13,696 results for Masters

  • It's Your Shout! A New Way of Measuring Use Wear on Glass Bottles

    Platts, Maeve (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    It was not until 1922 that glass manufacturing was available in New Zealand and prior to this, glass bottles were considered valuable and useful objects. This lack of glass encouraged reuse. Reuse has implications for consumption analyses and the interpretation of bottle glass assemblages but to date there has been no systematic method of documenting this. The following research examines if it is possible to quantify evidence of wear on glass bottles in a way that can be applied to archaeological specimens. With the presumption that continued use of a bottle will leave physical evidence, a scale was produced for measuring the use wear on glass bottles. The scale was then employed on five different sites located in Christchurch. These sites consisted of a warehouse/brewery, a pub/inn, a bottle exchange and two domestic sites. The aim was to discover if it was possible to measure use wear on glass bottles and to see if there was any variation in the extent of use wear and, therefore reuse, within these sites and among different bottle types. This enabled the results to be used to contribute to a broader interpretation of the social life of Victorian Christchurch with an emphasis on the drinking culture of the time.

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  • Readability of hearing-related information on the Internet in the German language

    Toth, Bernadett (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Purpose: To describe the readability of hearing-related information on the Internet in the German language and compare the readability between webpage origins (by country), type of organisation (i.e., government, non-profit, and commercial), and with and without Health on the Net Foundation (HONcode) certification. Method: Hearing-related search terms were identified using native German-speaking informants. The three keywords, Schwerhörigkeit [hard of hearing], Hörtest [hearing test], and Hörgerät [hearing aid], were checked with Google Trends and then entered into five country code top-level domain (ccTLD) versions of the Google search engine (Google.de; Google.at; Google.ch; Google.li; and Google.hu). The first 10 retrieved webpages, that matched the inclusion criteria, were documented for each key word along with their webpage origins, type of organisation, date of last update, and HONcode certification. After removing duplicates, from the total of 150 webpages, 39 webpages remained from four ccTLDs. These webpages were analysed for readability using the Läsbarhetsindex 1 (LIX 1) [readability index 1], Läsbarhetsindex 2 - German technical literature (LIX 2) [readability index 2]; Quadratwurzelverfahren (Qu) [square root process], Rate index 1 (RIX 1), and Rate index 2 - German non-fiction (RIX 2); and the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook 1 (SMOG 1) readability formulas (RFs) provided by the Readability Studio software 2012.1 that generated the reading grade levels (RGLs). Descriptive statistics were computed to describe the readability of hearing-related information on the Internet in the German language, and any differences between readability formulas. Univariate and non-parametric ANOVA were used to determine whether there are significant differences in hearing-related information between webpages with, and without, HONcode certification. Results: The different RFs consistently showed that readability levels for the assessed webpages exceeded the recommended 6th RGL. All webpages analysed in this study had a mean RGL of 12 which was not significantly different based on location and type of organisation. Seventy-seven percent of the webpages were of commercial origin and 23% nonprofit. No government webpages were retrieved by the ccTLDs. The date of last update on 67% of the webpages was not documented. The location of organisation for most webpages was in Germany. Eighty-two percent of the assessed webpages did not have HONcode certification but, most of the webpages that did have HONcode certification were of commercial origin. RGLs did not significantly differ based on HONcode certification. Conclusion: The readability of hearing-related information on the Internet in the German language is above the 12th grade level, that is, readers need on average 12 years of education to be able to comprehend the information: however, the limitations of the different RFs, and the software used for the analysis, need to be kept in mind when interpreting results because they can artificially influence the RGL results. Due to the increasing number of people who seek health information online, further studies are needed to investigate whether the online health information in the German language informs or misinforms adults with hearing impairment (HI). The clinical implications of poor readability for audiologists and other stakeholders are discussed.

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  • Experimental investigation of a zeotropic working fluid and working fluid filling factor on system performance in a small-scale ORC

    Wijninckx, Richard (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems are capable of utilising low-enthalpy heat sources to generate power. For the performance engineering of ORC systems, it is important to understand process parameters and component behaviour. To maximise performance, modelling of the plant thermodynamics must be coupled with data analysis to develop diagnostic procedures, find optimal operating points, and diagnose problems to schedule the most cost effective maintenance. An existing ORC system at the University of Canterbury has been upgraded from a previous iteration to assist in furthering our knowledge of ORC system design and construction. This paper presents experimental results from running a 1 kW ORC system using HFC-M1 refrigerant, a zeotropic mixture of R245fa and R365mfc, as the working fluid under a wide range of operating conditions. Hot exhaust combustion products from a 30kW CapstoneTM Gas Turbine are used as the heat source, and heat is transferred via a thermal oil loop to the working fluid through a plate heat exchanger. A scroll expander magnetically coupled to an AC generator is used for work extraction and energy conversion. Trials focused on testing the full range of performance, and investigated the effect of a zeotropic working fluid, and the influence of varying the working fluid liquid level on system performance. Trials were prematurely ended by bearing failure in the ORC scroll expander. However, analysis of the results from additional tests suggest the working fluid charge in the system influences operation, corroborating findings in literature. While inconclusive, these initial results support the need for further testing the effect of the DVR in a fully functioning system. A comparative study was performed between the system actual performance and the theoretical performance to evaluate the degree of impact of the operational issues on the system performance. The unit was disassembled to evaluate the component compatibility and assess functionality over the operation. It transpired the system mass was not conserved during the operation due to leakage, contributing to the overall deterioration in system performance over time. It is concluded the zeotropic mixture was chemically incompatible with system components leading to system failure. Critiques of components and working fluid, derived from experiences in operating the system, coupled with general trends produced by the results, provide recommendations for the design and testing of future small-scale ORC systems.

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  • Crossroads: commemorative names in East Berlin, 1990–2010

    Vogel, Gary (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The memorial landscape has been a focal point in recent studies concentrating on postsocialist Central and Eastern Europe. This thesis contributes to this field by examining the names, naming, and renaming of former German Democratic Republic (GDR) streets, squares, and parks in East Berlin between 1990 and 2010. Political aspirations to influence Germany’s national memory and identity have been overtly present in the alteration of East Berlin’s memorial landscape. Contrasting narratives in the cityscape emerged as each political party –Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS), and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD)– assumed authority in the process of naming and renaming. While the political parties had overt control in the process, these debates over commemorative names was also taken up by and affected the lives of ordinary citizens. This thesis applies Owen Dwyer and Derek Alderman’s holistic approach to reading Mitte and Prenzlauer Berg’s landscape to analyse how inherited socialist dedications were re-interpreted (text), debated (arena), and protested (performance). A number of case studies in two East Berlin districts, Mitte and Prenzlauer Berg, highlight the competing versions of the past that emerged after the demise of the GDR. Mitte became a locus of contention in the battle over commemorative naming because the district was the political centre of a new German democracy. Prenzlauer Berg, a neighbouring district of Mitte, underwent similar disputes over its inherited GDR commemorative names but had very different outcomes. The aim of such a comparative study is to exemplify the power struggles surrounding commemorative names and how political parties and ordinary citizens use them to claim the right to retell the past.

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  • Measurement of patient anxiety in MRI - comparing VR simulation to a questionnaire.

    Figg, Helen (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely used, expensive procedure to obtain detailed images of the human body for diagnosis of many medical conditions. The quality of the images is significantly affected by movement of the patient, with some images even being rendered unsuitable for use. This is important because of the substantial cost involved in use of the scanner and clinical support of the patient. To minimize the risk of anxious movement causing a failed scan, some patients are sedated using medicine, however it may be that this is sometimes unnecessary. Only those who undergo an MRI without sedation first, will know if sedation was required, incurring significant cost. This master thesis project investigates a new low-cost technology option, the use of a fully immersive virtual reality (VR) simulation of the medical procedure itself as a means to estimate patient response. A prototype is developed and tested in a user study, first in the lab with volunteers, and then with MRI hospital staff on site. Once refined, the virtual reality simulation is offered to patients immediately prior to their scheduled MRI scan. Patient anxiety levels are recorded throughout the VR and MRI procedure to gain a clearer understanding of stress profiles of individual patients. The main question is whether VR is useful in predicting anxiety of patients during MRI. Results showed that there was a strong correlation between patient anxiety in VR and in MRI but also, if VR were removed a strong correlation existed between before MRI and during MRI. Both significantly predicted average anxiety during MRI, with VR accounting for 71.4% of anxiety during MRI of which 58.8% could be predicted by using anxiety before any scan. The main effect of exposure showed that there was no statistically significant difference in anxiety level between those who had VR and those who did not. The main effect of stage showed there was no statistically significant difference between anxiety level at the different time points of the scan. Overall anxiety level data showed no statistically significant interaction.

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  • Dynamic inventions

    Schipper, Alexander

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Dynamic Inventions is a practice-based art project about identity. It manifests itself via reflexive video installations that address its questions and concerns by immersing them in the dynamic of my exploratory process as I work to unfold my own identity. It is through this reflexive art-making process that I examine the terms of my question: What might constitute identity? That is, how does identity relate to certain properties or qualities and how might these qualities be essential to identity, and how might they be revealed or represented through art? What the project reveals is that if the subject of investigation is living, growing and continually changing, in part through conducting this project, identity then is not fixed nor is it located in some essential quality, but is contingent, complex, relational and in continual change. Furthermore, a conception of identity is as much a perception from outside as it is a conception from within the subject. What started as an investigation of identity has shifted to being a project about identity that is a process of becoming-being. This process is life-long, so the question of determining identity becomes inappropriate, and redundant. What remains is the question, How am I becoming me?

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  • Health and Bread Intervention Trials (HABIT): Is Nutrient-Rich Bread an Effective Way of Promoting Cognitive Functioning?

    Naldoza Drake, Phoebe (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Growing evidence demonstrates that regular consumption of dietary nutrients such as unsaturated fatty acids, nitrate, and reduced sodium can maintain the structural integrity of the brain and in doing so promote cognitive functioning. However, consuming sufficient amounts of such nutrients can be an economic and timely challenge. Incorporating nutrients into a dietary staple, such as bread, may be an effective way of introducing these into everyday diets. The present study investigated the effects of a 12-week dietary intervention involving the manipulation of 3 key nutrients in bread (increased unsaturated fatty acids from hazelnuts, increased nitrate from beetroot, and reduced sodium) on cognitive function. Participants (n=106) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 bread conditions (hazelnut, beetroot, low-sodium, or control). A neuropsychological battery was administered at 4 time points and consisted of 6 tasks measuring different aspects of cognitive functioning: Pro (choice reaction time), Anti (inhibitory control), Pro/Anti (task switching), Simon (selective attention), Forward and Backward Spatial Span (spatial short-term and working memory), and Forward and Backward Digit Span (verbal short-term and working memory). Three hypotheses were explored: (1) that consuming the hazelnut bread would be associated with performance improvements across the cognitive tasks, (2) that consuming the beetroot bread would be associated with improvements in speeded reaction time tasks, and (3) that consuming the low sodium bread would be associated with performance improvements across the cognitive tasks, but especially on Forward and Backward Spatial Span. Overall, no significant improvements in cognitive function were observed following the consumption of any of the 3 intervention breads when compared to the control bread. These findings contrast with previous research that has demonstrated links between the consumption of these nutrients and improved cognitive function. Possible reasons for the null results, as well as limitations and future directions, are discussed.

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  • Underwater noise from pile-driving and its impact on Hector's dolphins in Lyttelton Harbour, New Zealand

    Leunissen, Eva (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Noise levels were measured in Lyttelton Harbour in order to study pile-driving noise produced during wharf reconstruction. Sound recordings were made throughout the harbour, using several moored and mobile recording systems. In addition, an autonomous system recorded sound over a one-month period. Ambient noise in Lyttelton was heavily influenced by anthropogenic sources such as large and small vessel traffic, particularly in the low frequency range, as well as natural sources such as wind, rain and snapping shrimp in the mid-to-high frequency range. Measured noise levels were highly variable in time and space, with an overall RMS broadband level of 118 dB re 1 μPa near the channel. Recordings made over a month-long period showed higher levels during the day across a broad frequency range. Compared to other places heavily influenced by anthropogenic activities, noise levels in Lyttelton harbour were similar, although some very busy ports show much higher levels. Repairs to the port of Lyttelton involved 15 months of pile-driving. At a range of 100 m, 1/3 octave-band levels were raised by up to 45 dB across a wide frequency range due to pile-driving noise, exceeding background levels over an area of up to 16.3 square km. The maximum source Sound Exposure Level was estimated to be 194 dB re 1 μPa2s @ 1 m (average 182 dB). Most of the energy was within the 100-1000 Hz frequency range, but with significant energy well above 100 kHz at close range. An empirically based propagation model was fitted to estimate the loss in dB with range, and to allow visualisation of how the noise spread throughout the harbour. The bathymetry of the harbour and the breakwater significantly influenced propagation of pile-driving noise. Levels measured in this study tended to be lower than in other studies of pile-driving noise, due mainly to smaller pile drivers and softer substrate in Lyttelton. The impact of this noise on Hector’s dolphins was investigated using passive acoustic monitoring devices (T-PODs). T-PODs were moored in the inner, mid and outer harbour for three months. Statistical analysis of dolphin positive minutes per day and per hour, and how these detection rates were influenced by pile-driving noise as well as environmental variables, was carried out using Generalised Additive Models. Hector’s dolphins showed a clear avoidance reaction to pile-driving noise. A decrease in the rate of detections was evident on days with piling. The detection rates recovered to pre-piling levels after 50-83 hours. A simultaneous increase in detections at the mid-harbour T-POD suggests that the animals disturbed by the noise were displaced toward the mid harbour. Based on hearing studies of harbour porpoise, pile-driving noise levels in Lyttelton could cause temporary hearing damage to Hector’s dolphins. The shallowness and form of the harbour restricted noise propagation and therefore reduced the potential zone of impact on hearing. Hector’s dolphin show avoidance reactions at slightly lower levels than estimated for harbour porpoise, indicating Hector’s dolphin may be more sensitive to the disturbance of pile-driving.

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  • Uncertainty in climate change impacts on Southern Alps river flow: the role of hydrological model complexity

    Jones, Ryan (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Climate change scenario modelling for New Zealand indicates a series of hydrological changes can be expected. Hydrological modelling is a critical tool to assess the likely impacts of future climate change on river runoff. A hydrological model no matter the complexity can be viewed as a simplified representation of the real-world environment. The most comprehensive hydrological models, i.e. fully-distributed (e.g. TopNet and MIKESHE), are generally complex and require large amounts of input data, computer power and time. The use of a semidistributed model like HBV-light to perform essentially the same function can yield a relatively efficient method of scenario hydrological modelling. As such, the aim of this research is to assess the use of the HBV-Light hydrological model to simulate observed river flow data from within the Shotover Catchment, situated in Queenstown, New Zealand, and compare projected changes to future river runoff under climate change conditions to that of a more complex hydrological model (TopNet). The HBV-Light model performed well in the Shotover Catchment when replicating an observed data set of 13 years (1972 ̶ 1984), returning a monthly NSE of 0.72 for the calibration period and 0.61 for the validation period (1985 ̶ 1997). The use of HBV-Light to simulate river flow under future climate change conditions, and the potential influence such changes could have on New Zealand’s freshwater resources were also assessed. HBV-Light, using an IPCC SRES A1B climate scenario, and an ensemble of 12 GCM’s suited to New Zealand’s climate conditions, projected runoff increases to the Shotover River in the magnitude of 13.43 % for 2040 over a 20-year average (2030 ̶ 2049), and 17.44 % in 2090 (2080 ̶ 2099). In comparison to the more complex model (TopNet) used assess the impact of climate change on river flow for the same future time periods using the same 12 GCM ensemble and IPCC SRES A1B climate scenario, HBV-Light simulates a yearly projection for 2040 that is 3.5 % higher than TopNet, 1.65 % lower in 2090. Monthly comparisons of future runoff show the HBV-Light model drastically over-simulates TopNets assessment of the Shotover Catchment (by 35 % in 2090 for August) and other research in the Clutha Catchment, in some cases by up to 50 %. HBV-Light under-simulated soil moisture by 300 mm/yr-1 and over-simulated AET consistently, but simulated snowmelt relatively well in comparison to TopNet. Therefore, the current research concludes that the role of hydrological model complexity outweighs the role of other modelling uncertainties such as input data. HBV-Light was run with physical input 3 data which is more accurate but limited in the spread of the catchment, whereas TopNet was run using interpolated data (VCSN) which covers the catchments upper reaches but is only an interpolation. TopNets performance was more in line with other research from the Clutha Catchment and its sub-catchments, such as the Matukituki and the Lindis. However, in the absence of large comprehensive data sets (VCSN) required to run complex models such as TopNet, HBV-Light could be an acceptable alternative for assessing future impacts to river runoff under climate change conditions in New Zealand.

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  • 3 feet under: Is the traditional hāngī in danger of a cultural disappearance?

    Richardson, Robert

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The sharing of familiar foods is but one of the ways a cultural group identifies itself. But what happens if a cultural group begins to lose touch with its food traditions? How does the growing disappearance of these culinary cultural markers affect a cultural groups sense of identity and its spiritual and ancestral connections? In today’s Māori society, the hāngī is one of the last remaining traditional food preparation techniques still in use, but its use in its traditional form is growing more infrequent. Prior to European arrival in New Zealand, the hāngī (earth oven or umu) was used daily as the primary technique for the cooking of kai (Belich, 2007; Leach, 2010). The gradual introduction of European cooking techniques and oven apparatus has relegated the use of the traditional hāngī technique to hui or times of celebration and loss - particularly on the marae (Leach, 2010; Salmond, 1975). Yet even that role is quickly disappearing. Today’s marae kitchens are now equipped like a commercial restaurant or hotel kitchen, while there is now an increasing array of gas fired portable “hāngī” or MultiKai cookers (Coster, 2016; "MultiKai Hāngī Cookers," n.d.; "Te Kohatu Hangi Cookers," n.d.). In this research project, I set out to explore the cultural significance of the hāngī as a cooking technique within Māori society through the voices of those familiar with Te Ao Māori. Food itself continues to play an important part of Māori social gatherings through the concept of manaakitanga, but, in the instance of a hui for example, does it matter in any way if the food is not cooked in the traditional hāngī? Does the non-use of the hāngī as the cooking technique reflect in any way on the prestige of the event and/or on the mana of either guest or host? Through key informant interviews, this research project found two clear, very differing outlooks in how the hāngī is viewed and valued that depended on a person’s personal background. For those that grew up within a strong Māori culture, it is not the hāngī itself that they miss but the times when the events were bigger and more regular. It is these nostalgic recollections around which their affinity with the hāngī is based. For those whose interactions with it began later in life, the hāngī has not only provided a window into Māori culture, but provides both a professional and financial opportunity. But as seen in this study, of arguably greater importance is the role the hāngī plays as a cultural gathering and learning space within Māori culture. It is around the hāngī that many aspects of tikanga, social and environmental protocols, and manaaki are learnt. In doing so, the hāngī provides an anchoring point around which this process of cultural reaffirmation can take place. It is this aspect of the hāngī – the social and cultural educational opportunities that it provides – that this study highlights to be its most valuable today, and is the aspect that Māori are most likely to lose if the hāngī continues to shift to a more commercial practice.

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  • Assessing the ecological impact of urban greening: A case study of roadside planting in Wellington, New Zealand

    Tessler, Jacob (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Roadside reserves in Wellington, New Zealand have been the target of a government-led, community-implemented urban greening initiative for the past 25 years. Prior studies of urban greening have shown numerous benefits to neighbourhoods and communities through increased engagement and stewardship, yet there remains a need for research into the ecological effects these programmes have on individual urban landscapes. This research conducted site surveys to determine the variation in ecological functioning and biodiversity within 36 reserves involved in the Wellington Free Plants Programme (FPP). These measures were compared to historical planting data for each site retrieved from council records. Candidate models were constructed based on novel and classical ecological theory, which sought to explain observed variation between physical and ecological measures across study sites and the relationship between these variables and biodiversity. Sites were small with an area ranging from 5.9m² to 246.5m² (mean = 37.8 ±49.5m²), and biodiversity levels (assessed using a Shannon-Weiner Index) ranged from 0.1 to 2.9 (mean = 2.1 ±0.7). The top performing candidate models to predict biodiversity included area, shape, and seedbank density. An examination of the effect of varying urban greening efforts across these sites utilised a multivariate analysis which included measures of ecological functioning, biodiversity, the number of years a site had been planted, and the number of individual plants provided over those years. A significant negative relationship was found between site disturbance and the number of planting years (F33.1 = 4.092, p = .051) while a somewhat significant positive relationship was found between biodiversity and the number of individual plants provided (F33,1 =3.536 , p = .069). These results indicate that current urban greening efforts contribute to the ecological health of roadside reserves and that the patterns and processes governing the biological composition of these reserves may be partially explained with traditional ecological theory.

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  • Whanganui Kaiponu: Ngāti Ruakā Methodologies for the preservation of Hapū waiata and oral taonga

    Haami, Meri (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research explores Ngāti Ruakā perspectives on the preservation of hapū waiata and oral taonga, and it examines Whanganui kaiponu as a culturally appropriate methodology and research framework. Ngāti Ruakā perspectives are central to the study of hapū taonga within this research. This thesis also investigates the analysis of waiata through the decolonisation of western frameworks and methodologies on waiata study that have been used previously in ethnomusicology. This journey led me back home to the ahi kā, my whānau (especially my Nanny, Angel Haami) as well as my hapū from the Whanganui awa. This further affirmed my own identity through whakapapa and the significance of tūrangawaewae. Through discourse with hapū members and throughout the interview process, karanga was gifted and performed as oral hapū taonga to me. The context of this research centres on the interdisciplinary bridging of ethnomusicology and waiata Māori studies. This study highlighted critical aspects of preservation for Ngāti Ruakā concerning waiata. Hapū members raised issues relating to protection, transmission and pedagogy in regards to their hapū waiata or oral hapū taonga. This led to a need for re-establishing Whanganui kaiponu as a way of preservation and protection.

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  • Hospital Admissions for Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Contributing factors, Risk prediction and Prognosis

    Ellis, Hollie Victoria (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Hospitalisations for acute exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are associated with high mortality. Clinical indicators and prognostic scores have been explored previously to identify patients at heightened risk, but may also be useful in detecting patients with a good prognosis that could avoid admission. However, there are often additional social and environmental factors at play that influence patients’ reasons for admission. This thesis aims to explore these potential contributing factors in conjunction with the development of a new prognostic tool Methods: Consecutive patients were recruited following hospitalisation with a primary diagnosis of acute exacerbation of COPD. Clinical data were collected and patient and admitting doctor questionnaires were completed to gather further information regarding the reasons for admission. This cohort was then used to validate a proposed prognostic tool, the CANT score, comprised of a composite score of CURB65 score ≥ 2, Acidaemia (pH 220pmol/L and Troponin >0.03µg/L. The primary outcomes related to this score were all-cause mortality at 30-days and 1-year and cardio-respiratory related re-admissions over the same time period. Results: 305 patients were recruited across 3 New Zealand sites. The majority of patients had severe COPD as classified by the GOLD spirometry guidelines, and 13.5% of patients had long-term oxygen therapy at home prior to admission. Inpatient mortality was 1.6% (n=5). At 30-days post admission, mortality was 3.6% (n=11) and at 1-year 19.0% (n = 52). Readmissions for cardiac or respiratory related illnesses were 22.6% and 62.8% at 30-days and 1-year respectively. Raised NT-proBNP (>220pmol/L) and troponin (>0.03µg/L) on admission were associated with death at 1-year (p <0.05). Elevated NT-proBNP was also associated with death at 30-days (OR 3.6, CI 1.06-12.22, p = 0.04). The area under the receiver operating curve for mortality at 30-days post admission for the CANT score in this cohort was 0.68, which was lower than in the derivation (0.86) and internal validation cohorts (0.82). The majority of patients were admitted due to the requirement for hospital level treatment, however the admitting doctors suggested that up to 30% of admissions could be avoided if additional support, such as acute personal cares or GP home visits, were available in the community. Over 40% of patients reported issues with GP availability, 25% reported avoiding seeing the GP due to cost and 17% due to lack of transport. Conclusion: We have been unable to externally validate the use of the CANT score as an effective short-term prognostic tool following acute COPD exacerbation, due to a lower than expected mortality rate at 30-days in this cohort. Elevated NT-proBNP and troponin on admission were associated with an increased mortality at 1-year and NT-proBNP with an increased mortality at 30-days, inferring that these cardiac biomarkers are predictors of short and long-term prognosis following COPD exacerbation. Cost, lack of transport and availability of GP services may contribute to patient admissions in addition to the clinical need for hospital level treatment. The majority of admissions are likely to be unavoidable, unless considerable increased resources can be provided in the community.

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  • An investigation of how job satisfaction mediates the impact of emotional intelligence on organisational citizenship behaviour in the New Zealand hospitality industry

    Yan, Ruzi

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The two main purposes of this study were to explore whether employee emotional intelligence can influence the behaviours that motivate employees to help others and whether emotional intelligence can influence such behaviours as well as heighten job satisfaction. The theoretical framework for this study drew from empathy-altruism theory and affective events theory, first, to predict the relationship between emotional intelligence and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB); and second, to determine how these elements and their relationship to each other are influenced by job satisfaction. This study adopted a quantitative research approach; data were collected from 116 participants working within different types of hospitality businesses in New Zealand using an online questionnaire. Bivariate correlation and mediation analyses were conducted to test this study’s hypotheses. This study focussed on two key issues for the hospitality industry: the emotional competencies of employees and how employees demonstrate OCB. Tourism is an economic driver for New Zealand, bringing increasing numbers of customers, development potential, and serious service quality challenges to the hospitality industry. Faced with challenges and global competition, New Zealand’s hospitality industry needs to emphasise high performance and quality service. Since the service that the employees provide is a real but intangible product in the hospitality industry, it would be helpful to understand how to improve employee job performance and create an emotional connection with customers, thereby contributing to customer loyalty and organisational efficiency. Findings did not show that job satisfaction played a mediator role in the relationship between emotional intelligence and organisational citizenship behaviour. However, the emotional intelligence of employees successfully predicted their OCB behaviours. All of the dimensions of emotional intelligence were found to be important for increasing helpful behaviours in the workplace. In particular, self-emotion appraisal was considered the main factor that induced helpful behaviours. This study’s findings are important for understanding the roles of emotional intelligence and helping behaviour in the New Zealand hospitality industry. While the concepts of emotional intelligence and OCB have been applied to hospitality settings in recent years, these concepts still need to be well-researched from different perspectives. Further studies are needed to develop a theoretical model that can systematically investigate emotions and behaviours within the hospitality industry. Findings link emotional competency to organisational behaviour in general management, thereby enabling a better understanding of organisational behaviour. Importantly, they also give insight into the effects of applying concepts of emotional intelligence to OCB. Findings provide practitioners with understandings of how emotional abilities contribute to job performance and inform appropriate strategies to improve employee job performance and customer experience. Findings also help employees better understand their emotions and behaviours in the workplace enabling them to achieve career success.

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  • Circling Communities

    Barr, Philippa (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    There are works of architecture that are concerned with the user and others that are heavily concerned with form. Although the best buildings are concerned with both, it is often that one is compromised for the other. The site for this thesis is contested by four diverse communities; a surf club, a recreational park, a holiday park, and the surrounding houses. In developing a proposal for the site, the aim of this thesis is to explore design processes and formal strategies that will create an architecture concerned with both. Throughout this thesis there are a series of design experiments which view the building from different directions according to the design medium. When using diagrams and mass models I have viewed the building from above (plan). When using a refined drawing technique I have viewed the building from the side (section). I have then used both physical and digital models as a way of translating the two-dimensional views into a three-dimensional building. This shift in design media has revealed that the plan and section can have opposing formal qualities. These qualities, simplicity in plan and complexity in section, have allowed me to address both the social and formal concerns of designing on a site like this.

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  • Sedimentology and depositional environments of Murihiku Supergroup sediments exposed in the Southland Syncline, New Zealand: Implications for reservoir potential in the Great South Basin

    Howden, Angus David (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A considerable amount is known about the biostratigraphy and organic geochemistry of the Murihiku Supergroup sediments exposed in coastal outcrops of the Southland Syncline, New Zealand. Much less work has been undertaken on the sedimentology of these strata, or understanding their depositional environments and depositional trends through time. What these implications are for reservoir prospectivity in the adjacent Great South Basin, has also had little study focused on it. This thesis addresses these issues by undertaking outcrop-based sedimentological and facies interpretations of these rocks, thin-section based petrographic composition and provenance analysis, augmented by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), as well as porosity and permeability measurements from outcrop core plugs. Petroleum industry seismic data has additionally enabled seismic facies mapping of Murihiku rocks in the offshore Great South Basin. Outcrop observations point to a progressive change in depositional setting, from shelf / upper slope settings during the Late Triassic, to base of slope turbidite deposition in the Early Jurassic. This transgression is followed by regression into fluvial settings in the youngest outcropping Murihiku rocks in the study of Middle Jurassic age. Petrographically the sandstones are feldspathic and lithic arenites and feldspathic and lithic wackes. Provenance suggests derivation from an evolving, intermediate arc that was becoming more siliceous through Late Triassic and Middle Jurassic time. Diagenesis is characterised by early calcite and chlorite precipitation which have almost completely destroyed any primary porosity. Any secondary micro porosity has subsequently been infilled through dissolution of framework grains and zeolitization. SEM and core plug porosity and permeability measurements corroborate the diagenetic changes observed petrographically, with only fluvial facies of Middle Jurassic (Upper Temaikan) age showing any measureable porosity or permeability. As a result, reservoir potential for the Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic, Murihiku Supergroup rocks analysed in this study is low. Younger Murihiku sandstones which are postulated to occur offshore in the Great South Basin are likely to be less influenced by burial diagenesis. As shown from North Island occurrences, these younger successions hold some potential.The reservoir potential for these youngest portions of the Murihiku succession therefore remains positive, both in the Great South Basin, as well as other frontier areas of Zealandia, and continue to provide an exploration target for the petroleum industry.

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  • The Illicit Scripts: An Architecture that encapsulates the writers of the unwritten chapters

    Helmy, Nervan (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    With recent political unrest in Egypt and the election of a new president, the Egyptian people came close to having a radical Islam believer, purportedly affiliated to the radicalist group known as ISIS, as the leader of a nation that so far has remained secular. The fear shared by a great part of the Egyptian population is if Radical Islam did become the foremost power of the nation, a non-secular dictatorship becoming the new decree, causing a transformation in class, tradition and culture, and creating segregation within the believers and non-believers. The resistance becomes the outcast, living in poverty and forced into hard labour. In such a hypothetical, but not unimaginable situation, how might the oppressed survive and live comfortably with only the aid of their own community, without support of society and Government? This thesis explores an underworld of ghettos and forced segregation settlements in order to propose a utopian alternative within a dystopian scenario and investigates how Interior Architecture might manipulate space and create comfortable and secure atmosphere within the confines of an abandoned building. Theorist Michel Foucault and his book on “Discipline and Punish” will help guide the design research in relation to authority and actions against the unlawful. Looking at the panopticon also reviewed by Foucault, will provide a better understanding of how Interior Architecture can influence the environment. The selected site, Bibliotheque Alexandria, was chosen for its history and the likely destruction under a non-secular radical regime. In a radical authoritarian regime, it is conceivable that restriction of knowledge would be the first act of power, following so many examples throughout history. With the abolition of the library, the building will become abandoned and provide the space for a segregated community to occupy. The thesis aim is to achieve a micro ecosystem within the architectural shell as to provide for the community and its inhabitants. Using Interior Architecture to develop a design which would enable this new lifestyle of the oppressed people of Alexandria through the use of materiality, modular systems as well as the traditional skill set within Egypt.

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  • "With great power comes great responsibility": Understanding the behavioural determinants of residential energy efficiency in Wellington

    Jenkins, Leanne (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Recognition of the need for a transformation in our global energy systems to combat climate change has brought about an increased drive to curb energy consumption and increase energy efficiency. The residential sector is a prominent energy user and a key focus for this transition to a low carbon future. Psychology has played an increasingly important role in energy policy with an understanding that individuals act on motivators beyond economic explanations. This study provides a psychological evaluation of a residential energy efficiency intervention based in Wellington, New Zealand in order to develop a deeper understanding of how energy interventions engage participants in change and how they can be made more effective. The Wellington intervention uses a tailored information approach through a home energy audit to promote both efficiency and curtailment behaviours in local homes. By measuring before and after energy consumption changes in combination with salient psychological determinants, this quantitative study examines energy changes following the audit programme and the motivations involved in making these changes. The psychological determinants explored are the fundamental values held by programme participants as well as their level of concern for the environment. Analysis showed energy consumption changes following the audit to be variable and inconclusive as to the effectiveness of the overall programme. Values contributed a significant influence with self-transcendent values being a positive predictor of the number of efficiency behaviours implemented after the programme. This suggests that appealing to the altruistic concerns and collective interests salient within the self-transcendence value dimension when designing and implementing an intervention could aid uptake of energy conservation behaviour in future interventions.

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  • Sisyphus and Entropy; Adaptive Architecture in Flood Prone Nanjing

    Leurquin, Arnaud (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis attempts to rationalize two diverging practices in Architectural discourse, that of Western pedagogy and that of the ‘Other’. A disparity in approach to understanding architecture as a permanent object, can be noted in the dialogue between resilient architecture and temporary structure, this manifests itself in transient spaces and adaptive urban fabrics. The increased danger of flooding within China; with a particular emphasis on river infrastructure, posits an interesting position for new urban typologies and innovative floating solutions. Positioned on the expansive Yangtze River Delta, Nanjing encompasses a complex narrative of historical reverence and progressive tendencies, that encourage experimental approaches. The process and methodology within, seeks to provide an adaptable and affordable response to the recurring floodings, through in depth concise historical, cultural and philosophical analysis of the social, spiritual and architectural landscape within China as a whole as well as in specificity. These insights, juxtaposed with traditional western technique intends to produce an intricate and considered response to flood situations, with a particular focus on community generation and maintenance. Although Nanjing remains the central focus of the research, the concepts and practical results are intended to be abstracted and drawn into all cultures within Asia, primarily those with Buddhist and Taoist social structures. The proliferation of Feng Shui and the Metaphysical throughout the region provide a framework from which to expand. This network of social and cultural similarity allows for cross disciplinary and pan Asian approaches, noting the Japanese Metabolist Movement as a practical indication of socio-cultural influence on architectural theory.

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  • East Meets West: Designing an Institute of World Religions in Istanbul

    Browne, Rosemary (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Globally, over 65 million people have become involuntary displaced from their homes, their families and their livelihoods, victims of socio-political and cultural conflicts, manmade and environmental disasters. A global crisis is unfolding on an unprecedented scale. Refugee camps are today’s architecture of displacement, monuments of human suffering. The architectural language of the refugee crisis is one of grids of tents, tarpaulins and containers; a language of lightness and vulnerability. This failed architecture of displacement may be seen as an opportunity to re-evaluate how architecture may respond global crises. This thesis therefore aims to construct an innovative, adaptable infrastructure that responds to the global migration crisis. Slavoj Žižek’s idiosyncratic text ‘Against the Double Blackmail’ is taken as an intellectual provocateur for the research process. Žižek offers a highly speculative and radical response to global mass migration, affirming a utopian reconstruction of society as our only option to resolve this global crisis. Therefore, the architectural construction of ‘utopia’ as a highly poetic and symbolic response to the global migration crisis is examined and developed. The research is set in Istanbul, a geographical and cultural meeting point between Eastern and Western civilisations, and an international hub for refugees. The site itself is located in the ruins of St. Polyeuktos, an ancient, abandoned and dilapidated church in the centre of the city Both analogue and digital drawing are embraced as design methodologies to examine the architectural representation of Žižek’s utopia. The thesis culminates with a dynamic, sculptural formal expression of Žižek’s utopia, through the construct of an Institute of World Religions.

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