-view editing environments that support integrated textual and graphical programming. It provides a conceptual model and reusable object-oriented framework for constructing such environments. Multiple views of a base document are supported with consistency automatically maintained between each of the views. MViews has been used to construct a visual and textual programming and program visualisation environment for object-oriented systems. Other applications of MViews under development include entity-relationship and dataflow diagrammers with detailed descriptions programmed with text.

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  • From Serial to Massively Parallel Constraint Satisfaction

    Guesgen, H.W. (1993-03)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Local propagation algorithms such as Waltz filtering and Mackworth’s AC-x algorithms have been successfully applied in AI for solving constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). It has been shown that they can be implemented in parallel very easily. However, algorithms like Waltz filtering and AC-x are not complete. In general, they can only be used as preprocessing methods as they do not compute a globally consistent solution for a CSP; they result in local consistency also known as arc consistency. In this paper, we introduce extensions of local constraint propagation to overcome this drawback, i.e. to compute globally consistent solutions for a CSP. The idea is to associate additional information with the values during the propagation process so that global relationships among the values are maintained. The result are algorithms that are complete and for which there are straightforward, parallel and massively parallel implementations.

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  • Reflections on the Burrows Wheeler transform

    Fenwick, Peter (2004)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This report presents some speculations on the nature of the Burrows Wheeler transform, from analogies with the better-known techniques of signal processing. These analogies, plus considerations of symmetry and inverse operations, suggest some possible developments to the Burrows Wheeler transform for lossless compression.

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  • Use of a Simulator for Teaching Logic Circuits

    Doran, R.W. (1987-05)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    A simulator for introducing the topic of logic circuits is described along with the simulator's implications for course content. The simulator is designed for educational purposes rather than as a tool for realistic circuit development. Because it is removed from design detail, the simulator permits a hierarchical approach to circuit description that makes it possible to proceed much further into the subject than is normal in an introductory course. It becomes much more reasonable to structure a course such that its content is suited to the majority of students' interests (i.e. those who will never design practical circuits) and to draw on their existing understanding of programming and serial algorithms.

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  • Adapting Single Algorithm Multiple Data Programs for Multiprocessing Vector Computers

    Doran, R.W. (1990-07)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper explores the way that simple but inherently parallel programs may be adapted to a parallel vector computer. Starting with an example algorithm that is applied independently to many sets of data, we proceed to convert it systematically into a highly parallel form by using multiprocessing and vector processing. The various versions of the program are written in Fortran for the Cray X-MP. Performance data are collected to show the extent of the performance improvement that can be expected.

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  • Functional Extensions to an Object-Oriented Programming Language

    Hamer, J.; Hosking, J.G.; Mugridge, R.B. (1991-01)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Multi-Methods in a Statically-Typed Programming Language

    Mugridge, R.B.; Hamer, J.; Hosking, J.G. (1991-11)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Multivariant functions in Kea are a statically-typed form of the multi-methods of CLOS (Keene, 1989) but encapsulation is retained. Multivariants permit fine typing distinctions to be made, allow despatching to be avoided in some cases, and may be used to avoid some restrictions of the contravariance rule. Once multivariant functions are introduced by example, the semantics of the despatch of multivariants are provided, based on the generation of despatching variants. Three issues arise with despatching: redundancy, ambiguity, and exhaustiveness of a (partially-ordered) set of variants with respect to a function call. It is shown that the approach taken here is consistent with separate compilation.

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  • A Discussion Moderator

    Creak, G.A.; Davies, R.C. (1991-08)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    The suggestion that computer methods might be used to identify points of conflict between sides in an argument is investigated. It is suggested that computer assistance in moderating discussions could be a useful approach. Initially, the computer’s function would be restricted to recording the arguments, as any attempt at interpreting the participants’ words could lead to further conflict. A design is suggested, and a partial implementation reported.

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  • Virtual Registers

    Doran, R.W.; Fenwick, P.; Qun, Z. (1991-10)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper concerns computer architectures and computer designs in which registers are virtual, that is, where registers do not necessarily correspond exactly to a real fast storage array, in particular where there are many more registers addressable than fast storage elements implemented. There are many architectures where registers are to a greater or lesser extent virtual. One scheme, where the in-use registers are managed as a set associative cache, is explored in some depth - it is seen that such a scheme is not as unreasonable as it might first appear.

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  • Marine sponges : forty-six sponges of northern New Zealand

    Pritchard, K.; Battershill, C.N.; Ward, V.; Bergquist, P.R. (1984)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Sponges are invertebrates and form the only phylum, Porifera, in the subkingdom Parazoa. They are the most primitive of multicellular animals, having neither true tissues nor organs, with the cells showing considerable independence from one another. A sponge is composed of a variety of cells supported by a skeletal network. The skeleton can be composed of spicules and/or spongin. The various cell components perform different functions. The outer surface (pinacoderm) is formed of flattened polygonal cells called pinacocytes. The interior surface (choanoderm) is lined with flagellated collar cells (choanocytes); the flagella beat to provide a current through the sponge enabling oxygen and food particles to be drawn into the sponge and wastes to be expelled. Between the pinacoderm and the choanoderm is an area (the mesohyl) formed of gelatinous material. Cells found here are the basic archaeocytes which can form into any other specialised cell. The body form of sponges is very variable, being influenced by available space, current velocity, habitat, and the nature and slope of the substrate. Asconoid sponges have the simplest form - a tubular shape enclosing a central cavity which opens out through a single exhalent opening (osculum) with porocytes connecting directly from the pinacoderm to the choanoderm. Larger sponges require a more efficient filter system: this is achieved by folding which increases the internal surface area. Syconoid sponges are those with the first stages of body wall folding. Leuconoid sponges have the highest degree of folding, with the formation of flagellated chambers and a complex canal system, the filling in of the central cavity and numerous oscules. The majority of sponges fall into this category. Sponges seem to be unselective feeders: their diet reflects the composition of particles available in the water current, the only criteria being particles smaller than the sieve size of the inhalent openings. Reproduction can be by either sexual or asexual means. Some sponge species contain both male and female sex cells, other species can have different sexes on a permanent or temporary basis. In oviparous sponges eggs are extruded through the exhalent opening, or upon dissolution of the dermal membrane. Viviparous types expel tiny adult sponges or larvae. The larvae usually spend a short time as a free swimming form before settling on the substratum. Asexual forms of reproduction are by budding or splitting. In some species asexual bodies (gemmules) are formed. There are approximately 10,000 species of sponges recorded from around the world.

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  • Rocky Shore Ecology of the Leigh Area North Auckland

    Morton, John; Chapman, Valentine J. (1968)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Towards an academic career

    Carter, Susan; Kelly, F (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Question: I???m in my first year of doing my doctorate and I think I???d like an academic career. My undergraduate grades were not that great but my research work is going well. Is an academic job likely to be possible? What suggestions do you have for getting to this goal?

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  • A History of Biology at Auckland University 1883-1983

    Foster, Brian; Rattenbury, Jack; Marbrook, John (1983)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. In the 100 years of the University of Auckland there have been five generations of biology professors: 1) Thomas 2) Johnson 3) Lancaster - McGregor 4) Chapman - Morton - Matthews 5) Love11 - Young - Bergquist. Staff members have risen from one in 1883 to 42 in 1983. There have been 100 intakes of first year students in biology; 11 in 1883, 405 in 1983. Of the degrees that have been conferred, 1700 students have majored in Botany, Zoology or Cell Biology for baccalaureates, 493 have taken masterates, and 123 doctorates have been conferred.

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  • The Mokohinau Islands : a marine survey : with additional notes on the history, climate and terrestrial environments of the group

    Berben, P.H.; McCrone, A. (1988)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Because of the isolated location of the Mokohinaus, and the difficulty of gaining access to the islands, few detailed quantitative surveys have been attempted, especially of the marine biota. The Royal New Zealand Air Force conducted a diving expedition to Mokohinaus in 1978, as part of their expedition training programme. Lead by Wing Commander Knight, the RNZAF made their main object a marine survey around Burgess Island, the largest island of the Mokohinau group. The impetus for producing this report stems from their pioneering expedition, and I would like to congratulate all members of the expedition on the way that they, as non-biologists, applied themselves to this unfamiliar task. Advice on conducting the marine survey was provided by Dr Bill Ballantine from the Leigh Marine Laboratory, assisted by Drs Tony Ayling and Floor Anthoni. As well as supervising the mapping effort by the Air Force divers, these three each carried out individual projects, the results of which are reproduced in this report: Dr Ballantine carried out a baseline survey of rocky intertidal shores, Dr Ayling made a census of fish populations, and Dr Anthoni kept a photographic record of the whole operation (which was subsequently made into a scientific and public education film). One of the major tasks to be done at the completion of the expedition was to produce a map of the underwater habitats. This was done over several years by student assistants at the Leigh Marine Laboratory, particularly Susan Owen. I thank her for her efforts, and also the many other people who helped at various stages in the production of this report, particularly Neil Andrew, Brigid Kerrigan, Laura Stocker and Jane Robertson. Our input into the production of this report was mainly supervisory; all the hard work was done by Peter Berben and Anne McCrone. We are extremely grateful to them for their enthusiasm and perseverance in gathering, sorting and writing up the information. It is hoped that their efforts will help to increase our awar2ness of the Mokohinaus, and will stimulate others to carry out further quantitative studies of this unique island group.

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  • North Cape to East Cape : aspects of the physical oceanography

    Harris, T.F.W. (1985)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Access by request, use the feedback form to request access The coast and coastal waters which lie between the most northerly and easterly capes of New Zealand are remarkable by any standard. Geologically new, and sheltered from the prevailing westerly waves, the region has retained its embayments and estuaries which together with the off-lying islands make it a coast of character, attractive to the many who sail its waters and the holiday-makers who enjoy its qualities, and economically important as a fishery. Scientifically it is of special interest because, having a northeast aspect (unlike the rest of New Zealand waters), it is susceptible to the influence of subtropical systems, manifest in its wave and current regimes as well as its water properties. The written record began when Cook rounded East Cape in the spring of 1769 and charted the region. He was closely followed by de Surville. Since then studies have been made by hydrographers, scientists and coastal engineers. Information has accumulated rather piecemeal and slowly, but steadily. Inevitably it is scattered throughout charts, scientific papers and technical reports, and although it is still fragmentary the time has perhaps come to attempt to bring it together in a form which will serve as an introduction for those non-specialists who have occasion to need it, and as a review drawing the attention of research workers to shortcomings in our knowledge and the difficulties in the way of its enhancement.

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  • Marine molluscs. Part 1. Amphineura, archaeogastropoda & pulmonata

    Walsby, J.; Ballantine, W.J.; Morton, J.; Willen, R.C. (1982)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    The creation of New Zealand's first marine reserve, between Cape Rodney and Okakari Point, on the eastern coast of Northland, near Leigh, has been a stimulus to review and collate all of the known information on a number of animal groups. The marine molluscs constitute a large group which will be covered in 4 volumes. In this, the first volume, the more primitive molluscs, nearly all grazers, are considered. These are the Amphineura (chitons), the Archaeogastropoda (limpets, topshells, turbanshells, nerites and allies), and the marine Pulmonata (3 limpets, the small earshells, Amphibola the mud snail, and a strangely isolated pulmonate slug, Onahidella). Shells have long captivated man's interest with their beauty of form and decoration and have been the subject of many books and countless illustrations. Even for New Zealand shells there are a good number of books ranging from pocket guides to the common shells, through to the complete manuals of Suter (1913) and Powell (1979). Few countries can be so fortunate as to have such a modern account as A.W.B. Powell's "New Zealand Mollusca", in which we are given a complete list, with descriptions and illustrations of our marine, land and freshwater molluscs. The generation after Suter's, extending well into modern time, was marked by intensified discovery and new description, with a proliferation of local generic names. Today there has been a return to a healthier balance, with the recognition that exclusive neozelanic, generic names can obscure a wide comparability which is so useful in community ecology and comparative morphology. Powell's "New Zealand Mollusca" emphasised this corrective trend and its revised nomenclature is not likely to become substantially out of date during this century. New records are certain to appear, however, both by discovery, aided in particular by the use of SCUBA studies, and also by immigration. Much bigger and faster ships and periodic international movement of giant oil-drilling rigs, have given new opportunities for the dispersal of marine species across the oceans. It was only by the appearance of Powell's great general work, that smaller books of more limited aim, and-specialised purpose, could be encouraged or become feasible to produce. "New Zealand Mollusca ll is based mainly on characters of the shells of the entire New Zealand molluscan fauna. In matters of taxonomy, our local series will follow it throughout, diverging only in a few well-advised instances, largely in higher group classification, where malacological and evolutionary study has proved informative.

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  • Brachyura and crab-like anomura of New Zealand

    McLay, C.L. (1988)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Crab-1ike marine arthropods are among the most advanced forms of crustaceans. They have a well developed carapace, usually wider than long, short bodies with the abdomen folded underneath as a segmented flap and the first pair of pereiopods chelate. These sometimes fearsome-looking appendages often deter people from handling them but in fact most crabs are easily manipulated once you overcome the initial fear of being bitten. Perhaps this aversion is the reason why there still remains much to be discovered about crabs. Most crabs cannot inflict any sort of damage to a human but those which can are easily handled after a bit of trial and error. The words of Thomson (1932) are probably equally applicable today: ' ... the sea, which teems with animal and vegetable life, and with unrealized sources of national wealth, has hitherto received very little attention. In this general neglect of marine biology the Crustatea have shared. The number of workers who have added to our knowledge of this group is very small ... ' The predatory, commensal and mutualistic relationships of crabs with other marine animals, their reproductive and population dynamics and their importance as members of marine communities are fascinating to the marine ecologist. Various aspects of crab behaviour, burrowing, sound production, masking and foraging are intriguing to the animal behaviourist. Physiological adaptations of their osmotic balance, respiration and ventilation, hormonal control of moulting, autotomy and regeneration of lost limbs, and their highly organised nervous systems are exciting to physiologists. The reasons for the apparently low genetic diversity of crustaceans provides a challenge to geneticists. For the great majority of New Zealand crabs we have barely even begun to scratch the surface of the wide range of studies that are possible.

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  • Marine molluscs. Part 2. Opisthobranchia

    Willan, R.C.; Walsby, J.R.; Morton, J.; Ballantine, W.J. (1984)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This second part of the "Marine Molluscs" series deals with the subclass Opisthobranchia. Some sea slugs, as opisthobranchs are commonly termed, are amongst the largest and most ecologically important gastropods in New Zealand's coastal waters. Opisthobranchs in general, and nudibranchs in particular, are rare in both time and space so some species go unseen for many years. For example the aeolid Babakina aaprinsulensis is still only known from a single specimen that was collected at Goat Island Bay in 1965. It never ceases to amaze us how such rare species ever succeed in finding a mate. Because of their scarcity and general difficulty of collection, opisthobranchs are not well understood taxonomically. Their systematics are incomplete and even within the Leigh area a dozen undescribed species are known. We have departed from the names employed by Powell (1979) in several instances in this work to bring the taxonomy up to date. However reference is always given back to Dr. Powell's "New Zealand Mollusca". As if to reflect the increasing knowledge of opisthobranchs in New Zealand several species are included here which have been described since. Dr. Powell completed the research for his manual.

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  • Poor Knights Islands Marine Reserve Survey

    Schiel, David R. (compiled by) (1984)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This report presents and discusses the results of a biological survey of subtidal reefs at the Poor Knights Islands. It was done from July 1983 to January 1984 and represents the work of some 285 scuba dives. The report is designed to accommodate different levels of interest in the results and different levels of expertise, from the layman to the professional biologist. Accordingly, it is divided into several sections. Chapter 1 contains a general description of habitats, a rationale for the sampling techniques and a summary of the major findings. Chapters 2 & 3 contain details of the sampling programme, a full description of results and a discussion. These chapters are more technical in nature than the first. Finally, the Appendix contains information about the abundances of individual species, statistical models used for analyses, and a previous report (1982) on fish populations.

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  • A case study examining the effectiveness of surface electromyography (sEMG) biofeedback in dysphagia rehabilitation and the SWAL-QOL quality of life outcome measure

    Newlove, Sarah (2007-04-03)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Dysphagia is very common following a stroke and in the US alone 500,000 individuals experience a stroke each year. As a result, advances in dysphagia management are growing and include the use of surface electromyography (sEMG) as a biofeedback tool. There is also a shift taking place in terms of how patients are viewed by professionals. In rehabilitation there is less of a focus on impairment-based rehabilitation and more on how the patient functions holistically in their environment, based on the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) framework. The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of sEMG as a therapy tool; the effect it has on a person’s quality of life (measured by the SWAL-QOL); and the impact it has on treatment outcomes when therapy is delivered intensively. The results indicated a trend to significance in the progress made by the participant (as measured by videofluoroscopy interpretation) and additionally in the dietary changes after treatment. There was also a significant change in the participant’s perception of their quality of life after treatment. These findings provide a useful basis for the generation of future hypotheses in larger research yet to be conducted.

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