5,215 results for Share

  • Effect of honey in improving the gut microbial balance

    Mohan, Anand; Quek, SY; Gutierrez-Maddox, N; Gao, Y; Shu, Q (2017-05-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Increasing consumer emphasis on the health benefits of foods has enhanced the research focus in health promoting elements, such as probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics. Live probiotic bacterial strains, which are incorporated in various food systems, must survive unfavourable processing and gastric environments to confer the desired physiological responses in the human gut. Non-digestible oligosaccharides are provided as fermentable prebiotic substrates to selectively modulate the gut microbial balance in favour of probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, thus improving the host metabolic function. Honey contains oligosaccharides that can be utilized by the saccharolytic fermenters to yield beneficial metabolites that promote the prebiotic effect. There are numerous studies on the antimicrobial components and health effects of honey, and many have focused on the unique antibacterial activity of varieties such as Manuka. However, the possibility of the bactericidal and bacteriostatic factors in honey working synergistically with probiotics is yet to be adequately explored in the literature. The focus of this review is on the studies that have endeavoured to evaluate the prebiotic potential of honey, which has not been comprehensively assessed as the more established prebiotics. The results in most of the reported investigations are encouraging at optimal concentrations of honey, and further research is recommended as per the defined criteria of fermentation selectivity required for the endorsement of prebiotic functionality.

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  • Expanding the canon of art: developing new definitions in legislation for heritage protection, administration and trading in nineteenth-century Rome and Athens

    Mannoni, Chiara (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The so-called Edict Chiaramonti and Edict Pacca, issued in the Papal States in 1802 and 1820 respectively, and the Gesetz, issued in Greece in 1834, are the first widely inclusive legislation conceived for the management and the preservation of the artworks in places that had been the most plundered in Europe for centuries. These regulations not only aimed to protect monuments, paintings and antiquities from the risks of damage and deterioration, but also established a legal framework against their illegal exportation and smuggling, intending essentially to administer heritage in its original context of production. The analysis of these laws, considered against the earlier edicts published on the protection of the arts in Europe between the fifth and the eighteenth centuries, sheds light on the origins of concepts related to the protection of cultural heritage that have become fundamental in contemporary attitudes to the tutelage of the arts. The principal aim of this research is to examine the reciprocal influence of legislation and scholarship, in order to uncover the gradual development of innovative definitions of ???arts??? and ???artwork??? through the edicts issued on the safeguarding of the arts, considering in particular the elaboration of the concepts of ???minor??? and ???local??? heritage at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Analysis of the consequences of these edicts will consider how they were administered and the implications of the new concepts and bureaucratic procedures for both the art market and the illegal trafficking of artworks in Rome and Athens. Through the assessment of the exports which were effectively approved by the relevant administrators, this thesis demonstrates the essential attributes of these legal systems and their application: the consequences of loopholes and gaps within legislation itself, the exports consented for diplomatic and political reasons, and the sales of ???worthless??? objects which were de facto excluded from protection, because they were not yet considered to be ???artwork??? in the nineteenth century. Investigation of unpublished documents in the archives of Rome and Athens has also provided evidence of aspects related to the establishment of local administration for the fine arts in the provinces of the Papal States, and the first museums and collections in the villages of Greece, following the prescriptions of the relevant laws. This thesis examines the organisational issues related to the institution of these early local bodies in relation to the debates of European scholars on the definition of ???context??? and ???preservation in situ???, contending that the gradual broadening of the concept of heritage was profoundly related to the definition of new instruments for its conservation and management. Discussing the archival data, I argue that the essential awareness of the small communities on the importance of protecting their local heritage played a fundamental role in bringing the ???minor arts??? and ???local artists??? to the attention of central administrations, succeeding not only in effecting their final inclusion into the legal systems of safeguarding, but also in widening the definition of ???art???, and hence the scope of art history and archaeology.

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  • Synthesis of new photoactive materials for Laser Micromachining and Microfabrication

    Whitby, Reece (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis describes the synthesis of a number of novel photoinitiator materials based around triphenylamine to aid in the development and optimisation of the two-photon polymerisation technique. Such materials should allow for improved writing speeds, smaller fabricated feature sizes and low laser powers to initiate polymerisation. Two-photon polymerisation allows for the fabrication of intricate three-dimensional structures, but suffers from slow writing speeds and sufficiently optimised photoinitiators. This work starts with an introduction to the two-photon polymerisation technique, used for fabricating micro/nano-scale three-dimensional polymeric structures, and in particular when using a 780 nm femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser. This is followed by a description of the synthesis, analysis and characterisation of a number of newly synthesised photoinitiators. The latter part consists of a detailed analysis of the two-photon polymerisation work carried out using these newly synthesised photoinitiators. An in depth analysis of the factors that allow for more efficient photoinitiators was conducted, and identified the key parameters and molecular properties that should lead to better performing materials. Following this, the design and synthesis of three suites of new photoinitiators containing a variety of electron donors and acceptors was conducted in order to maximise two-photon absorption cross-sections - a key parameter for any successful compound. The general suites of compounds prepared were: (i) branched triphenylamine-??-ester systems; (ii) triphenylamine-??-acceptor and acceptor-??-acceptor systems and (iii) triphenylamine: ??,??-unsaturated ketone systems. It was found the two-photon cross sections of up to 590 GM were achievable and this is above the 500 GM that was targeted at the outset of this work. For each class of compound studied, fluorescence measurements were performed, and these showed the strong influence that solvent viscosity had on the molecular properties of the multi-branched structures reported here, particularly the fluorescence quantum yield, and ultimately, the two-photon polymerisation thresholds. Furthermore, the effect of incorporating ketone functionality as a means to reduce fluorescence quantum yields ??? and which leads to more efficient photoinitation (through increasing inter system crossing to the active triplet state) - was also studied. This indeed proved to be a valid approach and fluorescence quantum yields for some of the ketone containing molecules were below 1%. In-depth studies were also performed to assess the photoinitiators ability to initiate the polymerisation of acrylates when exposed to an 800 nm femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser on a fabrication stage. It was found that high quality structures with micrometre resolutions could made using writing speeds as fast as 200 ??m/s and at laser powers as low as 27 ??W. Furthermore, it was shown that making use of dipolar photoinitiators is advantageous over larger multi-polar species, even though the latter species can display seemingly improved properties. It was concluded that in more complex, multibranched systems, that localisation of the excited state to a single branch effectively negates the molecular properties exhibited by larger species. Moreover, given the difficulty in synthesising larger photoinitiators this work suggests that pursing such a pathway is unlikely to yield large improvements in polymerisation thresholds. Overall it is concluded that improving dipolar species to maximise their two-photon absorption cross-sections, minimise their fluorescence quantum yields and improve their solubility in a variety of monomer materials is likely to be a more fruitful endeavour.

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  • What are we thinking? Supervision as the vehicle for reflective practice in community-based child welfare services

    Rankine, Matthew (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Community-based child welfare social work within Aotearoa New Zealand has undergone major alterations in service delivery in response to a government neoliberal-driven agenda. To combat the challenges facing social work practice in community-based child welfare services, there is a necessity for reflective supervision to critique practice outcomes for practitioners and service users. An exploration of critical theory and, in particular, Bourdieu???s key concepts of habitus, field and capital, allow for a critical examination of reflective supervision in community-based child welfare, and the investigation of alternatives to social work practice in this study. This study aimed to explore reflective supervision practices within the current context of community-based child welfare services in Aotearoa New Zealand and to develop strategies that support reflective supervision. A qualitative critical reflection methodology provided a detailed understanding of reflective supervision in community-based child welfare through the participation of key informants and supervisory dyads. Bourdieu???s concepts were utilised in the critical analysis of the key informant findings and revealed that reflective supervision within community-based child welfare social work provides the social worker with an opportunity to develop self-awareness; identify their professional relationships and associated power dynamics; and explore the state???s influence on community-based child welfare social work. Key findings from the supervisory dyad data indicated that social workers utilised reflective supervision for developing self-awareness; understanding the tensions experienced within professional relationships; and discussing uncertainty within the organisation. However, the reflective supervision observed lacked a deeper analysis and critical examination of wider structural and environmental factors. The findings of this study suggest community-based child welfare social workers need to employ a deeper analysis within reflective supervision to assist in the development of social justice informed strategies in their work with service users. Greater critical exploration is needed regarding the socio-cultural and political factors impacting on community-based child welfare social work in the Aotearoa New Zealand context, the power between agencies and disadvantaged groups, and the development of the social worker???s self-awareness. The significance of this study is in its contribution to understanding the current supervision context within community-based child welfare and the thinking aloud process and the four-layered practice model as strategies to support reflective supervision.

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  • Total Synthesis of Iheyamine A

    Lindsay, Ashley (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis describes the synthetic efforts towards iheyamine A 209, a unique azepino[3,2-b; 4,5-b??]bisindole isolated from the marine ascidian Polycitorella sp., which ultimately culminated in the first total synthesis of this natural product. Initial attempts towards the synthesis of iheyamine A 209 centred on construction of the azepinobisindole scaffold using sequential Beckmann rearrangement-Mannich cyclisation reactions. When the model oxime 221 was used, the desired pentacyclic framework 222 was formed, but subsequent efforts to convert 222 into the azepinobisindole core of iheyamine A 223 were unsuccessful. When this approach was used in pursuit of iheyamine A, oxime 300 did not undergo the Beckmann rearrangement, but instead the 2,4??-bisindole 305 was formed as a result of the electron rich C4-site reacting during the Mannich reaction. Based on spectroscopic data for the natural product and some biomimetic model studies previously reported by Bremner, we subsequently reinvestigated a biomimetic approach to iheyamine A. A Pictet-Spengler-Plancher rearrangement sequence resulted in the synthesis of a series of azepino[2,3-b; 4,5-b??]bisindoles 344 and 365-367, all of which are regioisomers of the natural product formed by C-N migration during the Plancher rearrangement. Attempts to promote the formation of the desired azepino[3,2-b; 4,5-b??]bisindole present in iheyamine A by C-C bond migration were unsuccessful using this biomimetic approach. The total synthesis of iheyamine A was completed by way of a novel intermolecular cross- Mannich reaction between 3-acetoxyindole 503 and tryptamine 479, which was developed to construct the crucial unsymmetrical 2,2??-bisindole 424. A serendipitously discovered oxidation led to indolone 425, which upon one-pot deprotection-cyclisation-oxidation sequence gave iheyamine A 209. Variable temperature experiments were conducted on 209 to determine if iheyamine A existed as the reported tautomer 209. No change in the 1H NMR spectrum of 209 was observed (even at -30 ??C), inferring that in solution iheyamine A 209 exists as a mixture of tautomers that undergo rapid chemical exchange on the NMR timescale.

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  • Using Observational Data to Estimate the Effect of Hand Washing and Clean Delivery Kit Use by Birth Attendants on Maternal Deaths after Home Deliveries in Rural Bangladesh, India and Nepal.

    Seward, N; Prost, A; Copas, A; Corbin, M; Li, L; Colbourn, T; Osrin, D; Neuman, M; Azad, K; Kuddus, A; Nair, N; Tripathy, P; Manandhar, D; Costello, A; Cortina-Borja, M

    Journal article
    Massey University

    BACKGROUND: Globally, puerperal sepsis accounts for an estimated 8-12% of maternal deaths, but evidence is lacking on the extent to which clean delivery practices could improve maternal survival. We used data from the control arms of four cluster-randomised controlled trials conducted in rural India, Bangladesh and Nepal, to examine associations between clean delivery kit use and hand washing by the birth attendant with maternal mortality among home deliveries. METHODS: We tested associations between clean delivery practices and maternal deaths, using a pooled dataset for 40,602 home births across sites in the three countries. Cross-sectional data were analysed by fitting logistic regression models with and without multiple imputation, and confounders were selected a priori using causal directed acyclic graphs. The robustness of estimates was investigated through sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Hand washing was associated with a 49% reduction in the odds of maternal mortality after adjusting for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.93). The sensitivity analysis testing the missing at random assumption for the multiple imputation, as well as the sensitivity analysis accounting for possible misclassification bias in the use of clean delivery practices, indicated that the association between hand washing and maternal death had been over estimated. Clean delivery kit use was not associated with a maternal death (AOR 1.26, 95% CI 0.62-2.56). CONCLUSIONS: Our evidence suggests that hand washing in delivery is critical for maternal survival among home deliveries in rural South Asia, although the exact magnitude of this effect is uncertain due to inherent biases associated with observational data from low resource settings. Our findings indicating kit use does not improve maternal survival, suggests that the soap is not being used in all instances that kit use is being reported.

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  • Effects of latitude and depth on the beta diversity of New Zealand fish communities

    Zintzen, V; Anderson, MJ; Roberts, CD; Harvey, ES; Stewart, AL

    Journal article
    Massey University

    © 2017 The Author(s). Marine ecosystems are difficult to sample quantitatively at increasing depth. Hence, few studies attempt to measure patterns of beta diversity for ecological communities in the deep sea. Here we (i) present and quantify large-scale gradients in fish community structure along depth and latitude gradients of the New Zealand EEZ, (ii) obtain rigorous quantitative estimates of these depth (50-1200 m) and latitudinal effects (29.15-50.91°S) and their interaction, and (iii) explicitly model how latitudinal beta diversity of fishes varies with depth. The sampling design was highly structured, replicated and stratified for latitude and depth, using data obtained from 345 standardised baited remote underwater stereo-video deployments. Results showed that gradients in fish community structure along depth and latitude were strong and interactive in New Zealand waters; latitudinal variation in fish communities progressively decreased with depth following an exponential decay (r 2 = 0.96), revealing increasingly similar fish communities with increasing depth. In contrast, variation in fish community structure along the depth gradient was of a similar magnitude across all of the latitudes investigated here. We conclude that an exponential decay in beta diversity vs depth exists for fish communities present in areas shallower than the New Zealand upper continental slope.

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  • Diversity and composition of demersal fishes along a depth gradient assessed by baited remote underwater stereo-video.

    Zintzen, V; Anderson, MJ; Roberts, CD; Harvey, ES; Stewart, AL; Struthers, CD

    Journal article
    Massey University

    BACKGROUND: Continental slopes are among the steepest environmental gradients on earth. However, they still lack finer quantification and characterisation of their faunal diversity patterns for many parts of the world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Changes in fish community structure and diversity along a depth gradient from 50 to 1200 m were studied from replicated stereo baited remote underwater video deployments within each of seven depth zones at three locations in north-eastern New Zealand. Strong, but gradual turnover in the identities of species and community structure was observed with increasing depth. Species richness peaked in shallow depths, followed by a decrease beyond 100 m to a stable average value from 700 to 1200 m. Evenness increased to 700 m depth, followed by a decrease to 1200 m. Average taxonomic distinctness △(+) response was unimodal with a peak at 300 m. The variation in taxonomic distinctness Λ(+) first decreased sharply from 50 to 300 m, then increased beyond 500 m depth, indicating that species from deep samples belonged to more distant taxonomic groups than those from shallow samples. Fishes with northern distributions progressively decreased in their proportional representation with depth whereas those with widespread distributions increased. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides the first characterization of diversity patterns for bait-attracted fish species on continental slopes in New Zealand and is an imperative primary step towards development of explanatory and predictive ecological models, as well as being fundamental for the implementation of efficient management and conservation strategies for fishery resources.

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  • Risk of stomach cancer in Aotearoa/New Zealand: A M(a)over-barori population based case-control study

    Ellison-Loschmann, L; Sporle, A; Corbin, M; Cheng, S; Harawira, P; Gray, M; Whaanga, T; Guilford, P; Koea, J; Pearce, N

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Published

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  • The Morality and Political Antagonisms of Neoliberal Discourse: Campbell Brown and the Corporatization of Educational Justice

    Phelan, SP; salter, LS

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Neoliberalism is routinely criticized for its moral indifference, especially concerning the social application of moral objectives. Yet it also presupposes a particular moral code, where acting on the assumption of individual autonomy becomes the basis of a shared moral-political praxis. Using a discourse theoretical approach, this article explores different articulations of morality in neoliberal discourse. We focus on the case of Campbell Brown, the former CNN anchor who reinvented herself from 2012 to 2016 as a prominent charter school advocate and antagonist of teachers unions. We examine the ideological significance of a campaigning strategy that coheres around an image of the moral superiority of corporatized schooling against an antithetical representation of the moral degeneracy of America’s public schools system. In particular, we highlight how Brown attempts to incorporate the fragments of different progressive discourses into a neoliberalized vision of educational justice.

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  • Measures of precision for dissimilarity-based multivariate analysis of ecological communities.

    Anderson, MJ; Santana-Garcon, J

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Ecological studies require key decisions regarding the appropriate size and number of sampling units. No methods currently exist to measure precision for multivariate assemblage data when dissimilarity-based analyses are intended to follow. Here, we propose a pseudo multivariate dissimilarity-based standard error (MultSE) as a useful quantity for assessing sample-size adequacy in studies of ecological communities. Based on sums of squared dissimilarities, MultSE measures variability in the position of the centroid in the space of a chosen dissimilarity measure under repeated sampling for a given sample size. We describe a novel double resampling method to quantify uncertainty in MultSE values with increasing sample size. For more complex designs, values of MultSE can be calculated from the pseudo residual mean square of a permanova model, with the double resampling done within appropriate cells in the design. R code functions for implementing these techniques, along with ecological examples, are provided.

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  • Environmental characteristics drive variation in Amazonian understorey bird assemblages.

    Menger, J; Magnusson, WE; Anderson, MJ; Schlegel, M; Pe'er, G; Henle, K

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Tropical bird assemblages display patterns of high alpha and beta diversity and, as tropical birds exhibit strong habitat specificity, their spatial distributions are generally assumed to be driven primarily by environmental heterogeneity and interspecific interactions. However, spatial distributions of some Amazonian forest birds are also often restricted by large rivers and other large-scale topographic features, suggesting that dispersal limitation may also play a role in driving species' turnover. In this study, we evaluated the effects of environmental characteristics, topographic and spatial variables on variation in local assemblage structure and diversity of birds in an old-growth forest in central Amazonia. Birds were mist-netted in 72 plots distributed systematically across a 10,000 ha reserve in each of three years. Alpha diversity remained stable through time, but species composition changed. Spatial variation in bird-assemblage structure was significantly related to environmental and topographic variables but not strongly related to spatial variables. At a broad scale, we found bird assemblages to be significantly distinct between two watersheds that are divided by a central ridgeline. We did not detect an effect of the ridgeline per se in driving these patterns, indicating that most birds are able to fly across it, and that differences in assemblage structure between watersheds may be due to unmeasured environmental variables or unique combinations of measured variables. Our study indicates that complex geography and landscape features can act together with environmental variables to drive changes in the diversity and composition of tropical bird assemblages at local scales, but highlights that we still know very little about what makes different parts of tropical forest suitable for different species.

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  • Beta diversity of demersal fish assemblages in the North-Eastern Pacific: interactions of latitude and depth.

    Anderson, MJ; Tolimieri, N; Millar, RB

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Knowledge of broad-scale global patterns in beta diversity (i.e., variation or turnover in identities of species) for marine systems is in its infancy. We analysed the beta diversity of groundfish communities along the North American Pacific coast, from trawl data spanning 32.57°N to 48.52°N and 51 m to 1200 m depth. Analyses were based on both the Jaccard measure and the probabilistic Raup-Crick measure, which accounts for variation in alpha diversity. Overall, beta diversity decreased with depth, and this effect was strongest at lower latitudes. Superimposed on this trend were peaks in beta diversity at around 400-600 m and also around 1000-1200 m, which may indicate high turnover around the edges of the oxygen minimum zone. Beta diversity was also observed to decrease with latitude, but this effect was only observed in shallower waters (800 m. At shallower depths (<200 m), peaks in latitudinal turnover were observed at ∼43°N, 39°N, 35°N and 31°N, which corresponded well with several classically observed oceanographic boundaries. Turnover with depth was stronger than latitudinal turnover, and is likely to reflect strong environmental filtering over relatively short distances. Patterns in beta diversity, including latitude-by-depth interactions, should be integrated with other biodiversity measures in ecosystem-based management and conservation of groundfish communities.

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  • Residency and movement patterns of an apex predatory shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) at the Galapagos Marine Reserve

    Acuna-Marrero, D; Smith, ANH; Hammerschlag, N; Hearn, A; Anderson, MJ; Calich, H; Pawley, MDM; Fischer, C; Salinas-de-Leon, P

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Published

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  • Complete Genome Sequences of Three Novel Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 Bacteriophages, Noxifer, Phabio, and Skulduggery

    Hendrickson, HL

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Three novel bacteriophages, two of which are jumbophages, were isolated from compost in Auckland, New Zealand. Noxifer, Phabio, and Skulduggery are double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) phages with genome sizes of 278,136 bp (Noxifer), 309,157 bp (Phabio), and 62,978 bp (Skulduggery).

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  • Marine reserves indirectly affect fine-scale habitat associations, but not overall densities, of small benthic fishes

    Smith, ANH; Anderson, MJ

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Published

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  • Bone health among premenopausal female alcoholics: A pilot study

    Clynes, MA; Wyawahare, P; Robinson, G; Denison, HJ; Evans, G; Gilmour, M; Dennison, EM

    Journal article
    Massey University

    © Clynes et al.; Licensee Bentham Open. We report a pilot study of bone health of alcohol dependent women. Women admitted to an alcohol-withdrawal unit (cases) and a convenience sample of controls (nursing staff) were recruited and asked to complete a lifestyle questionnaire before undergoing heel ultrasound measurements. Fasting blood samples were obtained on the day of admission (day 1) and at 5 days. Bone turnover markers (P1NP and CTX) and vitamin D levels were measured in a subset of the alcohol dependent population. Cases were less physically active than controls. Alcoholic women had lower heel ultrasound derived Stiffness Index scores [mean 85.2 (17.6)] compared with controls [mean 95.5 (18.7)] (p=0.07). P1NP rose significantly over the detoxification programme [day 1: 28.35 ng/l (12.25); day 5: 34.19 ng/l (13.16), p=0.003] but CTX change was not significant. Lifestyle factors associated with poor bone health are prevalent in female alcoholics. Significant increase in bone formation was observed 5 days after alcohol withdrawal.

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  • Technical report two: Analysis of curriculum documents

    Ballantyne, N; Beddoe, Elizabeth; Hay, K; Maidment, JM; Walker, S; Ngan, L (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Technical report three: TISWEANZ Taxonomy

    Ballantyne, N; Beddoe, Elizabeth; Hay, K; Maidment, JM; Ngan, L; Walker, S (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Report on citizenship law: New Zealand

    McMillan, K; Hood, Anna (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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