26,293 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland

  • Heart-shaped worlds: Cordiform maps in the context of early modern Europe

    Watson, Ruth (2016-11-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Long fascinating to those who study cartography, the cordiform maps (from the Latin for heart, cor) are known to few outside that small group. The cordiform projection has been considered something of an anomaly, sitting uncomfortably with the discoveries and discourses of the New World or the genesis of modern cartography. This paper asks why the shape of a heart was chosen for imaging the world. To answer this requires exploring meanings for the heart image outside of its use in cartography. This approach sees the map not as a fixed sign, judged by its geographic content alone, but a complex image under pressure from wider expectations upon the mapmakers and their audiences. In the sixteenth century, meanings were attributed to the heart that we no longer subscribe to today, including learning and memory, leadership and wisdom. A second aim is to establish that the maps??? shape ??? the heart ??? was intimately entangled with aspirations about the New World. Ultimately, these unusual maps can illuminate the mindset of those in Europe aspiring to a new vision of human affairs, suggesting that the early modern cartographic enterprise was not as homogenous as is often considered. This paper introduces audiences to the maps as well as key issues that have hindered their interpretation. It will show that they, perhaps more than any other maps of their time, are critical for revealing potentially conflicting and controversial aspirations for the New World.

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  • Australia's Reliance on US Extended Nuclear Deterrence and International Law

    Hood, Anna; Cormier, M (2017)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    One of the central tenets of Australia???s defence policy is to rely on the extended nuclear deterrence of the United States (???US???). In recent years, politicians and civil society have questioned the doctrine???s compatibility with Australia???s international legal obligations but to date there has been very little academic analysis of the issue. The lack of scholarship in this area is concerning given that the legality of Australia???s reliance on US nuclear protection has significant ramifications for US-Australian relations, Australia???s national security policy and the global nuclear disarmament movement more broadly. This article explores the international legal issues that arise with respect to Australia???s policy of extended nuclear deterrence. The first part of the article focuses on whether the Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (???ANZUS???) places Australia under US nuclear protection and, if so, whether ANZUS requires Australia to maintain its policy of extended nuclear deterrence. It argues that, as currently interpreted, Article IV of ANZUS implicitly allows for the US to use, or threaten to use, nuclear weapons in defence of Australia. However, contrary to what has been asserted by an Australian politician, this state of affairs does not mean that Australia is under an obligation to maintain its policy of extended nuclear deterrence. Having determined that ANZUS does not prevent Australia from giving up extended nuclear deterrence, the article then turns to examine whether the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (???NPT???) or the South Pacific Nuclear Free-Zone Treaty (???Treaty of Rarotonga???) require Australia to abandon its reliance on US nuclear protection. The article argues that while Australia???s policy of extended nuclear deterrence does not conflict with the terms of the Treaty of Rarotonga, Article VI of the NPT creates a more significant challenge for the policy. Article VI of the NPT requires Australia ???pursue negotiations in good faith towards effective measures??? relating to nuclear disarmament. While this obligation is not necessarily incompatible with extended nuclear deterrence, Australia???s entrenched opposition to a global nuclear ban treaty casts doubt on Australia???s commitment to the NPT.

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  • Development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of the invasive Mediterranean fanworm, Sabella spallanzanii, in environmental samples

    Wood, SA; Zaiko, A; Richter, I; Inglis, GJ; Pochon, Xavier (2017-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Mediterranean fanworm, Sabella spallanzanii Gmelin 1791, was first detected in the Southern Hemisphere in the 1990s and is now abundant in many parts of southern Australia and in several locations around northern New Zealand. Once established, it can proliferate rapidly, reaching high densities with potential ecological and economic impacts. Early detection of new S. spallanzanii incursions is important to prevent its spread, guide eradication or control efforts and to increase knowledge on the species??? dispersal pathways. In this study, we developed a TaqMan probe real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting a region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene. The assay was validated in silico and in vitro using DNA from New Zealand and Australian Sabellidae with no cross-reactivity detected. The assay has a linear range of detection over seven orders of magnitude with a limit of detection reached at 12.4??????10 ???4 ??ng/??L of DNA. We analysed 145 environmental (water, sediment and biofouling) samples and obtained positive detections only from spiked samples and those collected at a port where S. spallanzanii is known to be established. This assay has the potential to enhance current morphological and molecular-based methods, through its ability to rapidly and accurately identify S. spallanzanii in environmental samples.

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  • Towards valid 'serious non-fatal injury' indicators for international comparisons based on probability of admission estimates

    Cryer, C; Miller, TR; Macpherson, AK; Lyons, RA; P??rez, K; Petridou, ET; Dessypris, N; Davie, GS; Gulliver, Pauline; Lauritsen, J; Boufous, S; Lawrence, B; de Graaf, B; Steiner, CA (2017-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: Governments wish to compare their performance in preventing serious injury. International comparisons based on hospital inpatient records are typically contaminated by variations in health services utilisation. To reduce these effects, a serious injury case definition has been proposed based on diagnoses with a high probability of inpatient admission (PrA). The aim of this paper was to identify diagnoses with estimated high PrA for selected developed countries. METHODS: The study population was injured persons of all ages who attended emergency department (ED) for their injury in regions of Canada, Denmark, Greece, Spain and the USA. International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 or ICD-10 4-digit/character injury diagnosis-specific ED attendance and inpatient admission counts were provided, based on a common protocol. Diagnosis-specific and region-specific PrAs with 95% CIs were calculated. RESULTS: The results confirmed that femoral fractures have high PrA across all countries studied. Strong evidence for high PrA also exists for fracture of base of skull with cerebral laceration and contusion; intracranial haemorrhage; open fracture of radius, ulna, tibia and fibula; pneumohaemothorax and injury to the liver and spleen. Slightly weaker evidence exists for cerebellar or brain stem laceration; closed fracture of the tibia and fibula; open and closed fracture of the ankle; haemothorax and injury to the heart and lung. CONCLUSIONS: Using a large study size, we identified injury diagnoses with high estimated PrAs. These diagnoses can be used as the basis for more valid international comparisons of life-threatening injury, based on hospital discharge data, for countries with well-developed healthcare and data collection systems.

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  • Bilge water as a vector for the spread of marine pests: a morphological, metabarcoding and experimental assessment

    Fletcher, LM; Zaiko, A; Atalah, J; Richter, I; Dufour, CM; Pochon, Xavier; Wood, SA; Hopkins, GA (2017-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Vessel movements are considered the primary anthropogenic pathway for the secondary spread of marine non-indigenous species. In comparison to the well-studied mechanisms of hull fouling and ballast water, the importance of bilge water for domestic and cross-regional spread of non-indigenous species is largely unknown and has the potential to compromise the overall effectiveness of biosecurity management actions. In this study, the diversity and abundance of biological material contained in bilge water from 30 small vessels ( < 20 m) was assessed using traditional and molecular identification tools (metabarcoding of the 18S rRNA gene). Laboratory-based studies were also used to investigate the relationship between voyage duration and propagule success. A large taxonomic diversity in organisms was detected, with 118 and 45 distinct taxa identified through molecular and morphological analyses, respectively. Molecular techniques identified five species recognised as non-indigenous to the study region in 23 of the 30 bilge water samples analysed. Larvae and fragments passed through an experimental bilge pump system relatively unharmed. Time spent in the bilge sump was found to affect discharge success, particularly of short-lived and sensitive larvae, but survival for 3 days was observed. Our findings show that bilge water discharges are likely to pose a non-negligible biosecurity threat and that further research to identify high-risk vessel operating profiles and potential mitigation measures are warranted.

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  • Exploring Risk and Protective Factors for Recent and Past Intimate Partner Violence Against New Zealand Women

    Fanslow, Janet; Gulliver, Pauline (2015-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify risk and protective factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) in a high-income country (New Zealand) and to identify those factors that distinguish between current versus previous exposure to IPV. Data were drawn from the New Zealand replication of the World Health Organization's Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence. Logistic regression was conducted to identify those variables associated with experience of IPV. Problem drinking, a partner who has concurrent sexual relationships, and a partner who is violent outside the home were associated with increased likelihood of current as opposed to previous experience of IPV. Increased household income and both the respondent and her partner being employed were associated with reduced likelihood that women would experience current as opposed to prior IPV. The findings point toward the need for comprehensive approaches to reduce all forms of violence and to contribute to the primary prevention of IPV. Strategies that address early exposure to violence, problematic alcohol consumption, gender transformative approaches to working with boys and men, and economic empowerment for women may all hold promise.

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  • Response of Instrumented Buildings Under the 2016 Kaik??ura Earthquake

    Chandramohan, R; Ma, Tsun Ming Quincy; Wotherspoon, Liam; Bradley, BA; Nayyerloo, M; Uma, SR; Stephens, MT (2017-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Six buildings in the Wellington region and the upper South Island, instrumented as part of the GeoNet Building Instrumentation Programme, recorded strong motion data during the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake. The response ?? of two of these buildings: the Bank of New Zealand (BNZ) Harbour Quays, and Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment (MBIE) buildings, are examined in detail. Their acceleration and displacement response was reconstructed from the recorded data, and their vibrational characteristics were examined by computing their frequency response functions. The location of the BNZ building in the CentrePort region on the Wellington waterfront, which experienced significant ground motion amplification in the 1???2 s period range due to site effects, resulted in the imposition of especially large demands on the building. The computed response of the two buildings are compared to the intensity of ground motions they experienced and the structural and nonstructural damage they suffered, in an effort to motivate the use of structural response data in the validation of performance objectives of building codes, structural modelling techniques, and fragility functions. Finally, the nature of challenges typically encountered in the interpretation of structural response data are highlighted.

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  • Indigenous (M??ori) perspectives on abortion in New Zealand

    Le Grice, Jade; Braun, Virginia (2017-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Abortion is an under-researched, sensitive and politicised topic, but in the New Zealand context, there is a conspicuous dearth of exploratory research on Indigenous (M??ori) perspectives on abortion, despite some indication that M??ori seek abortion services. International research that attends to the socio-cultural context of abortion evidences a fascinating variability of perspectives and attitudes about abortion, with some commonalities and patterns of resistance. Within accounts of M??ori historical practice of abortion, there is some evidence of variability, and we sought to better understand the contemporary socio-cultural context surrounding M??ori perspectives on abortion. As part of an Indigenous feminist (Mana W??hine) interview study with 43 participants (26 women, 17 men), thematic analysis of participants??? talk about abortion identified notions regarding ???protection of a new life???, ???woman???s individual choice???, and ???extended family investment and support??? as foregrounded themes. We describe a rich and nuanced account of M??ori perspectives on abortion, describing how these are structurally embedded within particular socio-historical and socio-cultural contexts, including M??ori ideologies and theories, colonisation and Christianity, and women???s rights activism.

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  • A Stretchable Multimodal Sensor for Soft Robotic Applications

    Din, S; Xu, P; Cheng, L; Dirven, S (2017-09-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a multimodal sensor with integrated stretchable meandered interconnects for uniaxial strain, pressure, and uniaxial shear stress measurements. It is designed based on a capacitive sensing principle for embedded deformable sensing applications. A photolithographic process is used along with laser machining and sheet metal forming technique to pattern sensor elements together with stretchable grid-based interconnects on a thin sheet of copper polyimide laminate as a base material in a single process. The structure is embedded in a soft stretchable Ecoflex and PDMS silicon rubber encapsulation. The strain, pressure, and shear stress sensors are characterized up to 9%, 25 kPa, and ??11 kPa of maximum loading, respectively. The strain sensor exhibits an almost linear response to stretching with an average sensitivity of -28.9 fF%-1. The pressure sensor, however, shows a nonlinear and significant hysteresis characteristic due to nonlinear and viscoelastic property of the silicon rubber encapsulation. An average best-fit straight line sensitivity of 30.9 fFkPa-1 was recorded. The sensitivity of shear stress sensor is found to be 8.1 fFkPa-1. The three sensing elements also demonstrate a good cross-sensitivity performance of 3.1% on average. This paper proves that a common flexible printed circuit board (PCB) base material could be transformed into stretchable circuits with integrated multimodal sensor using established PCB fabrication technique, laser machining, and sheet metal forming method.

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  • Does high optimism protect against the inter-generational transmission of high BMI? The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    Serlachius, A; Pulkki-R??back, L; Juonala, M; Sabin, M; Lehtim??ki, T; Raitakari, O; Elovainio, M (2017-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The transmission of overweight from one generation to the next is well established, however little is known about what psychosocial factors may protect against this familial risk. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimism plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of obesity.Our sample included 1043 participants from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young FINNS Study. Optimism was measured in early adulthood (2001) when the cohort was aged 24-39years. BMI was measured in 2001 (baseline) and 2012 when they were aged 35-50years. Parental BMI was measured in 1980. Hierarchical linear regression and logistic regression were used to examine the association between optimism and future BMI/obesity, and whether an interaction existed between optimism and parental BMI when predicting BMI/obesity 11years later.High optimism in young adulthood demonstrated a negative relationship with high BMI in mid-adulthood, but only in women (??=-0.127, p=0.001). The optimism??maternal BMI interaction term was a significant predictor of future BMI in women (??=-0.588, p=0.036). The logistic regression results confirmed that high optimism predicted reduced obesity in women (OR=0.68, 95% CI, 0.55-0.86), however the optimism ?? maternal obesity interaction term was not a significant predictor (OR=0.50, 95% CI, 0.10-2.48).Our findings supported our hypothesis that high optimism mitigated the intergenerational transmission of high BMI, but only in women. These findings also provided evidence that positive psychosocial factors such as optimism are associated with long-term protective effects on BMI in women.

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  • Anxiety and depression, personality traits relevant to tinnitus: A scoping review

    Durai, M; Searchfield, Grant (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Scoping reviews of existing literature were conducted to identify key personality traits relevant to tinnitus, and examine the relationship between affective disorders and tinnitus.The methodological framework of Arksey and O'Malley was followed.Sixty studies were chosen for charting the data, 14 studies examined personality traits exclusively, 31 studies examined affective disorders exclusively, and 15 studies investigated both.The presence of one or more specific personality traits of high neuroticism, low extraversion, high stress reaction, higher alienation, lower social closeness, lower well-being, lower self control, lower psychological acceptance, presence of a type D personality, and externalized locus of control were associated with tinnitus distress. Anxiety and depression were more prevalent among the tinnitus clinical population and at elevated levels.Personality traits have a consistent association with the distress experienced by adult tinnitus help-seekers, and help-seekers are also more likely to experience affective symptoms and/or disorders.

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  • Queering Stories and Selves: Gamer Poop and Subversive Narrative Emergence

    May, Lawrence; McKissack, F (2017-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Video games such as Mass Effect 3 (Electronic Arts, 2012), Skyrim (Bethesda Softworks, 2011) and Fallout 3 (Bethesda Softworks, 2008) have been praised for offering highly customisable and personalised ingame avatars, experiences and narrative flexibility. The humour in popular YouTube machinima series Gamer Poop playfully rejects the heteronormative and hypermasculine expectations that still appear inevitable and intractable in these seemingly open and inclusive gameworlds. Across Gamer Poop???s 49 videos stable identifiers of race, gender, and sexuality are radically rewritten using post-production video editing and game modification to allow for intersexual character models, bisexual orgies, and breakdancing heroes - content not programmed into the original games. We discuss the potential for machinima videos to act as tools for negotiating emergent queer narratives. These emergent experiences are generated by players and re-inscribed onto the broader video game ???text???, demonstrating the limitations of video game texts for identity-building activity. Gamer Poop takes advantage of emergence as the ???primordial structure??? of games (Juul, 2005, p.73) and presents to the audience moments of emergent, queer narrative - what Jenkins describes as stories that are ???not pre-structured or pre-programmed, [instead] taking shape through the game play??? (Jenkins, 2004, p.128). These vulgar and sometimes puerile videos are a critical and playful intervention into the embedded textual meaning of Gamer Poop???s chosen video games, and demonstrate that a latent representative potential exists in video game systems, rulesets, and game engines for emergent storytelling and identity-building activities. We describe this creative practice as subversive narrative emergence.

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  • Using ground penetrating radar, scanning electron microscopy and thermal infrared imagery to document near-surface hydrological changes in the old faithful Geyser area, Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.

    Lynne, Bridget; Heasler, H; Jaworowski, C; Foley, D; Smith, IJ; Smith, GJ; Sahdarani, D (2017-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR), thermal infrared imagery (TIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) provide an understanding of shallow subsurface altered zones in the Old Faithful Geyser area. The GPR and TIR are temporal snapshots of the hydrothermal system; GPR reflections suggest extensive subsurface zones of hydrothermal alteration. SEM-XRD document changes in hydrologic conditions. SEM-XRD analyses of sinters demonstrate a multi-stage formation history, pH-temperature hydrodynamic changes, and dissolution by acidic steam condensate. TIR images show surface thermal trends that are consistent with mapped fractures and/or faults and with the GPR, SEM and XRD results.

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  • ???O le Toe Ulutaia: A Bibliography of Pasifika and Psychology Research

    Fia'Ali'i, J; Manuela, Sam; Le Grice, Jade; Groot, S; Hyde, J (2017-09)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • He Kohikohinga Rangahau: A Bibliography of M??ori and Psychology Research

    Hyde, J; Le Grice, Jade; Moore, Chloe; Groot, S; Fia'Ali'i, J; Manuela, Sam (2017-09)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Successful transitions from early intervention to school-age special education services

    Burgon, J; Walker, Joanne (2013)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Flows of knowledge in teaching teams: A collaborative approach to research in early childhood education

    Tesar, Marek; Gibbons, A; Farquhar, Sandra (2017)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The aim of this chapter is to theorise and propose ways to consolidate and build knowledge about the nature and impact of teacher education on teaching team relationships in Early Childhood Education (ECE). ECE teacher education provides a critical opportunity to study and practice being in a teaching team. In this chapter, we explore the nature of early childhood (EC) teaching teams with a focus on ???knowledge???. The aim of this chapter is to theorise and propose ways to consolidate and build knowledge about the nature and impact of teacher education on teaching team relationships in Early Childhood Education (ECE). ECE teacher education provides a critical opportunity to study and practice being in a teaching team. In this chapter, we explore the nature of early childhood (EC) teaching teams with a focus on ???knowledge???. The ???knowledge relationships??? within teaching teams are complex elements of the EC curriculum that have received little sustained, critical attention in educational research. Two aspects of team relationships are of particular value here because of their capacity to enrich the experiences of teachers and children in ECE: (1) the ways in which new and/or beginning teachers are welcomed into the knowledge community of an EC centre; and (2) the ways in which the sharing and construction of knowledge in a teaching team impacts on teaching and learning in the EC curriculum. These two elements are of significance to teacher education in terms of both how the student experiences the study of teaching as an experience in preparation for being a teaching team member, and how that experience translates into being in a teaching team. The chapter contributes to two essential and ongoing wider research needs identified in Aotearoa New Zealand: the nature and promotion of twenty-first century teaching and learning environments???environments characterised in relation to open, dynamic, and collective knowledge environments; and the experiences of beginning and new teachers as they enter their teaching teams (???new teachers??? refers to teachers who are new to the centres, and ???beginning teachers??? to those who are at the start of their teaching career). In addition, the chapter proposes further research into the development of a collaborative teaching, learning and researching model in teacher education, based on sharing knowledge/professional practices between new and beginning, and experienced teachers. It draws upon current scholarship on pedagogy, professionalism and leadership in ECE which advocates for effective models of development to emanate from within the profession, grounded in the local contexts and aspirations of Aotearoa New Zealand teachers, and critically attuned to the complexities of communities (Dalli et al. 2012). Building on existing scholarship, the chapter further develops knowledge of the effectiveness of teaching teams in supporting beginning and new teachers, through responsive communities of support as outlined in the Education Council website, the governing and regulatory body of New Zealand teachers. This knowledge is strategically important for centre staff, management and the profession, in terms of promoting the best ways to embrace the new knowledge and practices that beginning and new teachers bring to the teaching and learning community, and for teacher education alike. Data from a recent study of the experiences of newly qualified early childhood teachers, and their relationship with ???knowledge???, is woven through the chapter. The teachers??? experiences are explored in relation to the concept of ???flows of knowledge???. This concept is developed out of the literature on ???future-focused??? education (Bolstad et al. 2012). We argue that the study of flows of knowledge is a vital contribution to the study of education in teacher education programmes.

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  • The physiology of maternal sleep (and sleep position) in healthy late pregnancy

    McIntyre, Jordan (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Unexplained stillbirth is the leading cause of antenatal death in developed countries, accounting for 71- 103 unborn children dying each year in New Zealand between 2007 and 2013. Recent evidence suggests maternal sleep and sleep position may be associated with an increased risk of late stillbirth. If something as simple as changing maternal sleep position, or even reducing the time spent in a certain position, could decrease stillbirth risk, then it clearly warrants further investigation. This thesis aimed to describe sleep in healthy late pregnancy, particularly as it relates to maternal sleep position. It was hypothesised that changes in maternal sleep position would produce measurable physiological effects. This thesis found that conventional measures of maternal physiology when awake, and conventional measures of sleep-disordered breathing when asleep, were unable to detect an effect of changing maternal position. However, using more detailed analyses of data collected during a respiratory sleep study demonstrated that supine sleep produces pronounced physiological effects. The right-lateral position demonstrated a physiological effect when awake, consistent with previous case-control studies demonstrating increased risk of the right-lateral sleep position, but no physiological difference was demonstrated here during sleep. This suggests that avoiding the supine sleep position is important, but right-lateral is no more harmful than left-lateral. The physiological and behavioural descriptions of sleep demonstrated how healthy late pregnancy differs from healthy non-pregnant women, and thus how analyses can be modified to detect important effects in this population. Whilst potentially-harmful physiological effects of the supine position were demonstrated, the pregnant women in this thesis display physiological and behavioural characteristics that appear to protect against prolonged exposure. Finally, this thesis demonstrated that mothers in late pregnancy can recall sleep with moderate accuracy, particularly sleep-onset position, which was implicated in stillbirth studies. This thesis reports a number of physiological and behavioural observations that support the findings in previous New Zealand stillbirth case control studies, and described normal physiology and behaviour in healthy late pregnancy. It has also developed assessments of maternal physiology during sleep that can be replicated in future studies of healthy and high-risk pregnancies, with recommendations on how future research can expand on the methodologies used here.

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  • Indians in Aotearoa New Zealand: A study of migrant social networks and integration through an assemblage lens

    Chakiamury Joseph, Mary (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Social networks are central to current discussion around migrant settlement and integration. This thesis uses the case study of Indian migrants who have gained permanent residence or citizenship in New Zealand to examine the nuances of migrant network diversity, as well as the impact of such networks on their integration at four different levels: legal; economic; community; and societal. Indian migrants constitute one of the most diverse groups of migrants moving to New Zealand, with cross-cutting layers of sub-regional, linguistic and religious identities that make it difficult to refer to just one ???Indian??? ethnic identity. Given such diversity, this thesis draws upon data from forty-three interviews conducted with migrants from four ???Indian??? communities ??? the Gujarati, Punjabi, Tamil and Keralites ??? to examine differences in, and the relative importance, of co-, intra- and inter-ethnic networks, particularly when it comes to gaining the legal status of permanent residence, employment and a sense of community and societal wellbeing and integration. To help capture the complexities of Indian migrant communities and their integration outcomes, this study draws on DeLanda???s (2006) assemblage theory. This assemblage lens first reveals the centrality of migrant capacities in building the personal networks and inter-ethnic relationships that nurture belonging to wider New Zealand society. Of particular note, the findings reveal that some migrants, especially those coming from bigger multicultural cities in India, were more likely to maintain a cosmopolitan sociability (Schiller et al., 2011, p.402) or the ability to create inclusive and open relations that enable greater participation in inter-ethnic networks. Importantly, the depth and character of such networks was determined not by sub-regional ???ethnicity??? alone, but rather by capacities linked to a migrant???s cultural capital, multi-cultural knowledge and upbringing in India. Second, an assemblage lens allows us to understand the fluidity and transient nature of migrant social networks. In some cases, co- intra- and inter-ethnic networks territorialise giving a sense of stability (that is, rebuild the same kind of associations and affiliations the migrants had in India) and in other cases they deterritorialise (that is, challenge ???traditional??? or expected networks and relationships due to exploitation, status hierarchies or lack of acceptance). Overall, it is impossible to claim any one outcome for ???Indian??? migrants as a whole because their networks and levels/types of integration shift and reshape depending on time and place. Such findings have implications for our understanding of migrant integration within a host society, which cannot simply be determined by the size and quality of inter-ethnic networks. The thesis concludes that discussions about social integration must grapple with the complexity of both migrant networks and the fact that ???integration??? occurs on at least four different levels. Thus, interventions to assist new migrants should not simply be targeted towards a particular ???ethnic??? group without an understanding of the diverse capacities of individuals, as well as the pros and cons of migrant engagement in co-, intra- and inter-ethnic networks across differing levels of integration.

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  • Wastewater treatment high rate algal pond (WWT HRAP) biomass for low-cost liquid biofuel production

    Mehrabadi, Abbas (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Currently despite intense efforts algal biofuel production is still not economically competitive with fossil fuel. To lower algal biofuel production costs, replacement of pure algal biomass with free gravity-harvested algal-bacterial biomass produced in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds (WWT HRAPs) has been suggested as a niche opportunity. While most WWT HRAP studies have focused on optimization of treatment performance, the biomass energy productivity and its suitability for quality biofuel production have not been previously investigated in detail. Hence, the objectives of this study are to: ??? Examine the biomass energy yield potential of WWT HRAP, ??? Evaluate different strategies to improve biomass energy yield and quality of without impacting pond treatment performance, and ??? Examine the suitability of HRAP biomass for conversion to biodiesel, pyrolytic biooil and bio-crude production. The average biomass production, energy content and energy yield of two identical pilotscale WWT HRAP (monitored weekly over one year) were 21.5 ton VSS/ha/year, 19.2 GJ/ton and 413 GJ/ha/year respectively. Biomass energy yield is dependent on several factors increasing with warmer climate, lower grazing pressure, higher biomass algal proportion and higher lipid content. Since at full-scale climate conditions are not controllable, and there is little opportunity to increase biomass lipid content without impacting on pond treatment performance, biomass energy yield can only be increased by controlling zooplankton grazing or improving algal biomass productivity. HRAP tend to select of colonial algal species due to the pond mixing that maintains them in suspension. Colonial algae are therefore more easily harvested by simple gravity settling compared to unicellular algal species and are due to their larger size are unable to be grazed by the majority of zooplankton. Hence, an investigation was made of the treatment performance and biomass energy production of the most dominant WWT HRAP colonial algal species. Of the colonial species tested, Mucidosphaerium pulchellum and Micractinium pusillum cultures had the highest nutrient removal and the highest biomass energy yield under simulated New Zealand summer and winter conditions. However, due to much better settleability, Micractinium pusillum, had the greatest potential for both wastewater treatment and biomass energy yield. Two outdoor mesocosm-scale (HRAM) experiments using different air:CO2 mixtures (up to 10% CO2) conducted in summer and winter showed that the biomass energy yield could be improved with CO2 addition. In the summer experiment, compared to the aerated cultures (the control), the highest improvements of the biomass energy yield and its gravity harvestable proportion (43.8% and 102%, respectively) were achieved in the 5% CO2 cultures (pH 6-7). While in the winter experiment, the greatest improvements (?? 14% for the biomass energy yield and ?? 33% for the harvestable fraction) occurred in the 0.5% CO2 cultures (pH 7-8). These experiments indicate maintaining a pond pH of 7-8 in winter and 6-7 in summer with CO2 addition would be most beneficial. To assess the quality of WWT HRAP biomass for biodiesel production, the biomass lipids were extracted and profiled during both the annual monitoring of the pilot-scale HRAP and the two CO2 addition HRAM experiments. The biomass lipid profiles were highly complex which led to production of low-quality biodiesel. CO2 addition did not affect biodiesel quality and only enhanced biodiesel productivity by up to 20% due to increased biomass productivity. Overall, less than 30% of the biomass energy yield (413 GJ/ha/year) was recovered in the form of low-quality biodiesel. The low lipid content and high lipid complexity of the WWT HRAP biomass together with the technical limitations of lipid extraction such as drying, cell disruption and solvent extraction make energy recovery from the whole biomass more attractive. Thus, biomass energy recovery via conversion of the whole biomass through pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) was investigated at different temperatures. Overall, temperature had a positive effect on the yields of the target products but negatively affected its quality so that the maximum yield (7 wt% pyrolytic bio-oil and 24.9 wt% bio-crude) had the lowest quality (highest complexity and nitrogen content) and was produced at the highest temperatures (500 ??C in pyrolysis and 300 ??C in HTL). The maximum % of the energy content of the biomass recovered in the biofuel products, were 15% and 47.4% for the pyrolytic bio-oil and biocrude respectively. While, HTL is a more favourable conversion process to maximise energy recovery from such a complex biomass, it was not feasible from an energy yield point of view at the tested conditions. Further investigations on the use of the by-products are required to improve biomass energy recovery and consequently the economic viability. Overall based on the results WWT HRAP biomass is not a promising feedstock for lowcost quality liquid biofuel production due to its high complexity which leads to low-quality biofuel production.

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