27,260 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland

  • Marine benthos of caves, archways, and vertical reef walls of the Poor Knights Islands : A Poor Knights Islands Marine Reserve study

    Battershill, C.N. (1986)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    A detailed survey of vertical reef walls around the Poor Knights Islands was carried out. In particular, the unusual habitats of caves and archways were investigated. The survey assessed the resource of benthic encrusting communities and associated fish and mobile invertebrate life. These habitats are popular diving locations and many of the inhabitant species are rare or sensitive to disturbance.

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  • Informal and formal knowledge: The curriculum conception of two rock graduates

    McPhail, Graham (2013-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Informal learning has become a prominent theme in music education literature in recent times. Many writers have called for a new emphasis on informal knowledge and pedagogy as the way forward for music education. The position taken in this paper is that a central issue for music education is the accommodation of a tension between types of knowledge and the ways of knowing strongly associated with popular and classical of music ??? socially acquired informal knowledge and socially developed but formally acquired disciplinary knowledge. Approaches to curriculum conception and realisation observed in a recent series of case studies in New Zealand secondary schools suggest that a key factor in student engagement is the degree to which teachers can create links between informal and formal knowledge so that students??? understanding and conceptual abilities can be extended across these knowledge boundaries. The teaching approaches of two recent graduates in rock music are discussed to support the social realist argument that a ???progressive??? approach to curriculum involves creating links between informal and formal knowledge rather than replacing one with the other or dissolving the boundaries between them. Through seeing the two types of knowledge as necessarily interconnected within educational contexts, the epistemic integrity of classroom music is maintained. In this way students are able to recognise themselves and their aspirations while also recognising the potential and power of the foundational knowledge of the discipline.

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  • Internet-delivered cognitive-behavior therapy for tinnitus: A randomized controlled trial

    Weise, C; Kleinst??uber, Maria; Andersson, G (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objectives: Tinnitus has a substantially negative impact on quality of life in up to 5% of the general population. Internet-based cognitive-behavioral treatment (iCBT) has been shown to be effective in a few trials. The aim of our study was to investigate iCBT for tinnitus by using a randomized controlled trial. Methods: Patients with severe tinnitus-related distress were randomly assigned to therapist-guided iCBT (n = 62) or to a moderated online discussion forum (n = 62). Standardized self-report measures for tinnitus-related distress (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Mini-Tinnitus Questionnaire) and associated symptoms (tinnitus acceptance, anxiety, depression, and insomnia) were assessed at pretreatment and posttreatment, 6-month-, and 1-year follow-up. Clinical significance was assessed with the Reliable Change Index. Results: Multivariate analyses of variance revealed significant main effects for time, group, and interaction in favor of the iCBT group. With regard to tinnitus-related distress, the significant univariate interaction effects (time by group) were supported by large effect sizes (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory: g = 0.83, 95% confidence interval = 0.47???1.20; Mini-Tinnitus Questionnaire: g = 1.08, 95% confidence interval = 0.71???1.64). For the secondary outcomes, significant interactions with small to medium effect sizes were found. Within-group effects for the iCBT, from pretreatment to follow-up, were substantial in regard to tinnitus-related distress (1.38 ??? d ??? 1.81) and small to large for secondary outcomes (0.39 ??? d ??? 1.04). Conclusions: Using a randomized controlled trial design, we replicated prior findings regarding positive effects of Internet-delivered CBT on tinnitus-related distress and associated symptoms. Implementing iCBT for tinnitus into regular health care will be an important next step to increase access to treatment for patients with tinnitus.

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  • Ethnic and Gender Differences in Preferred Activities among M??ori and non-M??ori of Advanced age in New Zealand

    Wright-St Clair, VA; Rapson, Angela; Kepa, M; Connolly, Martin; Keeling, S; Rolleston, A; Teh, Ruth; Broad, Joanna; Dyall, L; Jatrana, S; Wiles, Janine; Pillai, Avineshwaran; Garrett, N; Kerse, Ngaire (2017-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study explored active aging for older M??ori and non-M??ori by examining their self-nominated important everyday activities. The project formed part of the first wave of a longitudinal cohort study of aging well in New Zealand. M??ori aged 80 to 90 and non-M??ori aged 85 were recruited. Of the 937 participants enrolled, 649 answered an open question about their three most important activities. Responses were coded under the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), Activities and Participation domains. Data were analyzed by ethnicity and gender for first in importance, and all important activities. Activity preferences for M??ori featured gardening, reading, walking, cleaning the home, organized religious activities, sports, extended family relationships, and watching television. Gendered differences were evident with walking and fitness being of primary importance for M??ori men, and gardening for M??ori women. Somewhat similar, activity preferences for non-M??ori featured gardening, reading, and sports. Again, gendered differences showed for non-M??ori, with sports being of first importance to men, and reading to women. Factor analysis was used to examine the latent structural fit with the ICF and whether it differed for M??ori and non-M??ori. For M??ori, leisure and household activities, spiritual activities and interpersonal interactions, and communicating with others and doing domestic activities were revealed as underlying structure; compared to self-care, sleep and singing, leisure and work, and domestic activities and learning for non-M??ori. These findings reveal fundamental ethnic divergences in preferences for active aging with implications for enabling participation, support provision and community design.

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  • Negotiating meanings an examining practice of 'arts across the curriculum'

    Buck, Ralph; Snook, Barbara (2017)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • A novel integer programing formulation for scheduling with family setup times on a single machine to minimize maximum lateness

    Hinder, O; Mason, Andrew (2017-10-16)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper focuses on the problem of scheduling n jobs with family setup times on a single machine with the objective of minimizing the maximum lateness. To solve this problem we develop a novel ordered-batch integer programing formulation. The formulation utilizes two properties of optimal solutions. Firstly, we observe that there is a restricted set of batches that we need to consider to find the optimal solution. Secondly, we know the order in which batches should be processed if they occur in an optimal solution. Using branch and bound, our integer program finds optimal schedules for significantly larger problem instances than are reported in the literature. In contrast to existing algorithms, our formulation is strongest for problem instances with many families and large setup times. For example, we are able to find optimal solutions to problems with 1080 jobs and 270 families. We attribute this improvement to our linear programing relaxation being tighter than existing bounds for these cases. To explain this performance, we analyze the theoretical tightness of this formulation. We show that if the number of jobs in each family is bounded then the gap between a heuristic rounding and the lower bound produced by the linear programing increases at most sub-linearly with the number of jobs. The optimality gaps of prior approximation algorithms grow linearly with the number of jobs. Our work improves on these prior results.

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  • Attachment to place in advanced age: A study of the LiLACS NZ cohort

    Wiles, Janine; Rolleston, A; Pillai, Avineshwaran; Broad, Joanna; Teh, Ruth; Gott, Caryl; Kerse, Ngaire (2017-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An extensive body of research theorises that attachment to place is positively associated with health, particularly for older people. Building on this, we measure how indicators of attachment to place are associated with health for in people of advanced age in New Zealand. We use data from a cohort study (LiLACS NZ), which includes an indigenous M??ori cohort aged 80-90 years and a non-M??ori cohort aged 85 years from a mixed urban/rural region in New Zealand. Each cohort undertook a comprehensive interview and health assessment (n??=??267??M??ori and n??=??404 non-M??ori). Using multivariate regression analyses, we explore participants' feelings for and connectedness with their home, community and neighbourhood; nature and the outdoors; expectations about and enthusiasm for residential mobility; and how all these are associated with measures of health (e.g., SF-12 physical and mental health related quality of life) and functional status (e.g., NEADL). We demonstrate that people in advanced age hold strong feelings of attachment to place. We also establish some positive associations between attachment to place and health in advanced age, and show how these differ for the indigenous and non-indigenous cohorts. For older M??ori there were strong associations between various health measures and the importance of nature and the outdoors, and connectedness to neighbourhood and community. For older non-M??ori, there were strong associations between health and liking home and neighbourhood, and feeling connected to their community and neighbourhood. Place attachment, and particularly its relationship to health, operates in different ways for different groups.

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  • Transitions to and from long-term care facilities and length of completed stay: Reuse of population-based survey data

    Broad, Joanna; Lumley, Thomas; Ashton, Toni; Davis, Peter; Boyd, Michal; Connolly, Martin (2017-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article estimates length of completed stay and resident transitions for RAC residents over 12??months in Auckland.Data from a census-type survey of nursing home residents (n??=??6816) were linked with national mortality data. Transitions described include entry to residential aged care (RAC), movement between RAC facilities and deaths.When reweighted for missing data and adjusted for length bias, an estimated 9676 residents (95% CI 8368-10??985) used care over a 12-month period. Half of new residents entered RAC via an acute hospital. Median survival was 2.0??years; 17% died within 3??months, and 23% survived over 5??years.Cross-sectional survey data, when appropriately adjusted for length-biased sampling, enable estimates of period prevalence and transition probabilities that are useful for simulation studies. Given population ageing and the costs of ongoing care, these results can inform policy and planning for long-term care needs of older people.

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  • SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVELS RELATE TO BOTH FRAILTY AND ADL IN OCTOGENARIAN MALES: LILACS STUDY, NEW ZEALAND

    Connolly, Martin; Kerse, Ngaire; Moyes, Simon; Wilkinson, T; Rolleston, R; Chong, YH; Menzies, O; Broad, Joanna; Jatrana, S; Teh, Ruth (2015-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Serum testosterone (T) levels in men decline with age. Low T levels are associated with sarcopenia and frailty in ???younger old??? men (generally <80 years). T levels have not previously been associated with disability in older men, despite associations between T and physical function and quality of life. There is no consensus on whether older men with low T levels should receive testosterone supplementation to prevent/???treat??? frailty. We explored associations between T levels and both frailty and disability in a cohort of octogenarian males.

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  • The future just happened: Lessons for 21st-century learning from the secondary school music classroom

    McPhail, Graham (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Many ideas from the discourse of 21st-century learning are already present in much secondary school music teaching in New Zealand and have been for some time. The adoption of these ideas has resulted in many positive changes in students??? experiences of music at secondary school. On the other hand, there have been some unintended consequences which are potentially less positive. The changes in music education therefore may be instructive for educators in a range of subject contexts in negotiating the tensions between different understandings of knowledge and pedagogy in the shift towards 21st-century learning. A case is made for finding a balance between music education???s practical application and conceptual knowledge. There is a risk that in the drive for relevance, the subject has become less able to provide the grounding and conceptual depth necessary for access to the discipline???s generative concepts.

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  • Does knowledge matter? Disciplinary identities and students??? readiness for university

    McPhail, Graham (2017-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    There is no doubt cultural and technological changes in the late 20th century and beyond have had profound effects on what counts as knowledge and what knowledge counts both at school and at university. This paper considers some implications of a disjuncture identified by Gould (The New Zealand Herald, 2010) between the curricula and pedagogy experienced in the secondary school and that at the university. Utilising three research studies that deal with the problem of students??? readiness for tertiary study I consider the importance of disciplinary knowledge in the identity formation of students within the current neo-liberal environment. By using Bernstein???s concepts of recontextualisation, trainability, and pedagogic populism I suggest the current instrumentalist emphasis in secondary education runs the risk of undermining a core purpose of education, the development of dispositions and qualities that are by-products of a deep engagement with disciplinary ways of knowing.

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  • From aspirations to practice: curriculum challenges for a new ???twenty-first-century??? secondary school

    McPhail, Graham (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper reports on the initial stages of an empirical study of a new secondary school in New Zealand. The school vision and organisation reflect current international twenty-first-century learning discourse by confronting long-established beliefs concerning the nature of education and knowledge and the roles of teachers and students. The school's focus is on developing the dispositions and competencies of students through thematic, intersubject, inquiry-based learning. While these twenty-first-century ideas appear widely accepted worldwide, there is little research on the impact of these ideas on student learning. This study considers the challenges faced by the school in moving from aspirational vision to curriculum enactment during its first 18 months of operation. The focus of this paper is the curriculum design and development process. The issues faced by staff in this twenty-first-century school will be of interest to educationalists worldwide who are involved with the planning of new schools and curricular innovation within existing schools. Four key questions that arise from the study and that will form the focus of future research are identified.

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  • Developing student autonomy in the one-to-one music lesson

    McPhail, Graham (2013-05-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    As a practitioner in both the classroom and in the instrumental studio, I am interested in how one educational context might inform the other. Within an action research paradigm, I gave a violin lesson in front of colleagues as a means to gain feedback and to open up discussion on the concept of student autonomy within the one-to-one lesson. The enquiry was informed by recent literature within the music education field that calls for a new emphasis on informal learning principles and pedagogy for engaging students. I consider some of the key concepts of informal music learning from the influential Musical Futures classroom project as a means to reflect on the potential for developing student autonomy within the instrumental teaching context. Forms of knowledge and the distinction between knowledge content (the curriculum or ???the what??? of teaching) and the pedagogy (???the how???) are identified as significant conceptual distinctions for theorizing and realizing teachers??? work in the one-to-one context. I suggest that while traditional instrumental teaching models can be enhanced by informal and constructivist approaches to pedagogy, there are limits to the application of these principles because of the nature of the knowledge required in this learning context.

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  • The right to enhancement: Students talking about music knowledge in the secondary curriculum

    McPhail, Graham (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this paper the idea of social entitlement to conceptual knowledge is considered in relation to some data collected from students in a recent doctoral study centred on secondary school music teachers??? beliefs and actions in relation to curriculum conception. The data from students was collected as a means of triangulating the key focus of the study, the beliefs and actions of teachers; however, the student focus groups provide a rich source of information about students??? views of music at secondary school in New Zealand. In interpreting the student data I utilise thematic categories developed in the study but also Bernstein???s concepts of pedagogic rights and identities to consider whether students??? experience of the curriculum empowered them to look beyond what they already know to consider alternatives (Bernstein, 2000). Most students were able to recognise themselves and their aspirations within their school music departments while also recognising the potential importance of the theoretical knowledge of the discipline. The interplay between enabling pedagogy and curriculum content appears to be pivotal in developing these rights for students.

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  • Comparing Curriculum Types: ???Powerful Knowledge??? and ???21st Century Learning???

    McPhail, Graham; Rata, Elizabeth (2016-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper theorises a curriculum model containing four features. We use these features as criteria to analyse and evaluate two distinctive curriculum design types: ???21st Century Learning??? and ???Powerful Knowledge???. The four features are: (i) the underpinning theory of knowledge in each curriculum design type; (ii) the knowledge structures used to organise the curriculum material; (iii) the organisation of the concepts and content according to the principle of conceptual progression; and (iv) the pedagogy associated with the curriculum design, such as direct instruction or personalised learning. The distinction we make between the two curriculum design types and the comparative approach taken in the paper is justified by the differences found in each of the types with respect to all of the four features. Following the analysis of each feature in the body of the paper we judge the relative merits of each design type in terms of the logical connections between the four theorised features and the ways in which they are realised in 21st Century Learning and Powerful Knowledge respectively.

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  • The canon or the kids: Teachers and the recontextualisation of classical and popular music in the secondary curriculum

    McPhail, Graham (2013-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article reports on some of the findings from case studies conducted with six secondary school music teachers in New Zealand. The purpose of the study was to investigate and explain the ways in which teachers manage the relationship between classical and popular music in their elective classroom programs, utilizing a theoretical framework drawn from the work of educational sociologist Basil Bernstein and more recent social realist theory. In each case, the focus of the research was the teacher and the influences on their curriculum decision-making. Students in each music department were interviewed to triangulate teacher interviews and observations. The findings indicate that a significant tension is present between the affirmation and validation of students??? musical interests and pre-existing skills, and the development of the knowledge considered fundamental within the discipline. It is teachers??? ability to ???find a balance??? between these central concerns of their educational work that is significant in maintaining the epistemic integrity of a subject which has become strongly influenced by socio-cultural influences.

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  • Getting Real: Is Realism a Blind Spot in Research Methodology?

    McPhail, Graham; Lourie, M (2017-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this paper we outline a case for including realism as an approach for carrying out research in education. Realism is often missing or under-represented in methodology text books which tend to misrepresent positivism and over-claim the epistemic authority possible for interpretivism. While interpretivism is arguably the dominant research approach in education, we argue it has limitations in regards to producing knowledge generalisable beyond specific research contexts. We suggest that realism has much to offer researchers and advocate for greater recognition of its usefulness in social science research. To this end, we describe the realist approach employed by one of the authors in her research to provide an example of how abstract ideas may look in practice.

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  • Teacher expertise and feedback in music composition

    Bartlett, E; McPhail, Graham (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper reports on how a number of students in a high school music classroom responded to the formative feedback that their teachers gave their music compositions. Given the importance of feedback in current discourses regarding effective pedagogy and assessment for learning, this study provides a much-needed snapshot of feedback within the context of high schools and the more subjective domain of the arts. Student responses to oral and written feedback were analysed by a pre-service teacher over a period of weeks by observing feedback when it was given, discussing its impact with students, and observing if, and how, this feedback was put to use in the development of the student compositions. We also note the type of feedback that the teachers gave to their students, and whether the students found the feedback worthwhile and important. We suggest a pivotal factor in the high uptake of feedback in this study was the quality, specificity, and individualised nature of the feedback that the expert teachers were able to provide for students.

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  • Perioperative use of chewing gum affects the inflammatory response and reduces postoperative ileus following major colorectal surgery

    Su'a, BU; Hill, Andrew (2015-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Postoperative ileus (POI) affects one in four patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery. It is associated with prolonged hospital stay and other postoperative complications, and carries a significant financial burden on healthcare facilities.1 Some studies suggest the inhibition of the inflammatory response after surgery may reduce the development of POI. Chewing gum is hypothesised to exert an effect via reduction of postoperative inflammation through cephalic vagal activation. Although a number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been published, the role of chewing gum in POI still remains unclear.2 Additionally, with the advent of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols, which encourage early feeding, the use of chewing gum has become less clear. This trial examines the effect of gum chewing before and after colorectal surgery on POI, surgical complications, length of hospital stay (LOS) and inflammatory parameters.

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  • Engagement and recruitment of M??ori and non-M??ori people of advanced age to LiLACS NZ

    Dyall, Lorna; Kepa, M; Hayman, Karen; Teh, Ruth; Moyes, Simon; Broad, Joanna; Kerse, Ngaire (2013-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand (LiLACS NZ) aims to determine the predictors of successful advanced ageing and understand the trajectories of wellbeing in advanced age. This paper reports recruitment strategies used to enrol 600 M??ori aged 80-90 years and 600 non-M??ori aged 85 years living within a defined geographic boundary.

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