13,986 results for Masters

  • Carry trade and its relationship with the Stock Market: Evidence from New Zealand

    Jin, Dacheng

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This study investigates the New Zealand dollar carry trade and its effect on the New Zealand stock market. Using a Vector Autoregression (VAR) model, the Granger causality relationship is from carry trade to stock market. The US dollar, Euro and Swiss Franc dominate carry trade as funding currencies and the New Zealand Dollar as investment currency. There is no evidence of Japanese Yen and New Zealand Dollar carry trade during the sample period of 2007 to 2017. Carry trade returns’ effect on New Zealand stock market sector returns are generally attributed with various degree and preference. The basic materials sector is the only exception, where there is no Granger causality relationship in either direction. It also indicates carry trade returns positively affect the New Zealand stock market in both periods of crisis and post crisis. However, the Granger causality relationship is stronger in crisis period than it is in post crisis period.

    View record details
  • The concept of luxury hotel in the context of 21st century China: An insight into factors influencing guests’ satisfaction with luxury hotels in China

    Zhao, Jiali

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The factors influencing different types of guests’ satisfaction with hotels has been studied in different countries; however, researches into factors influencing different types of hotel guests' satisfaction in the Chinese context are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study is to learn about satisfaction with hotels in the Chinese context. This study examines online comments by Chinese guests regarding satisfaction with luxury hotels in Beijing and hotel description on their websites, to find the factors influencing Chinese business and leisure guests' satisfaction. The research was conducted using a qualitative approach. Ten luxury hotel descriptions were collected from their official websites, and 150 Chinese guests' comments online were collected, about ten luxury hotels in Beijing. Content analysis was adopted for analysing the collected data. The results of this study show luxury hotels described themselves as providing luxurious accommodation and traditional Chinese design of hotels. However, both Chinese business and leisure guests placed less emphasis on luxurious accommodation and traditional Chinese design of hotels. Both business and leisure guests placed considerable emphasis on hotel location. Furthermore, staff service also plays an important role in the business guests' satisfaction; amenities are a significant factor influencing leisure guests' satisfaction with luxury hotel in Beijing. The results of this study contribute to the current literature about the factors influencing hotel guests' satisfaction in China, and how hotels see themselves on their websites. The results of study can also be useful for hotels as they could distinguish their characteristics in their descriptions from their competitors, and can be materials using to better introduce themselves on their websites. In addition, factors influencing different types of Chinese guests' satisfaction with luxury hotels in Beijing can be a reference regarding the needs of Chinese guests in luxury hotels.

    View record details
  • A study of the selection, achievement and loss of student nurses from one school of nursing in New Zealand

    King, Berenice Evelyn (1969)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In 1967 there were approximately 4,300 young women in New Zealand undertaking the three year course leading to State registration as a nurse. On the basis of past and current records it could be assumed that at least one in every five of those student nurses would withdraw from the programme before qualifying. The reasons given for withdrawal could be divided into two broad categories. The first, those reasons which account for a proportion of the loss from any predominantly female occupation, marriage, ill-health or a change in personal or family circumstances. The second were those which bore a direct relationship to the career choice; for nurses these were 'dislike of nursing' and 'study problems' It was the purpose of this study to determine, if possible, what constituted 'dislike of nursing'; what factors differentiated the student who withdrew from the programme because of 'study problems' from her successful colleague and whether or not there was a demonstrable relationship between the individual's reaction to nursing and her level of achievement. The term success in this context ref erred solely to the student nurse who progressed satisfactorily in the nursing programme. No attempt was made to assess the quality of care given and there was only a passing reference to the amount of satisfaction derived by the individual from her nursing role. Withdrawal was a post-recruitment problem. Factual information about the reasons given for and the stage of training reached when resignation occurred was available from the annual returns submitted by the matrons of all training schools; the level of general education attained by student nurses was also recorded at national level. Such objective data was important but it did not provide the background information on the individual who had elected to nurse. Why and when the decision to nurse was made and the source and type of information available on nursing were two areas of interest to those concerned with recruitment programmes. Those concerned with the planning of nursing education for the present and future had a need to know more about the nature and extent of the general education of actual and potential student nurses. Finally, investigation into the question of withdrawal was prompted in part by the statistical evidence that the rate of withdrawal was high and in part from personal experience with students who had been disappointed in their expectations of nursing, of themselves or of both.

    View record details
  • Value Creation, Dynamic Capabilities and Slack Resources in Service Firms

    Sharma, Angel (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This study explores the antecedents of value creation in service firms. Specifically, whilst prior research has acknowledged the critical role of dynamic capabilities, little is known about the roles of different orders of dynamic capabilities and how they affect value creation. Building on the hierarchy perspective of dynamic capabilities, and through a review of voluminous but recent literature we establish service exploration as a higher order dynamic capability and service exploitation as a lower order dynamic capability and investigate their relationship with value creation. Moreover, given the importance of financial resource slack and human resource slack in service firms, and in the development of dynamic capabilities, we explore their relationship with service exploration and service exploitation. Using data from 61 New Zealand based service firms, we test our theoretical model. The results show that human resource slack enhances service exploration but does not enhance service exploitation, and service exploration does not enhance value creation directly but does so via service exploitation.

    View record details
  • Is there a salty solution to sensitive soil sliding in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand?

    Robertson, Thomas Paul (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Found globally, sensitive soils are widely regarded as a key cause of slope instability. These sensitive soils often contribute to the production of large retrogressive landslides that pose significant danger to a people and infrastructure. Within the Bay of Plenty region, sensitive soil based landslides are widespread and numerous Moum et al (1970) successfully trialled remediation of a sensitive soil landslide in Scandinavia by application of potassium chloride via leaching columns. The aim of this study is to determine whether salt treatment of sensitive soils formed in halloysite rich soils of the Bay of Plenty provides a viable means of improving soil behaviour. Soil collected from the base of the landslide at Bramley Drive, Omokoroa, was treated with 3 differing potassium based salts (KCl, KOH and K₂CO₃) to observe which would produce the greatest positive rheological effect. Results indicated that treatment with KCL and KOH had a negative rheological effect on the soil reducing the liquid limit of the soil from a baseline of 92.3 to 79.3 and 83.5 respectively. Only K₂CO₃ did not have a negative effect on the soil, maintaining the liquid limit at 92.6. Soil kept within soil cores was then soaked in K₂CO₃ solution for a period of three weeks before being subjected to tri-axial testing at three confining pressures of 205 kPa, 280 kPa and 355 kPa; untreated soil cores were tested at the same stress conditions Tri-axial testing of the soil showed a significant increase in the peak deviator stress measured when comparing the untreated and treated soils at its point of failure, with increases in peak deviator stress measured for the treated soils in the order of 227% at 205 kPa, 187% at 280 kPa and 124% increase at 355 kPa. Strain softening for treated soil was also measured to be less than that of the untreated soil at all confining pressures, a trait reflected in pore pressures measured at point of failure also. Stress path plots indicated that untreated samples underwent contraction rapidly as deviator stress increased, with no clear failure point observed as would be expected from an over consolidated clay. In contrast, stress paths for the treated samples showed the soils dilating before reaching point of failure and undergoing contraction following failure. Differences in friction angle and cohesion were also measured between treated and untreated samples, with untreated soil indicating friction angle and cohesion of Φ’=19.3o, C’=26.6 kPa. These results were consistent with those given in literature and fell within the range expected for halloysite rich clays (Mills, 2016; Moon, 2016). Both friction angle and coheion values increased in treated soils (Φ’=28.2 and C’=58.4). Based upon the results gathered during this study I infer that stabilisation of the sensitive layer of soil found within Omokoroa is possible, in particular when treated with K₂CO₃. It is my belief that this occurs due to the successful intercalation of the K₂CO₃ ion into the halloysite basal space, displacing the water found in the space originally, and causing an expansion of the crystal lattice. The expansion of the halloysite crystal lattices in turn increases the particle contact areas, which as a result causes a rise in the cohesion and friction angle as a result of increased energy required to overcome the grain to grain friction when stress is applied. Increased basal spacing in the halloysite crystals accommodates pore fluid and thus allows for reduced pore water pressure during stress application. Though further research is warranted, results produced from this study show that treatment increases the effective strength of the soil to a significant and noticeable degree, and provides the impetus to warrant further research into the subject in the near future, as the potential engineering impacts in being able to effectively stabilise soil rich in halloysite holds significant value both in New Zealand and on a global scale.

    View record details
  • A preliminary evaluation of tectonic geomorphological signals within the Hamilton Basin

    Spinardi, Francesca (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Over the past year several fault traces have been discovered within the Hamilton Basin, prompting a need for further investigation for tectonic evidence in the basin in order to re asses seismic hazards of the basin. Examination of the most recently discovered fault revealed the trace cross cuts the 20,000 ka Hinuera Formation, indicating that the faults within the Basin are active and could potentially experience another seismic event. However, more information is needed to determine the rate of occurrence and potential magnitude of an event. LiDAR and geomorphic data indicates there are potentially up to ten more traces within the Hamilton Basin, but they have yet to be confirmed through geomorphical ground-truth mapping. Both the known fault traces and the potential traces are dominantly NE oriented and appear to be influenced by the surrounding fault systems, such as the Waipa Fault. A large basement depression located in the far northern area of the Hamilton Basin as revealed by seismic line and gravitational data indicates that extensional movement may be related to the faults. To better understand the risk and hazard potential of a seismic event, extensive study and information about the basement terrane and surrounding faults, such as the Waipa Fault, needs to be gathered. It is possible that the fault traces within Hamilton are transtensional splays that have formed to accommodate movement and space between the major fault systems. My project will be examining the inferred fault traces within the Hamilton Basin, as indicated by the geomorphology, seismic line data, existing borehole data, and geological and geomorphical ground-truth mapping. For this the history of the surrounding fault lines, such as their total offset and rate of occurrence, will be investigated in order to understand the behavior of the faults within the Hamilton Basin and the potential hazards they can cause.

    View record details
  • Vegetation recovery following volcanic disturbance on Mt. Tongariro, New Zealand

    McCann, Lynda Alison (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    On August 6, 2012, a series of volcanic eruptions occurred on Mt. Tongariro in the central North Island of New Zealand. The eruptions included pyroclastic density currents (PDCs), a debris flow and volcanic projectiles, each of which significantly affected native vegetation. The present study investigated four aspects of vegetation dynamics in relation to the eruptions. First, the effect of PDCs on the subalpine conifer, Phyllocladus alpinus. Second, differential species sensitivity to the PDCs. Third, the species composition of the impact craters formed by volcanic projectiles, and the fourth aspect, colonisation of a newly formed debris flow. Thirty P. alpinus individuals were sampled at twenty two plots throughout the area affected by the PDCs. The numbers of “Live” and “Dead” individuals within plots were significantly correlated with distance to the eruption, and tree height (a predictor of age). Smaller and younger P. alpinus were more likely to be “Live” while larger, older P. alpinus more likely to be “Dead”. This is most likely due to the exposure and temperatures associated with PDCs. The mean foliar cover for all “Damaged” individuals was 75.59% with these individuals significantly correlated to plot area and altitude. Increased light availability and the path of the PDCs may explain these findings. Phyllocladus alpinus was the species most affected by the PDCs with only 57.73% foliar survival. Species sensitivity appears to be based on a combination of height and morphological features. Taller species are most affected by PDCs with small, coriaceous or glossy leaves; or narrow flexible leaves being advantageous. Stiff curved leaves, hairs, scales and a dense growth form appear detrimental to foliar survival. Species richness and percent cover were measured, both inside and directly outside the impact craters in 2013, 2015 and 2017 respectively. Outside the craters there was an increase in species richness with each year of measurement, however, the percent cover decreased from 2013 to 2015 before increasing in 2017. This decrease is most likely attributed to a statistically significant decrease in the cover of Dracophyllum recurvum. Between 2013 and 2015 there was a decrease in both species richness and percent cover inside the craters. This trend reversed between 2015 and 2017 with a statistically significant increase in species richness, and an increase in percent cover. This suggests species survived the initial impact of the projectile but experienced subsequent dieback followed by regeneration. Thirty 2 x 2 m sites were sampled on the debris flow, with nine sites containing vegetation. The overall colonisation rate was 0.14 species/quadrat per year, with Poa the most frequent and abundant genus. Topography, substrate particle size and proximity to seed sources appear to constrain seed dispersal and germination, resulting in varying and low rates of colonisation. The present study highlights that species responses vary depending on the nature and magnitude of volcanic disturbance. Further research, including remeasurements, will continue to improve the understanding of mechanism/s that drive ecological succession after volcanic disturbance, and contribute to the development of future models of succession.

    View record details
  • The association between mindfulness and driving behaviour in employees

    Bird, Diana (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study examined the effect of mindfulness on driving behaviour, and the possible mediating effects of a number of well-being measures. Specifically, the research aimed to determine (1) if higher levels of mindfulness would lead to safer driving practices and (2) if there was a relationship between mindfulness and safe driving, whether this was mediated by well-being measures including self-control, emotion regulation, happiness, life satisfaction, job satisfaction and work engagement. Participants included 216 employees from 16 organizations. They all completed ‘the mindfulness, wellbeing and driving’ questionnaire, which involved measures of mindfulness, intentions to violate traffic rules, self-reported number of traffic incidences in the previous 12 months (fines, near misses and crashes), as well as the well-being measures mentioned above. First, a strong correlation between increased levels of mindfulness and safer driving practices was found, including a decreased likelihood of texting. Further initial correlations also demonstrated relationships between mindfulness and all the well-being measures. As mindfulness increased, levels of all the well-being measures increased, with the exception of happiness. However, when mediation analysis was performed only self-control and happiness were found to mediate the relationship between mindfulness and safer driving, while the effect of emotion regulation, life and job satisfaction and work engagement were not found to be significant mediators. The role of self-control as a mediator in the mindfulness safer driving relationship supported previous research. Increased levels of attention, awareness and emotion regulation are all qualities associated with increased levels of mindfulness, which have also been demonstrated to relate to safer driving practices. While happiness was found to positively mediate the relationship between mindfulness and safer driving practices, interestingly, the relationship between mindfulness and happiness was opposite to what was expected. As levels of mindfulness increased, levels of happiness decreased. This may have been due to the happiness measure, which contained eudaimonic and hedonic factors. Hedonic factors have been considered less indicative of life satisfaction and overall well-being, and run opposite to the principles underlying mindfulness. Despite this, increased levels of happiness were still found to increase safer driving practices. These findings will hopefully ignite more research efforts to be directed towards examining the effects of mindfulness interventions on driving practices, and overall social and occupational well-being.

    View record details
  • "This is not a work of fiction": Examining Robin Hyde's Passport to Hell as Creative Nonfiction

    Holder, Marissa (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    In 1936, journalist Robin Hyde prepared the final copy of a biographical novel that blended fact and fiction in order to capture the experience of the disreputable World War I veteran James Douglas Stark. The careful intertwining of research and creativity in Passport to Hell is redolent of present-day creative nonfiction and therefore renders Hyde a pioneer of the genre. However, creative nonfiction was not academically acknowledged until years after Hyde’s death, so her literary experimentation triggered a critical response from the public. This thesis traces back the origins of creative nonfiction so as to illuminate the uncertainty which continues to permeate the genre. Academic guidelines of creative nonfiction are then used as a platform to analyse Hyde’s employment of fictional techniques in order to illuminate the ingenuity of her creative writing. The criticism Hyde faced when publishing Passport to Hell is outlined alongside her insightful riposte which contributes to our understanding of creative nonfiction today. The creative component of my thesis is comprised of the first three chapters of a novelisation of the life of Ettie Rout, a sexual health campaigner who challenged local and international governments in order to improve the lives of soldiers during World War I. My interaction with creative nonfiction confirmed that even today, many authors struggle to operate within the confines of a single genre due to the continued debate around the level of fiction deemed appropriate in creative nonfiction. However, the fluidity Hyde exercises in Passport to Hell inspired a sense of freedom in my treatment of Rout, and therefore emboldened my commitment to focus more heavily on the intimate portrayal of her character rather than confining my work to the boundaries of genre.

    View record details
  • The effect of coupled shoulder girdle and hip extensor strength training on sprint performance and ball speed in youth field hockey players

    Anyadike-Danes, Kechi

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Sprint performance is important in many team sports including field hockey. Despite this, so far no studies have examined the effect of strength training on sprint performance in this cohort. Previous studies in other sports have shown a positive association between the increases in lower body strength and improvements in sprint performance. An often overlooked aspect of sprinting is the role of the upper extremities in the sprint action. Another key skill in field hockey is shooting where a player’s ability can be evaluated based on ball velocity and the time taken to execute a shot. Similarly to sprinting no studies have examined the effect of strength training on ball speed in field hockey. Research looking at both sprinting and ball striking in other sports have highlighted the importance of both the shoulder girdle and hip extensor musculature. Therefore it was the aim of this thesis to ascertain whether strengthening the hip extensors and shoulder girdle specifically could improve both sprint performance and ball speed in youth hockey players and establish inter-relationships between sprint speed, ball velocity, shoulder girdle and hip extensor strength in hockey players. Chapter 3 presents the reliability for two novel isometric assessments, the isometric lateral pulldown (ILP) and isometric hip thrust (IHT), amongst 10 male participants with at least 2 years of structured resistance training. The IHT had a relatively small (6%) mean difference (MDiff) and effect size ([ES] 0.14) indicating moderate to good reliability between testing sessions. A test-retest intraclass correlation (ICC) of 0.97 in combination with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 7.3% indicated a small average variability. A small MDiff (4%) and ES (0.17) are indicators of good reliability for ILP’s inter-session performance. While an ICC of 0.9 and a CV of 8.1% indicated that the average variability between sessions was small. Using these methods Chapter 4 determined the relationship between impulse generated and both sprint and ball striking performance in 23 youth male secondary school representative youth field hockey players. No significant relationships were found between sprint times and either of the isometric strength measures. Significant (p=0.000) large and positive correlations (r=0.68) were found between forehand ball release speed and isometric hip thrust results. Significant (p=0.046) moderate and positive correlations (r=0.42) were found between forehand ball release speed and isometric lateral pulldown results. Significant (p=0.025) moderate and positive correlations (r=0.47) were found between reverse ball release speed and isometric hip thrust results. Chapter 5 investigated the effects of a five week specialised strength training programme, targeting the shoulder girdle and hip extensor, on sprint performance and ball speed in a group of 10 youth male secondary school representative youth field hockey players. The programme resulted in significant large and positive improvements in both isometric hip thrust (p=≤0.000, ES = 1.21, +52.6%) and isometric lateral pulldown (p=0.007, ES = 1.46, +63.4%) and non-significant trivial and small positive improvements in forehand and reverse ball speed respectively (p=0.813, ES = 0.09, +1.15%, p=0.303, ES = 0.27, 4.95%). However, significant small and negative decrements were experienced in 10-m (p=0.03, ES = 0.57, 2.67%), 30-m (p=0.016, ES = 0.44, 2.21%) and 40-m (p=0.016, ES = 0.43, 2.24%) sprint performance while non-significant (p=≤0.07) small and negative decrements (ES = 0.31, 1.55%) were found for 20-m. For this thesis it was determined that strengthening the shoulder girdle and hip extensors specifically may increase ball speed but not sprint performance in youth hockey players.

    View record details
  • Alignment of teaching and practice: Entrepreneurial SME marketing

    Thair, Ali

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research is investigating the gap between New Zealand university marketing degree content and SME marketing job requirements. Marketing has changed drastically in the Internet age. This study asks if university marketing courses have kept pace with the requirements of small-to-medium enterprises. The aim of the research is to explore the gap between SME marketing requirements and university marketing courses. To identify the strategic implications of any gap for businesses, universities and society and to suggest methods of remedying any gap identified. The methodology employed was content analysis of SME marketing job descriptions and university undergraduate marketing course curricula, followed by semi-structured interviews with undergraduate marketing coordinators from three New Zealand universities. The findings indicate a gap indeed exists. Industry analysis identified four key areas in demand: soft skills, communication skills, theory and industry skills. Industry skills are most lacking in the marketing curricula while marketing theory is well covered. However, marketing theory tends to emphasize large business; no SME or startup-oriented theory or coursework was identified. Massey University was the only university to offer specific communication courses in its marketing curricula. Waikato offered the most digitally-enriched curricula. Interviews revealed there are political barriers to reform of the curricula, especially universities’ adherence to the PBRF system and emphasis on research publications by academics. Teaching and industry experience appear to have minimal weighting in career progression for academics. Universities should seek to incorporate all four areas identified into their business and marketing curricula. Academic career progression should place additional weight on teaching and industry experience. There appear to be an excess of academics who have never worked in marketing or business. Business schools need to embrace a balance between scholarly theory and practice, and install this into the curricula. More thorough internships, business-university associations and a greater emphasis on teaching excellence are recommended.

    View record details
  • Psychological perspectives on narrative and storytelling

    Beachman, Lisa

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Anthropologists identify storytelling as universal feature of human cultures, and theorists in a range of social sciences characterize it as a defining attribute of our species. But despite the fact that psychotherapy is a discipline predicated on sharing stories, relatively little critical attention has been directed at this core human behaviour from within our field. By means of a hermeneutic literature review, this dissertation seeks to identify the conceptions of storytelling and narrative available within psychologically informed research literature, with the intention of forming a basis of understanding for further exploration of the function and uses of narrativity in psychodynamic psychotherapy. My findings suggest that the ability to use narrative effectively is a strong indicator of psychological wellbeing, with implications for both intrapsychic integrity and interpersonal effectiveness. Research moreover suggests that storytelling may be an instinctive human drive with profound implications for our understanding of the world. Thus narrative may also offer insights into how an individual identity is formed, and how it may be transformed within the context of psychotherapy. Current work in the field suggests the importance of further reflection on the epistemological and ethical issues raised by contemporary narrativist conceptions of psychotherapeutic engagement, with implications for both the development of psychodynamic theory and professional practice.

    View record details
  • The bioactive potential of New Zealand farmed abalone (Haliotis iris)

    Serpes, Craig

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industries are always in search for new bioactive molecules. Though synthetic compounds can be constructed by just studying their intended targets, natural sources can provide an abundance of unique chemical structures that are hard to replicate. These industries utilise the vast biodiversity offered by the ocean, by screening various plants, animals and microbes for bioactive compounds. Marine molluscs, especially those of commercial value, have consistently been shown to contain bioactives. A plethora of bioactives have been isolated from the meat, blood and shell, of commercially viable abalone species. These compounds typically demonstrate antioxidant, antiaging, antihypertensive, antimicrobial or anticancer activities. However, there is a lack of biochemical or pharmacological data on New Zealand endemic black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) or ‘paua’. So the present study was prompted to primarily determine the bioactive potential of farmed paua. Solvent extraction with either methanol, ethanol, acetone, n-butanol, ethyl acetate, hexane or hot water, was used on grounded paua meat or shell powder. The gravimetrically measured dry yield of these extracts, indicated that a 90 % yield could be achieved for the meat using acetone. For the shell extracts, methanol achieved a yield of 4.5 %. However, neither hot water extracted (HWE)-meat or -shell extracts surpassed 1 %. Fermentation and enzyme hydrolysis processes improved HWE-meat by a factor of 160 or more. FT-IR analysis indicated the presence of uronic acid and the absence of sulphate groups for meat and shell extracts, which were also respectively supported by the carbazole and barium chloride-gelatin methods. The Bradford assay revealed that HWE-meat contained approximately 17.07 mg/ml uncharacterized protein. Fermentation or enzyme hydrolysis broke this down to less than 1 mg/ml. The blood contained only 0.28 mg/ml haemocyanin protein. The DPPH, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and ferrozine assays respectively revealed the free radical scavenging, reducing and metal chelating activities of paua. The solvent-derived meat extracts had weak scavenging activities, but showed low to moderate reducing and metal activities. The measured antioxidant activities of HWE-meat were increased via fermentation or enzyme hydrolysis. The supernatant and pellet of the waste blood, as well as the solventderived shell extracts, demonstrated chelation activity as strong as EDTA (positive control). The blood pellet and supernatant also showed antiaging properties by inhibiting collagenase activity by 59.7 and 61.58 % respectively. HWE-meat and methanol-derived meat extracts were stronger, measuring 71.27 and 68.22 % respectively. Lastly, disc and well-diffusion assays were used to determine the potential antibacterial properties of paua. However, none of the meat, shell or blood extracts had any antibacterial affect against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia and Streptococcus pyogenes. In conclusion, New Zealand farmed paua has antioxidant and anti-collagenase properties which could be utilised in antiaging creams. Additionally, the meat extracts could also be utilised in health supplements. Future studies on these extracts is required to determine if pH adjustments influence activity. Purification and structural elucidation of the bioactive compounds in paua is also required.

    View record details
  • Training gender: Discursive analysis

    Lobrot, Sarah (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The aim of this thesis is to examine the discursive practices that have arisen from gender training in peace operations with the following research questions: “how is the discourse of ‘gender-awareness’ constructed through UN gender-training material for peacekeepers? How does this discourse contribute to further shaping representations of gender, violence and security?” To help answer my research questions, I proceed to a discourse analysis of the gender-training package created in 2001 by the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations (UN DPKO) called Gender and Peacekeeping In-Mission Training. The analytical frameworks chosen for this research paper are Michel Foucault’s notion of discourse and Laura Shepherd’s ‘analytical strategies’. Using Foucault’s understanding of discourse, this paper examines the social practices of gender in the military field (peace and security): how are these social practices embedded in knowledge (in what ways are the notions of gender approached? Do they form a universal truth?)? How does this discourse act through and upon subjects (male and female peacekeepers)? Building on Shepherd’s work, this thesis seeks to interrogate and deconstruct the concept of ‘gender-awareness’ in the UN training material around three dominant discursive sites (called Shepherd’s ‘nodal points’): [1] ‘how the relations between women and men are structured’ (gender), [2] ‘how they are affected by violent conflict’ (gender and violence), and [3] ‘how the mere presence of peacekeepers further impacts on those relations’ (gender, violence and security). The literature review first addresses the construction of feminities and masculinities in war and peace. It demonstrates that women are constructed as being ‘peacemakers’ and that their feminity is shaped as being ‘peaceful’ and as ‘mother of the nation’ whilst masculinities are shaped through war. Secondly, it looks at the ways in which gender has been integrated (or mainstreamed) into UN policies: showing gender as a synonym for women. The research discovers that ‘gender-awareness’ as a discourse in the UN gender-training material is composed of: [1] gender that equates ‘sex’ and ‘women’, [2] the dichotomy between women positioned as ‘victims’ and men as ‘heroes’ (expected normal behaviour) and [3] universals such as women’s rights, which ignore cultural contexts in their approach to gender. The paper also further investigates the discourse of ‘gender-awareness training’, which I argue has been established as a ‘tool’ in the military field, but not as a critical concept. This tool seeks to produce understanding (knowledge, i.e. what is produced as truth) of gender, violence and security and to regulate the agents’ (i.e. male peacekeepers’) behaviours. These findings are important as they add to the literature which demonstrates how gender is de-politicised while sex is politicised and how women are excluded from both the realm of peace (security) and the realm of war (violence). It reinforces the idea that discourse is repeated and that for the UN to (re-)think gender in meaningful and creative ways, it becomes necessary to deconstruct the way power structures are shared.

    View record details
  • Cultural components of early childhood teacher education programmes: Reflection for lecturers

    Afrin, Tahera

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Early childhood teacher education programmes are offered by Tertiary Education Organisations (TEOs) where teaching-learning takes place between the student teachers and lecturers. Cultural components, in this study, are the references made from the culture by the student teachers and the lecturers, while implementing the teacher education curriculum. While there are a number of research projects related to diversity in early childhood education with regard to children, very few are from the perspective of teacher education. This study was intended to contribute to this gap. The research objectives were to discover the cultural components of early childhood teacher education programmes and to explore the impacts of these components on teaching and learning. Under a socio-cultural theoretical framework, twelve lecturers from three TEOs were interviewed. Three cohorts of student teachers from the same TEOs participated in focus groups. Using manual thematic coding, nine broad areas of cultural components were identified. These are bicultural contexts of Aotearoa, ethnicities and multi-culturalism, individual identities, cross-cultural interactions, comfort zone, female majority, socio-economic struggles, spirituality and technology. Student teachers reported feeling empowered when they shared components from their culture. Sharing of these components were found helpful for perception building. Lecturers acknowledged these components as they believed these contributed to their emotional and professional growth. The findings were applied to a Teaching as Inquiry model for developing a reusable reflection framework for the lecturers of early childhood teacher education.

    View record details
  • New Zealand's Statutory Compensation Scheme for Treatment Injuries: a Critical Analysis of its Ethical Premises

    Skaler, Tanya (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    View record details
  • Extending research on technostress: exploring the moderating effects of techno-savvy and the proactive personality on the relationship between technostress and job satisfaction and stress

    Ye, Qian (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Technostress experienced by individuals at workplaces has increased in last ten years. Exploring technostress in depth is crucial. The present study extended technostress research by focusing on the moderating roles of techno-savvy and the proactive personality. Techno-savvy and the proactive personality were proposed to moderate the relationships between the five techno-dimensions (techno-overload, techno-invasion, techno-complexity, techno-insecurity and techno-uncertainty) and job satisfaction. They were also proposed to moderate the relationships between the five techno-dimensions and job stress. An online survey was adopted to recruit participants. There were 140 participants agreed to participate the survey. However, there were 112 participants completed the online survey without missing any questions. The multiple moderation regression analysis was conducted. The result suggested that for individuals who were more techno-savvy, their job satisfaction was shown to be less affected by techno-overload and techno-insecurity than those who were less techno-savvy. The result also suggested that for those who were more techno-savvy, their job stress was shown to be more affected by techno-invasion than those who were less techno-savvy. The proposed moderating role of the proactive personality was not found in the study. The present study can be extended by exploring other techno-dimensions, such as techno-change, techno-addiction and techno-reliability.

    View record details
  • Does dissociation produce shame? : an exploration of adults with sexual abuse histories

    Schultz, Abbie Louise (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Studies suggest a causal interplay between shame and dissociation. Increased shame in response to dissociation has only been indirectly assessed in non-clinical populations. This study employed dissociation induction techniques and aimed to examine if exposure to dissociation increased feelings of state shame. It also sought to clarify the findings of McKeogh et al. (2018), who found shame increased only when dissociation occurred when with a close friend. Two hypotheses were generated. First, that more shame would be reported following a dissociation induction than a relaxation induction, and second that more shame would increase more following dissociation occurring with a close other or acquaintance than when alone. Participants were adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (n=28), recruited via specific NGO services in Christchurch and Auckland, New Zealand. An induction procedure and a dissociation recall procedure, and two shame outcomes (i.e. state shame scale and single item measure) were employed. The inductions failed to induce state dissociation. However, participants indicated peri-experimental dissociation spontaneously occurring. Median split analyses of this spontaneous peri-experimental dissociation found a significant relationship between higher dissociation and state shame following the induction procedure, but not following the dissociation recall procedure. There was no significant impact of dissociation on single item self-report shame measure. Reasons for shame during the procedures were explored. Analysis suggests that being flawed and exposed were central perceptions related to activation shame. Findings suggest that increased state shame was a result of acute spontaneous dissociative experiences, making more specific the relationship between shame and dissociation. A trend towards more dissociation following the induction procedure compared to the dissociation recall was indicated, suggesting that the intensity of acute dissociation may be a key regulator of shame activation. Future research should seek to replicate these findings in a larger and more diverse population group.

    View record details
  • Creating and evaluating New Zealand-accented synthesised voices using model talker voice banking technology

    Westley, Michelle Beverley (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Communication, in all its modalities, is an important way for individuals to express themselves and connect with others. An individual’s own voice portrays many aspects of their personality and identity. Individuals who have conditions which reduce the ability to speak using their natural voice face a lack of personalisation and customisation of the synthetic voices available for speech generating devices. This may lead to a decrease in device acceptance. In New Zealand, there are currently no locally-accented voices for speech generating device users. Voice banking is the process of recording one’s voice to create a personalised synthetic voice for use on speech generating device. This study explored the experiences of those who voice bank, and investigated the quality of the resulting voices. Eight healthy adults and two healthy children participated in the ModelTalker voice banking process and completed a questionnaire to gather the voice donors’ perceptions of the experience. Fifteen unfamiliar listeners assessed perceptive aspects of the synthetic voices created. The measures used included the Speech Intelligibility Test, intelligibility and naturalness visual analogue scales, and age and gender identification tasks. Personalised synthetic voices were successfully created using the ModelTalker system. The voice donors reported positive experiences and identified multiple strengths and challenges of the ModelTalker voice banking system, which were consistent with previous literature (Creer, Green, & Cunningham, 2009; Hyppa-Martin, Friese, & Barnes, 2017; Jackson et al., 2017). The synthesised voices were found to have intelligibilities similar to those previously reported for synthetic speech, and age and gender estimations followed patterns reported in the literature (Cerrato, Falcone, & Paoloni, 2000; Jreige, Patel, & Bunnell, 2009; Von Berg, Panorska, Uken, & Qeadan, 2009; Waller, Eriksson, & Sorqvist, 2015). Future directions for this area should include perceptions of voice banking experiences for clinical populations such as those with progressive speech loss. Personalisation of the voice banking process for the New Zealand accent should continue, as should the creation of a fully synthetic te reo Māori voice. The voices created by this study are available for New Zealand speech generating device users who want a locally-accented voice on their device. With the availability of these voices, this thesis has addressed the lack of New Zealand-accented synthetic voices available for speech generating device users.

    View record details
  • Full metal jacket : challenges to reducing gun violence in Obama’s America

    Dunn, Seamus Patrick (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    According to the non-advocacy Gun Violence Archive, more than ninety Americans are killed by guns every single day. Although definitions vary, on average, there is a mass shooting incident where four or more people are shot every single day. On average, a gun is brought into an American school by a child every single day. The response to this epidemic of firearms violence is partisan and intensely polarised, compounded by issues of race relations, mental health, socioeconomic status, and cultural values. Measures to implement gun control have been met by forceful political opposition, fuelled by a gun lobby hostile to greater restrictions on firearms. The evolution of gun control policy in the Obama administration followed a fascinating trajectory. Early on, the administration had a calculated distaste for engaging with the issue, and Obama paid little more than lip service to gun control early in his tenure. Following a mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, in 2012, the newly re-elected president vowed to make the reduction of gun violence a ‘central issue’ of his second term. Continued violence, and a series of incidents culminating in a mass shooting at a nightclub in Orlando, Florida, heightened the Administration’s response, though Obama’s proposals met stringent opposition in Congress and amongst gun rights advocates. This thesis examines the public policy issue of gun violence throughout the Obama presidency, chronicling the administration’s engagement with a deadly spate of mass shootings and rising trends of firearms fatalities. It addresses the challenges of enacting legislation or authorising executive initiatives in the face of what I define as the ‘Full Metal Jacket’ - a model representing an openly antagonistic Congress, the powerful pro-gun lobby, and the gun culture that permeates American society today. It also considers the dynamics of Presidential-Congressional relations. Here I make the case that Obama’s efforts to pass gun control legislation exemplifies the inherent rivalry between the two branches of government as institutionally designed by the Framers of the United States Constitution. The thesis concludes by find that Obama was largely unsuccessful in overcoming the challenge posed by the Full Metal Jacket, thus contributing to our understanding of Presidential-Congressional relations theory in the context of the gun debate.

    View record details