27,439 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland

  • Prevalence of Rheumatic Heart Disease and Other Echocardiographic Abnormalities in Polynesian Young Adults in South Auckland, New Zealand

    Webb, Rachel; Culliford-Semmens, N; Mow, AC; Doughty, R; Tilton, E; Peat, B; Stirling, J; Gentles, T; Stewart, J; Wilson, N (2016-06)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Long-Term Outcomes of New Zealand Children and Young Adults Undergoing Surgery for Rheumatic Heart Disease

    Webb, Rachel; Remenyi, B; Finucane, K; Lennon, D; Gentles, T; Sidhu, K; Wilson, N (2016-06)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The Microbiology of Septic Arthritis in Young Auckland Children

    Boom, MVD; Webb, Rachel; Lennon, DR; Crawford, H; Freeman, J; Castle, J; Mistry, R (2016-12-01)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Sequential Intravenous High Dose Oral Antibiotics in the Treatment of Osteoarticular Infections in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Tsui, K; Crawford, H; Mow, FC; Webb, Rachel; Voss, LM; Stott, NS; Stewart, J; Lennon, DR (2016)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Development of novel nanoparticulate delivery system for oral delivery of gemcitabine to treat breast cancer

    Chen, Guanyu (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background and Aim: In New Zealand women, breast cancer has a highest rate of incidence of any cancer. In 2015, there were approximate 60,300 new cases of breast cancer diagnosed globally, which is second most common cancer overall. To address breast cancer, chemotherapy is typically administered parenterally. However, this is an unpleasant and inconvenient administration route, and often leads to high peak levels of drug in the systemic circulation above the maximum tolerated concentration (MTC) resulting in a multitude of side effects. Oral chemotherapy is attractive with better patient acceptability, good therapeutic efficacy, and low cost. However, there are many obstacles to achieve oral drug delivery including physical and biochemical barriers, such as the epithelial barrier of the small intestine, degradation through the acidic environment of the stomach and digestive enzymes throughout the gastrointestinal tract, as well as efflux pumps which limit oral drug absorption. Gemcitabine is a promising drug candidate with proven activity against breast cancer, however, it has an oral bioavailability of less than 10%, due to its high hydrophilicity and low permeability through intestinal epithelium. Therefore, the aim of this project was to develop a novel nanoparticulate drug delivery system for oral delivery of gemcitabine, to improve its oral bioavailability. Methods: Two different polymeric nanoparticulate delivery systems were designed suitable for the oral delivery of gemcitabine. The first was gemcitabine-loaded TMC modified PLGATPGS nanoparticles (NPs) prepared through a modified solvent evaporation technique. The PLGA-TPGS random copolymer was synthesized prior to the fabrication of NPs. A central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the formulation parameters. The second delivery system of gemcitabine loaded TMC-CSK NP was fabricated via an ionic gelation method. The TMC polymer was synthesized by using a new two-step methylation method prior to preparing the TMC based NPs. The physical and chemical properties of both nanoparticulate delivery systems were determined including particles size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in-vitro drug release and ex-vivo drug permeation over the porcine epithelial membrane, and the optimal formulations were selected. A co-cultured Caco-2 and HT29-MTX-E12 cell model was set up to determine cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and transport studies of the drug solution and optimal drug loaded NPs. Finally, the pharmacokinetic parameters associated with different formulation were determined using a Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. The tumour growth rate associated with the drug solution and the drug loaded NPs were investigated using a BALB/c nude mouse model. Results and discussion: The optimal formulations of drug loaded TMC modified PLGATPGS NPs and drug loaded TMC-CSK NPs showed particle size of 243.21 ?? 21.72 nm, and 173.60 ?? 6.82 nm, zeta potential of +14.70 ?? 1.31 mV, and +18.50 ?? 0.22 mV, entrapment efficiency of 76.43 ?? 0.21%, and 66.43 ?? 0.13%, respectively. Particles of less than 500 nm show significantly higher absorption than larger particles across intestinal epithelium, thus the particle sizes of both NPs are suitable for oral absorption. NPs with zeta potentials more positive than +15 mV or more negative than -15 mV are considered stable, thus the two NPs are considered having good steric stability. In addition, the positive charged NPs promote mucoadhesion with the negatively charged intestinal mucosa, through electrostatic interaction. The high entrapment efficiency results were promising and are higher than most polymeric NPs delivery systems reported. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the TMC modified PLGA-TPGS NPs were spherical with a smooth particle surface, while the TMC-CSK NPs had more irregular shape with a craggy particle surface. They both showed sustain drug release profiles during in vitro drug release studies, and greater drug permeation compared to drug solution over porcine epithelial membrane in the ex-vivo drug permeation studies. Moreover, both optimal drug loaded NPs exhibited good stability in terms of particle size and drug entrapment over 3 months stored at 4??C. The cytotoxicity of gemcitabine solution, gemcitabine loaded TMC modified PLGA-TPGS NPs, and gemcitabine loaded TMC-CSK NPs on Caco-2/HT29-MTX-E12 cells showed dose dependence and with IC50s of 529.4 ?? 67.2 ??g.mL-1, 1881.4 ?? 51.5 ??g.mL-1 and 1682.4 ?? 27.9 ??g.mL-1 respectively, indicating the drug loaded NPs were less toxic to the intestinal epithelial cells compared to the drug solution. The rate of cellular uptake of both optimal drug loaded NPs was time-, temperature-, and concentration- dependant. Cellular uptake for the gemcitabine loaded TMC modified PLGA-TPGS NPs undergo active transport involving adsorptive mediated endocytosis and caveloae mediated endocytosis, while the gemcitabine loaded TMC-CSK NPs was through active transport associate with adsorptive mediated, clathrin and caveolae mediated endocytosis. In cellular transport studies, both drug loaded NPs had greater drug transport capability compared to drug solution over the Caco-2/HT29- MTX-E12 cell membrane. For the transport mechanism studies, both NP formulations showed electrostatic interaction with the intestinal epithelial cells. P glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux affected the cellular transport for both NPs. By blocking the P-gp efflux pump, more drug loaded NPs were transported through the cell membrane. The multiple resistance protein-2 (MRP2) only affected TMC-CSK NPs to some extent. Interestingly, for the TMC modified PLGA-TPGS NPs, the addition of the MRP2 inhibitor resulted in a reduction in the efflux of gemcitabine suggesting that the role of MRP2 in the efflux of gemcitabine loaded TMC modified PLGA-TPGS NPs can be neglected. Moreover, EDTA is able to activate the cellular protein kinase C (PKC) by depletion of extracellular calcium via chelation, resulting in tight junction opening. The addition of EDTA significantly enhanced the cellular transport for both drug loaded NPs, facilitating the transport of the NPs via the paracellular route. In the in vivo pharmacokinetic studies, the half-life (t1/2) and oral bioavailability of gemcitabine were significantly improved in drug loaded NPs compared to drug solution group. The t1/2 of gemcitabine loaded TMC-CSK NPs and gemcitabine loaded TMC modified PLGA-TPGS NPs were of 77.16 ?? 24.20 hr and 69.98 ?? 20.50 hr, respectively, compared with 9.40 ?? 2.13 hr for the gemcitabine solution. The absolute oral bioavailability of gemcitabine loaded TMC-CSK NPs (55.20%), was 1.1-fold and 6.1-fold higher than that of gemcitabine loaded TMC modified PLGA-TPGS NPs (49.92%) and gemcitabine solution (9.86%), respectively. In pharmacodynamics studies, the drug loaded NPs had greater inhibition of tumour growth rate compared with the drug solution (p < 0.01). The gemcitabine loaded TMC-CSK NPs group had the greatest inhibition of tumour growth, with 3.12-fold and 1.78-fold reduction compared to saline control group and gemcitabine solution group, respectively. This result corresponds to the pharmacokinetic studies with greater oral bioavailability and longer plasma half-life of gemcitabine loaded TMC-CSK NPs group compared to all other groups. Conclusion: This project has demonstrated that TMC modified PLGA-TPGS NPs and TMCCSK NPs can be utilised as controlled release drug delivery systems for the oral delivery of gemcitabine. Encapsulated gemcitabine is able to overcome the physical and biochemical barriers in GIT, to enhance the drug absorption over the intestinal epithelial membrane, therefore improving the oral bioavailability of gemcitabine, and promoting the anticancer therapeutic efficacy. The promising results confirmed the two developed NPs are promising platforms for developing future oral chemotherapy products loaded with gemcitabine.

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  • Children with Disabilities and Disaster Risk Reduction in New Zealand

    Ronoh, Steve (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The global rise in the number of disasters is largely due to the interplay between environmental and human factors. Children and especially children with disabilities are disproportionately impacted by disasters, with an estimated seven million children affected worldwide annually. Children with disabilities can have increased vulnerabilities because of mobility difficulties, pre-existing medical conditions, existing socio-economic barriers and policies that fail to recognise the diverse needs of this group. Indeed, researchers and practitioners have historically overlooked the experiences and needs of children, particularly so for those with disabilities, who are disproportionately affected by natural hazards and disasters. Their capacities, needs, and, importantly, potential roles in disaster risk reduction (DRR) have received little consideration from researchers and policy makers. This thesis draws on the findings of a multi-case study of three New Zealand schools working with children having diverse disabilities. The schools are in the regions of Canterbury, Hawke???s Bay and Auckland. It aims to generate new information to help inform DRR and give direction, and provide a holistic framework towards the development of an inclusive approach to DRR. This orientation aims to specifically integrate the experiences, perspectives and needs of children with disabilities. Although grounded in disaster studies, this thesis frequently draws upon the wider scholarship related to children, participatory approaches and disability. The central goal of the study is to assess and interpret the experiences of children with disabilities in dealing with natural hazards, and to identify their actual and potential contribution to DRR. It presents the use of flexible participatory tools which support a sustained continuum of engagement among children with diverse disabilities, skills, and experiences. Crucially, this work offers a bridge and conceptual framework that recognises communication as a two-way process between adults and children by requiring adults to learn how children express their views, thus according participants a voice in DRR research. The case studies reveal considerable variation on how children with disabilities access available resources, and how they perceive, face and cope with natural hazards. The research also identifies constraints and complexities towards achieving disability-inclusive DRR and shows that ideas about DRR are shaped and influenced by socio-economic structures. Based on the participants??? existing variation of potential vulnerabilities and capacities (individual and group) and their potential contribution in DRR, the thesis offers suggestions for policy and practice of a more inclusive approach to DRR. It emphasises the need to direct resources and programmes that facilitate and strengthen effective communication between adults and children to encourage sustained participation along children???s spectrum of abilities. Finally, the thesis recommends a framework incorporating a shift in attitude to children with disabilities as integral and active participants in DRR.

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  • Investigating the application of human induced neural precursor cells for generating dopamine neurons in vitro

    Playne, RG (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Parkinson???s disease (PD) is a common neurological disease characterised by progressive degeneration of substantia nigra dopamine neurons and the deposition of intracellular proteinacious aggregates called Lewy bodies. Reprogramming technology holds great promise for the study and treatment of PD, as patient-specific ventral midbrain dopamine (vmDA) neurons can be generated in a dish. This should facilitate the investigation of early changes occurring during PD pathogenesis, allowing for the identification of new drug targets and providing a platform for drug screening. To date, most research using reprogramming technology to study PD has been conducted on induced pluripotent stem cells. Research into PD using direct reprogramming has been limited, primarily due to an inability to generate high yields of authentic human vmDA neurons. Nevertheless, direct reprogramming offers a number of advantages, and development of this technology is warranted. A method to directly reprogram adult human dermal fibroblasts into induced neural precursors (iNPs) by non-viral SOX2/PAX6 transfection was developed in our laboratory. This thesis aimed to investigate if vmDA neurons could be generated from iNPs. First, the regional identity of iNPs was investigated by examining temporal changes in gene expression through quantitative real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Overall, iNPs showed a mixed regional identity, with widespread expression of the anterior neuroepithelial markers SOX1, PAX6 and FOXG1. There was limited expression of most of the vmDA markers examined, however some late markers were expressed, including NURR1 and PITX3. Next, iNPs were differentiated to a neuronal fate with or without exposure to the patterning molecules SHH/FGF8, and it was found that established iNPs did not respond to patterning cues. Subsequently, a series of experiments was performed to investigate if temporal exposure to a range of patterning factors during the reprogramming process, and/or exposure to vmDA-related transgenes, could induce a vmDA iNP fate. Ultimately, these strategies did not prove effective at inducing an authentic vmDA iNP fate. Nevertheless, this thesis reports for the first time that iNPs, which have been reprogrammed from adult human cells using non-viral expression of lineagespecific factors, can give rise to dopamine neuronal-like cells that express TH, AADC, VMAT2, DAT and GIRK2.

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  • Genetic studies of obesity in New Zealand: A Children of SCOPE study

    Krishnan, Mohanraj (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Childhood obesity is a global health problem and is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity is rising in New Zealand with the most recent health survey estimating 10% of all children (aged 2-14) are obese (2014/2015 New Zealand Health Survey). However, obesity varies with ethnicity, with the M??ori (14.8%) and the Pacific Island (29.7%) children exhibiting higher rates of obesity when compared to the Asian (7.2%) and European/Other (7.7%) children. Although this obesity trend is underpinned by the presence of an ???obesogenic??? environment, it is facilitated by the individual???s genetic susceptibility to excessive weight gain. This helps to explain some of the individual phenotypic variations in development. Further characterisation of these obesity related gene variants would assist with unravelling the molecular mechanism of an affliction that affects approximately 10% of New Zealand children, opening up new avenues in the management of a disease for which no effective treatment currently exists. The aim of this thesis was to characterise the relative contributions between 80 putative genetic variations and obesity traits (BMI z-scores and Percentage Body Fat) in the Auckland Children of SCOPE cohort; a follow-up cross sectional survey of six year old children whose mothers were participants of the landmark SCOPE study. In addition, we investigated the interplay between genetic and modifiable environmental influences (???healthy??? dietary pattern, physical activity levels and average sleep duration) on the predisposition to childhood obesity. Recently, a genome wide study in the Samoan population has identified a protein-altering variant (p.Arg475Gln) in CREBRF as being associated with discordant risks of BMI and T2D. We have tested for the presence and association of CREBRF ???rs373863828 using the ???Genetics of Gout, Diabetes and Kidney Disease in Aotearoa??? case-control study recruited by the University of Otago. This study has shown that genetic variants identified in adult studies, were also associated with obesity traits in six year old New Zealand European children. This would suggest that gene variants that influence weight gain in adults, may direct growth patterns and adiposity from childhood. We have also captured additional loci (not previously detected in our earlier genetic association analysis) from the gene-by-environmental interaction analyses. From this research, we propose that there is a role for these gene variants to control body weight through satiety, energy extraction from diet and dissipation of energy as heat, and therefore act as the underlying cause behind the increased weight gain in children. We have also confirmed the presence of the CREBRF ???rs373863828 variant in the broader Polynesian population residing in Aotearoa New Zealand and replicated the association with increased BMI and reduced odds of T2D. This emphasises a need for obesity genetic research away from European dominant studies. This study offers a unique opportunity to advance our understanding of the complex relationship between genetic influences, and environmental factors, in relation to childhood obesity. The health importance for New Zealand is from identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity, which can then be evaluated in future intervention studies. Factors identified early in the life cycle may be more amenable to interventions compared with strategies which target children who are already overweight or obese.

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  • Interprofessional supervision: Opportunities and challenges

    Davys, Allyson; Beddoe, Elizabeth (2015-12-11)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Stone as drawing: Drawing stone [Exhibition catalogue entry]

    Jenner, Gordon (2016)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Knowledge typologies for professional learning: Educators??? (re)generation of knowledge when learning open educational practice

    Hood, Nina; Littlejohn, A (2017-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Open education resources (OER) and accompanying open education practices (OEP), are changing the education landscape. For educators to take full advantage of the opportunities OER offer they must engage in learning activities to facilitate the extension and adaption of their practice. This paper forms part of a larger study exploring how adult educators learn from and through their engagement with OER in the contexts of their work. Following a quantitative investigation of the learning behaviours of 521 educators around OER use, follow up interviews were conducted with 30 participants. The interviews explore in greater detail the ways knowledge is being (re)generated and used by the educators as they learn new practices with and through OER. Six broad knowledge types were identified as supporting the expansion of practice. The data suggest educators not only require multiple types of knowledge, but also must be able to move fluidly among these different types of knowledge.

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  • Metabolic and spatio-taxonomic response of uncultivated seafloor bacteria following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Handley, Kim; Piceno, YM; Hu, P; Tom, LM; Mason, OU; Andersen, GL; Jansson, JK; Gilbert, JA (2017-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The release of 700 million liters of oil into the Gulf of Mexico over a few months in 2010 produced dramatic changes in the microbial ecology of the water and sediment. Here, we reconstructed the genomes of 57 widespread uncultivated bacteria from post-spill deep-sea sediments, and recovered their gene expression pattern across the seafloor. These genomes comprised a common collection of bacteria that were enriched in heavily affected sediments around the wellhead. Although rare in distal sediments, some members were still detectable at sites up to 60???km away. Many of these genomes exhibited phylogenetic clustering indicative of common trait selection by the environment, and within half we identified 264 genes associated with hydrocarbon degradation. Alkane degradation ability was near ubiquitous among candidate hydrocarbon degraders, whereas just three harbored elaborate gene inventories for the degradation of alkanes and aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Differential gene expression profiles revealed a spill-promoted microbial sulfur cycle alongside gene upregulation associated with PAH degradation. Gene expression associated with alkane degradation was widespread, although active alkane degrader identities changed along the pollution gradient. Analyses suggest that a broad metabolic capacity to respond to oil inputs exists across a large array of usually rare indigenous deep-sea bacteria.

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  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for chronic non-cancer pain in children and adolescents

    Eccleston, C; Cooper, TE; Fisher, E; Anderson, Brian; Wilkinson, NMR (2017)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Pain is a common feature of childhood and adolescence around the world, and for many young people, that pain is chronic. The World Health Organization guidelines for pharmacological treatments for children???s persisting pain acknowledge that pain in children is a major public health concern of high significance in most parts of the world. While in the past pain was largely dismissed and was frequently left untreated, views on children???s pain have changed over time, and relief of pain is now seen as important. We designed a suite of seven reviews on chronic non-cancer pain and cancer pain (looking at antidepressants, antiepileptic drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, and paracetamol) in order to review the evidence for children???s pain utilising pharmacological interventions. As the leading cause of morbidity in the world today, chronic disease (and its associated pain) is a major health concern. Chronic pain (that is pain lasting three months or longer) can arise in the paediatric population in a variety of pathophysiological classifications (nociceptive, neuropathic, or idiopathic) from genetic conditions, nerve damage pain, chronic musculoskeletal pain, and chronic abdominal pain, as well as for other unknown reasons. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to treat pain, reduce fever, and for their anti-inflammation properties. They are commonly usedwithin paediatric painmanagement.Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are currently licensed for use inWestern countries, however they are not approved for infants under three months old. The main adverse effects include renal impairment and gastrointestinal issues. Common side effects in children include diarrhoea, headache, nausea, constipation, rash, dizziness, and abdominal pain. Objectives To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse events of NSAIDs used to treat chronic non-cancer pain in children and adolescents aged between birth and 17 years, in any setting. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via the Cochrane Register of StudiesOnline,MEDLINE via Ovid, and Embase via Ovid from inception to 6 September 2016. We also searched the reference lists of retrieved studies and reviews, as well as online clinical trial registries. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials, with or without blinding, of any dose and any route, treating chronic non-cancer pain in children and adolescents, comparing any NSAID with placebo or an active comparator. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed studies for eligibility.We planned to use dichotomous data to calculate risk ratio and number needed to treat for one additional event, using standard methods.We assessed GRADE and created three ???Summary of findings??? tables. Main results We included seven studies with a total of 1074 participants (aged 2 to 18 years) with chronic juvenile polyarthritis or chronic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. All seven studies compared an NSAID with an active comparator. None of the studies were placebo controlled. No two studies investigated the same type of NSAID compared with another. We were unable to perform a meta-analysis. Risk of bias varied. For randomisation and allocation concealment, one study was low risk and six studies were unclear risk. For blinding of participants and personnel, three studies were low risk and four studies were unclear to high risk. For blinding of outcome assessors, all studies were unclear risk. For attrition, four studies were low risk and three studies were unclear risk. For selective reporting, four studies were low risk, two studies were unclear risk, and one study was high risk. For size, three studies were unclear risk and four studies were high risk. For other potential sources of bias, seven studies were low risk. Primary outcomes Three studies reported participant-reported pain relief of 30% or greater, showing no statistically significant difference in pain scores between meloxicam and naproxen, celecoxib and naproxen, or rofecoxib and naproxen (P > 0.05) (low-quality evidence). One study reported participant-reported pain relief of 50% or greater, showing no statistically significant difference in pain scores between low-dose meloxicam (0.125 mg/kg) and high-dose meloxicam (0.25 mg/kg) when compared to naproxen 10 mg/kg (P > 0.05) (low-quality evidence). One study reported Patient Global Impression of Change, showing ???very much improved??? in 85% of ibuprofen and 90% of aspirin participants (low-quality evidence). Secondary outcomes All seven studies reported adverse events. Participants reporting an adverse event (one or more per person) by drug were: aspirin 85/ 202; fenoprofen 28/49; ibuprofen 40/45; indomethacin 9/30; ketoprofen 9/30; meloxicam 18/47; naproxen 44/202; and rofecoxib 47/209 (very low-quality evidence). All seven studies reported withdrawals due to adverse events. Participants withdrawn due to an adverse event by drug were: aspirin 16/ 120; celecoxib 10/159; fenoprofen 0/49; ibuprofen 0/45; indomethacin 0/30; ketoprofen 0/30; meloxicam 10/147; naproxen 17/285; and rofecoxib 3/209 (very low-quality evidence). All seven studies reported serious adverse events. Participants experiencing a serious adverse event by drug were: aspirin 13/120; celecoxib 5/159; fenoprofen 0/79; ketoprofen 0/30; ibuprofen 4/45; indomethacin 0/30; meloxicam 11/147; naproxen 10/285; and rofecoxib 0/209 (very low-quality evidence). There were few or no data for our remaining secondary outcomes: Carer Global Impression of Change; requirement for rescue analgesia; sleep duration and quality; acceptability of treatment; physical functioning as defined by validated scales; and quality of life as defined by validated scales (very low-quality evidence). We rated the overall quality of the evidence (GRADE rating) for our primary and secondary outcomes as very low because there were limited data from studies and no opportunity for a meta-analysis. Authors??? conclusions We identified only a small number of studies, with insufficient data for analysis. As we could undertake no meta-analysis, we are unable to comment about efficacy or harm from the use of NSAIDs to treat chronic non-cancer pain in children and adolescents. Similarly, we cannot comment on our remaining secondary outcomes: Carer Global Impression of Change; requirement for rescue analgesia; sleep duration and quality; acceptability of treatment; physical functioning; and quality of life. We know from adult randomised controlled trials that some NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, naproxen, and aspirin, can be effective in certain chronic pain conditions

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  • Conceptualising online knowledge sharing: What teachers??? perceptions can tell us

    Hood, Nina (2017)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study questions the current dependence on theories of social learning and communities of practice in research on teachers??? online learning and online knowledge-sharing behaviour. It employs the interpretative approach to examine how teachers conceptualise their engagement with two USA-based online knowledge-sharing platforms within the context of their broader teaching practice. The findings suggest that the platforms, together with teachers??? engagement with them, are intimately connected with, and must be understood in reference to, both the online and offline contexts in which they operate, with each setting providing unique affordances that shape engagement and outcomes. Teachers??? engagement was largely motivated by their individual knowledge requirements and practice-based needs, resulting in learning primarily being individually rather than socially mediated and constructed.

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  • Imaging in acute ischaemic stroke: pearls and pitfalls

    Caldwell, J; Heran, MKS; McGuinness, B; Barber, Peter (2017-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Prompt and accurate diagnosis is the foundation of acute ischaemic stroke care. Multiple positive endovascular thrombectomy trials in ischaemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusions have further emphasised this but also added complexity to treatment decisions. CT angiography is now routine for patients who present with an acute stroke syndrome around the world. Members of the neurology and stroke teams (rather than radiologists) are often the first doctors to lay eyes on the CT images and are best equipped to integrate the clinical picture with the imaging findings. A sound understanding of acute stroke imaging is therefore essential for clinicians who work with acute stroke patients. This review describes some pearls we have gleaned from our own experience in acute stroke imaging as well as some potential follies to be avoided.

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  • Ideological motives in spoiler violence: Postconflict Assam, Northeast India

    Wilson, Christopher (2017)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Spoilers of peace agreements are normally seen as motivated by utility maximization, their actions intended to gain a larger proportion of postconflict political power or economic wealth. In this article, I examine this perspective via a comparative analysis of two cases of spoiler violence in Assam, India, one involving a spoiler excluded from the agreement and the other a spoiler central to the peace process and the postconflict political and economic milieu. Both cases suggest that some spoiling action following peace agreements is less instrumental and driven more by emotional and ideological phenomena than this leading understanding suggests.

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  • Following Rapoport's Rule: The geographic range of bacterial taxa declines at lower latitudes

    Lear, Gavin; Lau, K; Perchec, AM; Buckley, HL; Case, B; Neale, M; Fierer, N; Leff, J; Handley, Kim; Lewis, Gillian (2016-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We sought to test whether stream bacterial communities conform to Rapoport's Rule, a pattern commonly observed for plants and animals whereby taxa exhibit decreased latitudinal range sizes closer to the equator. Using a DNA sequencing approach, we explored the biogeography of biofilm bacterial communities in 204 streams across a ???1000 km latitudinal gradient. The range sizes of bacterial taxa were strongly correlated with latitude, decreasing closer to the equator, which coincided with a greater than fivefold increase in bacterial taxonomic richness. The relative richness and range size of bacteria were associated with spatially correlated variation in temperature and rainfall. These patterns were observed despite enormous variability in catchment environmental characteristics. Similar results were obtained when restricting the same analyses to native forest catchments, thereby controlling for spatial biases in land use. We analysed genomic data from ???500 taxa detected in this study, for which data were available and found that bacterial communities at cooler latitudes also tended to possess greater potential metabolic potential. Collectively, these data provide the first evidence of latitudinal variation in the range size distributions of freshwater bacteria, a trend which may be determined, in part, by a trade-off between bacterial genome size and local variation in climatic conditions.

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  • Paracetamol (acetaminophen) for chronic non-cancer pain in children and adolescents

    Cooper, TE; Fisher, E; Anderson, Brian; Wilkinson, NMR; Williams, DG; Eccleston, C (2017-08-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Pain is a common feature of childhood and adolescence around the world, and for many young people, that pain is chronic. TheWorld Health Organization guidelines for pharmacological treatments for children???s persisting pain acknowledge that pain in children is a major public health concern of high significance in most parts of the world. While in the past, pain was largely dismissed and was frequently left untreated, views on children???s pain have changed over time, and relief of pain is now seen as important. We designed a suite of seven reviews on chronic non-cancer pain and cancer pain (looking at antidepressants, antiepileptic drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, and paracetamol as priority areas) in order to review the evidence for children???s pain utilising pharmacological interventions in children and adolescents. As the leading cause of morbidity in children and adolescents in the world today, chronic disease (and its associated pain) is a major health concern. Chronic pain (lasting three months or longer) can arise in the paediatric population in a variety of pathophysiological classifications: nociceptive, neuropathic, idiopathic, visceral, nerve damage pain, chronic musculoskeletal pain, and chronic abdominal pain, and other unknown reasons. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most widely used analgesics in both adults and children. The recommended dosage in the UK, Europe, Australia, and the USA for children and adolescents is generally 10 to 15 mg/kg every four to six hours, with specific age ranges from 60 mg (6 to 12 months old) up to 500 to 1000 mg (over 12 years old). Paracetamol is the only recommended analgesic for children under 3 months of age. Paracetamol has been proven to be safe in appropriate and controlled dosages, however potential adverse effects of paracetamol if overdosed or overused in children include liver and kidney failure. Objectives To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse events of paracetamol (acetaminophen) used to treat chronic non-cancer pain in children and adolescents aged between birth and 17 years, in any setting. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via the Cochrane Register of StudiesOnline,MEDLINE via Ovid, and Embase via Ovid from inception to 6 September 2016. We also searched the reference lists of retrieved studies and reviews, and searched online clinical trial registries. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials, with or without blinding, of any dose and any route, treating chronic non-cancer pain in children and adolescents, comparing paracetamol with placebo or an active comparator. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed studies for eligibility. We planned to use dichotomous data to calculate risk ratio and numbers needed to treat, using standard methods where data were available. We assessed GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) and planned to create a ???Summary of findings??? table. Main results No studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. We rated the quality of the evidence as very low. We downgraded the quality of evidence by three levels due to the lack of data reported for any outcome. Authors??? conclusions There was no evidence from randomised controlled trials to support or refute the use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) to treat chronic non-cancer pain in children and adolescents. We are unable to comment about efficacy or harm from the use of paracetamol to treat chronic non-cancer pain in children and adolescents. We know from adult randomised controlled trials that paracetamol, can be effective, in certain doses, and in certain pain conditions (not always chronic). This means that no conclusions could be made about efficacy or harm in the use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) to treat chronic noncancer pain in children and adolescents.

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  • Correction: In Arroll B, Kenealy T, Kerse N.(2003) Do delayed prescriptions reduce antibiotic use in respiratory tract infections? A systematic review (Br J Gen Pract 2003; 53: 871???877)

    Arroll, Bruce; Kenealy, Timothy; Kerse, Ngaire (2004-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Kinectin participates in microtubule-dependent hormone secretion in pancreatic islet beta-cells

    Bai, Jizhong; Mon, Y; Krissansen, Geoffrey (2006)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We investigated roles of KNT and isoform KNTvd4 in the transport of amylin, insulin-containing secretory vesicles in RINm5F cells. Results suggest that both KNT and KNTvd4 participate in microtubule-dependent secretion of amylin in islet ??-cells.

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