14,085 results for UC Research Repository

  • Designing graphene supercapacitor electrodes

    Farquhar, Anna K. (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Graphene, a two-dimensional material comprised of sp2-hybridised carbon atoms, has significant potential in energy storage as an electrode material for supercapacitors. Unfortunately, strong intermolecular forces between the graphene sheets results in aggregation during assembly and use, reducing the accessible surface area and experimentally available capacitance. Prevention of aggregation during electrode assembly and cycling will allow the development of graphene materials with better energy storage capability. In this thesis work, molecular spacers grafted to few-layer graphene (FLG) were investigated as a way of preventing aggregation of the graphene sheets. Molecular spacers were grafted to FLG using three strategies: the spontaneous reaction with aryldiazonium salts, the Diels Alder reaction of an aryne, and the addition of an amine. The aryldiazonium reaction was studied using five different salts. The results indicated that at least two reaction pathways are operative for the spontaneous reaction, giving a multilayer film with both -C-C- and -N=N- linkages. Furthermore, the experimental protocol allowed the modified FLG to be collected with the film either sandwiched between the FLG and the substrate, or exposed to the electrolyte. In the sandwiched orientation two nitrophenyl reduction peaks were sometimes seen and larger surface concentrations were measured, behaviour that has not been reported previously for films grafted onto carbon materials from aryldiazonium salts. The Diels- Alder reaction, which relied on the generation of an aryne from an anthranilic acid precursor, provided an efficient route to monolayer growth. The amine addition reaction provided an alternative route modifying FLG, though a Michael-like addition or partial intercalation. Supercapacitor electrodes were assembled from aryldiazonium modified FLG using a layer-by-layer (LBL) strategy. The grafted film could efficiently separate the FLG sheets during assembly and prevent restacking during cycling, with the full surface area remaining accessible even after 20,000 galvanostatic charge discharge cycles. Furthermore, the grafted film did not diminish the total capacitance of the FLG or hinder ion movement to the surface of the sheets. To further enhance the capacitance of the FLG, pseudocapacitive metal hydroxide films were electrochemically deposited on the FLG sheets prior to LBL assembly, which enhanced the total areal capacitance of the system. This thesis work successfully developed a novel LBL protocol that allowed electrodes comprised of stacks of FLG to be assembled without diminishing the total accessible surface area and therefore capacitance of each graphene sheet, which is an essential step in the development of energy storage devices from graphene.

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  • Population and reproductive ecology of Turbo smaragdus in the Kaikoura region

    Robinson, Lee Joanne (1992)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Turbo smaragdus is a herbivorous gastropod of the intertidal and sub-littoral zones, which is distributed widely along the coastline of New Zealand. This study sought to investigate the population and reproductive ecology of Turbo on the Kaikoura Peninsula. This involved the determination of: spatial and temporal distribution patterns, associations with other herbivorous molluscs and algal species, recruitment of juveniles, morphometric relationships, population length-frequency structures, growth rates, spawning seasons, trends exhibited in a reproductive cycle, sex ratio, size at sexual maturation and fecundity. Turbo have a broad distribution that varies significantly both within and between sites. Transect surveys determined that Turbo have an aggregated distribution, and were present from the upper eulittoral into the sub-littoral to depths of 3m with largest numbers generally occurring in the mid-eulittoral. Juveniles (shell lengths ≤ 15mm) occurred widely on the vertical profiles of the shores sampled, but larger individuals were more common in the lower eulittoral. Sub-littoral populations were composed of larger individuals, with shell lengths ≥ 35mm. As Turbo grow, shell and operculum height, width and length increase linearly and shell, operculum, body tissue and gonad weight exponentially. Tag-recapture data indicate that growth rates decrease with increasing size of individuals. At the sites sampled, individuals can grow to a shell length of 40mm at which the von Bertalanffy growth curve predicts they will be approximately ten years of age. Growth rates of Turbo vary seasonally, with greatest rates occurring between November-March, and the slowest between August-November. Spatial variation was also shown to occur between two populations, with greater growth rates occurring in the area of slightly greater exposure to wave action. The absence of age classes in length-frequency histograms suggests that recruitment failure or high mortality rates may occur during some years. Sexual maturation of both male and female Turbo generally occurred between shell lengths of 20-25mm, although a few individuals were observed to mature at both smaller and larger sizes. Energetic investment in reproductive effort, which is indicated by increasing gonad size and fecundity, increases with increasing shell lengths. The populations sampled exhibited a 1:1 sex ratio. Turbo are broadcast spawners and have a distinct annual reproductive cycle. A major spawning event occurred on the Kaikoura Peninsula during February-March 1991 and a minor event in January 1992. Immediately succeeding the 1991 spawning period, the gonads of both sexes were reduced in volume and relatively depleted of mature gametes. Gametogenesis occurred within several months of spawning, with the immature gametes developing slowly throughout the winter and accelerating in growth in the spring to produce gonads that were densely packed with mature gametes several months prior to the January 1992 spawning event.

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  • Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) Pyrolysis Model Analysis of Heavy Goods Vehicle Fires in Road Tunnels

    Wang, Xiaoyun (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Heavy goods vehicle (HGV) fires cause more serious fire safety problems than other vehicle fires in road tunnels due to the large fire size. The fire size is a critical parameter in road tunnel fire safety design and this parameter varies considerably under different environmental conditions. It is impractical to experimentally measure heat release rate (HRR) for HGV fires under different tunnel conditions because of the large experimental cost. There is a desire to use a cost-effective computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling method to study tunnel fires, such as fire dynamics simulator (FDS). The pyrolysis model in FDS can predict HRR based on fuel properties and environmental conditions. Therefore, the FDS pyrolysis model is adopted in this research to simulate a large-scale tunnel simulated HGV cargo experiment, which was carried out on behalf of the Land Transport Authority (LTA), Singapore. There are three major objectives in this research: to understand fuel properties for the application of the pyrolysis model; to understand influence of forced ventilation on the HRR of tunnel fires; and to assess the predictive capability of the pyrolysis model in FDS to simulate tunnel fires. The material properties of the fuels (plastic and wood) adopted in the LTA experiment are investigated. A simple hand calculation method using multiple-component schemes is proposed in this research to analyse the kinetic properties for the LTA materials through a series of material-scale experiments. Favourable FDS predictions of decomposition behaviour are obtained based on the derived kinetic properties. Following the studies of the kinetic properties, a manual optimisation process is used to determine other thermal properties for the application of the FDS pyrolysis model. The results from FDS simulations for a series of cone calorimeter experiments reveal that the use of component schemes and thermal property settings are critical in accurately predicting burning behaviour in FDS. A series of small-scale tunnel experiments are conducted which is scaled at a ratio of 1:20 on the basis of the LTA large-scale tunnel experiment. Medium density fireboard (MDF) cribs are used as fuel source to investigate the influence of forced ventilation on tunnel fires. It is found that the forced ventilation affects fire spread rate and burning efficiency which ultimately affects the peak HRR. In addition, the influence of forced ventilation on burning efficiency is affected by the crib length. A mathematical model to predict peak HRR for crib fires is proposed based on the observed influences on crib fires from these different factors. The ultimate objective is to assess the ability of the FDS pyrolysis model to predict the HRR in the small-scale and large-scale tunnel experiments. In the simulations, the decomposition reactions are described. The ventilation influences on burning efficiency are accounted for through heat of combustion. Unfortunately, FDS considerably under predicts the HRR and fire growth behaviour for both experiments. These results suggest that the FDS pyrolysis model is unable to predict fire burning behaviour for complex fuels with sufficient accuracy to be used in practical tunnel design. Overall, this research reveals an effective hand calculation method to derive kinetic properties; a manual optimisation process to determine thermal properties; a mathematical model to describe forced ventilation influence on fire size and to further estimate peak HRR for tunnel crib fires. In addition, the results from the application of FDS pyrolysis model to simulate tunnel fires reveal that the pyrolysis model is unable to accurately predict fire burning behaviour for complex fuels.

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  • Mapping the Twitter linkages between American politicians and hate groups

    Sahioun, Rania (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Big Data is a growing field after social media allowed developers to collect and store data using various platforms. The present research utilises Twitter data and Apache Spark to extend and develop an easy to implement method to test a contemporary question of interest. Specifically, I focus on Donald Trump’s campaign for the President of the USA. Donald Trump’s campaign had been very controversial from the start, following his hostile views expressed toward immigrants and minorities. During this time, media pundits and the public spent much time debating whether Trump’s campaign was motivated by hate or other factors. The present work examines whether Donald Trump had unique appeal to hate groups by examining the twitter linkages between several American political leaders (Donald Trump, Hillary Clinton, Bernie Sanders, Ted Cruz, and Paul Ryan) with American hate groups. The results show that users who often retweet Donald Trump are more likely to frequently retweet American hate groups such as Neo Nazis, White Nationalists, anti-immigrant, anti-Muslim, anti-LGBT, and anti-government groups, more than any other politician. While other Republican politicians were also linked to anti-immigrant, anti-Muslim, and anti-LGBT groups, it was to a lesser extent than Trump. This data suggests Trump may have had unique appeal to American hate groups.

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  • Aerodynamics of asymmetrical land speed record vehicles

    Clemens, Kevin (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Although current market penetration of battery electric cars is low (0.1% worldwide), it is rapidly growing as the advantages of electric vehicles (EV) in reduced pollution, CO2 emissions and lower operating costs overcome their higher initial purchase price. As battery systems carry far less energy than traditional liquid fuels, EVs face challenges to maximize efficiency to achieve acceptable performance and range. One way to enhance EV efficiency is to reduce aerodynamic drag. In racing, the goal is to achieve maximum performance for a given available energy, which provides a laboratory to study vehicle system optimization. This is especially true for land speed racing where the singular aim is to safely achieve the highest possible speed on a long, closed course, for example the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah. The goal in this form of racing is to minimize aerodynamic drag while maintaining dynamic stability. In this work, aerodynamic, rolling resistance, and tractive forces and moments were examined for an asymmetrical land speed record vehicle through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies and the analysis of the equations of motion. Validation of CFD technique was performed by comparison of numerical results to published drag and lift, velocity profile, and flow topology of a 25° and 35° Ahmed body using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models (25° and 35° Ahmed body) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) (25° Ahmed body). RANS simulations were found to predict Cd (-1.4% of published values) and Cl (+2.3% of published values), while LES was less successful for Cd (+8.4%), and Cl (-11.6%). Both methods predicted velocity profiles and wake structures well. Studies were undertaken to characterize the dynamic and aerodynamic stability of a bluff-body four “wheel” (Ahmed Body) vehicle and a two-wheel streamlined electric land speed record motorcycle. The Ahmed body was found (from CFD) to have positive lift between 0° and 45° yaw angles, and then transition to negative lift (downforce) between 45° and 55° of yaw angle at a speed of 150 mph (67 m/s). The two-wheel streamlined motorcycle was found (from CFD) to create lift greater than the vehicle weight at yaw angles greater than 50° at 150 mph (67 m/s) and at yaw angles greater than 20° at speeds of 250 mph (112 m/s), the design speed of the vehicle. The addition of a longitudinal, dorsal “shark fin” was found to reduce this lift to below the vehicle weight even at a yaw angle of 90° at a speed of 150 mph (67 m/s). Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were also used to characterize and enhance the aerodynamic performance of an electrically-powered racing sidecar. From the starting point of a Solidworks model from the laser-scan of an existing road- racing sidecar motorcycle, an extensive optimization program using ANSYS Fluent 17.0 (CFD), with 6-10 million-element, unstructured, tetrahedral meshes and a RANS turbulence model, was undertaken. Compared to the original starting point, the optimised sidecar CFD results indicated a 24.4% reduction in Cd, a change in Cl from +0.0026 (lift) to -0.255 (downforce). Lateral force coefficient (Cy) was reduced 11% compared to the original sidecar. From visualisations of the flow topology, large streamwise vortical structures originating from the shoulder regions of the rider were found to be the most significant sources of aerodynamic drag. Other parts of the sidecar body also produced streamwise vortices that contributed to pressure drag. Negative lift (downforce) was found to result primarily from the formation of a primary vortex along the leading edge of the underside of the splitter at the front of the vehicle. Based upon these results, a new body for the sidecar was fabricated from composite materials. The modified sidecar was successful, setting four FIM world land speed records and one U.S. national land speed record in electric sidecar motorcycle classes at the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, U.S.A. in August 2016. Further validation of the new sidecar bodywork was undertaken with testing in a full-scale wind tunnel facility. The asymmetrical aerodynamic forces generated by the sidecar, predicted from CFD, were found by the rider to not create significant dynamic instabilities at high speeds. Dynamic stability analyses predicted cross winds would require minor steering corrections by the rider and were found to have different effects depending upon their direction due to the aerodynamic asymmetry of the vehicle. Pitch and roll moments were found to show asymmetries but were judged by the rider to be negligible in their effect on vehicle stability. The stability predicted from CFD and dynamic modelling was thus confirmed by the rider’s experiences during successful land speed record attempts.

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  • Dual-Tasking and Multiple Resources: The Interference of Cognitive and Physical Demands in Real-World Applications

    Epling, Samantha Lynn (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Human Factors professionals regard Multiple Resource Theory (MRT) as a plausible explanation of the human cognitive processing system, but the theory lacks extensive testing with physical tasks. This is potentially a problem, because dual-tasking with cognitive and physically demanding tasks is a common requirement in high-risk settings such as military operations, firefighting, and search and rescue operations. Previous researchers utilized a verbal free recall task, a task demanding verbal processing resources, paired with a climbing task and reported dual-task interference. In the present work, the verbal free recall task was paired with a semantic discrimination task, a running task, and a spatial puzzle task. By holding one task constant amongst a variety of dual-task pairs, it becomes more feasible to analyze not only how much interference is occurring, but also why. The remaining five experiments pursued the overarching theme by utilizing a new verbal situation awareness (SA) task in place of the verbal free recall task. The SA task placed greater demands on episodic or narrative verbal memory more similar to real-world situations. The SA task was paired with the secondary tasks above, as well as a climbing task and a response inhibition task. It was found that the specific resources required, as well as the executive resource requirement (e.g. manipulation, planning) of a task both contribute to the dual-task interference. Climbing required resources beyond the scope and nature of what would be expected according to the MRT; the total dual-task inference for this task exceeded the interference for the other task pairs. In order to better avoid dangerous dual-tasking situations and to provide appropriate aid if those situations cannot be avoided, assessing both the specific and general resource demands of any physically and cognitively challenging task that might be required in high-risk operations is critical.

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  • Indian foodways in Christchurch - a study of Indian restaurants

    Parodkar, Ameya Damodar (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this thesis is to understand Indian restaurants‟ perception of authenticity and related attributes in its servicescape and menu elements that influence customer satisfaction. Existing studies have underlined the significance of perceived authenticity and related attributes in influencing customer satisfaction in an ethnic restaurant scenario. The academic literature offers relatively low insight into the managerial perceptions of authenticity and related attributes in ethnic restaurants. Besides, a limited number of studies have analyzed Indian cuisine in a hospitality backdrop. No specific research on Indian restaurants has been previously carried out in New Zealand, given the prevalence of the long history of Indian community in the country. On the other hand, research on ethnic restaurants has been quite one dimensional as it tends to only cover the consumers‟ perceptions of the restaurant attributes in order to deliver appropriate marketing strategies to the restaurant management. The ethnic restaurant perceptions of authenticity have been seldom explored. This study tries to fill the identified gap by garnering Indian restaurants‟ perception of authenticity in terms of the Indian cuisine, along with the significance of restaurant attributes and menu in exhibiting the authentic traits of the Indian restaurants. The existing literature provides three approaches to define the concept of authenticity: objectivist, constructivist and post-modern approaches. Perceived authenticity is observed to be a significant factor that is linked with ethnic restaurants and related servicescape attributes. Besides, the concept of authenticity is studied to be vital factor in influencing customer satisfaction in ethnic restaurants. The concept of ethnicity and role of ethnic restaurants is explored to derive the significance of ethnic foods in representing a particular culture in immigrant countries. The present literature also provides various models of servicescape framework that depict the prevalence of individual servicescape elements in influencing customer satisfaction in a service environment. This research project was carried out on Indian restaurants in Christchurch, the third largest city in New Zealand. A mixed method approach was utilized in order to attain the objectives of this study. The restaurant menu and servicescape elements of ten Indian restaurants were studied. The restaurants were selected based on their ratings on Zomato. Menu analysis was carried out to identify elements of the Indian restaurant menu that exhibit authentic traits and to determine the frequency of the dishes. Additionally, servicescape analysis was performed to identify the distinctive and similar elements in the Indian restaurant scenario using the servicescape framework identified in the literature. Besides, semi-structured interviews of the Indian restaurant managers were carried out to understand their perceptions of authenticity, menu design and servicescape attributes. This component was also performed to supplement the findings of the menu and servicescape analysis. Observation and content analysis was deployed to interpret the data collected to achieve the results of this research project. The findings of this study are segregated into three sections respectively based on the research component. Menu and servicescape analysis reveal the distinctive elements included in the Indian restaurant menu and servicescape that possess the ability to influence customer satisfaction. The analysis of semi-structured interviews further reveals managerial views regarding the main elements of Indian cuisine, how local customers perceive authenticity of Indian food, elements involved in menu selection and design along with the role of distinctive servicescape elements in influencing customer satisfaction. This runs parallel with the existing literature and results derived in the menu and servicescape analysis. The current study acts as a pathway to carry out further research in the Indian restaurant scenario in New Zealand from both managerial and customers‟ perspectives. Since New Zealand thrives on multiculturism, it is recommended to carry out similar studies across ethnic restaurants representing different cultures. The limitations of this study are duly acknowledged. Besides, the potential contribution of this study is noted down to derive managerial implications and further amplify the existing literature.

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  • Towards Understanding Empty Nose Syndrome using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Flint, Tim (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Empty nose syndrome (ENS) presents with sensations of nasal obstruction despite sufficiently patent nasal airways and little is known about its cause. The present work begins with a critical evaluation of the literature. From this we hypothesize that the sensation felt in ENS is likely a distinct sensation caused by abnormal airflow. High resolution computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, including heat and water transport, of one normal and two ENS nasal cavities before and after corrective surgery were performed. The results are presented with reference to patient symptoms as recorded by the SNOT22 and ENS6Q standard questionnaires. The results supported previous findings of a deficit in inferior wall shear stress in ENS nasal cavities. It was hypothesised that the state of the nasal mucus layer could provide a universal explanation for the majority of ENS symptoms. More realistic boundary conditions for CFD need to be explored so that this hypothesis can be tested. Constant temperature, variable temperature, and a novel drying model boundary treatments for heat and water transport were compared in Poiseuille flow. It was found that the constant temperature condition produced significantly different results from the other conditions. Also the introduction of a drying model may have implications for the location of maximum heat flux in the nasal geometry

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  • Understanding the longer-term experience of community inclusion for wheelchair users following the 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquakes: A mixed methods study

    Bourke, John Augustus (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Background The 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquakes and aftershocks in New Zealand caused unprecedented destruction to the physical, social, economic, and community fabric of Christchurch city. The recovery phase in Christchurch is on going, six years following the initial earthquake. Research exploring how disabled populations experience community inclusion in the longer-term recovery following natural disasters is scant. Yet such information is vital to ensure that recovering communities are inclusive for all members of the affected population. This thesis specifically examined how people who use wheelchairs experienced community inclusion four years following the 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquakes. Aims The primary research aim was to understand how one section of the disability community – people who use wheelchairs – experienced community inclusion over the four years following the 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquakes and aftershocks. A secondary aim was to test a novel sampling approach, Respondent Driven Sampling, which had the potential to enable unbiased population-based estimates. This was motivated by the lack of an available sampling frame for the target population, which would inhibit recruitment of a representative sample. Methodology and methods An exploratory sequential mixed methods design was used, beginning with a qualitative phase (Phase One), which informed a second quantitative phase (Phase Two). The qualitative phase had two stages. First, a small sample of people who use wheelchairs participated in an individual, semi-structured interview. In the second stage, these participants were then invited to a group interview to clarify and prioritise themes identified in the individual interviews. The quantitative phase was a cross-sectional survey developed from the findings from Phase One. Initially, Respondent Driven Sampling was employed to conduct a national, electronic cross-sectional survey that aimed to recruit a sample that may provide unbiased population-based estimates. Following the unsuccessful application of Respondent Driven Sampling, a region-specific convenience sampling approach was used. The datasets from the qualitative and quantitative phases were integrated to address the primary aim of the research. Results In Phase One 13 participants completed the individual interviews, and five of them contributed to the group interview. Thematic analysis of individual and group interview data suggested that participants felt the 2010/11 earthquakes magnified many pre-existing barriers to community inclusion, and also created an exciting opportunity for change. This finding was encapsulated in five themes: 1) earthquakes magnified barriers, 2) community inclusion requires energy, 3) social connections are important, 4) an opportunity lost, and 5) an opportunity found. The findings from Phase One informed the development of a survey instrument to investigate how these findings generalised to a larger sample of individuals who use wheelchairs. In Phase Two, the Respondent Driven Sampling approach failed to recruit enough participants to satisfy the statistical requirements needed to reach equilibrium, thereby enabling the calculation of unbiased population estimates. The subsequent convenience sampling approach recruited 49 participants who, combined with the 15 participants from the Respondent Driven Sampling approach that remained eligible for the region-specific sample, resulted in the total of 64 individuals who used wheelchairs and were residents of Christchurch. Participants reported their level of community inclusion at three time periods: the six months prior to the first earthquake in September 2010 (time one), the six months following the first earthquake in September 2010 (time two), and the six months prior to survey completion (between October 2015 and March 2016, (time three)). Survey data provided some precision regarding the timing in which the magnified barriers developed. Difficulty with community inclusion rose significantly between time one and time two, and while reducing slightly, was still present during time three, and had not returned to the time one baseline. The integrated findings from Phase One and Phase Two suggested that magnified barriers to community inclusion had been sustained four years post-earthquake, and community access had not returned to pre-earthquake levels, let alone improved beyond pre-earthquake levels. Conclusion Findings from this mixed methods study suggest that four years following the initial earthquake, participants were still experiencing multiple magnified barriers, which contributed to physical and social exclusion, as well as fatigue, as participants relied on individual agency to negotiate such barriers. Participants also highlighted the exciting opportunity to create an accessible city. However because they were still experiencing barriers four years following the initial event, and were concerned that this opportunity might be lost if the recovery proceeds without commitment and awareness from the numerous stakeholders involved in guiding the recovery. To truly realise the opportunity to create an accessible city following a disaster, the transition from the response phase to a sustainable longer-term recovery must adopt a new model of community engagement where decision-makers partner with people living with disability to co-produce a vision and strategy for creating an inclusive community. Furthermore, despite the unsuccessful use of Respondent Driven Sampling in this study, future research exploring the application of RDS with wheelchair users is recommended before discounting this sampling approach in this population.

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  • The changing agricultural geography of Southland, 1878-1940.

    Kellaway, Roger George (1970)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The evolution of the agricultural system of Southland was a long-term process. It has roots that stretch back to Britain before the agricultural revolution and it has not yet ended. Indeed, it probably will never end because agricultural systems are dynamic entities. The aim of this work bas been to consider the manner in which the agricultural geography of Southland has reacted to the changes that have taken place in the profitability ot various forms ot agricultural production, the introduction of new types of agricultural technology, and the impact of new modes of transport.

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  • Putting the real back into realistic job preview : an analysis of realistic job preview method and function.

    Atkinson, Caroline Leigh (1993)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Realistic Job Previews (RJP's) have developed out of a requirement for some form of voluntary turnover intervention. Most of the literature examines the processes which mediate RJP effectiveness but has recently begun to investigate the contents of RJP's and the methods of presenting them. As much of the research has been characterised by inconsistent results, this study hypothesises that a closer examination of the methods of presenting RJP's will assist in clarifying some of the unresolved issues. Intensional Simulation (Roleplay) method is proposed as a more suitable format for RJP presentation than either brochure or audio-visual RJP's. Sixty stage one psychology students were placed in one of three preview groups: brochure, video or roleplay. After the presentation of the preview, subjects were required to complete a small test and questionnaire, and to participate in a short interview. The roleplay method was found to be more realistic overall than the brochure format, contain a greater amount of information and be more personally relevant to the subjects. There was no support for the hypotheses suggesting that, compared to other methods, roleplay subjects would retain more information from the preview, make fewer job acceptance decisions and be more likely to change any decision to accept a job offer. These results are examined in light of previous RJP research and discussed in relation to the current employment climate in New Zealand. The limitations of this research are noted, along with a discussion of its practical implications.

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  • The electronic word-of-mouth effects of review valence, review volume, and product type on consumer purchase behaviour.

    Wallace, Chloe Suzanne (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis aims to examine the mediating role of product type (i.e., product-luxury perceptions) on consumer response to online reviews and the subsequent effect on purchase behaviour. Specifically, this thesis explicates the influence of review valence and review volume in shaping the consumers’ product evaluation, which in turn affects their purchase intentions for the focal product. An experimental design is adopted for this research. To examine the possible effects of product type and online reviews on consumer response, an online experiment based on a review website platform is conducted, using a 2×2×3 between-subjects factorial design. In the experiment, participants were exposed to one of twelve conditions involving the manipulation of the three independent variables (review valence, review volume and product type). A total of 432 participants were included in the final analyses, which were recruited via online convenience sampling on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Factorial ANCOVA analysis was conducted to test the hypothesised relationships. The results indicated three interaction effects between review valence, review volume and product type on consumer decision-making. A two-way interaction effect of review valence and product type, confirmed that product type mediates the influence of review valence on product attitude, product evaluation and purchase intent. Results also indicated that luxury products are less susceptible to the influence of review valence, which equates to lower purchase intentions than the non-luxury counterpart when exposed to positive reviews. A recurrent main effect of review valence was present, with results indicating a negativity bias on the perceived informative value and persuasiveness of online reviews, which was also salient in information adoption. Review volume had one main effect and tended to emerge as significant through mediating variables. Moreover, product type elicited a main effect for six dependent measures. Product involvement, susceptibility to interpersonal influence (i.e., social learning and social belonging) and materialism were found to have exogenous effects (covariates). The managerial and theoretical implications are discussed for this research, along with suggested directions for future research.

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  • Point dose measurements in VMAT : an investigation of detector choice and plan complexity.

    Goodwin, Daniel Phillip (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Purpose: Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) is an intensity modulated radiation therapy technique which can achieve highly conformal dose delivery through dynamic variation of dose rate, gantry speed, and multileaf collimator positions. Due to the complexity of treatment delivery, patient specific quality assurance (QA) is required to ensure agreement between calculated and delivered dose. Point dose measurements are a well established patient specific QA technique for VMAT. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plan complexity and the agreement between measured and calculated point doses. The suitability of five different detectors for VMAT point dose measurements was also evaluated. Methods: 45 previously treated prostate VMAT plans were selected for the study. Isocentre point dose measurements were carried out on a Varian iX linear accelerator using five commercial detectors in the CIRS Model 009 Cube 20 phantom. Measurements were made with IBA CC01 and CC04 compact ionisation chambers, IBA EFD3G and PFD3G diodes, and a PTW 60019 microDiamiond detector. Detector measurement repeatability was investigated and quantified by repeat measurements over three measurement sessions. The calculated dose was computed in both Pinnacle, using both 4 degree and 2 degree per control point gantry spacing (GS), and RayStation treatment planning systems. The agreement between measured and calculated dose was evaluated for each detector and calculation algorithm. A selection of established and novel aperture complexity metrics were calculated for the plan cohort. Correlations between complexity metrics and point dose discrepancy results were investigated. Results: A statistically significant difference in mean measured dose between the CC04 chamber and all other detectors was found at the 95% confidence level. The between measurement sessions standard deviation was less than 0.5% of mean measured dose for all detectors excluding the PFD3G. The CC01 achieved the greatest repeatability followed by the CC04, EFD3G, microDiamond, and PFD3G. A statistically significant difference in mean calculated dose was found for Pinnacle (both 4 and 2 degree GS) and RayStation calculation algorithms. For both 2 degree and 4 degree GS the mean point dose discrepancy is less than 0.55% for all detectors. Statistically significant linear relationships were found, with weak to moderate strength Pearson correlation coefficients, for the following established complexity metrics MCSv, PI, PM, CAS, CLS, and MAD metrics. The strongest Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.407, was found for the PI metric with CC04 measured and Pinnacle 2 degree GS calculated dose. Evaluation of plan complexity in progressively smaller ROI centred on the dose measurement and calculation point increases the correlation strength for some complexity metrics. Conclusion: Both the choice of a dose calculation algorithm and detector have a significant influence on point dose discrepancy results. Consequently, the strength of correlations between complexity metrics and point dose discrepancy is algorithm and detector specific. Therefore, the utility of individual complexity metrics to identify plans likely to fail QA will be department specific. The poor correlation strength of complexity metrics with point dose discrepancy results limits their clinical usefulness in identification of plans likely to fail QA.

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  • 'Ageism' in personnel selection.

    Sewell, Christine A. (1988)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The present research involved two independent studies. The first study looked at "ageism" or age discrimination in selection interviews. The effects of applicant age, information exposure and job status were examined in the interview. The specific research question addressed was whether exposure to information about successful older workers would reduce discrimination against older employees in interview settings. This study was carried out with a sample of 61 managers. Prior to !Ylaking selection decisions about a young applicant (25 years old) or an older applicant (48 years old), subjects read an article which contained either age-related information or neutral information. The age-related information was designed to mitigate against age bias. Videotaped job interviews were then viewed by the subjects who were required to make job performance evaluations and hire decisions about the applicant. Evidence of ageism against the old applicant was found. However as predicted, managers exposed to the age-related information gave significantly more favourable evaluations to the old applicant and were more willing to hire him than the young applicant. The second study addressed a very current research concern - the generalisability of findings in selection research using student samples to managerial samples. The same methodology was repeated with a sample of 119 undergraduate students. The results showed significant differences in students' selection decisions. The students exposed to age-related information gave more favourable ratings to the young applicant, and were not willing to hire the old applicant. The implications of these results are discussed.

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  • Social networks, identity and contexts : a narrative ethnography of a group of College English (CE) teachers’ social learning process amid the research discourse.

    Zeng, Wei (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research is a narrative ethnography about a group of College English (CE) teachers working at a university in China. As one of them, I, together with my CE colleagues, lived and told our stories of dealing with the increasing research demand from the workplace. I sought to explore how our workplace mediated the social process of our learning during educational change. The research is conceptualized within the theoretical framework of community of practice and draws on social network perspective. It also adopts a poststructuralist perspective to present the dynamic socio-cultural process of how these teachers experienced and made meaning of various discourses about their teaching, researching and personal lives. The discourses from the workplace, the social context and teachers themselves make these CE teachers’ social networks and identities a site of ambivalence and struggles. Entrenched in a lower-status department, CE teachers struggled with various meanings of knowledge: the officially-valued research, the teaching-research, linguistics/western literature research, non-linguistics/western literature research, quantitative research and qualitative research. They also grappled with competing duties from both the workplace and the family. The research delves into CE teachers’ lived experiences, offering implications for enhancing CE teachers’ learning as well as international understanding of academics who might experience similar educational change. Finally, the study contributes to advancement of social learning theories, in particular, the theory of community of practice and social network theories.

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  • Family language policy in refugee-background communities: Towards a model of language management and practices

    Revis, Melanie (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    As interest in the field of family language policy is burgeoning, an invitation has been issued to include more diverse families and language constellations. This article responds by presenting family language management data from Ethiopian and Colombian refugee families living in New Zealand. As part of the researcher’s ethnographic involvement in both communities, data was obtained through participant observations, interviews with parents and children, and recordings of naturally-occurring interactions between family members. Findings from both communities differ greatly: While many Ethiopian families used explicit management for their children to speak Amharic in the home, Colombian families tended to prefer laissez-faire policies as they did not direct their children’s language choice. Nevertheless, their children typically spoke Spanish, their heritage language. As a theoretical contribution, a model is developed to coherently present the caregivers' choice of language management and their children’s typical language practices. This model helps to uncover similarities and dissimilarities across families and communities. Since families typically moved through different management and practice constellations over time, the model also assists in identifying recurrent family language policy trajectories. The article concludes by drawing practical attention to the need and best timing for informing recent refugees about options and resources concerning intergenerational language transmission.

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  • Shake table test a structure retrofitted using 2-4 Direction Displacement Dependent (D3) viscous dampers

    Hazaveh NK; Rad AA; Rodgers GC; Chase JG; Pampanin S; Ma Q (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Many seismic codes are modified to represent increased hazard or performance expectations of structures. According to the new code, many structures require retrofit to meet these increase performance expectations. Fluid viscous dampers can add energy dissipation without requiring major structural modification. However, their addition can lead to substantial increases in the maximum base shear and column axial forces in non-linear structures. In practice, these increases in demand would likely require strengthening of the columns and the foundations, thus increasing cost and reducing the ease and potential impact of this approach. In contrast, the 2-4 configuration of a passive Direction and Displacement Dependent (D3) damper provides damping in only quadrants 2 and 4 of the force-displacement response plot, thus substantially reducing peak base shear loads compared to a conventional viscous damper. The paper looks at the seismic performance of a 1/2 scale, two storey steel frame building that is retrofitted with the passive 2-4 D3 damper subjected to uni-directional shake table testing. Performance in mitigating structural response and foundation demand are assessed by evaluating base shear, maximum drift and acceleration. The overall results show that simultaneous reductions in displacement, base-shear and acceleration demand are only available with the 2–4 D3 viscous device. This device is entirely passive, and provides unique retrofit opportunity that does not require strengthening of the columns and the foundations.

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  • Māori values, care and compassion in organisations: a research strategy

    Love TR (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    While significant attention has been given to theorising care and compassion in workplaces, much of the research on Māori (Indigenous New Zealand) values in organisations (MVO) and their relationship with well-being cannot be considered theory-work or theory-building. In this paper I offer a new research strategy for MVO research where a passion for expressing Māori voices in empirical descriptions has outperformed theorisation.

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  • Do Sheep Make Good Humans?

    Armstrong PC (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    My paper will begin with a (very) brief historical survey of the well-known tradition – that of primatology – by which Western science has used apes and monkeys to define and refine its understanding of Homo sapiens. I will then describe a less familiar, and interestingly different, tradition that takes the study of sheep as a means to draw reflect on the nature and culture of human beings.

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  • Mana, Māori (Indigenous New Zealand) and critical studies of management in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Love TR (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

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