5,776 results for Share

  • Simple guilt and cooperation

    Peeters, Ronald; Vorsatz, Marc (2018-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We introduce simple guilt into a generic prisoner’s dilemma (PD) game and solve for the equilibria of the resulting psychological game. It is shown that for all guilt parameters, it is a pure strategy equilibrium that both players defect. But, if the guilt parameter surpasses a threshold, a mixed strategy equilibrium and a pure strategy equilibrium in which both players cooperate emerge. We implement three payoff constellations of the PD game in a laboratory experiment and find in line with our equilibrium analysis that first- and second-order beliefs are highly correlated and that the probability of cooperation depends positively on these beliefs. Finally, we provide numerical evidence on the degree of guilt cooperators experience.

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  • Intraspecific variation in indirect plant-soil feedbacks as a driver of a wetland plant invasion

    Allen, Warwick; Meyerson, L. A.; Flick, A. J.; Cronin, J. T.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) can influence plant competition via direct interactions with pathogens and mutualists or indirectly via apparent competition/mutualisms (i.e., spillover to co-occurring plants) and soil legacy effects. Presently, it is unknown how intraspecific variation in PSFs interacts with the environment (e.g., nutrient availability) to influence competition between native and invasive plants. We conducted a fully crossed multi-factor greenhouse experiment to determine the effects of soil biota, interspecific competition, and nutrient availability on biomass of replicate populations from one native and two invasive lineages of common reed (Phragmites australis) and a single lineage of native smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). Harmful soil biota consistently dominated PSFs involving all three P. australis lineages, reducing biomass by 10%, regardless of nutrient availability or S. alterniflora presence as a competitor. Spillover of soil biota derived from the rhizosphere of the two invasive P. australis lineages reduced S. alterniflora biomass by 7%, whereas soil biota from the native P. australis lineage increased S. alterniflora biomass by 6%. Interestingly, regardless of lineage, P. australis soil biota negatively affected S. alterniflora biomass when grown alone (i.e., a soil legacy), but had a positive impact when grown with P. australis, suggesting that P. australis is preferred by harmful generalist soil biota or facilitates S. alterniflora via spillover (i.e., apparent mutualism). Soil biota also reduced the negative impacts of interspecific competition on S. alterniflora by 13%, although it remained competitively inferior to P. australis across all treatments. Moreover, competitive interactions and the response to nutrients did not differ among P. australis lineages, indicating that interspecific competition and nutrient deposition may not be key drivers of P. australis invasion in North America. Taken together, although soil biota, interspecific competition, and nutrient availability appear to have no direct impact on the success of invasive P. australis lineages in North America, indirect spillover and soil legacies from P. australis occur and may have important implications for co-occurring native species and restoration of invaded habitats. Our study integrates multiple factors linked to plant invasions, highlighting that indirect interactions are likely commonplace in driving successful invasions and their impacts on the local community.

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  • In vitro fermentation characteristics of ryegrass-white clover sward containing different proportions of chicory

    Al-Marashdeh, Omar; Cheng, L.; Gregorini, Pablo; Edwards, Grant

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Chicory (Cichorum intybus) is a deep-rooted grazeable forage used to overcome production and nutritive value shortfalls of perennial ryegrass (Loliun perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens) swards during summer drought periods in New Zealand. Despite the wide use of chicory, limited data is available on its fermentation characteristics, and how those affect rumen fermentation pattern and, thereby, nutrient supply from ryegrass-white clover based swards including chicory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro fermentation characteristics of ryegrass-white clover sward containing different proportions of chicory. Herbages containing 100% ryegrass-white clover (Ch0); 25% chicory + 75% ryegrass-white clover (Ch25%); 50% chicory + 50% ryegrass-white clover (Ch50%); and 100% chicory (Ch100%) were incubated using the Daisy II-200/220 incubator (ANKOM Technology, NY). Treatments, Ch0, 25%, 50% and 100%, were randomly assigned to the four fermentation jars over two runs. The pH, volatile fatty acids and ammonia-N concentrations of fermentation liquor were measured at 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 hours of incubation. Data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA with chicory proportion as treatment effect, incubation time as time effect and run as replicate. The pH, mean concentration of ammonia-N, propionate, acetate and butyrate were not affected by treatment (P > 0.05), averaging at 6.5 ± 0.02, 19.1 ± 1.98, 5.3±1.12, 20.2 ± 3.37and 3.3 ± 0.66 mmol/l, respectively. Current results showed that fermentation pattern of herbage containing increasing proportions of chicory is similar to the ‘conventional’ ryegrass-white clover, suggesting that including chicory in conventional swards might not alter the nutritive value of herbage.

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  • Predictors of Workplace Bullying and Cyber-Bullying in New Zealand

    Gardner, Dianne; O’Driscoll, Michael P.; Cooper-Thomas, Helena D.; Roche, Maree A.; Bentley, Tim; Catley, Bevan; Teo, Stephen T. T.; Trenberth, Linda (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Background: The negative effects of in-person workplace bullying (WB) are well established. Less is known about cyber-bullying (CB), in which negative behaviours are mediated by technology. Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, the current research examined how individual and organisational factors were related to WB and CB at two time points three months apart. Methods: Data were collected by means of an online self-report survey. Eight hundred and twenty-six respondents (58% female, 42% male) provided data at both time points. Results: One hundred and twenty-three (15%) of participants had been bullied and 23 (2.8%) of participants had been cyber-bullied within the last six months. Women reported more WB, but not more CB, than men. Worse physical health, higher strain, more destructive leadership, more team conflict and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more WB. Managerial employees experienced more CB than non-managerial employees. Poor physical health, less organisational support and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more CB. Conclusion: Rates of CB were lower than those of WB, and very few participants reported experiencing CB without also experiencing WB. Both forms of bullying were associated with poorer work environments, indicating that, where bullying is occurring, the focus should be on organisational systems and processes.

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  • Lineage overwhelms environmental conditions in determining rhizosphere bacterial community structure in a cosmopolitan invasive plant

    Bowen, J. L.; Kearns, P. J.; Byrnes, J. E. K.; Wigginton, S.; Allen, Warwick; Greenwood, M.; Tran, K.; Yu, J.; Cronin, J. T.; Meyerson, L. A.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Plant–microbe interactions play crucial roles in species invasions but are rarely investigated at the intraspecific level. Here, we study these interactions in three lineages of a globally distributed plant, Phragmites australis. We use field surveys and a common garden experiment to analyze bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of P. australis stands from native, introduced, and Gulf lineages to determine lineage-specific controls on rhizosphere bacteria. We show that within-lineage bacterial communities are similar, but are distinct among lineages, which is consistent with our results in a complementary common garden experiment. Introduced P. australis rhizosphere bacterial communities have lower abundances of pathways involved in antimicrobial biosynthesis and degradation, suggesting a lower exposure to enemy attack than native and Gulf lineages. However, lineage and not rhizosphere bacterial communities dictate individual plant growth in the common garden experiment. We conclude that lineage is crucial for determination of both rhizosphere bacterial communities and plant fitness.

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  • Are faecal egg counts approaching their 'sell-by' date?

    Greer, Andrew W.; Sykes, Andrew R.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Historically, the primary determinant for the state of parasitism has been the concentration of nematode eggs in the faeces (FEC). This descriptor has a number of limitations that have implications for the development of drug resistance and hamper the identification of resilient livestock. A major fallacy is that FEC can reliably assess the worm burden, the need for anthelmintic and the efficacy of that treatment. FEC is a ratio, eggs per gram of faeces, not a quantity. Not only is the denominator ignored but interpretation of the numerator requires knowledge of nematode species present and female fecundity which can be affected by infra-population dynamics. By definition, a parasite exists at the expense of its host. As such, the consistent ability of resilient animals to maintain performance, despite a high FEC, strongly suggests that FEC does not provide a reliable indicator of the cost of parasitism. This manuscript reviews the factors that affect FEC and argues for a step change in our approach to the control of nematode parasitism in pastoral systems to one focused on individual treatments based on animal performance utilising radio-frequency electronic identification and automated weighing and drafting systems.

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  • Acceptance of Using an Ecosystem of Mobile Apps for Use in Diabetes Clinic for Self-Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Pais, S; Parry, D; Petrova, K; Rowan, J

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Mobile applications (apps) for self-management of diseases such as diabetes and for general well-being, including keeping track of food, diet, and exercise, are widely available. However, consumers face a flood of new mobile apps in the app stores and have no guidance from clinicians about choosing the appropriate app. As much as clinicians would like to support a patient-centered approach and promote health and wellness mobile apps, they may be unable to provide advice due to the lack of comprehensive and reliable app reviews. This research reviewed a selection of health and wellness mobile apps suitable for the self-management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A prototype of an ecosystem that integrated the data generated by the apps was built and its usefulness and ease of use were evaluated. The results show that the ecosystem can provide support for GDM self-management by sharing health and wellness data across the diabetes clinic.

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  • “It’s Not the Way We Use English”—Can We Resist the Native Speaker Stranglehold on Academic Publications?

    Strauss, P

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    English dominates the academic publishing world, and this dominance can, and often does, lead to the marginalisation of researchers who are not first-language speakers of English. There are different schools of thought regarding this linguistic domination; one approach is pragmatic. Proponents believe that the best way to empower these researchers in their bid to publish is to assist them to gain mastery of the variety of English most acceptable to prestigious journals. Another perspective, however, is that traditional academic English is not necessarily the best medium for the dissemination of research, and that linguistic compromises need to be made. They contend that the stranglehold that English holds in the publishing world should be resisted. This article explores these different perspectives, and suggests ways in which those of us who do not wield a great deal of influence may yet make a small contribution to the levelling of the linguistic playing field, and pave the way for an English lingua franca that better serves the needs of twenty-first century academics.

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  • Algorithmic Design in Hybrid Housing Systems

    Paulin, Robert (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis utilises digital tools to explore notions of flexibility and resilience in the New Zealand suburban house typology. Through aligning with culturally specific paradigms found in traditional Māori Papakāinga settlements, the research questions current western models of community and connectedness through digital simulations. The methodology brings together social, cultural and climactic forces as key influences to internal domestic programme and overall form. The design process is informed by occupancy requirements associated with family types and projected domestic behaviour. This is mapped to cumulative weather data in relation to location and context. Buildable form is therefore a reflection of site specific conditions and planning in relation to various social configurations influenced by culture and community. A key aspect of this research is the creation of a residential model for multi-generational living. Long term adaptability of this residential model is established through planning for future organic expansion & contraction within the development through the careful consideration of modular building platforms that can deal with varying degrees of social diversity. This design research is largely influenced by pre-Socratic theorists and architects working on translating social, geographical and cultural information into data that can inform computational design and simulations. This form of design interpretation through mathematics has arguably stemmed from the birth of calculus in the 17th century, whereby a formula is used to clarify equations with a multitude of variables often represented by Letters and symbols. Utilizing this knowledge in computer aided design (CAD) allows a designer to produce an equation that represents the process from data to design. Aligning design to the mathematical systems allows the work to represent a quantified, systematic depiction of information as opposed to the romanticized view of the ‘Genius Architect’. The workflow and theory behind this research solidifies the role of algorithmic design in architecture and testing the plausibility of these theories in a housing system. While being largely based on the theories of multi-agent systems and algorithmic design, this system also outlines a modular building technology that embellishes design diversity and flexibility. The architecture proposed utilizes parametric design tools and the concept of housing types in a state of flux, whereby the singular entity of the home is considered as part of a much wider collection of housing situations which is forever changing. By adopting the ecological approach seen in nature we allow the space for intergenerational, bicultural living arrangements that have the flexibility to respond to changes without diminishing the flow of social domains.

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  • Talk It Out: Promoting Verbal Communication Through Virtual Reality Games

    Bodnar, James (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Verbal communication skills have been shown to be important for both social and professional settings. However, a need for greater communication skills has been identified for graduated students entering the workplace, specifically task-based verbal communication (Daniels, 2001). In light of these findings new communication teaching techniques need to be explored to better prepare our students for effectively communicating information in their future work environment. This thesis researched the potential for virtual reality video games to promote verbal communication skills in students. The motivation behind using virtual reality video games to teach these skills is based on the theory (Richard Van Eck, 2006) that video games have the potential to enhance the learning outcome of students. Initial research also shows that virtual reality experiences further immerse the player in the educational setting improving their engagement with the game's content (Thornhill-Miller & Dupont, 2016). The thesis researched how virtual reality games can teach verbal communication skills firstly by analysing past works, completing an in- depth literature review and multiple case studies. Secondly, by using research through design methods in the creation of a prototype game that incorporates both communication and game teaching mechanics researched in the first stage. Finally, user tests were conducted on the prototype game to analyse how effective it was at promoting verbal communication skills in students. The paper’s outcome was that virtual reality games can be effective at promoting verbal communication skills and have tested specific teaching techniques and video game mechanics that can be used to effectively promote these skills.

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  • Rebuilding Sustainable Transport in Christchurch? A mixed-methods study of the effects of workplace relocation on transport choice and emissions

    Whitwell, Kate (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Tackling the challenge of climate change will require rapid emissions reductions across all sectors, including transport. This study adds to the literature by investigating factors that may encourage sustainable transport choices at a time of change and therefore reduce emissions. A mix of quantitative and qualitative methods was used to explore the impact of a relocation of employees from several dispersed work locations back to one office building in the central business district on transport choices and carbon emissions in Christchurch, New Zealand. This case study found that such a recentralisation of employment can result in employees making more sustainable transport choices and can contribute to decreases in transport emissions from commuting, even in a highly car-dependent city. The relocation led to a 12 percent rise in the proportion of employees commuting actively or by public transport and resulted in a significant drop in commuting emissions (16 percent). The primary contributing factor was the change in location of the office itself, reducing the average commuting distance and increasing accessibility to public transport and active travel. A further contributing factor was the perceived reduction in parking availability at the new location. Further results support the existing literature on barriers to sustainable transport, identifying any factor that impacts on the feasibility of the journey by alternative modes, such as commute time or safety, as a significant barrier to uptake. Overall findings suggest that relocating offices provides a good opportunity to encourage employees to consider changing to a more sustainable commute mode, and that significant numbers may make such a shift if commute time or distance are reduced. Realising substantial mode shift however will depend on cities providing feasible and efficient sustainable alternatives to driving a car to work.

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  • Does the Occipital Face Area Contribute to Holistic Face Processing?

    Henderson, Gates (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Face perception depends on a network of brain areas that selectively respond to faces over non-face stimuli. These face-selective areas are involved in different aspects of face perception, but what specific process is implemented in a particular region remains little understood. A candidate processisholistic face processing, namely the integration of visual information across the whole of an upright face. In this thesis, I report two experimentsthat examine whether the occipital face area (OFA), a face-selective region in the inferior occipital gyrus, performs holistic processing for categorising a stimulus as a face. Both experiments were conducted using online, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to disrupt activity in the brain while participants performed face perception tasks. Experiment 1 was a localiser in which participants completed two face identification tasks while receiving TMS at OFA or vertex. Participants’ accuracy decreased for one of the tasks as a result of OFA but not vertex stimulation. This result confirms that OFA could be localised and its activity disrupted. Experiment 2 was a test of holistic processing in which participants categorised ambiguous two-tone images as faces or non-faces while TMS was delivered to OFA or vertex. Participants’ accuracy and response times were unchanged as a result of either stimulation. This result suggests that the OFA is not engaged in holistic processing for categorising a stimulus as a face. Overall, the currentresults are more consistent with previous studies suggesting that OFA is involved in processing of local face features/details rather than the whole face.

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  • Augmented Reality On Display: How might augmented reality technology be used to create meaningful interactive museum exhibits?

    Bishop, Jonathon (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The aim of this thesis is to explore augmented reality technology and the methods in which it can be applied to museum displays to enriching the experience of visitors. Artefacts within museums have rich histories which are not always apparent. This is due to the way artefacts are currently displayed and the way information is communicated in exhibitions. is project will set out design guidelines to inform the development of augmenting museum experiences. These guidelines will provide criteria and parameters for the use of augmented reality in museums, and will also be accessible to museum staff to create or enhance existing exhibits for visitors. The guidelines will be produced through a combination of different contextual research methods and will inform a final designed case study. These contextual research methods include: completing a practical exploration of augmented reality exhibits, reviewing museum practice and conducting a series of interviews directed at augmented reality experts. Once these guidelines are produced they will be tested using research through design and human centred design methods in a final case study. The findings of this thesis aim to emphasise how augmented reality is a tool for enhancing the communication of contextual history. It also forms the basis for further research into how augmented reality’s combination of virtual and physical worlds can broaden our experience of the museum space.

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  • The application of high-resolution atmospheric modelling to weather and climate variability in vineyard regions

    Sturman, A.; Zawar-Reza, P.; Soltanzadeh, I.; Katurji, M.; Bonnardot, V.; Parker, Amber; Trought, Michael C.; Quénol, H.; Le Roux, R.; Gendig, E.; Schulmann, T.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Grapevines are highly sensitive to environmental conditions, with variability in weather and climate (particularly temperature) having a significant influence on wine quality, quantity and style. Improved knowledge of spatial and temporal variations in climate and their impact on grapevine response allows better decision-making to help maintain a sustainable wine industry in the context of medium to long term climate change. This paper describes recent research into the application of mesoscale weather and climate models that aims to improve our understanding of climate variability at high spatial (1 km and less) and temporal (hourly) resolution within vineyard regions of varying terrain complexity. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been used to simulate the weather and climate in the complex terrain of the Marlborough region of New Zealand. The performance of the WRF model in reproducing the temperature variability across vineyard regions is assessed through comparison with automatic weather stations. Coupling the atmospheric model with bioclimatic indices and phenological models (e.g. Huglin, cool nights, Grapevine Flowering Véraison model) also provides useful insights into grapevine response to spatial variability of climate during the growing season, as well as assessment of spatial variability in the optimal climate conditions for specific grape varieties.

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  • The NZ Social Science Journal System: Characteristics and Visibility

    Crothers, C

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Academic journals are central to the social science knowledge of any society. The set of social science journals sourced in New Zealand or focusing on New Zealand is described in terms of the characteristics of its constituent journals, pointing to ways the system has changed over time. An attempt is made to assess the adequacy of the system as a whole, as well as explaining trends in its development. Without expanding this study considerably it seems possible to draw conclusions that demand for NZ publishing is reasonably balanced with its supply, although there seem to be some areas of considerable supply and a few where there are apparent gaps in coverage. When it comes to the actual operation of journals there may be more strain, with reviewing often requiring many failed attempts before sufficient referees are located. There have been a considerable number of journal ‘failures’ but for the remaining journals their futures seem well-secured, although given the pace of technological developments the longer-term future for the whole of academic publishing seems clouded.

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  • Novel Nutrition Profiling of New Zealanders’ Varied Eating Patterns

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    There is increasing recognition that the relationship between nutrition and health is influenced by complex eating behaviors. The aims of this study were to develop novel nutrition profiles of New Zealanders and to describe the prevalence of these profiles. Observational, cross-sectional data from the Sovereign Wellbeing Index, 2014 was used to develop the profiles in an a-priori process. Descriptive prevalence for the total data (N = 10,012; 4797 males; 18+ years) and profiles were reported. Nutrition question responses were presented as: Includers (consumed few time a week or more), Avoiders (few time a month) and Limiters (not eaten). Fruit or non-starchy vegetables were Included (fruit: 83.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 82.7, 84.1); vegetables: 82.6% (81.8, 83.4)) by the majority of the sample. Also Included were confectionary (48.6% 95% CI (47.6, 49.6)) and full sugar drinks (34.3% (33.4, 35.2)). The derived nutrition profiles were: Junk Food (22.4% 95% CI (21.6, 23.3)), Moderator (43.0% (42.1, 44.0)), High-Carbohydrate (23.0% (22.2, 23.8)), Mediterranean (11.1% (10.5, 11.8)), Flexitarian (8.8% (8.2, 9.4)), and Low-Carbohydrate (5.4% (4.9, 5.8)). This study suggests that New Zealanders follow a number of different healthful eating patterns. Future work should consider how these alternate eating patterns impact on public health.

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  • Digital Materiality, Embodied Practices and Fashionable Interactions in the Design of Soft Wearable Technologies

    Joseph, F; Smitheram, M; Cleveland, D; Stephens, C; Fisher, H

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    The emergent field of smart textiles is recognized as an interdisciplinary domain. While each discipline has contributed specific knowledge, an initial focus on technical development has led to an emphasis on function and scientific discourse, ignoring relevant fields like dress and fashion and post-cognitive perspectives that prioritize materiality and embodied experience. As the field continues to develop, different theoretical perspectives are needed to inform new conceptual and methodological approaches to support this expanding, combinatorial field. The notion of embodied interaction, which recognizes the fundamental importance of engaging and re-conceptualizing technology through the experience of the body and its senses is critical to this new agenda. The limitations of technology oriented human-computer interaction (HCI) theories and normative semiotic theories of fashion are considered in relation to the design of soft wearable technologies. Two recent smart garment design projects, that have used embodied interaction approaches are discussed in relation to three theoretical perspectives: firstly from current dress/fashion theory, where notions drawn from new materialism and embodiment theory have led to a reconceptualization of dress as corporeal experience; secondly that of somatics, an approach where knowledge is developed from within the lived experience of the moving body; and thirdly in relation to new material ontologies that address the digital materiality of smart textiles. The theoretical and methodological approaches introduced in the paper and explored through the projects introduce new ideas and approaches that can inform fresh approaches to the design of soft wearable technologies and smart textiles.

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  • Designed Parameters: Advancing Parametric Software in the Architectural Design Process

    Le Comte, Thomas (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Architects use computers predominantly to digitise a design process that has been in use prior to the advent of the computer. Traditional analogue concepts are transferred into and sculpted through the digital world but the overall process has remained mostly unchanged for decades. Merely digitising a known process does not utilise the full power of the computer and its near limitless ability to compute. For an architect, design of the built environment is highly important especially if they are to optimise the physical, phenomenological and psychological aspects of the space. The process of designing an architectural space is riddled with possibilities or variables that architects have used historically to aid in the design of the built environment, including but not limited to: object relationships, climate, site conditions, history, habitibility and the clients input - all project requirements that must somehow be quantified into a built object. This information is key for an architect as it will inform and form the architecture which is to be designed for the project at hand. This information, however useful, is not easy to integrate into every aspect of the design without intensive planning, problem solving and an exploration of almost an infinite number of possibilities. This is where parametric design can be used to aid in the design. More of the fundamental aspects of the information gathered in a project can be programmed into a computer as parameters or relationships. Once this information has been quantified, the designer can run through iterations of a design which are defined by these parameters. This is not a random process. It is controlled by the designer and the outcome is a product of how the architect designs the parameters, or relationships between components of the design. Parametric design offers a shift from merely digitising design ideas to using programmed constraints derived through the design process to influence and augment the design envisioned by the architect. Parametric design allows the system to be changed holistically and updated through the alteration of individual components that will then impact the form of the design as a whole – creating a non-linear process that is connected throughout all design phases. This thesis seeks to explore parametric design through its implementation within a group design project to decipher how a parametric process grounded in an understanding of contemporary digital fabrication can inform architectural space. To explore parametric design, this thesis will practice this re-envisioned design process through three design phases. The first phase is the foundational knowledge stage where the applications of digital workflow, computer models, tools and material explorations are examined. Second is the production of a prototype to investigate lessons learnt from phase one and apply these lessons to an actual parametric system used to design a prototype. The final stage will be a developed design process that will further explore a parametric system and its architectural applications. These phases will be developed through a series of prototypes in the form of material explorations and scale artefacts which will explore how it would be used to address many of the designs facets from sensual to corporeal.

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  • THINK BIG, act small

    Roach, Elyjana (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Porirua City is twenty minutes north of Wellington, New Zealand’s capital. The city is fifty years young and is home to the youngest demographic in the country. The city is culturally diverse but lacks a clear architectural representation of this cultural diversity. The city has developed around a beautiful harbour but the waterfront is underutilised in the city’s urban design. THINK BIG, act small proposes a design strategy that re-invents Porirua City’s urban future by bringing people back to its neglected water-edge. The proposition explores how design as process and outcome can empower a community for the future of a city through spatial agency and social engagement. The thesis explores the designer’s role in this process as landscape architect, architect, and social activist. A series of large, medium and small scale interventions are proposed. The Strategy is presented in three parts: 1. The Toolkit: a kit of architectural ideas designed to re-think the city’s urban environment around its relationship to water. These ideas can be deployed over time. 2. Two Temporary Projects: two small interventions from The Toolkit are tested in Porirua. An art installation and a community pop-up space are used to initiate conversations around the future of the city with people of the city. 3. The Big Move: a series of design moves, both big and small, are proposed as a composite vision for the future of Porirua. The proposition includes outcomes from the community pop-up space. The Big Move proposes a constructed wetland park, a series of blue-green streets, public pools, and housing. The aim is to establish new ecosystems that ease flooding, improve water quality, provide catalyst areas for economic growth, and create new social spaces for the city. The design aims to draw the harbour into the city. Polynesian and Maori attitudes towards land and water are integrated in the design: land is boundless and water is a bridge. A park, Te Awaura Park, is proposed as a ‘soft’ edge to the city’s existing boundary. The narrative of the park expresses the neighbourhood characterstics unique to each suburb in Porirua. The park aims to create a true local space, a space celebrating the city’s people.

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  • Optimising Batting Partnership Strategy in the First Innings of a Limited Overs Cricket Match

    Brown, Patrick (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In cricket, the better an individual batsman or batting partnership performs, the more likely the team is to win. Quantifying batting performance is therefore fundamental to help with in-game decisions, to optimise team performance and maximise chances of winning. Several within-game metrics exist to summarise individual batting performances in cricket. However, these metrics summarise individual performance and do not account for partnership performance. An expectation of how likely a batting partnership is to survive each ball within an innings can enable more effective partnership strategies to optimise a team’s final total. The primary objective of this research was to optimise batting partnership strategy by formulating several predictive models to calculate the probability of a batting partnership being dismissed in the first innings of a limited overs cricket match. The narrowed focus also reduced confounding factors, such as match state. More importantly, the results are of practical significance and provide new insight into how an innings evolves. The model structures were expected to reveal strategies for optimally setting a total score for the opposition to chase. In the first innings of a limited overs cricket match, there is little information available at the commencement and during the innings to guide the team in accumulating a winning total score. The secondary objective of this research was to validate the final models to ensure they were appropriately estimating the ball-by-ball survival probabilities of each batsman, in order to determine the most effective partnership combinations. The research hypothesised that the more effective a batting partnership is at occupying the crease, the more runs they will score at an appropriate rate and the more likely the team is to win the match, by setting a defendable total. Data were split into subsets based on the batting position or wicket. Cox proportional hazard models and ridge regression techniques were implemented to consider the potential effect of eight batting partnership performance predictor variables on the ball-by-ball probability of a batting partnership facing the next ball without being dismissed. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) was implemented as a performance measure used to rank the batting partnerships. Based on One-Day International (ODI) games played between 26th December 2013 and 14th February 2016, the model for opening batting partnerships ranked Pakistani’s A Ali and S Aslam as the optimal opening batting partnership. This method of calculating batting partnership rankings is also positively correlated with typical measures of success: average runs scored, proportion of team runs scored and winning. These findings support the research hypothesis. South African’s, HM Amla and AB de Villiers are ranked as the optimal partnership at wicket two. As at 28th February 2016, these batsmen were rated 6th equal and 2nd in the world respectively. More importantly, these results show that this pair enable South Africa to maximise South Africa’s chances of winning, by setting a total in an optimal manner. New Zealand captain, Kane Williamson, is suggested as the optimal batsman to bat in position three regardless of which opener is dismissed. Reviewing New Zealand’s loss against Australia on 4th December 2016, indicates a suboptimal order was used with JDS Neesham and BJ Watling batting at four and five respectively. Given the circumstances, C Munro and C de Grandhomme were quantified as a more optimal order. The results indicate that for opening batsmen, better team results are obtained when consecutive dot balls are minimised. For top order and middle order batsmen, this criteria is relaxed with the emphasis on their contribution to the team. Additionally, for middle order batsmen, minimising the occasions where 2 runs or less are scored within 4 deliveries is important. In order to validate the final models, each one was applied to the corresponding Indian Premier League (IPL) 2016 data. These models were used to generate survival probabilities for IPL batting partnerships. The probabilities were then plotted against survival probabilities for ODI batting partnerships at the same wicket. The AUC was calculated as a metric to determine which models generated survival probabilities characterising the largest difference between IPL partnerships and ODI partnerships. All models were validated by successfully demonstrating the ability of these models to distinguish between higher survival probabilities for ODI partnerships compared with IPL partnerships at the same wicket. This research has successfully determined ball-by-ball survival probabilities for individual batsmen and batting partnerships in limited overs cricket games. Additionally, the work has provided a rigorous quantitative framework for optimising team performance.

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