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  • Authentic Leadership and Team Innovation Ambidexterity: The Mediating Role of Team Inclusive Climate and The Contingency Role of Cultural Values

    Bahmannia, Somayehsadat

    Thesis
    University of Otago

    This study proposes that authentic leaders and team context (team inclusive climate) enable team members to actively engage in both exploratory and exploitative innovation. Also, team’s individualist-collectivist cultural values play an important role in the emergence of the inclusive work environment, as well as exploratory and exploitative innovation at the team level. Using multisource data (team leaders and team members) on 111 teams within 43 Taiwanese companies, and 73 teams within 35 New Zealand companies, the findings of this study reveal that authentic leaders directly and indirectly (through developing the inclusive climate) promote team exploratory and exploitative innovation. Also, team collectivist cultural values strengthen the positive effect of authentic leadership on team members’ shared perception of inclusion in the work environment. Team inclusive climate unfolds its benefits when team members are high on both collectivist and individualist cultural values. More specifically, team inclusive climate is more associated with exploratory innovation when team members hold high individualist cultural values and is more related to exploitative innovation when team members hold high collectivist cultural values. The findings of this study contribute to authentic leadership, innovation ambidexterity, and team climate research by unlocking the ‘black box’ of the relationship between authentic leadership and innovation ambidexterity, and by highlighting a contingency under which authentic leadership and team inclusive climate unfold their benefits. Also, the findings provide evidence that leaders who know their values and transparently act and interact with their subordinates are more able to encourage their subordinates to inclusively integrate their unique talents and skills into the work process, thereby managing the demands of both exploratory and exploitative innovation within a team.

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  • Is Goal Conflict Specific Rhythmicity a Biomarker for a Type of Clinical Anxiety?

    McIntosh, Julia Frances (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Mental disorder diagnoses are currently based on arbitrary symptom checklists and lack the identification of underlying neurological dysfunction. As a result, clinicians assign diagnostic labels with low accuracy, leading to poor treatment selection and delivery and reduced quality of life for many individuals. Goal Conflict Specific Rhythmicity (GCSR), measured using a Stop Signal Task (SST), appears to be the first neural biomarker for diagnosing one process underlying clinical anxiety. While previous research has shown that GCSR is an ‘anxiolytic-sensitive’ biomarker, the present study aimed to take the first steps toward validating GCSR as a ‘clinical anxiety’ biomarker within a patient sample. According to McNaughton and Corr (2004)’s theory, it was predicted that patients diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) ‘anxiety disorders’ would on average show higher GCSR than control participants. In this study, the Electroencephalogram (EEG) of 86 participants recruited from Student Job Search (SJS) and 21 patients diagnosed with DSM-5 anxiety disorders was recorded while participants underwent a SST. GCSR values of SJS participants who obtained Spielberger’s Trait Anxiety (STAI-T) scores in both the clinically high and normal ranges were compared to GCSR obtained by anxiety disorder patients. Consistent with predictions, GCSR tended to be higher in individuals diagnosed with DSM-5 anxiety disorders compared to SJS controls with low STAI-T scores. GCSR also tended to increase in the positive direction as STAI-T scores increased, with anxious patients producing similar, if not higher, GCSR than SJS participants with STAI-T scores in the clinical range. Overall, these results provide preliminary support for GCSR as the first biological biomarker for one clinical anxiety process. Further research, including a larger sample of anxiety disorder patients and an appropriately matched healthy control group, is required to strengthen conclusions and progress the translation of this biomarker into clinical settings.

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  • There's a new kid on the block: A longitudinal study of the aspirations held by members of the social work profession for the introduction of statutory registration for social workers in Aotearoa New Zealand...... and the consequences

    Randal, Howard John (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The Aotearoa New Zealand Association of Social Workers (ANZASW) was established in 1964 and for nearly 40 years members of the Association debated the merits of statutory registration and its possible forms and processes. In 2003, the Social Workers Registration Act was brought into law. This thesis uses a longitudinal design to analyse interviews conducted on two occasions. In 1996, a sample of Association members was interviewed about their aspirations for the statutory registration of social workers and the role the Association might have in that. Eighteen years later, in 2014, with statutory registration in place, the sample was re-interviewed to establish the extent to which their aspirations for statutory registration have been realised. Qualitative analyses were conducted of all interviews, providing a set of results to address the research questions: To what extent have the aspirations for the statutory registration of social work been realised? In what ways has the introduction of statutory registration changed the face of social work professionalism in ANZ? The thesis topic lends itself to the examination of professionalisation and occupational regulation and the respective agendas of the Association and the government for the introduction of statutory registration. The research draws on a Bourdieusian framework and examines Foucauldian governmentality and biopower theory as a basis of explanation. An institutional logics perspective is also applied as a basis for discussing the institutional forms of the state and the professional body that are subject to the study. The findings drawn from the interviews are discussed in the light of the conceptual and theoretical threads applied providing a basis to offer some reflections and comment on the consequences and impact of statutory registration as 'the new kid on the block'.

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  • A critical analysis of the trade union movement in the Nepalese tourism industry

    Basnyat, Sandeep (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This research examines factors that influence trade union movements in the Nepalese tourism industry. In contrast to global trends, the last twenty-five years have seen a remarkable growth in the power and influence of trade unions in the Nepalese tourism industry. With a tremendous increase in the number of trade unions, collective bargaining, strike action, and participation in and organising of demonstrations have become prevalent across all sectors of the tourism industry in Nepal. In spite of the fact that the trade union movements in Nepal exhibits an anomalous trend when compared to trade union movements across the world, nothing in the existing literature identifies factors driving this anomaly in the tourism industry, let alone outlines its contours in the specific context of Nepal. This research aims to fill this gap. Focusing on hotels and airlines in Kathmandu, Nepal, the data on which this research is based were collected from April 2015 to February 2016 through unstructured interviews with fifty-one participants including trade union officials and members, employees who were not a member of trade unions, current employers with trade unions in their hotels or airlines, former employers who have had experience with the trade unions, and government employees responsible for regulating and monitoring tourism and employment. The research identifies that the interplay of limited improvements in the working environment in the tourism industry and some dynamic changes in the political environment in Nepal have shaped and influenced the trade union movements. Limited improvements in the working environment were primarily the result of employers' attitudes, and concomitant poor income and employment conditions in the tourism industry, together with an unsupportive (for labour) regulatory environment prevailing in the country. This dearth of progress has acted as an internal driving force for Nepalese tourism industry workers to organise trade unions in order to protect their rights and interests. In contrast, dynamic transformations in the political environment of Nepal have been experienced in four noteworthy periods since early 1990, particularly the rise of the Maoist movements, which has acted as an external driving force that has provided strength to the trade unions in their struggle against a generally poor working environment. The study demonstrates the fragility of industrial relations within the tourism industry in Nepal. It also contributes to our understanding of the poorly understood and researched phenomenon of trade union movements in the tourism industry in general, and in the Asian context in particular.

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  • Gold and palladium as indicators of an extraterrestrial component in the Cetaceous/Tertiary boundary layer at Woodside Creek and Chancet Quarry, Marlborough, New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Earth Sciences at Massey University

    Cook, Andrew William

    Thesis
    Massey University

    It is widely believed that a large meteorite approximately 10 km in diameter impacted Earth at the termination of the Cretaceous Period with cosmic velocity, vaporising itself, along with a greater mass of the terrestrial target rocks into a cloud of hot rock vapour. The vapour cloud condensed into particles of sand to clay size at high altitude before returning to Earth to form a worldwide layer marking the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Chemical evidence from this boundary layer suggests that the impactor was a chondritic meteorite, enriched in the platinum group elements compared to the Earth's crust. An enrichment of these elements above their background crustal abundances to approximately 0.1 of the chondritic abundance has been observed in a number of Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary layers worldwide. Iridium is the platinum group element traditionally used as an indicator of the extraterrestrial component (ETC) in likely impact layers due to its rarity in the Earth's crust and low detection limits possible using neutron activation analysis methods. Neutron activation analysis is however expensive and requires specialist facilities, this thesis proposes that the elements gold and palladium can also be used to indicate the ETC in the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary layer. Samples from two Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary sites, Woodside Creek and Chancet Quarry, were analysed for gold and palladium using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. A strong correlation was found between iridium, gold, and palladium abundances at these sites, with all showing enrichment at precisely the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in proportion to iridium, indicating a common origin for all three elements. Gold showed almost precisely the expected 0.1 of its chondritic abundance in the clay size fraction at both Woodside Creek and Chancet Quarry (15 ng/g). Palladium showed exactly 0.1 of its chondritic abundance at the Chancet Quarry boundary with 53 ng/g. Gold abundances on the boundary at Woodside Creek (55 ng/g) and Chancet Quarry (44 ng/g) showed excellent agreement with published values as did the palladium result for Woodside Creek (22 ng/g).

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  • Drifting into debt? : exploring household over-indebtedness amongst salaried microborrowers in Bangladesh : a case study of Kailakuri Health Care Project : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of International Development, Massey University, Manuwatu, New Zealand

    Vickers, Nadine

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Salaried microborrowers in Bangladesh take loans for a variety of reasons but they can fall into repayment difficulties, leading to further loan-taking and potentially household overindebtedness. This thesis uses a case study of Kailakuri Health Care Project staff to explore over-indebtedness amongst salaried microborrowers. Data was gathered from two participantgroups, namely twenty four KHCP staff and eleven microfinance lenders. Four focus groups were held. Seven staff participated in a set of household interviews and financial diaries, which tracked their income, expenditure, savings and borrowing behaviour over a one-month period. The thesis explores local meanings of over-indebtedness and compares these to academic definitions. It compares the lending terms and conditions of microfinance lenders including moneylenders, banks, credit unions, NGOs and others with outstanding loans to research participants. It also examines how borrowers perceive the advantage and disadvantages of different lenders and the strategies they use to manage multiple repayments. Finally it considers how borrowers’ decision-making influences their risk of household over-indebtedness, as well as the effect of their income, expenditure, savings and borrowing-related behaviour. The research findings show that in contrast to the literature, which provides a mainly financial analysis, research participants focused on social symptoms of over-indebtedness such as the stigma attached to lender visits, deceitful behaviour by borrowers and debt-related stress. What is also illuminated is that borrowers weigh up a number of factors aside from interest rates when deciding on which lender to approach and they tend to prioritise NGO loan repayment because of the pressure on timely installments. This can lead borrowers to fall behind on other repayments to moneylenders, banks and credit unions, leading to an increased risk of overindebtedness. Many borrowers struggle with over-indebtedness because of insufficient income, social aspirations, cultural expectations and a number of other factors. However, microfinance lenders are unlikely to reduce interest rates and fees due to financial sustainability concerns. This thesis concludes that it is crucial to look outside the lender and borrower bubble and to consider the external pressures which are creating the demand for so much credit. The Bangladeshi government and international NGO community have an important role to play.

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  • An investigation into advance time division multiple access based personal communication networks : this thesis is presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Production Technology at Massey University

    Lokuge, Chaturanga Pilane

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines and simulates a statistically multiplexed multiple access technique known as Advanced Time Division Multiple Access (ATDMA). The simulations were carried out in a multimedia traffic environment. Parameters that could optimise the network performance in terms of quality, reliability and capacity have been examined using a simulation model. This thesis also examines network architecture and signalling related issues. The simulation results were analysed to propose a suitable ATDMA frame structure in terms of the frame length and the organisation of traffic and reservation slots. The simulation results indicated that the performance of the ATDMA based system can be enhanced when delay insensitive data is transmitted as blocks of packets of a specific size. The simulation results also indicated that the performance of the ATDMA based system can be further enhanced when a video terminal is allocated a single traffic slot as opposed to multiple traffic slots. Further simulations have been carried out to determine the up-link traffic channel capacities and control channel capacities. This thesis also examined aspects that could further enhance the performance of an ATDMA based system.

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  • Golf : gentlemen only ladies forbidden, or is it golden oldies live forever? : a 152.800 (100 point) research thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies at Massey University

    Aldridge, Gail Helen

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Appendices A, B, D, E. contain newspaper clippings which have been removed due to copyright restrictions. Please see print copy held in Library.

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  • Processed egg supply chain integrity : a thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Supply Chain Management at Massey University

    Kohoban, Gihan

    Thesis
    Massey University

    In modern industrialised society prepared meals and eating out of home is an increasing phenomenon. This develops new business opportunities for processed egg manufactures, since they need to create more convenience to the consumers through food that can be prepared in quantity and served quickly. However, the issue in distribution of temperature sensitive processed egg products is to store, handle and transport products to minimal supervision with keeping as much as possible of original quality and shelf life. This study adopts a quantitative approach in order to analyse the mediating factors of supply chain integration and collaborative advantage on processed egg product integrity. Using a New Zealand sample from egg processors, logistic companies, and product manufactures, this study examines the direct relationship between processed egg supply chain integration and product integrity. In addition, the direct relationship between supply chain integration, collaborative advantage and processed egg product integrity are also examined. Finally, study found that in New Zealand domestic market processed egg supply chain collaboration improve product integrity through supply chain integration. Moreover, study revealed that greater senior management support and favourable external dependencies offer the best setting for enhancing supply chain integration in practise. However, middle level managers and ground level workers showed least interest and understanding the benefits of greater supply chain integration on product integrity.

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  • Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 and the regulation of the human factor IX gene : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Molecular Biology at Massey University

    Penning, Sarah Jane

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Factor IX is a serine protease involved in the mammalian blood clotting cascade. An absence of functional factor IX protease in the bloodstream results in Haemophilia B. Mutations in the regulatory region of the factor IX gene can produce a rare form of the disease called Haemophilia B Leyden. Single nucleotide substitutions at positions -5 and -6 of the human factor IX promoter, which result in Haemophilia B Leyden, disrupt the binding of an unidentified transcription factor which interacts in the region -13 to +3. A group of transcription factors which may interact with the factor IX promoter in this region is called the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) family. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential role of the HNF1 proteins in the regulation of factor IX promoter gene expression. This study was bipartite, involving research into the ability of the HNF1 transcription factors to bind the factor IX promoter in vitro, and to regulate the initiation of its transcription. The HNF1 cDNAs were firstly subcloned into an expression vector suitable for use in mammalian tissue culture. Gel mobility shift assays were employed to examine the binding of the HNF1 proteins to the wildtype factor IX promoter. The ability of these proteins to bind the factor IX promoter region carrying the -5 or -6 mutations was also investigated. Luciferase reporter gene assays using a human hepatoma cell line were used to study the regulatory effects of the HNF1 transcription factors on transcription from the normal and mutant factor IX promoters. A variant form of the HNF1 transcription factor was shown to bind to the -14 to +6 region of the normal sequence of the factor IX promoter as well as that containing some of the -5 and -6 mutations. A protein from rat liver nuclear extracts which displayed an HNFI-like binding activity was delected using gel mobility shift assays with the factor IX promoter region. All forms of the HNF1 transcription factors could regulate the transcription of a reporter gene driven by the wildtype factor IX promoter. Two forms of the HNF1 transcription factor down-regulated the wildtype factor IX promoter-reporter gene construct by at least 50%, while the same construct was up-regulated by a third form of the transcription factor. Unfortunately time constraints resulted in the premature conclusion of planned experimentation. The results generated during this research have been unable to confirm a role for the HNF1 family in the regulation of the factor IX promoter, but have provided a basis for further research.

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  • Health care services delivery in Papua New Guinea : an argument for policy change : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the degree of Master of Arts in Social Policy, Department of Social Policy and Social Work, Massey University at Albany, Auckland, New Zealand

    Teine, Maine Iysa

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is researched, reasoned and structured on an argument that Papua New Guinea (PNG) Health Services Delivery and Distribution are inadequate and must see appropriate policy changes, because the inadequacy is the nature of civil services which permeates key areas such as funding allocation, staffing volume, drug supplies and distribution, geographical challenges, demographic fluatuations, mission-run health centres, and government structures; an inadequacy-generating provincial political-interference demands reformulation of policies to benefit consumers rather than individual power players. Therefore, this thesis further proposes that since health services delivery is evidenced to be inefficent due to mismanagement of systems by the provincial government and lack of financial support from the National Government (bearing in mind that all social sectors' departments in Papua New Guinea - such as Education, Youth and Home Affairs, Agriculture and the like - have similar experience), an emphasis must be placed on the National Government diverting more funds into the well-being of its population, by means of purchasing more pharmaceautical supplies, increasing staffing volume, and placing specialist medical officers in all provinces in the country. This thesis concludes with key recommendations for more appropirate policy changes to the Papua New Guinea National Health Policy at the root of which lie provincial politics and financial mismanagement in the area of health care in reference to Simbu.

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  • Global information technology infrastructure for a global non-profit organisation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology at Massey University

    Van Laar-Veth, Richard M

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Page 103 missing from vault and scanned copy

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  • Global manufacturing : study of company integration within a country : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Production Technology at Massey University

    Yusmira, Herwan

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Some Indonesian language

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  • Health anxiety and hypochondriasis : the patient's perspective : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Beckett, Jennifer Jean

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Appendix C page 107 removed due to Copyright restrictions

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  • Glucose and cognitive performance : the effects of glucose on memory and sustained attention : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Richardson, Kelly

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The effects of glucose on tasks of declarative memory, and sustained attention were examined. These effects were also investigated with regard to the age of the participant. Standard glucose and placebo conditions were run and also a natural history condition to analyse the possibility of a placebo effect. Twelve young and twelve older adults participated in the study. Over three separate morning sessions, participants ingested either the glucose or the placebo drink, or nothing for the natural history condition, and completed the cognitive tasks. The between-group factor was age of the participant (young or older adult). The within-group factor was the type of drink ingested (glucose, placebo, or natural history). The effects of glucose on the sustained attention task were investigated over time, divided into 10 × 2 min periods. No effects of drink were found in regard to overall task performance for either age group. There was one main effect for period on one measure of the sustained attention task. There was also an associated interaction effect for this measure. Trends in the data pointed towards the possibility of the existence of a placebo effect. The placebo condition yielded consistently better performance than the other two conditions on most tasks. These results were discussed in light of the possible existence of a placebo effect, and the condition-specific effects of glucose.

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  • Formalization of higher-level intelligence through integration of intelligent tutoring tools : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Information Systems, Department of Information Systems, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Xu, Jian

    Thesis
    Massey University

    In contrast with a traditional Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS), which attempts to be fairly comprehensive and covers enormous chunks of a discipline's subject matter, a basic Intelligent Tutoring Tool (ITT) (Patel & Kinshuk, 1997) has a narrow focus. It focuses on a single topic or a very small cluster of related topics. An ITT is regarded as a building block of a larger and more comprehensive tutoring system, which is fundamentally similar with the emerging technology "Learning Objects" (LOs) (LTSC, 2000a). While an individual ITT or LO focuses on a single topic or a very small cluster of knowledge, the importance of the automatic integration of interrelated ITTs or LOs is very clear. This integration can extend the scope of an individual ITT or LO, it can guide the user from a simple working model to a complex working model and provide the learner with a rich learning experience, which results in a higher level of learning. This study reviews and analyses the Learning Objects technology, as well as its advantages and difficulties. Especially, the LOs integration mechanisms applied in the existing learning systems are discussed in detail. As a result, a new ITT integration framework is proposed which extends and formalizes the former ITT integration structures (Kinshuk & Patel, 1997, Kinshuk, et al. 2003) in two ways: identifying and organizing ITTs, and describing and networking ITTs. The proposed ITTs integration framework has the following four notions: (1) Ontology, to set up an explicit conceptualisation in a particular domain, (2) Object Design and Sequence Theory, to identify and arrange learning objects in a pedagogical way through the processes of decomposing principled skills, synthesising working models and placing these models on scales of increasing complexity, (3) Metadata, to describe the identified ITTs and their interrelationships in a cross-platform XML format, and (4) Integration Mechanism, to detect and activate the contextual relationship.

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  • "I'm the boss"-- a study of leadership and the labour divide in some secondary schools : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Women's Studies at Massey University

    Dillon, Linda Maria

    Thesis
    Massey University

    When is a principal not a principal ... when s/he is an associate principal. The position of associate principal in secondary schools in New Zealand is a site of contradiction. At the same time as the associate is a principal she (often he) is not a principal. As schools with a population of more than 1400 students expand their rolls (Sergiovanni, 1995, Grace, 1995) they can choose (O'Neill, 1996, Armstrong, 1991) whether to include an associate principal in their management structure. While some of these schools turn down the offer, others choose to do so. That such a possibility is available suggests that hierarchical structures (Court, 1993; Regan, 1995) in these organisations are breaking down. It would appear that schools can design the management structure that best suits them, and that their leaders create their own 'badge of office' (Raymond & Cunliffe, 1997), and enact 'their' particular vision (Hegelson, 1990; Belenky et al, 1989). Devolution of power (Lukes, 1974; Smyth, 1989; Deem et al, 1995) to community level contains the possibility of more democratic and participatory leadership (Wilson, 1995; Brosnahan, 1996). The role of the state (O'Neill, 1996; Armstrong, 1992) in endorsing and effecting these changes is central. In contradictory fashion the state is both present and absent in the operation of secondary schools. It claims to be an unequivocal advocate of Equal Employment Opportunity practices (James & Saville-Smith, 1992), yet at the same time will allow one principal only to lead and manage (Grace, 1995; Olsson, 1996) a school. The power that schools have to make decisions around leadership is not as clear cut as it might seem. Historically and persistently schools have been led by men (Grace, 1995). Common belief, largely unquestioned, (Connell, 1987; Court, 1994) suggests that 'strong men' (Connell, 1996; Eveline, 1996, Hurty, 1995, Court, 1989) are required in the schools of today. Women seem (Wodak, 1997; Eveline, 1996) not to fit the bill (Still, 1996; Acker, 1991; Evetts, 1996), thus are not appointed. Many more women, it is generally asserted, prefer to teach rather than manage (Shakeshaft, 1989). Typically women are thought to have a different style (Rosener, 1990; Ferrario, 1991; Southworth, 1993) of leadership which may not be suitable in the competitive educational marketplace of the present (Wilson, 1996; Smyth, 1989), but suited to a collaborative (Brosnahan, 1996; Hargreaves, 1994) organisational culture, perhaps of the future. The position of associate principal can function as a transitional position, providing a formal mentoring opportunity (Woodd, 1997; Ehrlich, 1995). Whether it can facilitate the movement of women into senior management, and reduce principal isolation, is explored in this thesis.

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  • Identification of dothistromin biosynthetic pathway genes : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Molecular Genetics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Gillman, Carmel Jane

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Dothistromin is a polyketide-derived toxic secondary metabolite produced by the filamentous fungus Dothistroma pini which causes the disease Dothistroma needle blight in Pinus radiata. Dothistromin is considered to be an important component in the disease process, although its exact function is yet to be identified. By isolating and identifying genes involved in dothistromin biosynthesis, and subsequently obtaining mutants blocked or altered in the synthesis of dothistromin, the role of this toxin in pathogenicity will be able to be assessed. Dothistromin is structurally related to the mycotoxins, aflatoxin (AF) from Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus, and sterigmatocystin (ST) from A. nidulans. Three intermediates in the ST and AF biosynthetic pathways (averantin, averufin, and versicolorin B) are thought to also be intermediates dothistromin biosynthesis. Due to these similarities, cloned AF pathway genes were used as heterologous probes in Southern hybridisation analysis to provide a direct method for identifying dothistromin biosynthetic genes. A fragment of the A. parasiticus nor-1 gene, encoding a reductase involved in the conversion of norsolorinic acid (NA) to averantin (AVN) in the AF biosynthetic pathway, was used as a probe to detect a region of sequence similarity to D. pini genomic DNA. A D. pini genomic library was then constructed and screened, resulting in clone λCGN2. However, Southern hybridisation analysis suggested that this clone did not contain a homologue of the nor-1 gene from A. parasiticus. A fragment of the Aspergillus parasiticus ver-1 gene, encoding a reductase involved in the conversion of versicolorin A (VA) to ST in the AF biosynthetic pathway, was also used as a probe to detect a region of sequence similarity to D. pini genomic DNA. The D. pini genomic library was then screened. Two clones, λCGV1 and λCGV2, were isolated and Southern hybridisation analysis confirmed that these clones contained sequences hybridising to the A. parasiticus ver-1 gene fragment. Fragments of these clones which hybridised were then sequenced and compared to the GenBank database. The amino acid coding sequence of a 0.8 kb SalI region from clone λCGV1 exhibited a high degree of similarity with the A. nidulans verA and A. parasiticus ver-1 genes, involved in the ST and AF biosynthetic pathways, and the Magnaporthe grisea ThnR, and Colletotrichum lagenarium Thr1 genes, involved in melanin biosynthesis. This data suggested a ver-1 homologue is present in the D. pini genome. Limited sequence analysis of a 2.1 kb region from clone λCGV2 suggested that a second independent copy of a ver-1-like gene may also be present in the genome.

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  • An evaluation of conversational interfaces for pedestrian navigation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Information Technology, Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Longprasert, Nattakan

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of this research was to compare the performance between the OsmAnd application and three types of conversational interface, to test whether the conversational interface is a more preferred navigation tool. We designed and tested four different navigation systems; the map with command interface, the conversational-only interface, the conversational with map interface, and the conversational with image interface. The research involved 100 participants who had different levels of experience when using navigation systems. Participants were divided into three groups and were given different navigation interfaces. This research was conducted with both quantitative and qualitative usability testing along a pre-defined route in Massey University campus, combined with a USE questionnaire to gain the user’s feedback. The results indicated that both the OsmAnd and the conversational interface were good in different criteria. However, most participants preferred using the conversational interface more than the visual interface.

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  • An integrated national strategy for resource and environmental management in post-apartheid Namibia : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Sikabongo, Frederick Mupoti

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis presents a structure for integrated strategic planning across levels of government in Namibia. The study advocates necessary preconditions for the preparation of An Integrated National Strategy for Resource and Environmental Management in Post-Apartheid Namibia. Because the diagnostic nature of an integrated national strategy requires a condensed assessment of the state of the economy, people, institutions and natural resources, this study commences with a critical examination of the impact of German genocide and South African apartheid policies on the people, and natural and physical resources of Namibia, and illustrates how Namibia has begun to develop out the problems associated with colonial influence. Current underdevelopment and poverty in Namibia is mainly due to unsustainable extraction of resources which has generally benefited South Africa and its provincial satellites. In order to understand Namibia's economic situation, its profile is analysed in comparative study with other SADC member states. Namibia needs to encourage sustained economic growth in order to achieve human development objectives. It is especially important to integrate environmental management at all levels of government to achieve unity of the people and sustainable exploitation of natural and physical resources. Namibia's current state of natural and physical resources is analysed by taking into consideration the immediate actions of the current Government which succeeded colonial oppression. Adverse effects of past exploitation are compiled, and recommendations of various theorists are offered as supportive evidence of the requirements for an integrated national strategy for resource management. The absence of planning at the local level of government is the major cause of inconsistency in both policy-making and plan preparation, and is also identified as major threat to the achievement of sustainable economic development in Namibia. Changes regarding the strengthening of institutional capabilities, application of economic instruments in management of natural resources, methods of plan preparation, strategic policies, including integrated monitoring procedures are proposed. Suggestions are made about means by which these recommendations could be implemented to achieve sustainable development of natural and physical resources in Namibia. The conclusion of this study suggests also that development planning of natural and physical resources need to be nationally diversified by devolving planning authority to sub-national and sub-regional levels of government. The idea is to relieve Namibia's National Planning Commission from the burden of planning at the local level of government and to efficiently spread administrative responsibility across a multinuclear umbrella of private and public sectors involved in strategic planning.

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