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  • Can an apple a day keep the psychologist away? The role of fruit and vegetable intake in mental well-being.

    Brookie, Kate (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    ‘You are what you eat’ is a well-known adage that is supported by evidence linking healthy diets to greater physical well-being. The cornerstone of a healthy diet is a high intake fruit and vegetables, containing a variety of micronutrients critical for optimal physical and mental functioning. Given the associated physical benefits, there has been an increasing level of interest in the potential role of fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) in mental health. However, the literature linking diet to mental health is limited and reflects a number of methodological issues that preclude researchers from understanding the full extent that FVI can play in mental health. These include: a predominant focus on factors relating to mental ill-being (such as depression), issues with control variables and specificity of mental health measures, limited investigation into plausible mechanistic pathways, and most importantly, a paucity of experimental research that speaks to the causal nature of this relationship. The aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive, multi-method approach to examining the observational and causal relationships between FVI and a range of mental health outcomes in young adults; guided by the World Health Organisation definition that mental health encompasses not only the absence of illness (e.g., depression, anxiety), but the presence of well-being (e.g., flourishing, vitality). First, I provide an overview of the literature, highlighting the methodological gaps which provide the rationale for the subsequent empirical studies. These include: a correlational study exploring the influence of FVI on a range of mental well-being outcomes (e.g., flourishing); a randomised controlled trial exploring whether the relationship between FVI and mental health is causal and whether key micronutrients mediate this link; and finally, a large observational survey study exploring the differential effects of raw versus cooked/canned/processed FVI on mental health. Additionally, secondary aims explored the development and execution of a mobile phone-based Ecological Momentary Intervention (EMI) to increase FVI in low-consuming young adults. Collectively, this body of work provides insights into the nuances of the relationship between FVI and mental health. Overall, daily fruit and vegetables, especially those consumed raw, appear to have significant links with mental well-being outcomes, such as vitality, creativity, curiosity, motivation, and socio-emotional flourishing. While this thesis provided some support for the role of FVI in buffering against mental ill-being such as depressive symptoms, the links with well-being were consistently stronger. Most importantly, this thesis addresses the major limitation highlighted in the literature – causality – by providing the first evidence that the relationship between FVI and mental well-being is causal, and can occur relatively rapidly in day-to-day life. These findings suggest that we eat has a powerful effect on how we feel, and that policy makers and clinicians can harness nutritional psychiatry strategies as a promising route of mental health improvement.

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  • Post-entry speed of internationalization and export performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises

    Sadeghi, Arash (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), which, traditionally, have been considered as firms characterized by domestic focus and limited geographic scope, are increasingly extending their focus across national borders and becoming more active in international markets. In this fast-changing business environment, rapid international expansion can serve as an important strategic weapon for managers, in the quest to establish a competitive advantage. This thesis aims to advance the current understanding of the performance implications of the dynamics of internationalization by examining the two concepts of post-entry speed of internationalization and perceptual export performance in the context of SMEs. This thesis is guided by the following research question: What are the performance consequences of SMEs’ speed of internationalization? The purpose is to investigate how SME managers perceive export performance, and how different levels of post-entry speed of international expansion affect SMEs’ export performance. This overarching research question is further divided into three distinct, yet interrelated, research questions, which are individually addressed in three research papers. Three papers are self-contained and use different datasets, analytical techniques, and theoretical perspectives, although a common thread links them to the overall research objective. The first paper explores how SME managers make sense of, and evaluate, export performance. This paper adopts an inductive qualitative approach to gain a deeper insight about perceived export performance. The data for this study were collected primarily using in-depth, semi-structured interviews with the managers of 10 New Zealand-based exporting SMEs. Our findings revealed that managerial assessment of export performance is a complex, multifaceted, and dynamic phenomenon characterized by interrelated issues. We also found that appropriate measure of export performance is idiosyncratic to individual firms. The second paper builds on the insights gained from the first, to develop an individualized perceived export performance (IPEP) framework. This framework attempts to measure export performance based on the stated priorities of managers through explicit incorporation of manager- and firm-specific differences in the type and importance of goals, indicators, and benchmarks. In this paper, we use a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach for modeling the managers’ perception of export performance based on a hierarchical structure, and for operationalizing the weights of goals, criteria, and indicators based on managers’ judgments. Adopting fuzzy logic in this approach enables us to incorporate some of the uncertainties and imprecision inherent in subjective export performance assessment. We illustrate the application of the proposed framework using data from 48 exporting SMEs. The second paper concludes by proposing a simplified approach for export performance measurement that incorporates some of the benefits of the IPEP framework, but is more applicable for large-scale empirical studies. The final paper investigates the concept of post-entry speed of internationalization (PSI) and examines its performance consequences. Despite the practical and theoretical importance of the issue, there has not been clear evidence, to date, regarding whether, and in what ways, rapid internationalization helps or hinders export performance. This paper contributes to addressing this gap by adopting a multidimensional view of speed and performance, and examining, in depth, the relationships among different dimensions of speed and SMEs’ financial and non-financial export performance. Based on a survey of 170 exporting SMEs in New Zealand, we found that the form of relationships tends to be quadratic, rather than linear. Our findings suggest that not all of the dimensions of PSI are equally beneficial for performance. In other words, a uniform effort in different dimensions of PSI does not necessarily have consistent performance implications. The questions tackled in this thesis add to the growing body of literature on the international development of SMEs in several ways: (1) uncovering the process of SME export performance evaluation, as perceived by managers, and investigating the dynamic interrelations among different aspects of performance; (2) proposing a more comprehensive measurement framework for export performance, tailored to each firm by incorporating multiple, and potentially conflicting, goals, and accounting for different approaches to export performance assessment; (3) providing a deeper understanding of PSI and its constituent dimensions and examining the financial and non-financial export performance consequences of PSI’s dimensions; and (4) introducing a novel methodology (i.e., fuzzy AHP) to the context of exporting literature.

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  • Effect of ‘Manuka Honey with Cyclopower™’ on dental plaque activity and gingival health in young adults

    Kashchuk, Victoria (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Introduction Manuka Honey with Cyclopower™ (MMHC) is a low glycaemic index chewable tablet which offers sustained-release delivery of high grade New Zealand Manuka honey. It is marketed as a ‘tooth-friendly’ dietary supplement, containing high strength methylglyoxal, xylitol and Cyclopower™. Methylglyoxal is found in Manuka honey and is responsible for much of the honey’s antibacterial properties. CycloPower™ is an alpha-cyclodextrin: a cyclic oligosaccharide molecule derived from plants. Xylitol, a naturally occurring sugar alcohol, has been shown to effectively decrease caries risk. Aim To compare the effects of MMHC with a xylitol tablet on dental plaque pH, salivary characteristics, gingival health and dental plaque accumulation. Methodology The project was undertaken in two parts. Part I. Cross-over, randomised control trial involving 12 healthy participants over five appointments (each 7-days apart). Dental plaque pH was measured for 40 minutes after consuming the MMHC, xylitol tablet, Manuka honey, or sucrose (10% w/v, 20 mL). Part II. A randomised control, single blind, parallel group trial involving 31 healthy participants over 56 days. Participants chewed either a MMHC or a xylitol tablet three times daily for 28 days. Oral health and dental plaque pH changes (following 10% sucrose), were measured at Day 1, 14, 28 and 56. The minimum pH reached, area under the pH curve (AUC5.7) and maximum decrease in pH were recorded. Linear mixed models were used to compare treatment groups for both parts. Results Part I. Minimum pH (mean ± SD): MMHC (5.3 ± 0.3) vs sucrose (4.9 ± 0.2; p<0.05), but did not differ between sucrose and either Manuka honey (16.5 ± 15.6; p=0.506) or MMHC (4.9 ± 9.6; p=0.124). Part II. The mean plaque pH, following challenge with sucrose, decreased below the critical pH (5.7) for both groups. No differences were evident between groups in any test parameters. Conclusion MMHC consumption resulted in a plaque pH decrease below critical pH 5.7. Therefore, the MMHC tablet should be used with caution in individuals at high caries-risk. This project was funded by Manuka Health New Zealand Ltd.

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  • Model based study of autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) processes : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Engineering and Automation of Massey University

    Fryer, Barry

    Thesis
    Massey University

    An Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion process, or ATAD process, is a relatively new sewage sludge treatment process. The ATAD process has been developed for the disinfection and stabilisation of sewage sludge, which is a by-product of wastewater treatment. The end product can be applied to the land as a soil additive or fertiliser with no restrictions, as the process dramatically reduces public health and environmental risks. The process is comparable to the composting process used for municipal solid waste and garden wastes. The process requires oxygen, usually in the form of air, to be applied to the sludge by an aeration system. The oxygen stimulates an exothermic biochemical reaction, which in turn heats the sludge up to thermophilic temperatures (between 50 and 65°C). At these temperatures the pathogenic bacteria, viruses and parasites in the sludge that are harmful to human health are effectively destroyed. The biochemical reaction also degrades a large portion of the organic sludge, which means that unstable, volatile odour generating substances are removed; this reduces the likelihood of smells and the attraction of flies and rodents (vector attraction) to the sludge.[FROM INTRODUCTION]

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  • Mothers' early feeding practices and the ecological factors that are associated with iron intake of 9-11 month old infants in Solana, Cagayan, Philippines : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Nutritional Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Lonzaga, Maria Gisela M

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Appendix A several missing pages from the original copy held in the library

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  • Predator-prey dynamics : a review : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Mathematics at Massey University

    Johnstone, David Gordon

    Thesis
    Massey University

    With the recent publication explosion in population ecology, there is an increasing need for a review of the diverse approaches towards modelling. This thesis is concerned with modelling of two-species predator-prey ecosystems using two-dimensional dynamic systems of first-order differential equations. Chapters one and two are introductory in nature, discussing the place of theoretical models in ecology, and the development of the classical Lotka-Volterra model and its subsequent fall from favour. Chapter three looks at general aspects of predator-prey modelling. Graphical and analytical approaches are outlined in detail, as is the more recent curvature approach. Further results are obtained when growth and predation factors are considered separately, viewed as components to the model equations. Recent work on the consequences of enrichment, harvesting, stocking and natural selection are also dealt with. In chapter four, more specific predator-prey models are presented. Other, more variable qualities of predator-prey ecosystems are also considered, such as age structure and predation responses in chapter four; and time delays, spatial heterogeneity and migration in chapter five. Chapter six is a mathematical digression from the main body of the review. An analytical result for dynamic systems with a centre is proven, in an attempt to support an alternative outlook on the relationship between predator-prey ecosystems and their representative models. Finally, chapter seven briefly discusses potential applications in the future, the most promising being aspects of harvesting and control theory in resource management systems.

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  • Production and efficiency : the case of the Australian Rugby League : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Applied Economics at Massey University

    Richardson, Sam

    Thesis
    Massey University

    What matters in the "production" of a game of rugby league? This analysis finds that several game-specific inputs (such as successful goal-kicking percentage, inherent team strength, and momentum of results) in the generation of a game outcome are statistically significantly different from zero at the 10% level or lower. This study also looks closely at measures of productive efficiency, including stochastic frontier modelling and data envelopment analysis (DEA). Panel data from the 1995, 1996 and 1998 National Rugby League (NRL) regular seasons are used to formulate average production functions and stochastic production frontier models and their respective measures of efficiency. It is found that many Sydney-based teams performed relatively more efficiently when compared to non-Sydney teams in 1998. There also appears to be evidence of a "weaker teams bringing the stronger teams down to their level" effect due to differences in point-scoring efficiency and game outcome efficiency in 1998.

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  • The protein requirement of juvenile silver trevally (Pseudocaranx georgianus) to optimise growth in hatchery environments : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Animal Science at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand. EMBARGOED until 31 December 2019

    Elvy, Jordan

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Aquaculture is a growing primary industry in New Zealand. Currently the industry is comprised of three main species: GreenshellTM mussels, Pacific oyster, and King Salmon. The introduction of a white fleshed fish presents obvious commercial opportunity and production gains for New Zealand aquaculture. Silver trevally provides this opportunity and has the potential to further develop the industry. When developing a new species for aquaculture an understanding of their nutritional requirements at the different life stages is required. This thesis investigates the protein requirement of juvenile silver trevally. Silver trevally (67.5±12.0g) were randomly assigned to 12 tanks, 15 fish per tank. Four isoenergetic diets ranging in crude protein (CP) content from 30 to 60% CP were fed, in triplicates, for 12 weeks. Growth, including specific growth rate (SGR), did not significantly differ between diets. Feed efficiency was lowest in fish fed the 40% CP diet compared with the other three diets. Protein retention was highest in fish fed the lowest protein diet. Condition indices in silver trevally were unaffected by the protein content of the diet. Overall, this experiment was inconclusive on the ideal protein level in the diet. A palatability trial was carried out to determine if feed intake varied among diets. For comparison a commercial pellet from Ridley’s (50% CP) and a gel diet (20.4% CP) used by Plant & Food Research was also included in this trial. Twenty-four fish from the growth trial were allocated to two tanks for the palatability trial. Four behavioural responses were observed: the food item was ignored; fish approached the food but did not ingest; the fish took the food into their mouths before spitting it out; and the food was ingested. The 60% CP experimental diet, a commercial pellet, and a gel diet had significantly higher rates of intake than the other diets, with the 30% CP diet having the lowest rate of complete ingestion. The 60% CP and gel diet had the lowest rate of food being ignored. The most palatable diets were the 60% CP diet and the gel diet.

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  • Pollination patterns in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Plant Science at Massey University

    Woods, Peter William

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The influence of environmental conditions on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) floret characters and insects were studied in relation to pollination in this species. Insect activity was studied in a field experiment using part of the world germplasm collection of safflower. Honey bees were the most likely cross-pollinators. Activity of honey bees did not vary between genotypes studied. Correlations between insect and weather data were mainly non-significant. A sample of 12 genotypes from the world collection were intensively studied in controlled environment rooms. Single plants were used as plots in a randomised complete block design, in each of four environments (day/night temperature treatments of 28/22°c and 24/l8°c in combination with vapour pressure deficit treatments of -1.0 and -0.4 kPa). Environments reflected New Zealand summer conditions. Coefficients of variation were acceptable for most characters. Considerable genotypic, environmental and genotype-environment interaction variances were observed for most characters. Standardised partial regression coefficients (path coefficients) and principal factors were utilized to determine the characters most important in self-pollination of safflower. These characters were: the length of the style-stigma; the rate of style-stigma growth; the rate of corolla tube growth and amounts of viable pollen present during floret expansion. Pollen viabilities remained high for the longest time in higher humidity environments. Large amounts of pollen were produced at the lower humidity. Floral parts were largest in the cool dry environment, however rates of style-stigma and corolla expansion were greater at lower temperatures. It was concluded that synchronization of the rates of style-stigma and corolla tube growth were important in maintaining the stigma in close proximity to viable pollen, and thus promoting the possibility of self-pollination. Self-pollination was greatest at the lower temperature and lower humidity. The basic self-pollination mechanism observed was in agreement with previous authors. A number of improvements for future controlled environment experiments involving safflower were suggested. The implications of pollination of safflower on germplasm collection and maintenance, artificial crossing and breeding plans were discussed.

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  • Model development and simulating of a spinning cone evaporator : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology at Institute of Technology and Engineering, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Zhu, Xizhong

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The idea of milk pre-concentration at the farm has attracted worldwide interest for many years. A new pilot-scale evaporator (called spinning cone evaporator), which can be operated on the farm and has a compact and efficient design, has been developed at Massey University. However, there is a shortage of knowledge on the design, operation and control of this new evaporator. The main goal of this thesis is to develop a dynamic mathematical model in order to better utilize this evaporator and make further developments. This thesis consists of three parts. Firstly, a first-principles model of a pilot scale spinning cone evaporator is developed using the sub-system modelling techniques of the evaporator from the Laws of Thermodynamics and the general mass and energy balances. The model is dynamic and includes the evaporator, the compressor, the condenser and the product transport sections. The system model describes the dynamic relationships between the input variables (cooling water flowrate, M c , speed of compressor, N comp , feed flowrate, M f , feed temperature, T f and mass composition of feed dry matter, W f ) and the output variables (outlet temperature of cooling water, T co , evaporating temperature, T e , mass composition of product dry matter, w p and product flowrate, M p ), Secondly, the evaporator model was implemented using the software package Matlab along with its dynamic simulation environment Simulink. The differential equations for the evaporator model are embedded in a block diagram representation of the evaporator system. The evaporator Simulink model is divided into three levels, the blocks at the top represent the overall model and global constants used in it. The second level contains the individual sub-systems and the bottom level elements within each sub-system. Results of the model verification are satisfactory. Finally, the model validation is presented for both steady state and dynamic comparisons. The product flowrate (except in the case of feed temperature changes) and evaporation temperature can be predicted at a given time, and the outlet temperature of cooling water and product dry matter composition can also be predicted at a steady state. It can be seen that the results predicted using this spinning cone evaporator model, which accounts for the varying concentrate flowrate and evaporation temperature with time, are in good agreement with experimental data. This model provides a valuable tool to predict performance in a spinning cone evaporator and to modify the design parameters.

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  • Problems involved in the conservation of historic buildings in New Zealand: a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy at Massey University

    Lewis, Joanne

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This empirical research derives, by way of case studies, the range of problems involved in the conservation of historic buildings in New Zealand. A dichotomy of problems is evident and consequently discussed - legislative/regulatory problems, and problems pertaining to held attitudes. The first category looks at the problems of inadequate legislative provisions for historic building protection (in both the Historic Places Act 1980, and the Town and Country Planning Act 1977), the earthquake standards and design codes, and 'legislative omissions' (a phrase coined to cover aspects neglected in the current legislation). In the second category, conservation problems attributed to the attitudes of government, the public, local authorities, owners/developers, and the Historic Places Trust are discussed as they present a hindrance to the effective protection of historic buildings in New Zealand. Finally recommendations are tendered which, if actioned, would go a long way towards counteracting these problems, and consequently render historic buildings in New Zealand more likely to be conserved.

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  • Developing non-destructive techniques to predict 'Hayward' kiwifruit storability : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Food Technology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. EMBARGOED until 1 December 2019

    Li, Mo

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A significant portion of New Zealand’s kiwifruit production is held as stock in local coolstores for extended periods of time before being exported. Many pre-harvest factors contribute to variation in fruit quality at harvest and during coolstorage, and results in the difficulty in segregating fruit for their storage outcomes. The objective of this work was to develop non-destructive techniques utilised at harvest to predict storability of individual or batches of ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit based on (near) skin properties. Segregation of fruit with low storage potential at harvest could enable that fruit to be sold earlier in the season reducing total fruit loss and improving profitability later in the season. The potential for optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect near surface cellular structural differences in kiwifruit as a result of preharvest factors was demonstrated through quantitative image analysis of 3D OCT images of intact fruit from five commercial cultivars. Visualisation and characterisation of large parenchyma cells in the outer pericarp of kiwifruit was achieved by developing an automated image processing technique. This work established the usefulness of OCT to perform rapid analysis and differentiation of the microstructures of sub-surface cells between kiwifruit cultivars. However, the effects of preharvest conditions between batches of fruit within a cultivar were not detectable from image analysis and hence, the ability to provide segregation or prediction for fruit from the same cultivar was assumed to be limited. Total soluble solids concentration (TSS) and flesh firmness (FF) are two important quality attributes indicating the eating quality and storability of stored kiwifruit. Prediction of TSS and FF using non-destructive techniques would allow strategic marketing of fruit. This work demonstrated that visible-near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy could be utilised as the sole input at harvest, to provide quantitative prediction of post-storage TSS by generating blackbox regression models. However the level of accuracy achieved was not adequate for online sorting purposes. Quantitative prediction of FF remained unsuccessful. Improved ways of physical measurements for FF may help reduce the undesirable variation observed on the same fruit and increase prediction capability. More promising results were obtained by developing blackbox classification models using Vis-NIR spectroscopy at harvest to segregate storability of individual kiwifruit based on the export FF criterion of 1 kgf (9.8 N). Through appropriate machine learning techniques, the surface properties of fruit at harvest captured in the form of spectral data were correlated to post-storage FF via pattern recognition. The best prediction was obtained for fruit stored at 0°C for 125 days: approximately 50% of the soft fruit and 80% of the good fruit could be identified. The developed model was capable of performing classification both within (at the fruit level) and between grower lines. Model validation suggested that segregation between grower lines at harvest achieved 30% reduction in soft fruit after storage. Should the model be applied in the industry to enable sequential marketing, $11.2 million NZD/annum could be saved because of reduced fruit loss, repacking and condition checking costs.

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  • Medical geography and its contribution to the aetiology of rare systemic connective tissue diseases : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Borman, Graham Barry

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is in two interrelated parts. Part One traced the historical development of medical geography since the idea of applying a geographical perspective to medical problems was first mooted in 4 B.C. The main trends in the evolving philosophy and methodology of this field were noted, and a distinction was made between the Western and Soviet interpretations of the nature and scope of medical geography. The methods available to medical geographers for cartographically portraying medical data were discussed. Part Two represented the application cf geographical principles to the study of rare systemic connective tissue diseases. The inherent problems of collection. and of verification of the medical data used in this study were detailed. Using cartographic and statistical techniques the diseases under study were spatially and temporally defined. It was found that scleroderma had a statistically significantly high incidence in the Taieri Geographic County, and it was this disease and this area which wore the principal contributory factors to the statistically significantly high incidence of all connective tissue diseases at the larger scales of areal units in the Otago region. The structures of the populations affected by these diseases were also studied, with the findings generally confirming the results obtained in overseas surveys. No association was found between the incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus, and high sunshine hours, while the disease subsets did not exhibit a rural or urban bias in their incidence. Paucity of cases precluded a study of the possible racial predilection of the diseases or any association of incidence with a patient's occupation. Suggested avenues for possible aetiological research accruing from this analysis were detailed.

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  • "It's a whole package" : Type 2 diabetes and what it means for the body, life and self of people of Indian origin in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology (with an endorsement in Health Psychology) at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Tresslor, Shireen Kim

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Type 2 diabetes represents a considerable health problem for the Indian population group in New Zealand. In order to minimise the risk posed by this disease, recommended therapeutic goals include glycaemic control, maintaining a healthy weight and strict control of blood pressure. Culturally derived understandings of the illness and options for management will affect the way in which the person of Indian origin reacts to diabetes. This study looked at the way in which Type 2 diabetes is constructed and positioned while reflecting on how Indian culture might affect the way in which diabetes is interpreted and experienced. Seven males and five females, identifying themselves as being of Indian origin and managing Type 2 diabetes without the use of insulin were selected for the study. Semi-structured interviews were taped, transcribed and analysed using a reflexive approach to Foulcauldian discourse analysis Understanding diabetes begins through describing and accounting for the diabetic body which is believed to be different to other bodies. The way in which the person with diabetes might chose to control the disease and minimise harm to the body is validated by particular beliefs in cause and nature. As a result, the person with diabetes is able to construct a constantly evolving picture of the way in which the disease develops, what can be expected of it and what diabetes means for them, for their families and social connections. All this takes place within the particular social and cultural perceptual system of the person of Indian origin and the environment within which they live their every-day lives. The person with diabetes is actively engaged in processing new information, weighing options and defining who they are, not merely as someone with diabetes but as multi-dimensional individuals. Drawing on different constructions of the self, to justify and explain actions taken, opens up or limits access to opportunities to make changes and embrace new behaviors to manage their diabetes.

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  • A pollen identification expert system ; an application of expert system techniques to biological identification : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Computer Science Massey University

    Eagle, Colin G

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The application of expert systems techniques to biological identification has been investigated and a system developed which assists a user to identify and count air-borne pollen grains. The present system uses a modified taxonomic data matrix as the structure for the knowledge base. This allows domain experts to easily assess and modify the knowledge using a familiar data structure. The data structure can be easily converted to rules or a simple frame-based structure if required for other applications. A method of ranking the importance of characters for identifying each taxon has been developed which assists the system to quickly narrow an identification by rejecting or accepting candidate taxa. This method is very similar to that used by domain experts.

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  • The middle Pleistocene extinction of bathyal benthic foraminifera in the South Atlantic (ODP sites 1082 and 1088) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Earth Science at Massey University

    O'Neill, Tanya Ann

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The youngest major turnover in deep-sea benthic foraminifera (termed the Stilostomella extinction) is documented in two ODP sites in the South Atlantic Ocean. This study is the first detailed investigation of its kind in this region, and reveals the pulsed decline and eventual extinction of 33 species of elongate, cylindrical benthic foraminifera belonging to the families Stilostomellidae, Pleurostomellidae, and part of the Nodosariidae during the mid-Pleistocene climatic transition (MPT, ~1200 - 600ka). Furthermore, the Stilostomella extinction is limited to elongate species with highly specific apertural characteristics (e.g. cribrate, slit lunate, and hooded with secondary teeth), such as Chrysalogonium, Ellipsoglandulina, and Pleurostomella species, respectively. Micropaleontological and sedimentological data from lower bathyal Sites 1082 and 1088 (1290 m and 2082 m water depth, respectively) provide a proxy record of oceanographic changes in the South Atlantic Ocean through the MPT. This study compares the timing and causes of the Stilostomella extinction between two highly contrasting environmental settings in relation to paleoceanographic history, sediment regime and paleoproductivity. In the South Atlantic, the abundance and accumulation rate of Extinction Group (EG) taxa began to decline between ~ 1070 and 1000 ka at both core sites. The rate of decline was pulsed, with major declines usually associated with cool periods, and partial recoveries during intervening warm periods. The timing of highest occurrences (HOs) was diachronous between sites, and the final Stilostomella extinction datum is marked by the uppermost occurrence of Myllostomella matanzana and Siphonodosaria sagrinensis at ~705 ka in Site 1082, and Myllostomella matanzana and Pleurostomella alternans at ~600 ka in Site 1088. This corresponds with the previously documented global Stilostomella extinction datum within the period of 700 and 570 ka. Detailed comparisons with North Atlantic and Southwest Pacific studies confirm the highly diachronous nature of HOs of EG species, and furthermore, reveal that there is a lead time of ~100 kyr between HOs of the same species in the North Atlantic, compared with the South Atlantic. This study suggests that declines and extinctions at Site 1082 were primarily driven by highly fluctuating food supply associated with increased productivity caused by intensified upwelling during MPT glacial periods. In contrast, extinctions at Site 1088 appear to have been a result of the MPT reorganisation of the global deep-water 'conveyor belt', with δ 13 C gradients revealing that high dissolved oxygen Glacial North Atlantic Intermediate Water (GNAIW) bathed the region during cool periods. Far from a simple response to change in a single parameter, numerous factors have interacted and appear to have caused the demise of the Stilostomella extinction taxa. These factors include encroachment by well-ventilated (high dissolved oxygen) GNAIW, fluctuations in food supply, and possibly winnowing (of the phytodetritus layer) by vigorous bottom currents during MPT glacial periods.

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  • Modelling of the drying section of a continuous paper machine : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master in Production Technology at Massey University

    Ma, Huiting

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The invention of paper in 105 A.D. was a milestone in the history of civilization and demand for paper has been increasing steadily ever since. Although it has become more and more popular to store, process and transfer information in electronic forms, paper is to date still the most common means for recording information. According to Storat (1993), production in the last twenty years has increased by more than 60 percent, while capital expenditures in the industry have grown to almost 12 percent of sales, or double the average expenditures of other manufacturing industries. This capital investment has gone towards capacity expansion and extensive rebuilds of existing mills - almost 60 percent of the existing capacity comes from modern facilities containing machines either newly installed or rebuilt in the past ten years. As a result, fossil fuel and energy consumption in this industry fell by 46 percent in the last two decades.[FROM INTRODUCTION]

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  • Polymer dynamics studied by dynamic light scattering : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Physics at Massey University

    Clark, David Thomas

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Appendix 1 and 2 – articles have been removed due to copyright. The articles are available in the print copy held in the library.

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  • Men's stories : an analysis of men's talk of separation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Psychology, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand, 2006

    Kendall, Ross D

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study, examining men's talk about separating from relationships, uses a hybrid model of discourse and structural analysis. The research identifies four dominant discourses: a legal system discourse, a discourse of morality, a discourse of masculinity and a discourse of journeying. The men construct their experiences as negative occurrences: destructive and painful; but also as positive events: necessary, timely and ultimately beneficial. Their use of the discourses serves two opposing purposes: to position them as relatively innocent and vulnerable in the breakdown of their relationships, and as resolute, determined and in control of their lives. The dialectical clash of these themes leads in most cases to a position where the men can act as moral agents with clear aims and goals.

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  • Measurement of bone quality in growing male rats using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and bone ash content : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Animal Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Brown, Katherine Elizabeth

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Growing male rats have been considered and used as a model for bone growth and prevention of osteoporosis because of their high bone turnover and demand for calcium. Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) is a useful tool for identifying minimal changes in bone mineral density and has recently been adapted for use in small animal models. The objective of this trial was to identify the changes in Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in relation to age and to identify how BMD varies from site to site. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were split into six groups to allow measurements at one, two, three, four, five and six months of age (n=10 per group). At each time point a group of rats was scanned using a QDR4000 DEXA machine from Hologic. Duplicate BMD measurements were obtained for the whole body, spine and both femurs in vivo. The rats were then euthanased and the spine and both femurs were excised for ex vivo DEXA scanning and ashed calcium analysis. BMD increased almost linearly to four months and then formed a plateau. This indicates that from weaning to four months is an especially sensitive time for manipulating bone growth in male rats. There was a significant difference in BMD between groups (P<0.001), believed to be due to variation at two and five months of age. There was a very strong positive correlation between weight and BMD and age and BMD at all sites, indicating that BMD is a strongly related to both weight and age. All sites were strongly correlated to each other and to the ashed calcium values. The excised femur had a lower BMD value than the in vivo femur, although the two values were strongly correlated. This is believed to be due to differences in positioning and indicates that the two methods cannot be used interchangeably. These results indicate that bone mineral density is the gold standard for following changes in bone growth over time in the growing rat. Alternatively, ashed bone calcium content can be used, but only as a once off endpoint.

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