2,155 results for Use commercially

  • Using Observational Data to Estimate the Effect of Hand Washing and Clean Delivery Kit Use by Birth Attendants on Maternal Deaths after Home Deliveries in Rural Bangladesh, India and Nepal.

    Seward, N; Prost, A; Copas, A; Corbin, M; Li, L; Colbourn, T; Osrin, D; Neuman, M; Azad, K; Kuddus, A; Nair, N; Tripathy, P; Manandhar, D; Costello, A; Cortina-Borja, M

    Journal article
    Massey University

    BACKGROUND: Globally, puerperal sepsis accounts for an estimated 8-12% of maternal deaths, but evidence is lacking on the extent to which clean delivery practices could improve maternal survival. We used data from the control arms of four cluster-randomised controlled trials conducted in rural India, Bangladesh and Nepal, to examine associations between clean delivery kit use and hand washing by the birth attendant with maternal mortality among home deliveries. METHODS: We tested associations between clean delivery practices and maternal deaths, using a pooled dataset for 40,602 home births across sites in the three countries. Cross-sectional data were analysed by fitting logistic regression models with and without multiple imputation, and confounders were selected a priori using causal directed acyclic graphs. The robustness of estimates was investigated through sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Hand washing was associated with a 49% reduction in the odds of maternal mortality after adjusting for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.93). The sensitivity analysis testing the missing at random assumption for the multiple imputation, as well as the sensitivity analysis accounting for possible misclassification bias in the use of clean delivery practices, indicated that the association between hand washing and maternal death had been over estimated. Clean delivery kit use was not associated with a maternal death (AOR 1.26, 95% CI 0.62-2.56). CONCLUSIONS: Our evidence suggests that hand washing in delivery is critical for maternal survival among home deliveries in rural South Asia, although the exact magnitude of this effect is uncertain due to inherent biases associated with observational data from low resource settings. Our findings indicating kit use does not improve maternal survival, suggests that the soap is not being used in all instances that kit use is being reported.

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  • Effects of latitude and depth on the beta diversity of New Zealand fish communities

    Zintzen, V; Anderson, MJ; Roberts, CD; Harvey, ES; Stewart, AL

    Journal article
    Massey University

    © 2017 The Author(s). Marine ecosystems are difficult to sample quantitatively at increasing depth. Hence, few studies attempt to measure patterns of beta diversity for ecological communities in the deep sea. Here we (i) present and quantify large-scale gradients in fish community structure along depth and latitude gradients of the New Zealand EEZ, (ii) obtain rigorous quantitative estimates of these depth (50-1200 m) and latitudinal effects (29.15-50.91°S) and their interaction, and (iii) explicitly model how latitudinal beta diversity of fishes varies with depth. The sampling design was highly structured, replicated and stratified for latitude and depth, using data obtained from 345 standardised baited remote underwater stereo-video deployments. Results showed that gradients in fish community structure along depth and latitude were strong and interactive in New Zealand waters; latitudinal variation in fish communities progressively decreased with depth following an exponential decay (r 2 = 0.96), revealing increasingly similar fish communities with increasing depth. In contrast, variation in fish community structure along the depth gradient was of a similar magnitude across all of the latitudes investigated here. We conclude that an exponential decay in beta diversity vs depth exists for fish communities present in areas shallower than the New Zealand upper continental slope.

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  • Diversity and composition of demersal fishes along a depth gradient assessed by baited remote underwater stereo-video.

    Zintzen, V; Anderson, MJ; Roberts, CD; Harvey, ES; Stewart, AL; Struthers, CD

    Journal article
    Massey University

    BACKGROUND: Continental slopes are among the steepest environmental gradients on earth. However, they still lack finer quantification and characterisation of their faunal diversity patterns for many parts of the world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Changes in fish community structure and diversity along a depth gradient from 50 to 1200 m were studied from replicated stereo baited remote underwater video deployments within each of seven depth zones at three locations in north-eastern New Zealand. Strong, but gradual turnover in the identities of species and community structure was observed with increasing depth. Species richness peaked in shallow depths, followed by a decrease beyond 100 m to a stable average value from 700 to 1200 m. Evenness increased to 700 m depth, followed by a decrease to 1200 m. Average taxonomic distinctness △(+) response was unimodal with a peak at 300 m. The variation in taxonomic distinctness Λ(+) first decreased sharply from 50 to 300 m, then increased beyond 500 m depth, indicating that species from deep samples belonged to more distant taxonomic groups than those from shallow samples. Fishes with northern distributions progressively decreased in their proportional representation with depth whereas those with widespread distributions increased. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides the first characterization of diversity patterns for bait-attracted fish species on continental slopes in New Zealand and is an imperative primary step towards development of explanatory and predictive ecological models, as well as being fundamental for the implementation of efficient management and conservation strategies for fishery resources.

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  • Risk of stomach cancer in Aotearoa/New Zealand: A M(a)over-barori population based case-control study

    Ellison-Loschmann, L; Sporle, A; Corbin, M; Cheng, S; Harawira, P; Gray, M; Whaanga, T; Guilford, P; Koea, J; Pearce, N

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Published

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  • The Morality and Political Antagonisms of Neoliberal Discourse: Campbell Brown and the Corporatization of Educational Justice

    Phelan, SP; salter, LS

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Neoliberalism is routinely criticized for its moral indifference, especially concerning the social application of moral objectives. Yet it also presupposes a particular moral code, where acting on the assumption of individual autonomy becomes the basis of a shared moral-political praxis. Using a discourse theoretical approach, this article explores different articulations of morality in neoliberal discourse. We focus on the case of Campbell Brown, the former CNN anchor who reinvented herself from 2012 to 2016 as a prominent charter school advocate and antagonist of teachers unions. We examine the ideological significance of a campaigning strategy that coheres around an image of the moral superiority of corporatized schooling against an antithetical representation of the moral degeneracy of America’s public schools system. In particular, we highlight how Brown attempts to incorporate the fragments of different progressive discourses into a neoliberalized vision of educational justice.

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  • Environmental characteristics drive variation in Amazonian understorey bird assemblages.

    Menger, J; Magnusson, WE; Anderson, MJ; Schlegel, M; Pe'er, G; Henle, K

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Tropical bird assemblages display patterns of high alpha and beta diversity and, as tropical birds exhibit strong habitat specificity, their spatial distributions are generally assumed to be driven primarily by environmental heterogeneity and interspecific interactions. However, spatial distributions of some Amazonian forest birds are also often restricted by large rivers and other large-scale topographic features, suggesting that dispersal limitation may also play a role in driving species' turnover. In this study, we evaluated the effects of environmental characteristics, topographic and spatial variables on variation in local assemblage structure and diversity of birds in an old-growth forest in central Amazonia. Birds were mist-netted in 72 plots distributed systematically across a 10,000 ha reserve in each of three years. Alpha diversity remained stable through time, but species composition changed. Spatial variation in bird-assemblage structure was significantly related to environmental and topographic variables but not strongly related to spatial variables. At a broad scale, we found bird assemblages to be significantly distinct between two watersheds that are divided by a central ridgeline. We did not detect an effect of the ridgeline per se in driving these patterns, indicating that most birds are able to fly across it, and that differences in assemblage structure between watersheds may be due to unmeasured environmental variables or unique combinations of measured variables. Our study indicates that complex geography and landscape features can act together with environmental variables to drive changes in the diversity and composition of tropical bird assemblages at local scales, but highlights that we still know very little about what makes different parts of tropical forest suitable for different species.

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  • Beta diversity of demersal fish assemblages in the North-Eastern Pacific: interactions of latitude and depth.

    Anderson, MJ; Tolimieri, N; Millar, RB

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Knowledge of broad-scale global patterns in beta diversity (i.e., variation or turnover in identities of species) for marine systems is in its infancy. We analysed the beta diversity of groundfish communities along the North American Pacific coast, from trawl data spanning 32.57°N to 48.52°N and 51 m to 1200 m depth. Analyses were based on both the Jaccard measure and the probabilistic Raup-Crick measure, which accounts for variation in alpha diversity. Overall, beta diversity decreased with depth, and this effect was strongest at lower latitudes. Superimposed on this trend were peaks in beta diversity at around 400-600 m and also around 1000-1200 m, which may indicate high turnover around the edges of the oxygen minimum zone. Beta diversity was also observed to decrease with latitude, but this effect was only observed in shallower waters (800 m. At shallower depths (<200 m), peaks in latitudinal turnover were observed at ∼43°N, 39°N, 35°N and 31°N, which corresponded well with several classically observed oceanographic boundaries. Turnover with depth was stronger than latitudinal turnover, and is likely to reflect strong environmental filtering over relatively short distances. Patterns in beta diversity, including latitude-by-depth interactions, should be integrated with other biodiversity measures in ecosystem-based management and conservation of groundfish communities.

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  • Residency and movement patterns of an apex predatory shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) at the Galapagos Marine Reserve

    Acuna-Marrero, D; Smith, ANH; Hammerschlag, N; Hearn, A; Anderson, MJ; Calich, H; Pawley, MDM; Fischer, C; Salinas-de-Leon, P

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Published

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  • Complete Genome Sequences of Three Novel Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 Bacteriophages, Noxifer, Phabio, and Skulduggery

    Hendrickson, HL

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Three novel bacteriophages, two of which are jumbophages, were isolated from compost in Auckland, New Zealand. Noxifer, Phabio, and Skulduggery are double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) phages with genome sizes of 278,136 bp (Noxifer), 309,157 bp (Phabio), and 62,978 bp (Skulduggery).

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  • Marine reserves indirectly affect fine-scale habitat associations, but not overall densities, of small benthic fishes

    Smith, ANH; Anderson, MJ

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Published

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  • Bone health among premenopausal female alcoholics: A pilot study

    Clynes, MA; Wyawahare, P; Robinson, G; Denison, HJ; Evans, G; Gilmour, M; Dennison, EM

    Journal article
    Massey University

    © Clynes et al.; Licensee Bentham Open. We report a pilot study of bone health of alcohol dependent women. Women admitted to an alcohol-withdrawal unit (cases) and a convenience sample of controls (nursing staff) were recruited and asked to complete a lifestyle questionnaire before undergoing heel ultrasound measurements. Fasting blood samples were obtained on the day of admission (day 1) and at 5 days. Bone turnover markers (P1NP and CTX) and vitamin D levels were measured in a subset of the alcohol dependent population. Cases were less physically active than controls. Alcoholic women had lower heel ultrasound derived Stiffness Index scores [mean 85.2 (17.6)] compared with controls [mean 95.5 (18.7)] (p=0.07). P1NP rose significantly over the detoxification programme [day 1: 28.35 ng/l (12.25); day 5: 34.19 ng/l (13.16), p=0.003] but CTX change was not significant. Lifestyle factors associated with poor bone health are prevalent in female alcoholics. Significant increase in bone formation was observed 5 days after alcohol withdrawal.

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  • The effect of astaxanthin-rich microalgae “Haematococcus pluvialis” and wholemeal flours incorporation in improving the physical and functional properties of cookies

    Hossain, A. K. M. M.; Brennan, Margaret A.; Mason, Susan L.; Guo, Xinbo; Zeng, X. A.; Brennan, Charles S.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Marine-based food supplements can improve human nutrition. In an effort to modulate glycaemic response and enhance nutritional aspects, marine-derived algal food rich in astaxanthin was used in the formulation of a model food (wholemeal cookie). Astaxanthin substitution of cookies made from three flours (wheat, barley and oat) demonstrated a significant reduction in the rate of glucose released during in vitro digestion together with an increase in the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity of the food. The significantly (p < 0.005) lower free glucose release was observed from cookies with 15% astaxanthin, followed by 10% and then 5% astaxanthin in comparison with control cookies of each flour. Total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) value also notably increased with increase in astaxanthin content. The results evidence the potential use of microalgae to enhance the bioactive compounds and lower the glycaemic response of wholemeal flour cookie.

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  • Successful transitions from early intervention to school-age special education services

    Burgon, J; Walker, Joanne (2013)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Ecological and pest-management implications of sex differences in scarab landing patterns on grape vines

    González-Chang, M.; Boyer, S.; Lefort, Marie-Caroline; Nboyine, Jerry; Wratten, Stephen D.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Background: Melolonthinae beetles, comprising different white grub species, are a globally-distributed pest group. Their larvae feed on roots of several crop and forestry species, and adults can cause severe defoliation. In New Zealand, the endemic scarab pest Costelytra zealandica (White) causes severe defoliation on different horticultural crops, including grape vines (Vitis vinifera). Understanding flight and landing behaviours of this pest can help inform pest management decisions. Methods: Adult beetles were counted and then removed from 96 grape vine plants from 21:30 until 23:00 h, every day from October 26 until December 2, during 2014 and 2015. Also, adults were removed from the grape vine foliage at dusk 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min after flight started on 2015. Statistical analyses were performed using generalised linear models with a beta-binomial distribution to analyse proportions and with a negative binomial distribution for beetle abundance. Results: By analysing C. zealandica sex ratios during its entire flight season, it is clear that the proportion of males is higher at the beginning of the season, gradually declining towards its end. When adults were successively removed from the grape vines at 5-min intervals after flight activity begun, the mean proportion of males ranged from 6-28%. The male proportion suggests males were attracted to females that had already landed on grape vines, probably through pheromone release. Discussion: The seasonal and daily changes in adult C. zealandica sex ratio throughout its flight season are presented for the first time. Although seasonal changes in sex ratio have been reported for other melolonthines, changes during their daily flight activity have not been analysed so far. Sex-ratio changes can have important consequences for the management of this pest species, and possibly for other melolonthines, as it has been previously suggested that C. zealandica females land on plants that produce a silhouette against the sky. Therefore, long-term management might evaluate the effect of different plant heights and architecture on female melolonthine landing patterns, with consequences for male distribution, and subsequently overall damage within horticultural areas.

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  • Assessing the Sulfide Footprint of Mussel Farms With Sediment Profile Imagery: A New Zealand Trial

    Wilson, PS; Vopel, K

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Growing numbers and increased stocking of marine mussel farms make reliable techniques for environmental effect assessment a priority. Previously, we showed how the color intensity of soft sediment could be used to estimate its acid volatile sulfide (AVS) content, a product of the anaerobic microbial degradation of organic matter deposits. We then proposed to include assessments of the AVS farm footprint in marine farm monitoring, in particular, to investigate temporal changes in the extent of the seafloor area of elevated sediment AVS content. Such assessment requires accurate detection of the AVS footprint boundary. Here, we demonstrate how to detect this boundary with analyses of sediment color intensity. We analyzed 182 sediment profile images taken along three transects leading from approximately 50 m inside to 200 m outside a long-line mussel farm in New Zealand and found that the mean sediment color intensity inside the farm boundary was almost one third lower than that of the sediment distant from the farm. Segmented regression analysis of the combined color intensity data revealed a breakpoint in the trend of increasing grey values with increasing distance from the farm at 56 ± 13 m (± 95% confidence interval of the breakpoint) outside the mussel farm. Mapping of grey value data with ArcMap (ESRI, ArcGIS) indicated that the extent of the color intensity footprint is a function of water column depth; organic particles disperse further in a deeper seawater column. We conclude that for soft coastal sediments, our sampling and data analysis techniques may provide a rapid and reliable supplement to existing benthic surveys that assess environmental effects of mussel farms.

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  • Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Call for Better Data

    Wilson, Marcus T.; St George, Lynley (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is increasingly used to treat stroke, Parkinson's disease and depression (Fregni et al., 2005; Loo and Mitchell, 2005; Hallet, 2007; O'Reardon et al., 2007; Ridding and Rothwell, 2007). rTMS uses bursts of magnetic pulses to change the excitability and connection strengths of cortical neurons. However, the evidence to inform clinical application is highly inconsistent (Thut and Pascual-Leone, 2010; Hamada et al., 2013) and substantially based on trial and error. Systematic theory is lacking. Typically, in rTMS research, measurements of motor-evoked potential (MEP) are made, often in terms of the strength of the MEP and the length of the cortical silent period that follows. However, the MEP is probably a poor and certainly an indirect measure of changes in the brain (Nicolo et al., 2015), clouding our understanding of rTMS mechanisms. In practice, therefore, particular amplitudes and timing of pulses in an rTMS sequence are selected because they show promise in small subsets of people. However, even basics such as the sign of any change in the outcome measure (e.g., does the MEP increase or decrease?) is debated. Many results show a wide spread in responses. It has become common to talk about “responders” and “non-responders” although evidence for a binary distinction in these two groups is lacking—in reality there is usually a continuum of response often including potentiation in some and depression in others (Nettekoven et al., 2015). Moreover, Héroux et al. (2015) provide evidence that the irreproducibility of results may be due to small sample sizes, unscientific screening of subjects and data, and selective reporting of results.

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  • The locus for an inherited cataract in sheep maps to ovine chromosome 6

    Wilson, Gareth R. S.; Morton, James D.; Palmer, David N.; McEwan, J. C.; Gately, Karl; Anderson, R. M.; Dodds, K. G.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Purpose: Cataracts are an important cause of blindness in humans but there are few large animal models available. One of these animal models is Ovine Heritable Cataract, a bilateral cortical cataract which develops after birth. This cataract has been used as a model for human cataracts in drug trials, but the gene responsible for the cataract trait is unknown. A genetic test for cataract would improve the efficiency of the model by predicting which animals would develop cataracts. Identifying the genetic basis of the cataract would indicate its relevance to human cataract. Methods: A genome scan was performed on 20 sheep chromosomes, representing 86% of the genome, to determine the position of the cataract locus. Additional microsatellite markers were tested on chromosome 6 using a larger pedigree. Fine mapping was performed using a breakpoint panel of 36 animals and novel microsatellite markers taken from the bovine genome assembly. All exons of the candidate gene nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 9 (NUDT9) were sequenced in normal and affected sheep. Results: Significant linkage was found between cataract status and markers on chromosome 6. Linkage analysis on the larger pedigree showed the most likely position of the cataract locus was between 112.3 and 132.9 cM from the centromere. During fine mapping, NUDT9 was considered as a positional candidate for the cataract gene because it was located within the linked interval and is expressed in the lens. The gene was ruled out as the cataract gene after extensive genotype analysis, but a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) inside it provided a useful restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker for further fine mapping. Twelve new markers were found and used to map the cataract locus to between 131.1 and 131.8 cM from the centromere. Conclusions: A region of ovine chromosome 6 strongly linked to cataract has been identified, and a genetic test for cataract based on a SNP within this region has been developed. The best candidate gene within this region is AF4/FMR2 family, member 1 (AFF1), the mouse equivalent of which is associated with an inherited cataract.

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  • Family language policy in refugee-background communities: Towards a model of language management and practices

    Revis, Melanie (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    As interest in the field of family language policy is burgeoning, an invitation has been issued to include more diverse families and language constellations. This article responds by presenting family language management data from Ethiopian and Colombian refugee families living in New Zealand. As part of the researcher’s ethnographic involvement in both communities, data was obtained through participant observations, interviews with parents and children, and recordings of naturally-occurring interactions between family members. Findings from both communities differ greatly: While many Ethiopian families used explicit management for their children to speak Amharic in the home, Colombian families tended to prefer laissez-faire policies as they did not direct their children’s language choice. Nevertheless, their children typically spoke Spanish, their heritage language. As a theoretical contribution, a model is developed to coherently present the caregivers' choice of language management and their children’s typical language practices. This model helps to uncover similarities and dissimilarities across families and communities. Since families typically moved through different management and practice constellations over time, the model also assists in identifying recurrent family language policy trajectories. The article concludes by drawing practical attention to the need and best timing for informing recent refugees about options and resources concerning intergenerational language transmission.

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  • Living in the 'liveable' city: Housing, Neighbourhood, and Transport Preferences in New Zealand cities

    Holmes, Frederick (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis investigates preferences for housing, neighbourhoods, and transport in Auckland, New Zealand, supplemented by a comparison with similar research in Wellington and Hamilton. The topic is significant for New Zealand as there is an increasingly urban population, and the interconnected areas of urban form and transport can help the country reduce carbon emissions and provide a healthier, more enjoyable lifestyle for its people. The influence of residents’ preferences and their relationship with urban form on achieving compact city development is investigated. Historical and current planning rules and policies provide context for an analysis of how urban planning, preferences, and location and travel choices interact. Auckland’s housing and transport policies show a pattern of path dependency: decisions favouring greenfield development, sprawling low-density suburbs, and car-centred transport have driven subsequent investments and influenced the ease of using alternative transport modes. Such rules have also reduced the availability of housing in accessible, medium- to high-density neighbourhoods and may have contributed to the rising costs of this type of housing. A stated choice survey of 3,285 Auckland households was conducted to investigate the extent to which there is an unmet demand for compact development and alternatives to car travel. Using the survey results, a multinomial latent class model was developed to examine the preferences of households and the trade-offs they may be willing to make when choosing where to live. This type of model allows for identification of preference groups as a means of understanding the heterogeneity of preferences across the population. There was an unmet demand for accessible, medium-density housing, with some households willing to trade off dwelling size and neighbourhood type for higher accessibility or lower prices. The study also found that more people currently drive than would prefer to, with long journey times, safety concerns, unreliable services, and a lack of infrastructure acting as barriers to active and public transport. Households preferring low density are more likely to occupy their preferred dwelling type and be able to use their preferred transport mode. In contrast, those preferring high accessibility or driven by price are more likely to experience a mismatch between their preferred and current dwelling type, and are less likely to be able to use their preferred transport mode.

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  • Outcomes and Impact of Training and Development in Health Management and Leadership in Relation to Competence in Role: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review Protocol

    Ayeleke, RO; North, Nicola; Wallis, Katharine; Liang, Z; Dunham, Annette (2016-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The need for competence training and development in health management and leadership workforces has been emphasised. However, evidence of the outcomes and impact of such training and development has not been systematically assessed. The aim of this review is to synthesise the available evidence of the outcomes and impact of training and development in relation to the competence of health management and leadership workforces. This is with a view to enhancing the development of evidence-informed programmes to improve competence. Methods and Analysis: A systematic review will be undertaken using a mixed-methods research synthesis to identify, assess and synthesise relevant empirical studies. We will search relevant electronic databases and other sources for eligible studies. The eligibility of studies for inclusion will be assessed independently by two review authors. Similarly, the methodological quality of the included studies will be assessed independently by two review authors using appropriate validated instruments. Data from qualitative studies will be synthesised using thematic analysis. For quantitative studies, appropriate effect size estimate will be calculated for each of the interventions. Where studies are sufficiently similar, their findings will be combined in meta-analyses or meta-syntheses. Findings from quantitative syntheses will be converted into textual descriptions (qualitative themes) using Bayesian method. Textual descriptions and results of the initial qualitative syntheses that are mutually compatible will be combined in mixed methods syntheses. Discussion: The outcome of data collection and analysis will lead, first, to a descriptive account of training and development programmes used to improve the competence of health management and leadership workforces and the acceptability of such programmes to participants. Secondly, the outcomes and impact of such programmes in relation to participants??? competence as well as individual and organisational performance will be identified. If possible, the relationship between health contexts and the interventions required to improve management and leadership competence will be examined.

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