14,817 results for UC Research Repository

  • Political participation during conflict: a case study of the conflict areas in Songkhla and Pattani provinces of Thailand

    Chantra, Thanikun (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis examines the relationship between conflict and violence in the Deep South of Thailand and the political participation of people in the conflict areas by focusing on both electoral and non-electoral modes of participation. In this thesis, we hypothesized that first, conflict leads to a greater desire for peaceful political participation. Second, people in a conflict zone are more likely to participate in politics in other forms, including electoral and non-electoral ways. Third, there is a relationship between level of violence and level of political participation: the same concerns that lead to violence also lead to participation; people’s experiences of the conflict and violence have an additional impact on their desire for political participation, thus, high levels of violence correlate with high levels of peaceful participation. Fourth, a weak civil society failing to promote popular interests and resist state domination will lead to more conflict. Finally, a strong state preventing demands and closing channels for peaceful political participation will lead to more conflict. In this thesis, we explore political participation through three channels; 1) political participation through elections which includes political participation of both voters and politicians in parliamentary, senate, and local elections, 2) political participation through the state which focuses on three main state actors, security officials, justice officials, and local authorities, and 3) political participation through civil society, examining five different groups of civil society actors, including the youth, women, business, religious leaders, and the media. Following this, the thesis draws a comparison among three different levels of conflict areas, which are non violence, low violence, and high violence conflict areas in This thesis examines the relationship between conflict and violence in the Deep South of Thailand and the political participation of people in the conflict areas by focusing on both electoral and non-electoral modes of participation. In this thesis, we hypothesized that first, conflict leads to a greater desire for peaceful political participation. Second, people in a conflict zone are more likely to participate in politics in other forms, including electoral and non-electoral ways. Third, there is a relationship between level of violence and level of political participation: the same concerns that lead to violence also lead to participation; people’s experiences of the conflict and violence have an additional impact on their desire for political participation, thus, high levels of violence correlate with high levels of peaceful participation. Fourth, a weak civil society failing to promote popular interests and resist state domination will lead to more conflict. Finally, a strong state preventing demands and closing channels for peaceful political participation will lead to more conflict. In this thesis, we explore political participation through three channels; 1) political participation through elections which includes political participation of both voters and politicians in parliamentary, senate, and local elections, 2) political participation through the state which focuses on three main state actors, security officials, justice officials, and local authorities, and 3) political participation through civil society, examining five different groups of civil society actors, including the youth, women, business, religious leaders, and the media. Following this, the thesis draws a comparison among three different levels of conflict areas, which are non violence, low violence, and high violence conflict areas in Pattani and Songkhla, in order to discover if there are any linkages between the levels of conflict in the Deep South and the level of political participation of people in the region. In this thesis, we see that conflict can be seen as a form of participation, albeit a violent form. The conflict and violence creates a greater desire for people to be more active in politics through peaceful means as they seek to reduce suffering from the insurgent violence. This study finds that people in the conflict areas of the Deep South are more likely to participate through many channels when they perceive incentives are high enough to overcome risks. The thesis reveals that the levels of violence and levels of some forms of political participation are correlated: the more frequent the violent incidents, the higher the level of voter turnout. The roles of civil society are also increasing in the Deep South, even though many CSO activities are controlled by the state. State control, through either funding or coercion, decreases meaningful participation and makes some participation with the state illegitimate, for many in the Deep South. When people realize that their participation is not free will, they may turn to violence as they think it is the only means to resist and freely express their opposing political views. However, other people participate, despite state control, because participation can be a useful tool for challenging and resisting the state, but in peaceful way.

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  • Investigating the evolution of mRNA : ncRNA avoidance in escherichia coli.

    Perry, Jasper J. (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    It is presumed that the levels of mRNA and protein should correlate relatively strongly however this correlation is often quite poor. Two main explanations have been invoked to explain this discrepancy, messenger RNA (mRNA) secondary structure and codon usage bias, however, these explanations only account for around 40% of the total variation in expression levels. More recently a new model has been proposed that explains more of the variation in mRNA and protein levels than either codon usage or mRNA secondary structure. The mRNA: ncRNA avoidance model, presents evidence that non-specific interactions between non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and mRNAs significantly impact the discrepancy between mRNA and protein abundances. The model suggests that these crosstalk interactions between mRNAs and ncRNAs impact levels of mRNA translation, consequently genes that are highly-expressed demonstrate avoidance of such interactions. Here I present a study that investigates how highly expressed mRNAs may have evolved to avoid unintentional interactions with the abundant ncRNAs in the cell. Synonymous variants of the araC gene of E. coli were designed for increased interaction with core ncRNAs. These alterations were predicted to lead to down regulation of the AraC protein and subsequently impact fitness. We hypothesised that evolution of avoidance could then be driven by creating a selective pressure for high expression of araC, such that the affinity of the designed araC mRNAs for ncRNAs would be lessened to increase translation levels. The findings here demonstrate that the alterations made to the araC variants, which are in line with the avoidance model, have an undetectable effect on fitness in E. coli. Furthering our understanding of how this phenomenon may have evolved has significant implications for the biology of RNA-RNA interaction.

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  • Safety outcomes associated with new employee classification : the impact of expectations and experience.

    Drysdale, Jessica (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Health and safety in New Zealand is an important issue in many aspects of organisational functioning, the intention of this research is to contribute to this field. This research focuses on new employees, and how their different experiences and safety expectations may lead to various safety outcomes. This study analysed 5 hypotheses to extract evidence to support differences between 4 new employee types. These employee types are classified as school leavers, career transition, career focused and occupational focused, which are predicted to differ in terms of previous workplace experience and safety expectations. The hypotheses focused on 5 important outcome variables. These were; speed of familiarization, perceived job risk and safety risk, met safety expectations, accident/injury frequency and safety communication frequency which were predicted to vary across the different new employee groups. Results showed partial support for hypotheses involving speed of familiarisation, met safety expectations and safety communication frequency. No considerable support was found for perceived job risk, safety risk and accident/injury frequency. Implications for organisations and induction processes are included in the discussion.

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  • A qualitative and quantitative examination of alternative silvicultural regimes in the South Canterbury foothills with reference to the evaluation of climatic factors that may affect these regimes

    Ledgard, David Robert (1982)

    Bachelors thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An investigation into the qualitative and quantitative aspects of alternative silvicultural regimes Pinus radiate (D. Don) was undertaken in the South Canterbury foothills. Data was collected from Geraldine State Forest for carrying out simulations on the Silvicultural Stand model (“SILMOD”), recently developed by the Radiata Pine Task Force. From the simulation, the potential of the various silvicultural regimes were then compared. In addition to examining the various silvicultural regimes, the effects of wind and snow on trees at Geraldine were also evaluated. Local data on the history of windthrow and snowfall were studied, and a more comprehensive analysis of trial C453 used to evaluate these effects. These studies indicated that the interim regime, designed to meet the Director-General’s 16.5 cm. D.O.S. criterion, was superior to the former Canterbury foothills regime in terms of both profitability and achievable wood quality. The use of 4 lift pruning also appeared to have considerable potential. The level of final crop stocking was found to have a significant effect on the profitability levels achieved. Using 200 stems/ha. Gave consistently higher returns than the 300 stems/ha. currently being used in Geraldine State Forest. However, this higher stocking appears to be necessary to prove an ‘insurance’ against loss by windthrow and snow damage within the forest.

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  • Provenance and porosity analysis of the Greymouth Basin, New Zealand.

    Steadman, Ryan David (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The coal and lacustrine deposits of the Greymouth Basin have been explored for their economic potential. However, the associated coarse clastic sediments have not been as thoroughly investigated. Thus, there is continuing uncertainty about the provenance of the sediments and tectonic setting of the basin. This study uses conglomerate clast counts, sandstone point counts and geochemical analyses of clasts to examine the provenance of the Paparoa Group. Results show a dramatic eastern vs western lithological difference with conglomerates primarily on the west side of the basin, sandstones on the east, and mudstones inter-fingering both. The clasts encountered were predominantly metasedimentary with granite, hornfels, and rare unusual volcanic clasts. Aplite was recorded in the lowermost conglomerates and faded out with the introduction of granitic clasts in the middle Paparoa Group. Trace element geochemistry on basaltic clasts in the basin shows a tholeiitic composition, a typical rift signature. Geochemistry analysis of the granites was inconsistent with either Rahu or Karamea Suite granites and best fits a new A-type granite, low barium (<5 to 80ppm) and Strontium (18 to 42 ppm), located somewhere offshore. The sandstone porosity was variable ranging from 1% to 37% with grainsize, location and stratigraphic position in the basin. The degree of weathering in the sandstones was also variable with feldspar alteration ranging from minor to major clays (5% to 30%). Provenance and Geochemistry analysis show the sediment sources of the basin changed throughout time with results showing two main sources, an eastern granitic source, likely Buckland granite and the western Greenland Group metasedimentary sources. This contradicts some previous interpretations. Clast counts also show evidence for the un-roofing of a granitic source with the presence of aplite clasts lower in the basin conglomerates replaced by granite clasts stratigraphically higher. The volcanic clasts are evidence of active volcanism in the area which could be attributed to the rift setting. Porosity in the sandstones was variable with some good hydrocarbon reservoir potential. The lack of trap and cap rock in the Greymouth Basin being an issue. The Takutai Basin offshore contains similar sediments and

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  • In Silico analysis of flow and dispersion in ordered porous media.

    Dolamore, Fabian (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The work herein investigates exciting new prospects for practical chromatographic systems which may be achieved using the rapidly evolving technology; three-dimensional printing. Previous studies in the literature have suggested that ordered chromatographic media can provide advantages over the traditional randomly packed column, an idea which is elaborated upon in this work. Numerical modelling coupled with high performance computing was used to investigate flow in ordered porous media via the Lattice Boltzmann method, to simulate the propagation and dispersion of solute species within these systems. Practical chromatographic metrics were derived from this model and used to contrast various media and analyse practical chromatographic phenomena. There are four distinct bodies of work presented in this thesis. The first illustrates the chromatographic performance of ordered packed beds when using several different particle shapes, in various structural configurations. This chapter also highlights the influence of flow tortuosity in ordered packings and how this variable can be used to estimate system performance. The second focus is “wall effects” in confined ordered packing and how this detrimental phenomenon can be mitigated using “embedded” column walls, a prospect made possible via three-dimensional printing. The penultimate chapter considers ordered monolithic structures, more specifically, triply periodic minimal surfaces (TMPS) and a range of manipulations which can be used to optimise chromatographic performance of these structures. The fourth chapter further develops the model to observe full chromatographic separations by defining a permeable stationary phase and including adsorption and desorption behaviour of the solute species in the presence of an eluent. This facilitated systematic studies of practical chromatographic variables and laid the foundations for future work, using this model.

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  • ICT in rural primary schools in Nepal : context and teachers’ experiences.

    Maski Rana, Karna Bahadur (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis investigates and reports aspects of Nepal’s progress in implementing ICT in education in rural primary schools. It examines the government’s policy for ICT in education and the context in which it needs to be translated into practice. That context includes the development of successive policies and curriculum plans, the aspirational goals for ICT in education, the international literature about ICT that influences policy, the education system of Nepal, the varying ways teachers are appointed and trained, the role of NGOs in providing infrastructures and training, characteristics and resources of the rural context and the resources within rural schools and communities. It also includes the impact of the devastating 2015 earthquake on rural life generally, and on schools’ capacity to teach with ICT in particular. Central to the study are the experiences and perceptions of sixteen rural primary teachers from five schools across Nepal. The study foregrounds their practices of using ICT and their understanding of the uses of ICT. It also examines their experiences of training to use ICT, the resources they have available and how they use them, and the impact of the earthquake on their lives and work. In addition, it reports their reflections about the wider aspects of educational development, appointment of teachers and teacher training. The study investigates the development of Nepal’s ICT education policy and its connection with international ICT development. It examines how the Government of Nepal works to integrate ICT in education and the potential risks that are involved in the current strategy. It also reports a great gap between Nepal’s current practices of ICT in rural primary schools and western development of ICT in educational practices. This is a qualitative case study based on interpretive design. A sociocultural approach prompted investigation of the context and the gathering of thick data through interviews, open conversations with the participants, observation of participants’ teaching activities with digital technology and the review of relevant policies, reports and other archived documents, open publications and websites.

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  • Haptic contact in immersive 360° cinematic environment.

    Sasikumar, Prasanth (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    We perceive the environment around us using the five senses that are categorized as visual, auditory, haptic, olfactory and gustatory. A considerable amount of work has been done in the audio-visual domain compared to the rest. With new head-mounted displays in the consumer market, immersive VR is becoming ubiquitous and by adding additional sensory feedback, we aim to enhance the user experience and increase presence in Virtual Environments. There has been previous research on haptic interfaces. This thesis explored how haptic feedback in the form of wearable feedback (vest based) and non-wearable (ground vibrations and wind simulations) interfaces influences the feeling of presence in 360° cinematic environments. Prototypes of wearable and non-wearable interfaces were designed as part of a simulation system to experience a 360° cinematic experience with feedback. A user study was carried out to investigate how the sense of presence varies due to the inclusion of haptic feedback. The study also compared wearable and non-wearable interfaces in terms of sense of presence. From the analysis of the results, though we were not able to find any significant difference in the sense of presence between wearable and non-wearable feedback, a significant improvement in sense of presence, realism, involvement and overall immersion was observed with the inclusion of haptic feedback to the 360° cinematic environment.

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  • Consumers' attitudes and behaviours toward the sponsors of a football club.

    Balcazar Cruz, Rodrigo Sebastian (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis aims to investigate whether people’s attitudes and behaviours toward certain types of commercial brands change when these, become a sponsoring partner of a well-known international football club. Specifically, this thesis uses the context of the football industry to examine whether sponsoring a football team has any effect on individuals’ attitudes toward the sponsors and purchase intentions of commercial brands. A full-factorial design experiment is the approach chosen for this research. The research will employ an experiment 4x2 between subjects, full factorial design to test what effect different sponsors’ brands such as functional, innovative, high and low involvement with and/or without an associated to a football club have on individuals’ attitudes, behaviours and purchase intentions toward the commercial brands. Further, in the experiment participants were exposed to one of the eight possible conditions, which were presented as modified print advertisements. A total of 240 responses were collected through online convenience sampling on social platforms including Facebook, Pollpool and SurveyCircle. Factorial ANCOVA and linear regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesised effects. The results indicated that the type of sponsor does not affect attitude toward the sponsor and purchase intentions. It is also showed that attachment to a club has a significant effect on attitude toward the sponsor. Moreover, being associated with a football club affects the consumers’ purchase intentions. Both theoretically and practical implications of these findings, alongside directions for future research, are discussed.

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  • The perspectives of physiotherapists in Canterbury on the use of electronic health records.

    Chen, Cheng-Wei (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The preferential use of electronic health records (EHRs) over other types of health record systems within healthcare settings in the 21st century is well documented (Buyl & Nyssen, 2009; Hailey, Yu, & Munyisia, 2014; Latha, Murthy, Sunitha, 2012; Menachemi & Collum, 2011; Walker & Clendon, 2016); however, there is a lack of research on the perspectives of EHR end-users, such as physiotherapists, towards EHRs, especially in New Zealand. The literature review provided insight on the importance of identifying the many perspectives that different end-user health professionals have towards the implementation and use of EHRs. Factors that will ultimately lead to the success of the New Zealand Government’s plan to introduce a national EHR system consistent with the Digital Health 2020 strategic plan are identifying what health professionals perceive as advantageous and disadvantageous in EHR use, designing an EHR with the perspectives of health professionals in mind, and involving the many health professions during EHR implementation processes. The objective of this study was to explore the perspectives of the Canterbury-based physiotherapists on the implementation and use of EHRs. The study also investigated other potential factors including age, awareness of the Digital Health 2020 strategic plan, computer usage, educational background, and the sector of healthcare that physiotherapists are working in that may influence their perspectives towards EHRs.

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  • Graphical security modelling and assessment for the internet of things.

    Ge, Mengmeng

    Thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is enabling innovative applications in various domains and offering convenience in different aspects of people’s life. Characterised by the constrained resources, heterogeneous techniques and wide-scale structure, the IoT introduces a variety of known and unknown vulnerabilities that can be exploited by the attackers to break into the systems to conduct malicious activities (e.g., steal sensitive data, compromise the IoT devices). Therefore, protecting the IoT to defend against the potential attacks is of critical importance. The motivation of the thesis lies within the field of the security modelling and assessment for the IoT to mitigate the impact of potential attacks. Current research on the IoT security modelling is very limited due to the pioneering features of the IoT. Besides, there is no previous work on constructing a formal graphical security model (e.g., Attack Graphs (AGs) [127], Attack Trees (ATs) [122]) for the IoT. Additionally, traditional defence mechanisms may not work well in securing the IoT due to the existence of the forever-day vulnerabilities (i.e., non-patchable vulnerabilities) in the IoT devices. Lastly, there lacks an approach that can combine different defence mechanisms in an optimal way to increase the security of the IoT at a reasonable cost. In order to address the above security issues, we have three goals in the thesis, which are: (i) to develop the security assessment framework for the IoT that can model and assess the security of the IoT; (ii) to develop the proactive defence mechanisms to address the security issues arising from the non-patchable vulnerabilities in the IoT devices; and (iii) to develop an approach to optimise the combinations of different defence mechanisms to improve the security of the IoT under the budget constraint. To achieve goal (i), we propose a framework for security modelling and assessment of the IoT, named the security assessment framework for the IoT. The driving idea behind the framework is to mitigate the impact of potential attacks in the IoT and increase the IoT security level via the graphical security model along with the evaluation metrics. Generally, the framework consists of five phases: 1) data processing, 2) security model generation, 3) security visualization, 4) security analysis, and 5) model updates. By using the framework, we can identify potential attack paths in the IoT, analyse the security of the IoT using the well-defined security metrics, and assess the effectiveness of different defence mechanisms. Three different IoT deployment scenarios are used to evaluate the framework, which are the smart home, wearable healthcare monitoring and environment monitoring. The analysis results show the capabilities of the proposed framework for capturing potential attack paths in both small-scale and large-scale IoT networks and assessing the effectiveness of the device-centric and network-level defence mechanisms on mitigating the impact of attacks. To achieve goal (ii), we propose to change the attack surface of the IoT to increase the attack effort with the existence of the non-patchable vulnerabilities in the IoT devices. With the support of software-defined networking (SDN), we develop two proactive defence mechanisms that reconfigure the network topology of the IoT. We implement the reconfiguration algorithms and integrate them with the security assessment framework. We analyse how the security and performance change when the proposed mechanisms are deployed through simulations. The results show our proactive defence mechanisms in the SD-IoT effectively increase the attack effort, while maintaining the performance in terms of the average shortest path length. with three evaluation metrics to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed defence mechanisms. We apply the multi-objective genetic algorithm to compute the Pareto optimal deployments of the defence mechanisms to maximise the security and minimise the deployment cost. We present a case study to show the feasibility of the proposed approach and to provide the defenders with various ways to choose the optimal deployments of the defence mechanisms for the IoT. We also compare the runtime and accuracy of the genetic algorithm against the exhaustive search algorithm. The results show that the genetic algorithm is much more efficient to compute a good spread of the deployments compared with the exhaustive search algorithm when the scale of the IoT increases. In summary, the contributions of the thesis are: (1) the development of the security assessment framework for the IoT to improve the security of the IoT and to mitigate the impact of potential attacks; (2) the evaluation of the framework via various use cases; (3) the development of the defence mechanisms and reconfiguration algorithms that change the attack surface of the IoT under the support of SDN to increase the security of the IoT with the non-patchable vulnerabilities; (4) the development of the approach to compute the optimal deployments of the defence mechanisms for the IoT under the budget constraint.

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  • Engineering biodegradable materials with bio-inspired topographies.

    Hashemi, Azadeh (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Attachment, proliferation and gene expression of anchorage-dependant cells can be influenced by their surroundings, extra-cellular matrix, and the chemistry and morphology of the substrate they adhere to. In-vitro cells are cultured on flat surfaces in a culture flask or a petri dish. In-vivo, they grow next to other cells and tissues, and they are influenced by them and their extra-cellular matrices. In order to study cells in the laboratory, one main focus has been to mimic the natural environment for the cells, as much as possible. One way to increase the similarities between the in-vitro environment and in-vivo, is to replicate micro- and nanoscale surface features or a 3D imprint of cells onto the cell-culture substrates. This work investigates the fabrication of protein-based biodegradable films as cell-culture substrates, replicated with micro- and nanoscale regular surface features and imprints of cells. Optimisation of these films, which are made of casein (the main protein of cow’s skimmed milk), has also been studied to find the best films according to their flexibility, stability, biocompatibility and the highest obtainable resolution of imprints. The quality of resolution of imprints was tested via atomic force microscopy (AFM) 3D imaging and it was seen that the resolution of features replicated on casein films was closely comparable to the original fixed cells. Casein is water soluble, thus non cross-linked casein films would dissolve in cell- culture media within a few hours. As a result, in order to use the patterned films as cell-culture substrates, they need to be cross-linked. Cross-linking of casein films with surface patterns, increases their degradation time, thus giving cells enough time to adhere to the films and grow into layers of cells, as directed by the pat- terns, before the films start to degrade. The optimisation process also included cross-linking of the films using different cross-linking reagents and methods. Two and a half-dimensional regular features (2D geometric shapes with a constant depth for all features) were transferred onto casein films using photolithography and soft- lithography. Three-dimensional topography of cellular microenvironments were also replicated onto casein films using a modified bioimprinting method. For both regu- lar features and bioimprints, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) moulds, made via soft- lithography, were used as the intermediate mould for liquid-casting casein on, and transferring the features onto casein. Using liquid-casting casein on PDMS moulds in the replication process, the res- olution of features on casein films was poor, compared to the original features on photoresist, the original cells, and the imprints on PDMS. PDMS is hydrophobic by nature and despite of plasma treatment, it only remained hydrophilic for a short period of time. Hence casein solution, being water-based, could not wet the surface well enough and get completely into the micro- and nanoscale details on PDMS. As a result, the fabrication process was optimized, and PDMS moulds were treated via oxygen plasma and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), prior to liquid-casting of casein. PVP is a water-soluble hydrophilic polymer, which binds to the surface of PDMS and renders it hydrophilic for a much longer period of time. Addition of this step to the replication process, helped with casein solution filling the details on PDMS better. This led to high resolution patterns on the final casein films. Optical images and AFM images were taken of regular features and bioimprints in order to compare the features at different stages of replication. It was found that casein films made of 15%(w/w) casein in 0.2%(w/v) NaOH solution, mixed with 15% (w/w) glycerol as plasticizer, fitted best within the scope of this work. These films were cross-linked by mixing the casein solution with transglutaminase (TG) prior to liquid-casting on PDMS moulds. Concentration of TG in the solution was 10 U per gram of protein. These films were patterned with regular features and bioimprints, and patterned films were successfully used as cell-culture substrates. The results reported in this thesis provide a foundation for potential research and commercial applications for biodegradable cell-culture substrates or implants with surface features.

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  • Keeping up with young people and a changing counselling environment : exploring the use of between session text messages to support face-to-face counselling.

    Gribbin, George (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Solution focused brief therapy [SFBT] is a strengths-based, future focused, goal oriented therapy that originated in the United States (De Jong & Berg, 2012). There is considerable research that demonstrates the effectiveness of the therapy’s main tenets; co-construction of client-led directions, amplification of positive change and instances of success (Nelson, Welsh, Trup, & Greenberg, 2011). Some research highlights the helpfulness of specific SFBT techniques such as miracle question (Jones-Smith, 2011), exceptions (Henson, 2015) and between session tasks (Jones-Smith, 2011). Most research, however, uses standard writing and talking as data. Less common is the inclusion of electronic platforms for conducting SFBT. This research primarily focuses on between session tasks by exploring whether the use of text messages can support a client to complete such tasks. Four New Zealand co-educational high school students from Year 11 to Year 13 volunteered to attend four counselling sessions which were recorded on a Dictaphone and transcribed. At the end of each session the clients and the counsellor co-constructed text messages that the counsellor would send to them between sessions. Throughout the research, the text messages were examined to determine whether they supported SFBT principles and transcripts of participants’ feedback about the usefulness of the text messages were analysed thematically. The main findings were that using text messages fits very well with the intention of SFBT to promote client autonomy. Furthermore, co-construction of text messages enabled the counsellor to use appropriate client language when contacting the client between sessions. Both findings suggest the use of text messages when working with high school clients enables them to engage with counselling and focus on their own goals between sessions. This research adds to the literature on; Solution Focused Brief Therapy in high school settings, New Zealand specific Solution Focused Brief Therapy research and combining technology with face-to-face counselling practice.

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  • The effect of water infrastructure development on flow regimes and sedimentation in the Mekong floodplains.

    Dang, Duc Thanh (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Mekong floodplains and delta play an important role in poverty and hunger alleviation in Vietnam and Cambodia. Their high agricultural and ecological productivity are largely due to the natural hydrological regime and rich sediment of the Mekong River. However, regional demand for electricity is leading to the development of over 120 upstream hydropower dams, which may alter the hydrology of the floodplains and delta. Within the floodplains, extensive delta-based flood protection systems, in the form of dykes, are being constructed to increase agricultural production in certain parts of the delta, but which can have negative effects on other parts of the delta. Rising sea levels due to climate change and ongoing land subsidence will exasperate flooding in unprotected regions. The main aim of this study is, thus, to investigate the effect of water infrastructure development (both dams and dykes), sea level rise and land subsidence on the floodplains‟ hydrology and sedimentation. This goal was implemented by three methods: historical data analysis, remote sensing data analysis and numerical modelling. In terms of hydrology, measured data analysis showed that the impact of hydropower dams was currently limited to the upper part of the Mekong floodplains (the Cambodian Lowlands). Flood prevention in the upper Vietnamese delta is the main driver of hydrological regime alterations. Dykes significantly reduce flooding areas and increase rising and falling rates of water levels in the middle floodplain. In the lower part of the floodplains (the middle Vietnamese delta), hydrology is not only influenced by the downstream movement of water due to upstream flood prevention systems but also sea level rise and land subsidence. Results from modelling water infrastructure development, sea level rise and land subsidence scenarios indicated that the effect of each challenge on hydrology is dependent on characteristics of each region. In the future, full development of hydropower dams will increase dry season water levels by 23%, but wet season water levels will only change by slightly over 1% in the upper floodplains (river-dominated region). Flood prevention systems will significantly change water storage capacity and water transfer capacity in the floodplains, causing substantial regional changes in flood patterns. Sea level rise and land subsidence will result in the inundation of a vast region of the Vietnamese coast (tidal region). In terms of sedimentation, remote sensing data analysis suggested that flood protection systems reduced flooding areas over the period from 2007 to now, and high dykes – a component of flood prevention systems - likely disconnect the protected areas with the rest of the floodplains and prevent sediment from moving into fields. Although semi-dykes reduced the amount of sediment deposition in the rising stage of the flood season, they had no effect on sediment settlement in later stages. Two-dimentional hydrodynamic modelling proved that all the mentioned challenges would influence negatively on sediment deposition in the floodplains. The development of hydropower dams would cause significant reduction in sediment concentration in water, resulting in the declining of sediment settlement throughout the floodplains. Water infrastructure development would propagete flooding and also shift sediment deposition downstream and neighbouring regions. Sea level rise and land subsidence would increase tidal dynamics in the inland delta; thus, more sediment would be washed out to the ocean. In the long term, sediment starvation is likely to translate into lower agricultural production; consequently, farmers will have to employ more artificial fertilizers which increase the risk of environmental pollution. Regional wide transboundary water resource use policies are needed to address future changes in the balance among agricultural productivity, energy generation and the natural environment. More studies on operational optimization to maximize protection areas and the amount of sediment moving into fields are needed to ensure the sustainable development of the region.

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  • RadioQuake: Getting back 'on air' after the Christchurch earthquakes

    Joyce Z (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Local independent radio stations in Christchurch, New Zealand, had their operations severely disrupted by major earthquakes in September 2010 and February 2011. This article examines the experiences of three radio stations that were shut out of their central city premises by the cordon drawn around the city after the 22 February quake. One of the stations continued broadcasting automatically, while the others were unable to fully get back on air for several weeks afterwards. All of the stations had to manage access to workspaces, the emotional needs of staff and volunteers, the technical ability to broadcast, and the need to adapt content appropriately when back on air. For the locally based radio managers decisions had to be made about the future of the stations in a time of significant emotional, physical, and geological upheaval. The article explores how these radio stations were disrupted by the earthquake, and how they returned to air through new combinations and interconnections of people, workspace, technology, content and transmission.

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  • Cofactor Tail Length Modulates Catalysis of Bacterial F420-Dependent Oxidoreductases

    Ney B; Carere CR; Sparling R; Jirapanjawat T; Stott MB; Jackson CJ; Oakeschott JG; Warden AC; Greening C (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    F420 is a microbial cofactor that mediates a wide range of physiologically important and industrially relevant redox reactions, including in methanogenesis and tetracycline biosynthesis. This deazaflavin comprises a redox-active isoalloxazine headgroup conjugated to a lactyloligoglutamyl tail. Here we studied the catalytic significance of the oligoglutamate chain, which differs in length between bacteria and archaea. We purified short-chain F420 (two glutamates) from a methanogen isolate and long-chain F420 (five to eight glutamates) from a recombinant mycobacterium, confirming their different chain lengths by HPLC and LC/MS analysis. F420 purified from both sources was catalytically compatible with purified enzymes from the three major bacterial families of F420-dependent oxidoreductases. However, long-chain F420 bound to these enzymes with a six- to ten-fold higher affinity than short-chain F420. The cofactor side chain also significantly modulated the kinetics of the enzymes, with long-chain F420 increasing the substrate affinity (lower Km) but reducing the turnover rate (lower kcat) of the enzymes. Molecular dynamics simulations and comparative structural analysis suggest that the oligoglutamate chain of F420 makes dynamic electrostatic interactions with conserved surface residues of the oxidoreductases while the headgroup binds the catalytic site. In conjunction with the kinetic data, this suggests that electrostatic interactions made by the oligoglutamate tail result in higher-affinity, lower-turnover catalysis. Physiologically, we propose that bacteria have selected for long-chain F420 to better control cellular redox reactions despite tradeoffs in catalytic rate. Conversely, this suggests that industrial use of shorter-length F420 will greatly increase the rates of bioremediation and biocatalysis processes relying on purified F420-dependent oxidoreductases.

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  • Impending Doom: The Loss of Diversification before a Crisis

    Rea WS; Yang L; Rea A (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    We present four methods of assessing the diversification potential within a stock market, and two of these are based on principal component analysis. They were applied to the Australian stock exchange for the years 2000 to 2014 and all show a consistent picture. The potential for diversification declined almost monotonically in the three years prior to the 2008 financial crisis, leaving investors poorly diversified at the onset of the Global Financial Crisis. On one of the four measures, the diversification potential declined even further in the 2011 European debt crisis and the American credit downgrade.

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  • The nature of experience and learning for Japanese girls in a high school basketball club

    Light RL; Yasaki W (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    This article draws on a study that inquires into what keeps girls aged 13-16 years in a high school basketball club in Japan with a focus on how the nature of their experience is shaped by socio-cultural and institutional context. The influence of context is of particular importance in small-scale, close-focus studies such as the study drawn on in this article and is emphasized due to the way in which the context is culturally distinct from Western settings. While the findings support those of some other studies on adolescent girls participation in sport they identify the influence of the institutional culture of schools and bukatsudō (clubs). Located within the larger Japanese cultural context on the nature of experience in school basketball and the learning emerging from it to identify the implicit yet powerful influence of the cultural learning that underpins Japanese education.

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  • Genetic diversity and structure in the Philippine Rafflesia lagascae complex (Rafflesiaceae) inform its taxonomic delimitation and conservation

    Pelser PB; Nickrent DL; Gemmill CEC; Barcelona JF (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Rafflesia lagascaeis a rare endo-holoparasitic species with a disjunct distribution on Luzon Island. It is morphologically very similar to R. manillana from nearby Samar. This study aims to contribute to the taxonomy and conservation of R. lagascae and R. manillana (i.e. the R. lagascae complex) by resolving their patterns of genetic diversity and structure. The results of analyses of a microsatellite data set indicate that despite their frequently extremely small sizes and geographic isolation, Rafflesia populations display moderate genetic diversity and do not show evidence of pronounced inbreeding. Most populations appear to have limited gene flow among them. Patterns of genetic diversity of staminate and pistillate Rafflesia flowers growing on the same Tetrastigma host plants indicate that the R. lagascae complex is monoecious and that host plants are regularly infected by multiple Rafflesia plants. PCoA and Bayesian cluster analyses show that the complex is composed of three genetically isolated taxa. One of these constitutes R. manillana, supporting the morphology-based hypothesis that it is taxonomically distinct from R. lagascae. The second taxon in this complex is composed of a morphologically cryptic R. lagascae population from Mt. Labo, which is genetically distinct from all remaining R. lagascae populations that were studied and that form the third taxon. We recommend that these three taxa are managed as different conservation entities.

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  • A Transitional Imaginary: Space, Network and Memory in Christchurch

    Ballard S; Benson T; Carter R; Corballis T; Joyce Z; Moore H; Priest J; Smith V (2015)

    Authored Books
    University of Canterbury Library

    A Transitional Imaginary: Space, Network and Memory in Christchurch is the outcome and the record of a particular event: the coming together of eight artists and writers in Ōtautahi Christchurch in November 2015, with the ambitious aim to write a book collaboratively over five days. The collaborative process followed the generative ‘book sprint’ method founded by our facilitator for the event, Adam Hyde, who has long been immersed in digital practices in Aotearoa. A book sprint prioritises the collective voice of the participants and reflects the ideas and understandings that are produced at the time in which the book was written, in a plurality of perspectives. Over one hundred books have been completed using the sprint methodology, covering subjects from software documentation to reflections on collaboration and fiction. We chose to approach writing about Ōtautahi Christchurch through this collaborative process in order to reflect the complexity of the post-quake city and the multiple paths to understanding it. The city has itself been a space of intensive collaboration in the post-disaster period. A Transitional Imaginary is a raw and immediate record, as much felt expression as argued thesis. In many ways the process of writing had the character of endurance performance art. The process worked by honouring the different backgrounds of the participants, allowing that dialogue and intensity could be generative of different forms of text, creating a knowledge that eschews a position of authority, working instead to activate whatever anecdotes, opinions, resources and experiences are brought into discussion. This method enables a dynamic of voices that merge here, separate there and interrupt elsewhere again. As in the contested process of rebuilding and reimagining Christchurch itself, the dissonance and counterpoint of writing reflects the form of conversation itself. This book incorporates conflict, agreement and the activation of new ideas through cross-fertilisation to produce a new reading of the city and its transition. The transitional has been given a specific meaning in Christchurch. It is a product of local theorising that encompasses the need for new modes of action in a city that has been substantially demolished (Bennett & Parker, 2012). Transitional projects, such as those created by Gap Filler, take advantage of the physical and social spaces created by the earthquake through activating these as propositions for new ways of being in the city. The transitional is in motion, looking towards the future. A Transitional Imaginary explores the transitional as a way of thinking and how we understand the city through art practices, including the digital and in writing.

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