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  • An observational study of film making as a classroom activity : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of M.A. in Education at Massey University

    Clayton, Gray

    Thesis
    Massey University

    In recent years, schools and educationalists have shown an increasing awareness of the function of educational media in the classroom. While much educational media is concerned with presenting or displaying information as an aid to learning, there has also been an increasing awareness that film (or television) production can play a useful part in a school curriculum. (See, for example, Screen Education (1963). A wealth of instructional texts on film use abounds, but almost all of it is concerned with prescribing appropriate methods for 'handling the hardware' in order to utilise a group of novices in producing a film. (Lownds, 1968; Roberts & Sharples, 1971 etc).[FROM INTRODUCTION]

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  • The problem of misrepresentation meets connectionist representations : a thesis submitted for the degree of Master of Philosophy

    Cash, Mason

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Page 162 is missing from the original copy

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  • The population dynamics of bovine tuberculosis in possums : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Mathematics at Massey University

    Sleeman, Maree

    Thesis
    Massey University

    With the recent outcry concerning the spread of Bovine Tuberculosis throughout the New Zealand Possum population, there is an increasing need to study some of the diverse modelling approaches to this problem. This thesis centres on modelling the epidemics of this disease using two and three-dimensional dynamical systems, which describe the change in the possum population and change in the number of individuals that are diseased. Introductory material is covered in Chapter One, which reports on the first, through to some of the most recent research completed in the area of disease epidemics. A review of the previous model of possum tuberculosis is also introduced. Chapter Two looks at the effects on the dynamics of the model of changing the recovery curve parameter, which measures the degree of recovery of possums following a control operation. Detailed steady-state analysis is carried out on the system and local stability determined. In Chapter Three, a three-dimensional model is investigated that allows for a latent period following infection of disease. Instead of a possum being able to spread the disease immediately after becoming infected itself, there is a latent time until the disease becomes contagious. An in-depth description is given as to how this model originates, then steady-state analysis is explored, and finally local stability of the steady-states is examined. Restricting the contact rate of an individual possum with the rest of the population is the model studied in Chapter Four. Rather than a possum being able to come in contact with the whole population in a set time, as was the situation in the previous models, the number of contacts is fixed at some realistic value for the given time period. Steady-state analysis is carried out for this new model, along with the local stability analysis. Chapter Five looks at the various models and how they relate to the model in Chapter Two. as this model is the base for the subsequent ones. Computer generated plots are examined in order to display the numerical differences between the models. A brief comparison is given between these and some other models in the literature, and concludes by discussing some of the advantages and disadvantages of the various models. Finally, Chapter Six discusses the need for implementing spatially distributed models in the future, to allow for patchiness within the population.

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  • Unfreezing change as three steps: Rethinking Kurt Lewin’s legacy for change management

    Bridgman, T. (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Kurt Lewin’s ‘changing as three steps’ (unfreezingchangingrefreezing) is regarded by many as the classic or fundamental approach to managing change. Lewin has been criticized by scholars for over-simplifying the change process and has been defended by others against such charges. However, what has remained unquestioned is the model’s foundational significance. It is sometimes traced (if it is traced at all) to the first article ever published in Human Relations. Based on a comparison of what Lewin wrote about changing as three steps with how this is presented in later works, we argue that he never developed such a model and it took form after his death. We investigate how and why ‘changing as three steps’ came to be understood as the foundation of the fledgling subfield of change management and to influence change theory and practice to this day, and how questioning this supposed foundation can encourage innovation.

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  • Aura of the Past: The Rehabilitation of ‘Puhipuhi Mercury Mine’

    Jackson, Nicola (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Through the development of the case site ‘Puhipuhi Mercury Mines’ this design led thesis presents the fusion of ruins with new design, aiming to rehabilitate the site and its history. The delicate nature of the site’s past and its remaining relics present the potential to curate a history. The method of integrating old and new design to reestablish value is explored. Puhipuhi mine has a negative reputation today. Documented memories focus on the mine's industrial downfall and remaining areas of contamination. This has dampened its prospects. The case site has remained dormant since its closure in 1945 (Butcher). With political controversy surrounding the site, and with natural growth dominating the remains, it has become virtually inaccessible. The challenge presented by the characteristics of the site poses the following research question: ‘How can the fusion of old and new architecture add value to a forgotten and contaminated historic site as a means to preserve its history and rehabilitate it for current day use?’ Abandoned elements which lay dormant in our landscape have the opportunity to be valued as iconic elements in New Zealand's history, yet we are hesitant to seek appreciation for the narratives of their past and as a result we are presented with the possibility of historic loss. The site's processing plant presents a need to preserve its architectural heritage and document its history as a means to re mediate the damage of contamination and the devalue that has generated since the closure of the program. Attention is needed to establish it as the beautiful landscape, intriguing remains and educational opportunity that it has the potential to become. Through the establishment of age, historic and use values, new programmes are constructed: a toxicity museum and laboratory.

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  • The Limits and possibilities of history: How a wider, deeper and more engaged understanding of business history can foster innovative thinking.

    Bridgman, T. (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Calls for greater diversity in management research, education and practice have increased in recent years, driven by a sense of fairness and ethical responsibility, but also because research shows that greater diversity of inputs into management processes can lead to greater innovation. But how can greater diversity of thought be encouraged when educating management students, beyond the advocacy of affirmative action and relating the research on the link between multiplicity and creativity? One way is to think again about how we introduce the subject. Introductory textbooks often begin by relaying the history of management. What is presented is a very limited mono-cultural and linear view of how management emerged. This article highlights the limits this view outlines for initiates in contrast to the histories of other comparable fields (medicine and architecture), and discusses how a wider, deeper and more engaged understanding of history can foster thinking differently.

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  • Political participation during conflict: a case study of the conflict areas in Songkhla and Pattani provinces of Thailand

    Chantra, Thanikun (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis examines the relationship between conflict and violence in the Deep South of Thailand and the political participation of people in the conflict areas by focusing on both electoral and non-electoral modes of participation. In this thesis, we hypothesized that first, conflict leads to a greater desire for peaceful political participation. Second, people in a conflict zone are more likely to participate in politics in other forms, including electoral and non-electoral ways. Third, there is a relationship between level of violence and level of political participation: the same concerns that lead to violence also lead to participation; people’s experiences of the conflict and violence have an additional impact on their desire for political participation, thus, high levels of violence correlate with high levels of peaceful participation. Fourth, a weak civil society failing to promote popular interests and resist state domination will lead to more conflict. Finally, a strong state preventing demands and closing channels for peaceful political participation will lead to more conflict. In this thesis, we explore political participation through three channels; 1) political participation through elections which includes political participation of both voters and politicians in parliamentary, senate, and local elections, 2) political participation through the state which focuses on three main state actors, security officials, justice officials, and local authorities, and 3) political participation through civil society, examining five different groups of civil society actors, including the youth, women, business, religious leaders, and the media. Following this, the thesis draws a comparison among three different levels of conflict areas, which are non violence, low violence, and high violence conflict areas in This thesis examines the relationship between conflict and violence in the Deep South of Thailand and the political participation of people in the conflict areas by focusing on both electoral and non-electoral modes of participation. In this thesis, we hypothesized that first, conflict leads to a greater desire for peaceful political participation. Second, people in a conflict zone are more likely to participate in politics in other forms, including electoral and non-electoral ways. Third, there is a relationship between level of violence and level of political participation: the same concerns that lead to violence also lead to participation; people’s experiences of the conflict and violence have an additional impact on their desire for political participation, thus, high levels of violence correlate with high levels of peaceful participation. Fourth, a weak civil society failing to promote popular interests and resist state domination will lead to more conflict. Finally, a strong state preventing demands and closing channels for peaceful political participation will lead to more conflict. In this thesis, we explore political participation through three channels; 1) political participation through elections which includes political participation of both voters and politicians in parliamentary, senate, and local elections, 2) political participation through the state which focuses on three main state actors, security officials, justice officials, and local authorities, and 3) political participation through civil society, examining five different groups of civil society actors, including the youth, women, business, religious leaders, and the media. Following this, the thesis draws a comparison among three different levels of conflict areas, which are non violence, low violence, and high violence conflict areas in Pattani and Songkhla, in order to discover if there are any linkages between the levels of conflict in the Deep South and the level of political participation of people in the region. In this thesis, we see that conflict can be seen as a form of participation, albeit a violent form. The conflict and violence creates a greater desire for people to be more active in politics through peaceful means as they seek to reduce suffering from the insurgent violence. This study finds that people in the conflict areas of the Deep South are more likely to participate through many channels when they perceive incentives are high enough to overcome risks. The thesis reveals that the levels of violence and levels of some forms of political participation are correlated: the more frequent the violent incidents, the higher the level of voter turnout. The roles of civil society are also increasing in the Deep South, even though many CSO activities are controlled by the state. State control, through either funding or coercion, decreases meaningful participation and makes some participation with the state illegitimate, for many in the Deep South. When people realize that their participation is not free will, they may turn to violence as they think it is the only means to resist and freely express their opposing political views. However, other people participate, despite state control, because participation can be a useful tool for challenging and resisting the state, but in peaceful way.

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  • Investigating the evolution of mRNA : ncRNA avoidance in escherichia coli.

    Perry, Jasper J. (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    It is presumed that the levels of mRNA and protein should correlate relatively strongly however this correlation is often quite poor. Two main explanations have been invoked to explain this discrepancy, messenger RNA (mRNA) secondary structure and codon usage bias, however, these explanations only account for around 40% of the total variation in expression levels. More recently a new model has been proposed that explains more of the variation in mRNA and protein levels than either codon usage or mRNA secondary structure. The mRNA: ncRNA avoidance model, presents evidence that non-specific interactions between non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and mRNAs significantly impact the discrepancy between mRNA and protein abundances. The model suggests that these crosstalk interactions between mRNAs and ncRNAs impact levels of mRNA translation, consequently genes that are highly-expressed demonstrate avoidance of such interactions. Here I present a study that investigates how highly expressed mRNAs may have evolved to avoid unintentional interactions with the abundant ncRNAs in the cell. Synonymous variants of the araC gene of E. coli were designed for increased interaction with core ncRNAs. These alterations were predicted to lead to down regulation of the AraC protein and subsequently impact fitness. We hypothesised that evolution of avoidance could then be driven by creating a selective pressure for high expression of araC, such that the affinity of the designed araC mRNAs for ncRNAs would be lessened to increase translation levels. The findings here demonstrate that the alterations made to the araC variants, which are in line with the avoidance model, have an undetectable effect on fitness in E. coli. Furthering our understanding of how this phenomenon may have evolved has significant implications for the biology of RNA-RNA interaction.

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  • Safety outcomes associated with new employee classification : the impact of expectations and experience.

    Drysdale, Jessica (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Health and safety in New Zealand is an important issue in many aspects of organisational functioning, the intention of this research is to contribute to this field. This research focuses on new employees, and how their different experiences and safety expectations may lead to various safety outcomes. This study analysed 5 hypotheses to extract evidence to support differences between 4 new employee types. These employee types are classified as school leavers, career transition, career focused and occupational focused, which are predicted to differ in terms of previous workplace experience and safety expectations. The hypotheses focused on 5 important outcome variables. These were; speed of familiarization, perceived job risk and safety risk, met safety expectations, accident/injury frequency and safety communication frequency which were predicted to vary across the different new employee groups. Results showed partial support for hypotheses involving speed of familiarisation, met safety expectations and safety communication frequency. No considerable support was found for perceived job risk, safety risk and accident/injury frequency. Implications for organisations and induction processes are included in the discussion.

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  • A qualitative and quantitative examination of alternative silvicultural regimes in the South Canterbury foothills with reference to the evaluation of climatic factors that may affect these regimes

    Ledgard, David Robert (1982)

    Bachelors thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An investigation into the qualitative and quantitative aspects of alternative silvicultural regimes Pinus radiate (D. Don) was undertaken in the South Canterbury foothills. Data was collected from Geraldine State Forest for carrying out simulations on the Silvicultural Stand model (“SILMOD”), recently developed by the Radiata Pine Task Force. From the simulation, the potential of the various silvicultural regimes were then compared. In addition to examining the various silvicultural regimes, the effects of wind and snow on trees at Geraldine were also evaluated. Local data on the history of windthrow and snowfall were studied, and a more comprehensive analysis of trial C453 used to evaluate these effects. These studies indicated that the interim regime, designed to meet the Director-General’s 16.5 cm. D.O.S. criterion, was superior to the former Canterbury foothills regime in terms of both profitability and achievable wood quality. The use of 4 lift pruning also appeared to have considerable potential. The level of final crop stocking was found to have a significant effect on the profitability levels achieved. Using 200 stems/ha. Gave consistently higher returns than the 300 stems/ha. currently being used in Geraldine State Forest. However, this higher stocking appears to be necessary to prove an ‘insurance’ against loss by windthrow and snow damage within the forest.

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  • Provenance and porosity analysis of the Greymouth Basin, New Zealand.

    Steadman, Ryan David (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The coal and lacustrine deposits of the Greymouth Basin have been explored for their economic potential. However, the associated coarse clastic sediments have not been as thoroughly investigated. Thus, there is continuing uncertainty about the provenance of the sediments and tectonic setting of the basin. This study uses conglomerate clast counts, sandstone point counts and geochemical analyses of clasts to examine the provenance of the Paparoa Group. Results show a dramatic eastern vs western lithological difference with conglomerates primarily on the west side of the basin, sandstones on the east, and mudstones inter-fingering both. The clasts encountered were predominantly metasedimentary with granite, hornfels, and rare unusual volcanic clasts. Aplite was recorded in the lowermost conglomerates and faded out with the introduction of granitic clasts in the middle Paparoa Group. Trace element geochemistry on basaltic clasts in the basin shows a tholeiitic composition, a typical rift signature. Geochemistry analysis of the granites was inconsistent with either Rahu or Karamea Suite granites and best fits a new A-type granite, low barium (<5 to 80ppm) and Strontium (18 to 42 ppm), located somewhere offshore. The sandstone porosity was variable ranging from 1% to 37% with grainsize, location and stratigraphic position in the basin. The degree of weathering in the sandstones was also variable with feldspar alteration ranging from minor to major clays (5% to 30%). Provenance and Geochemistry analysis show the sediment sources of the basin changed throughout time with results showing two main sources, an eastern granitic source, likely Buckland granite and the western Greenland Group metasedimentary sources. This contradicts some previous interpretations. Clast counts also show evidence for the un-roofing of a granitic source with the presence of aplite clasts lower in the basin conglomerates replaced by granite clasts stratigraphically higher. The volcanic clasts are evidence of active volcanism in the area which could be attributed to the rift setting. Porosity in the sandstones was variable with some good hydrocarbon reservoir potential. The lack of trap and cap rock in the Greymouth Basin being an issue. The Takutai Basin offshore contains similar sediments and

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  • In Silico analysis of flow and dispersion in ordered porous media.

    Dolamore, Fabian (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The work herein investigates exciting new prospects for practical chromatographic systems which may be achieved using the rapidly evolving technology; three-dimensional printing. Previous studies in the literature have suggested that ordered chromatographic media can provide advantages over the traditional randomly packed column, an idea which is elaborated upon in this work. Numerical modelling coupled with high performance computing was used to investigate flow in ordered porous media via the Lattice Boltzmann method, to simulate the propagation and dispersion of solute species within these systems. Practical chromatographic metrics were derived from this model and used to contrast various media and analyse practical chromatographic phenomena. There are four distinct bodies of work presented in this thesis. The first illustrates the chromatographic performance of ordered packed beds when using several different particle shapes, in various structural configurations. This chapter also highlights the influence of flow tortuosity in ordered packings and how this variable can be used to estimate system performance. The second focus is “wall effects” in confined ordered packing and how this detrimental phenomenon can be mitigated using “embedded” column walls, a prospect made possible via three-dimensional printing. The penultimate chapter considers ordered monolithic structures, more specifically, triply periodic minimal surfaces (TMPS) and a range of manipulations which can be used to optimise chromatographic performance of these structures. The fourth chapter further develops the model to observe full chromatographic separations by defining a permeable stationary phase and including adsorption and desorption behaviour of the solute species in the presence of an eluent. This facilitated systematic studies of practical chromatographic variables and laid the foundations for future work, using this model.

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  • ICT in rural primary schools in Nepal : context and teachers’ experiences.

    Maski Rana, Karna Bahadur (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis investigates and reports aspects of Nepal’s progress in implementing ICT in education in rural primary schools. It examines the government’s policy for ICT in education and the context in which it needs to be translated into practice. That context includes the development of successive policies and curriculum plans, the aspirational goals for ICT in education, the international literature about ICT that influences policy, the education system of Nepal, the varying ways teachers are appointed and trained, the role of NGOs in providing infrastructures and training, characteristics and resources of the rural context and the resources within rural schools and communities. It also includes the impact of the devastating 2015 earthquake on rural life generally, and on schools’ capacity to teach with ICT in particular. Central to the study are the experiences and perceptions of sixteen rural primary teachers from five schools across Nepal. The study foregrounds their practices of using ICT and their understanding of the uses of ICT. It also examines their experiences of training to use ICT, the resources they have available and how they use them, and the impact of the earthquake on their lives and work. In addition, it reports their reflections about the wider aspects of educational development, appointment of teachers and teacher training. The study investigates the development of Nepal’s ICT education policy and its connection with international ICT development. It examines how the Government of Nepal works to integrate ICT in education and the potential risks that are involved in the current strategy. It also reports a great gap between Nepal’s current practices of ICT in rural primary schools and western development of ICT in educational practices. This is a qualitative case study based on interpretive design. A sociocultural approach prompted investigation of the context and the gathering of thick data through interviews, open conversations with the participants, observation of participants’ teaching activities with digital technology and the review of relevant policies, reports and other archived documents, open publications and websites.

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  • Haptic contact in immersive 360° cinematic environment.

    Sasikumar, Prasanth (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    We perceive the environment around us using the five senses that are categorized as visual, auditory, haptic, olfactory and gustatory. A considerable amount of work has been done in the audio-visual domain compared to the rest. With new head-mounted displays in the consumer market, immersive VR is becoming ubiquitous and by adding additional sensory feedback, we aim to enhance the user experience and increase presence in Virtual Environments. There has been previous research on haptic interfaces. This thesis explored how haptic feedback in the form of wearable feedback (vest based) and non-wearable (ground vibrations and wind simulations) interfaces influences the feeling of presence in 360° cinematic environments. Prototypes of wearable and non-wearable interfaces were designed as part of a simulation system to experience a 360° cinematic experience with feedback. A user study was carried out to investigate how the sense of presence varies due to the inclusion of haptic feedback. The study also compared wearable and non-wearable interfaces in terms of sense of presence. From the analysis of the results, though we were not able to find any significant difference in the sense of presence between wearable and non-wearable feedback, a significant improvement in sense of presence, realism, involvement and overall immersion was observed with the inclusion of haptic feedback to the 360° cinematic environment.

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  • Consumers' attitudes and behaviours toward the sponsors of a football club.

    Balcazar Cruz, Rodrigo Sebastian (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis aims to investigate whether people’s attitudes and behaviours toward certain types of commercial brands change when these, become a sponsoring partner of a well-known international football club. Specifically, this thesis uses the context of the football industry to examine whether sponsoring a football team has any effect on individuals’ attitudes toward the sponsors and purchase intentions of commercial brands. A full-factorial design experiment is the approach chosen for this research. The research will employ an experiment 4x2 between subjects, full factorial design to test what effect different sponsors’ brands such as functional, innovative, high and low involvement with and/or without an associated to a football club have on individuals’ attitudes, behaviours and purchase intentions toward the commercial brands. Further, in the experiment participants were exposed to one of the eight possible conditions, which were presented as modified print advertisements. A total of 240 responses were collected through online convenience sampling on social platforms including Facebook, Pollpool and SurveyCircle. Factorial ANCOVA and linear regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesised effects. The results indicated that the type of sponsor does not affect attitude toward the sponsor and purchase intentions. It is also showed that attachment to a club has a significant effect on attitude toward the sponsor. Moreover, being associated with a football club affects the consumers’ purchase intentions. Both theoretically and practical implications of these findings, alongside directions for future research, are discussed.

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  • The perspectives of physiotherapists in Canterbury on the use of electronic health records.

    Chen, Cheng-Wei (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The preferential use of electronic health records (EHRs) over other types of health record systems within healthcare settings in the 21st century is well documented (Buyl & Nyssen, 2009; Hailey, Yu, & Munyisia, 2014; Latha, Murthy, Sunitha, 2012; Menachemi & Collum, 2011; Walker & Clendon, 2016); however, there is a lack of research on the perspectives of EHR end-users, such as physiotherapists, towards EHRs, especially in New Zealand. The literature review provided insight on the importance of identifying the many perspectives that different end-user health professionals have towards the implementation and use of EHRs. Factors that will ultimately lead to the success of the New Zealand Government’s plan to introduce a national EHR system consistent with the Digital Health 2020 strategic plan are identifying what health professionals perceive as advantageous and disadvantageous in EHR use, designing an EHR with the perspectives of health professionals in mind, and involving the many health professions during EHR implementation processes. The objective of this study was to explore the perspectives of the Canterbury-based physiotherapists on the implementation and use of EHRs. The study also investigated other potential factors including age, awareness of the Digital Health 2020 strategic plan, computer usage, educational background, and the sector of healthcare that physiotherapists are working in that may influence their perspectives towards EHRs.

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  • Graphical security modelling and assessment for the internet of things.

    Ge, Mengmeng

    Thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is enabling innovative applications in various domains and offering convenience in different aspects of people’s life. Characterised by the constrained resources, heterogeneous techniques and wide-scale structure, the IoT introduces a variety of known and unknown vulnerabilities that can be exploited by the attackers to break into the systems to conduct malicious activities (e.g., steal sensitive data, compromise the IoT devices). Therefore, protecting the IoT to defend against the potential attacks is of critical importance. The motivation of the thesis lies within the field of the security modelling and assessment for the IoT to mitigate the impact of potential attacks. Current research on the IoT security modelling is very limited due to the pioneering features of the IoT. Besides, there is no previous work on constructing a formal graphical security model (e.g., Attack Graphs (AGs) [127], Attack Trees (ATs) [122]) for the IoT. Additionally, traditional defence mechanisms may not work well in securing the IoT due to the existence of the forever-day vulnerabilities (i.e., non-patchable vulnerabilities) in the IoT devices. Lastly, there lacks an approach that can combine different defence mechanisms in an optimal way to increase the security of the IoT at a reasonable cost. In order to address the above security issues, we have three goals in the thesis, which are: (i) to develop the security assessment framework for the IoT that can model and assess the security of the IoT; (ii) to develop the proactive defence mechanisms to address the security issues arising from the non-patchable vulnerabilities in the IoT devices; and (iii) to develop an approach to optimise the combinations of different defence mechanisms to improve the security of the IoT under the budget constraint. To achieve goal (i), we propose a framework for security modelling and assessment of the IoT, named the security assessment framework for the IoT. The driving idea behind the framework is to mitigate the impact of potential attacks in the IoT and increase the IoT security level via the graphical security model along with the evaluation metrics. Generally, the framework consists of five phases: 1) data processing, 2) security model generation, 3) security visualization, 4) security analysis, and 5) model updates. By using the framework, we can identify potential attack paths in the IoT, analyse the security of the IoT using the well-defined security metrics, and assess the effectiveness of different defence mechanisms. Three different IoT deployment scenarios are used to evaluate the framework, which are the smart home, wearable healthcare monitoring and environment monitoring. The analysis results show the capabilities of the proposed framework for capturing potential attack paths in both small-scale and large-scale IoT networks and assessing the effectiveness of the device-centric and network-level defence mechanisms on mitigating the impact of attacks. To achieve goal (ii), we propose to change the attack surface of the IoT to increase the attack effort with the existence of the non-patchable vulnerabilities in the IoT devices. With the support of software-defined networking (SDN), we develop two proactive defence mechanisms that reconfigure the network topology of the IoT. We implement the reconfiguration algorithms and integrate them with the security assessment framework. We analyse how the security and performance change when the proposed mechanisms are deployed through simulations. The results show our proactive defence mechanisms in the SD-IoT effectively increase the attack effort, while maintaining the performance in terms of the average shortest path length. with three evaluation metrics to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed defence mechanisms. We apply the multi-objective genetic algorithm to compute the Pareto optimal deployments of the defence mechanisms to maximise the security and minimise the deployment cost. We present a case study to show the feasibility of the proposed approach and to provide the defenders with various ways to choose the optimal deployments of the defence mechanisms for the IoT. We also compare the runtime and accuracy of the genetic algorithm against the exhaustive search algorithm. The results show that the genetic algorithm is much more efficient to compute a good spread of the deployments compared with the exhaustive search algorithm when the scale of the IoT increases. In summary, the contributions of the thesis are: (1) the development of the security assessment framework for the IoT to improve the security of the IoT and to mitigate the impact of potential attacks; (2) the evaluation of the framework via various use cases; (3) the development of the defence mechanisms and reconfiguration algorithms that change the attack surface of the IoT under the support of SDN to increase the security of the IoT with the non-patchable vulnerabilities; (4) the development of the approach to compute the optimal deployments of the defence mechanisms for the IoT under the budget constraint.

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  • Engineering biodegradable materials with bio-inspired topographies.

    Hashemi, Azadeh (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Attachment, proliferation and gene expression of anchorage-dependant cells can be influenced by their surroundings, extra-cellular matrix, and the chemistry and morphology of the substrate they adhere to. In-vitro cells are cultured on flat surfaces in a culture flask or a petri dish. In-vivo, they grow next to other cells and tissues, and they are influenced by them and their extra-cellular matrices. In order to study cells in the laboratory, one main focus has been to mimic the natural environment for the cells, as much as possible. One way to increase the similarities between the in-vitro environment and in-vivo, is to replicate micro- and nanoscale surface features or a 3D imprint of cells onto the cell-culture substrates. This work investigates the fabrication of protein-based biodegradable films as cell-culture substrates, replicated with micro- and nanoscale regular surface features and imprints of cells. Optimisation of these films, which are made of casein (the main protein of cow’s skimmed milk), has also been studied to find the best films according to their flexibility, stability, biocompatibility and the highest obtainable resolution of imprints. The quality of resolution of imprints was tested via atomic force microscopy (AFM) 3D imaging and it was seen that the resolution of features replicated on casein films was closely comparable to the original fixed cells. Casein is water soluble, thus non cross-linked casein films would dissolve in cell- culture media within a few hours. As a result, in order to use the patterned films as cell-culture substrates, they need to be cross-linked. Cross-linking of casein films with surface patterns, increases their degradation time, thus giving cells enough time to adhere to the films and grow into layers of cells, as directed by the pat- terns, before the films start to degrade. The optimisation process also included cross-linking of the films using different cross-linking reagents and methods. Two and a half-dimensional regular features (2D geometric shapes with a constant depth for all features) were transferred onto casein films using photolithography and soft- lithography. Three-dimensional topography of cellular microenvironments were also replicated onto casein films using a modified bioimprinting method. For both regu- lar features and bioimprints, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) moulds, made via soft- lithography, were used as the intermediate mould for liquid-casting casein on, and transferring the features onto casein. Using liquid-casting casein on PDMS moulds in the replication process, the res- olution of features on casein films was poor, compared to the original features on photoresist, the original cells, and the imprints on PDMS. PDMS is hydrophobic by nature and despite of plasma treatment, it only remained hydrophilic for a short period of time. Hence casein solution, being water-based, could not wet the surface well enough and get completely into the micro- and nanoscale details on PDMS. As a result, the fabrication process was optimized, and PDMS moulds were treated via oxygen plasma and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), prior to liquid-casting of casein. PVP is a water-soluble hydrophilic polymer, which binds to the surface of PDMS and renders it hydrophilic for a much longer period of time. Addition of this step to the replication process, helped with casein solution filling the details on PDMS better. This led to high resolution patterns on the final casein films. Optical images and AFM images were taken of regular features and bioimprints in order to compare the features at different stages of replication. It was found that casein films made of 15%(w/w) casein in 0.2%(w/v) NaOH solution, mixed with 15% (w/w) glycerol as plasticizer, fitted best within the scope of this work. These films were cross-linked by mixing the casein solution with transglutaminase (TG) prior to liquid-casting on PDMS moulds. Concentration of TG in the solution was 10 U per gram of protein. These films were patterned with regular features and bioimprints, and patterned films were successfully used as cell-culture substrates. The results reported in this thesis provide a foundation for potential research and commercial applications for biodegradable cell-culture substrates or implants with surface features.

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  • Keeping up with young people and a changing counselling environment : exploring the use of between session text messages to support face-to-face counselling.

    Gribbin, George (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Solution focused brief therapy [SFBT] is a strengths-based, future focused, goal oriented therapy that originated in the United States (De Jong & Berg, 2012). There is considerable research that demonstrates the effectiveness of the therapy’s main tenets; co-construction of client-led directions, amplification of positive change and instances of success (Nelson, Welsh, Trup, & Greenberg, 2011). Some research highlights the helpfulness of specific SFBT techniques such as miracle question (Jones-Smith, 2011), exceptions (Henson, 2015) and between session tasks (Jones-Smith, 2011). Most research, however, uses standard writing and talking as data. Less common is the inclusion of electronic platforms for conducting SFBT. This research primarily focuses on between session tasks by exploring whether the use of text messages can support a client to complete such tasks. Four New Zealand co-educational high school students from Year 11 to Year 13 volunteered to attend four counselling sessions which were recorded on a Dictaphone and transcribed. At the end of each session the clients and the counsellor co-constructed text messages that the counsellor would send to them between sessions. Throughout the research, the text messages were examined to determine whether they supported SFBT principles and transcripts of participants’ feedback about the usefulness of the text messages were analysed thematically. The main findings were that using text messages fits very well with the intention of SFBT to promote client autonomy. Furthermore, co-construction of text messages enabled the counsellor to use appropriate client language when contacting the client between sessions. Both findings suggest the use of text messages when working with high school clients enables them to engage with counselling and focus on their own goals between sessions. This research adds to the literature on; Solution Focused Brief Therapy in high school settings, New Zealand specific Solution Focused Brief Therapy research and combining technology with face-to-face counselling practice.

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  • The effect of water infrastructure development on flow regimes and sedimentation in the Mekong floodplains.

    Dang, Duc Thanh (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Mekong floodplains and delta play an important role in poverty and hunger alleviation in Vietnam and Cambodia. Their high agricultural and ecological productivity are largely due to the natural hydrological regime and rich sediment of the Mekong River. However, regional demand for electricity is leading to the development of over 120 upstream hydropower dams, which may alter the hydrology of the floodplains and delta. Within the floodplains, extensive delta-based flood protection systems, in the form of dykes, are being constructed to increase agricultural production in certain parts of the delta, but which can have negative effects on other parts of the delta. Rising sea levels due to climate change and ongoing land subsidence will exasperate flooding in unprotected regions. The main aim of this study is, thus, to investigate the effect of water infrastructure development (both dams and dykes), sea level rise and land subsidence on the floodplains‟ hydrology and sedimentation. This goal was implemented by three methods: historical data analysis, remote sensing data analysis and numerical modelling. In terms of hydrology, measured data analysis showed that the impact of hydropower dams was currently limited to the upper part of the Mekong floodplains (the Cambodian Lowlands). Flood prevention in the upper Vietnamese delta is the main driver of hydrological regime alterations. Dykes significantly reduce flooding areas and increase rising and falling rates of water levels in the middle floodplain. In the lower part of the floodplains (the middle Vietnamese delta), hydrology is not only influenced by the downstream movement of water due to upstream flood prevention systems but also sea level rise and land subsidence. Results from modelling water infrastructure development, sea level rise and land subsidence scenarios indicated that the effect of each challenge on hydrology is dependent on characteristics of each region. In the future, full development of hydropower dams will increase dry season water levels by 23%, but wet season water levels will only change by slightly over 1% in the upper floodplains (river-dominated region). Flood prevention systems will significantly change water storage capacity and water transfer capacity in the floodplains, causing substantial regional changes in flood patterns. Sea level rise and land subsidence will result in the inundation of a vast region of the Vietnamese coast (tidal region). In terms of sedimentation, remote sensing data analysis suggested that flood protection systems reduced flooding areas over the period from 2007 to now, and high dykes – a component of flood prevention systems - likely disconnect the protected areas with the rest of the floodplains and prevent sediment from moving into fields. Although semi-dykes reduced the amount of sediment deposition in the rising stage of the flood season, they had no effect on sediment settlement in later stages. Two-dimentional hydrodynamic modelling proved that all the mentioned challenges would influence negatively on sediment deposition in the floodplains. The development of hydropower dams would cause significant reduction in sediment concentration in water, resulting in the declining of sediment settlement throughout the floodplains. Water infrastructure development would propagete flooding and also shift sediment deposition downstream and neighbouring regions. Sea level rise and land subsidence would increase tidal dynamics in the inland delta; thus, more sediment would be washed out to the ocean. In the long term, sediment starvation is likely to translate into lower agricultural production; consequently, farmers will have to employ more artificial fertilizers which increase the risk of environmental pollution. Regional wide transboundary water resource use policies are needed to address future changes in the balance among agricultural productivity, energy generation and the natural environment. More studies on operational optimization to maximize protection areas and the amount of sediment moving into fields are needed to ensure the sustainable development of the region.

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