2,640 results for Use commercially

  • Measurement of the top quark mass using single top quark events in proton-proton collisions at √s=8 TeV

    Sirunyan AM; Tumasyan A; Adam W; Asilar E; Bergauer T; Brandstetter J; Brondolin E; Dragicevic M; Erö J; Flechl M; Friedl M; Frühwirth R; Ghete VM; Hartl C; Hörmann N; Hrubec J; Jeitler M; König A; Krätschmer I; Liko D; Matsushita T; Mikulec I; Rabady D; Rad N; Rahbaran B; Rohringer H; Schieck J; Strauss J; Waltenberger W; Wulz CE; Dvornikov O; Makarenko V; Mossolov V; Gonzalez JS; Zykunov V; Shumeiko N; Alderweireldt S; De Wolf EA; Janssen X; Lauwers J; Van De Klundert M; Van Haevermaet H; Van Mechelen P; Van Remortel N; Van Spilbeeck A; Abu Zeid S; Blekman F; D Hondt J; Daci N; De Bruyn I; Deroover K; Lowette S; Moortgat S; Moreels L; Olbrechts A; Python Q; Skovpen K; Tavernier S; Van Doninck W; Van Mulders P; Van Parijs I; Brun H; Clerbaux B; De Lentdecker G; Delannoy H; Fasanella G; Favart L; Goldouzian R; Grebenyuk A; Karapostoli G; Lenzi T; Léonard A; Luetic J; Maerschalk T; Marinov A; Randle-conde A; Seva T; Vander Velde C; Vanlaer P; Vannerom D; Yonamine R; Zenoni F; Zhang F; Cimmino A; Cornelis T; Dobur D; Fagot A; Gul M; Khvastunov I; Poyraz D; Salva S; Schöfbeck R; Tytgat M; Van Driessche W; Yazgan E; Zaganidis N; Bakhshiansohi H; Beluffi C; Bondu O; Brochet S; Butler, PH (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    © 2017, CERN for the benefit of the CMS collaboration. A measurement of the top quark mass is reported in events containing a single top quark produced via the electroweak t channel. The analysis is performed using data from proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb - 1 . Top quark candidates are reconstructed from their decay to a W boson and a b quark, with the W boson decaying leptonically to a muon and a neutrino. The final state signature and kinematic properties of single top quark events in the t channel are used to enhance the purity of the sample, suppressing the contribution from top quark pair production. A fit to the invariant mass distribution of reconstructed top quark candidates yields a value of the top quark mass of 172.95±0.77(stat)-0.93+0.97(syst)GeV. This result is in agreement with the current world average, and represents the first measurement of the top quark mass in event topologies not dominated by top quark pair production, therefore contributing to future averages with partially uncorrelated systematic uncertainties and a largely uncorrelated statistical uncertainty.

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  • Minimum triplet covers of binary phylogenetic X-trees

    Huber KT; Moulton V; Steel M (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    © 2017, The Author(s). Trees with labelled leaves and with all other vertices of degree three play an important role in systematic biology and other areas of classification. A classical combinatorial result ensures that such trees can be uniquely reconstructed from the distances between the leaves (when the edges are given any strictly positive lengths). Moreover, a linear number of these pairwise distance values suffices to determine both the tree and its edge lengths. A natural set of pairs of leaves is provided by any ‘triplet cover’ of the tree (based on the fact that each non-leaf vertex is the median vertex of three leaves). In this paper we describe a number of new results concerning triplet covers of minimum size. In particular, we characterize such covers in terms of an associated graph being a 2-tree. Also, we show that minimum triplet covers are ‘shellable’ and thereby provide a set of pairs for which the inter-leaf distance values will uniquely determine the underlying tree and its associated branch lengths.

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  • An exploration of interventions in ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 certification context – a multiple case study approach

    Castka P; Balzarova M (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Firms are reliant on third party certification schemes to provide an independent account of their quality, environmental and social practices. Although firms are typically involved with certification schemes over long periods, even decades, available literature so far provides little understanding about what certification related interventions firms pursue. To fill this gap, this study determines a typology of interventions and develops a theoretical understanding on why, how and under what circumstances firms intervene. Based on a qualitative enquiry involving 15 case study firms certified to ISO 9001 and ISO 14001, the interventions are classified as incremental interventions (external audit quality, contractual, learning and benchmarking interventions) and breakthrough interventions (adoptive, integrative and infrastructural interventions). The pursuit of individual interventions is explained by institutional pressures, firms' motivation for certification, competence of certification intermediaries, and by complexity of firms’ internal processes. A temporal perspective of the interventions and a set of four sequential pathways are discussed as well.

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  • Measurement of the jet mass in highly boosted tt̄ events from pp collisions at √s=8TeV

    Sirunyan AM; Tumasyan A; Adam W; Asilar E; Bergauer T; Brandstetter J; Brondolin E; Dragicevic M; Erö J; Flechl M; Friedl M; Frühwirth R; Ghete VM; Hartl C; Hörmann N; Hrubec J; Jeitler M; König A; Krätschmer I; Liko D; Matsushita T; Mikulec I; Rabady D; Rad N; Rahbaran B; Rohringer H; Schieck J; Strauss J; Waltenberger W; Wulz CE; Dvornikov O; Makarenko V; Mossolov V; Suarez Gonzalez J; Zykunov V; Shumeiko N; Alderweireldt S; De Wolf EA; Janssen X; Lauwers J; Van De Klundert M; Van Haevermaet H; Van Mechelen P; Van Remortel N; Van Spilbeeck A; Abu Zeid S; Blekman F; D Hondt J; Daci N; De Bruyn I; Deroover K; Lowette S; Moortgat S; Moreels L; Olbrechts A; Python Q; Skovpen K; Tavernier S; Van Doninck W; Van Mulders P; Van Parijs I; Brun H; Clerbaux B; De Lentdecker G; Delannoy H; Fasanella G; Favart L; Goldouzian R; Grebenyuk A; Karapostoli G; Lenzi T; Léonard A; Luetic J; Maerschalk T; Marinov A; Randle-conde A; Seva T; Vander Velde C; Vanlaer P; Vannerom D; Yonamine R; Zenoni F; Zhang F; Cimmino A; Cornelis T; Dobur D; Fagot A; Gul M; Khvastunov I; Poyraz D; Salva S; Schöfbeck R; Tytgat M; Van Driessche W; Yazgan E; Zaganidis N; Bakhshiansohi H; Beluffi C; Bondu O; Brochet S (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    © 2017, CERN for the benefit of the CMS collaboration. The first measurement of the jet mass m jet of top quark jets produced in tt̄ events from pp collisions at s=8TeV is reported for the jet with the largest transverse momentum pT in highly boosted hadronic top quark decays. The data sample, collected with the CMS detector, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb⁻¹. The measurement is performed in the lepton+jets channel in which the products of the semileptonic decay t → b W with W → ℓν where ℓ is an electron or muon, are used to select tt̄ events with large Lorentz boosts. The products of the fully hadronic decay t → b W with W → qq̄´are reconstructed using a single Cambridge–Aachen jet with distance parameter R= 1.2 , and p T > 400 GeV. The tt̄ cross section as a function of mjet is unfolded at the particle level and is used to test the modelling of highly boosted top quark production. The peak position of the mjet distribution is sensitive to the top quark mass mt , and the data are used to extract a value of mt to assess this sensitivity.

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  • No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide

    Seebens, H.; Blackburn, T. M.; Dyer, E. E.; Genovesi, P.; Hulme, Philip E.; Jeschke, J. M.; Pagad, S.; Pyšek, P.; Winter, M.; Arianoutsou, M.; Bacher, S.; Blasius, B.; Brundu, G.; Capinha, C.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Dawson, W.; Dullinger, S.; Fuentes, N.; Jäger, H.; Kartesz, J.; Kenis, M.; Kreft, H.; Kühn, I.; Lenzner, B.; Liebhold, A.; Mosena, A.; Moser, D.; Nishino, M.; Pearman, D.; Pergl, J.; Rabitsch, W.; Rojas-Sandoval, J.; Roques, A.; Rorke, S.; Rossinelli, S.; Roy, H. E.; Scalera, R.; Schindler, S.; Štajerová, K.; Tokarska-Guzik, B.; Van Kleunen, M.; Walker, K.; Weigelt, P.; Yamanaka, T.; Essl, F.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Although research on human-mediated exchanges of species has substantially intensified during the last centuries, we know surprisingly little about temporal dynamics of alien species accumulations across regions and taxa. Using a novel database of 45,813 first records of 16,926 established alien species, we show that the annual rate of first records worldwide has increased during the last 200 years, with 37% of all first records reported most recently (1970-2014). Inter-continental and inter-taxonomic variation can be largely attributed to the diaspora of European settlers in the nineteenth century and to the acceleration in trade in the twentieth century. For all taxonomic groups, the increase in numbers of alien species does not show any sign of saturation and most taxa even show increases in the rate of first records over time. This highlights that past efforts to mitigate invasions have not been effective enough to keep up with increasing globalization.

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  • Simulation is not a pedagogy

    Erlam, Gwen; Smythe, L.; Wright-St Clair, V. (2017-12-21T13:30:36Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Simulation as a teaching/learning tool has evolved at an unprecedented pace which some believe has occurred despite a lack of research into pedagogies appropriate to guide this technology-based learning tool. There seems to be some confusion as to what simulation actually is. Some have called simulation a pedagogy, which is incorrect. Simulation is not a pedagogy, but an immersive teaching/learning platform which is a representation of a functioning system or process. Simulation has been used in undergraduate nursing education in a focused manner for nearly 20 years. Its effectiveness in improving clinical reasoning and critical thinking is not certain if overall instructional design principles do not reflect suitable philosophical paradigms. Simulation as a teaching/learning platform is maximized when instructional design includes the inspiration of behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Behaviorist design principles include rote learning, repetition, modular learning, stimulus-response, and conditioning. Cognitivist design principles include observational techniques, bootstrapping, and equilibration in the form of assimilation and accommodation. Constructivist design principles include new habit formation through experience and interaction with a “mature social medium” in the form of a simulation facilitator. All of these philosophical underpinnings have the potential to maximize simulation when used as underpinnings in the overall design.

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  • Comparison of Timber Extraction Productivity between Winch and Grapple Skidding: A Case Study in Southern Italian Forests

    Proto A; Macri G; Visser RJM; Russo D; Zimbalatti G (2018)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Forests in southern Italy are mainly located in mountainous areas, where ground-based extraction is still the most common harvesting technique. In particular, 60% of southern Italy’s forests are on slopes with an angle of inclination between 20–60%. The low level of mechanization in forest operations is due to the difficult site conditions, as well as the small-scale characteristics of both the forest owners and the harvesting contractors. The most common work method uses chainsaws to fell the trees, and animals or farm tractors equipped with winches for bunching and extraction. This study assesses the productivity and cost effectiveness of extraction with a purpose-built John Deere 548H skidder, including a comparison of winch and grapple configurations. The results show that the productivity of skidding depends on distance as well as the condition of the skid trail. The number of trees per cycle and volume of each load also had a clear effect. While large purpose-built skidders represent a significant investment, this study demonstrates that the productivity is very high compared to traditional extraction methods and the resulting extraction costs are very competitive. As such, this study indicates that, over time, southern Italian harvesting operations should invest in purpose-built harvesting systems.

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  • Encountering the pedagogy of live and interactive architectural projects

    Pretty, Annabel; McPherson, Peter (2017-12-21T13:30:24Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    The use of the word “live” as a prefix for a project, is a thought-provoking, and perplexing concept; does one assume that all other projects are dead? Or is it that "(a)live," in the studio build paradigm, is about the currency and value of the moment? Or is it that one is operating outside of normative architectural academia, and is therefore (a)live? Untangling the meta meaning of the verb “live” and then juxtaposing it with the word “interactive” could draw the reader to the conclusion that we are talking about a nonmomentary or continuous two-way transfer of information – often as not between the student, the lecturing staff and external agencies (in many cases real clients). It is this existence between the borderland of academia and practice that this chapter hopes to unpack and clarify.

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  • Potential environmental benefits from blending biosolids with other organic amendments before application to land

    Paramashivam, Dharini; Dickinson, Nicholas; Clough, Timothy J.; Horswell, J.; Robinson, Brett

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Biosolids disposal to landfill or through incineration is wasteful of a resource that is rich in organic matter and plant nutrients. Land application can improve soil fertility and enhance crop production but may result in excessive nitrate N (NO₃⁻-N) leaching and residual contamination from pathogens, heavy metals, and xenobiotics. This paper evaluates evidence that these concerns can be reduced significantly by blending biosolids with organic materials to reduce the environmental impact of biosolids application to soils. It appears feasible to combine organic waste streams for use as a resource to build or amend degraded soils. Sawdust and partially pyrolyzed biochars provide an opportunity to reduce the environmental impact of biosolids application, with studies showing reductions of NO₃⁻-N leaching of 40 to 80%. However, other organic amendments including lignite coal waste may result in excessive NO₃⁻-N leaching. Field trials combining biosolids and biochars for rehabilitation of degraded forest and ecological restoration are recommended.

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  • Is the invasive species Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Argentine stem weevil) a threat to New Zealand natural grassland ecosystems?

    Barratt, B. I. P.; Barton, D. M.; Philip, B. A.; Ferguson, C. M.; Goldson, Stephen

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Listronotus bonariensis (Argentine stem weevil) is a stem-boring weevil that has become a major pasture pest in New Zealand, and cool climate turf grass in Australia. This species is also frequently found in native tussock grassland in New Zealand. Laboratory and field trials were established to determine the risk posed to both seedlings and established plants of three native grass species compared to what happens with a common host of this species, hybrid ryegrass (L. perenne X L. multiflorum). Adult weevil feeding damage scores were higher on Poa colensoi and Festuca novae-zelandiae than Chionochloa rigida. Oviposition was lower on P. colensoi than hybrid ryegrass, and no eggs were laid on F. novae-zelandiae. In field trials using the same four species established as spaced plants L. bonariensis laid more eggs per tiller in ryegrass in a low altitude pasture site than in ryegrass in a higher altitude site. No eggs were found on the three native grass species at the tussock sites, and only low numbers were found on other grasses at the low altitude pasture site. Despite this, numbers of adult weevils were extracted from the plants in the field trials. These may have comprised survivors of the original weevils added to the plants, together with new generation weevils that had emerged during the experiment. Irrespective, higher numbers were recovered from the tussock site plants than from those from the pasture site. It was concluded that L. bonariensis is likely to have little overall impact, but a greater impact on native grass seedling survival than on established plants.

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  • Farmland, food, and bioenergy crops need not compete for land

    Littlejohn, C. P.; Curran, Timothy J.; Hofmann, Rainer; Wratten, Stephen D.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The need to mitigate the effects of climate change has resulted in some governments setting mandates to attain targets for bioenergy production. Recently, there has been concern that the large-scale use of first-generation biofuel feedstocks may result in ‘food displacement.’ New second-generation bioenergy crops can be produced on poor soil and provide a potential solution to this problem if grown on marginal land that was previously uneconomic for agricultural production. However, consequences of this production method are biodiversity loss and carbon release if previously fallow land is cultivated. Marginal land is also less agriculturally productive, and if profits from biomass plantations exceed those from food production, farmers will grow bioenergy crops on prime agricultural land in order to maximize profit. Alternative approaches include utilizing mixtures of native grassland perennials grown on agriculturally degraded lands for bioenergy production and producing biodiesel from microalgae. In New Zealand, research is being conducted on the benefits of integrating bioenergy crops within the present farming system. In this research, the ecosystem services (ES) value of re-instated shelter on irrigated dairy farms is assessed using the novel approach of adopting a bioenergy crop for shelterbelt creation. Together with on-farm ES as well as those external to the farm, ES delivery from shelterbelts—rows of trees or shrubs planted to provide wind protection—potentially improves the profitability of the farming enterprise. By planting a shelterbelt of Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg), a sterile hybrid bioenergy grass that grows four meters tall, in the northerly corners of fields, we were able to measure the multiple ES advantages generated including shelter for livestock, the growing of a harvestable crop for fodder or renewable fuels, and benefits from creating a new on-farm habitat such as a refuge for beneficial predatory insects and pollinators. Findings show that pastures benefiting from the shelter of the grass have reduced evapotranspiration rates, the process by which water is transferred from the land to the atmosphere by evaporation from the soil and other surfaces and by transpiration from plants, resulting in increased yields. In the sheltered field areas, there was a positive influence on soil mineralization rates and beneficial insects. By having bioenergy crops as a valuable co-product of the existing farming system, in this case dairy production, the problem of replacing land used for food production with bioenergy cropping is overcome. The loss of food-productive land is potentially more than compensated for by the value of ES benefits gained if long term sustainability of the farming system and global threats associated with fossil-carbon use are considered.

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  • Navigation the storm of deteriorating patients : seven scaffolds for simulation design

    Erlam, Gwen; Smythe, L.; Wright-St Clair, V. (2017-12-21T13:30:34Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Recent trends in simulation use have necessitated a more considered approach in the use of this teaching/learning tool. The aim of this research is to discover ways to improve simulation as a teaching/learning platform. Action research was used to answer the question, “How can I improve pedagogical practices with undergraduate nurses in simulation?” This study was implemented at a University in Auckland, New Zealand between November 2012 and March enrolled in the three-year undergraduate bachelor of nursing program. Methods included focus groups, questionnaires, debriefing sessions, pre- and post-tests, and Lasater clinical judgment rubric analysis Seven instructional scaffolds emerged which maximized student learning and retention. These scaffolds: 1) helped move students from known into unknown knowledge; 2) provided situated coaching; 3) modeled expected performance; 4) gave opportunity for improvement; 5) reduced confusion; 6) taught effective communication; and 7) promoted new learning through debriefing. These strategies resulted in a simulation experience which improved clinical reasoning in undergraduate nursing students

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  • Reliability of measuring abductor hallucis muscle parameters using two different diagnostic ultrasound machines

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background Diagnostic ultrasound provides a method of analysing soft tissue structures of the musculoskeletal system effectively and reliably. The aim of this study was to evaluate within and between session reliability of measuring muscle dorso-plantar thickness, medio-lateral length and cross-sectional area, of the abductor hallucis muscle using two different ultrasound machines, a higher end Philips HD11 Ultrasound machine and clinically orientated Chison 8300 Deluxe Digital Portable Ultrasound System. Methods The abductor hallucis muscle of both the left and right feet of thirty asymptomatic participants was imaged and then measured using both ultrasound machines. Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to calculate both within and between session intra-tester reliability. Standard error of the measurement (SEM) calculations were undertaken to assess difference between the actual measured score across trials and the smallest real difference (SRD) was calculated from the SEM to indicate the degree of change that would exceed the expected trial to trial variability. Results The ICCs, SEM and SRD for dorso-plantar thickness and medial-lateral length were shown to have excellent to high within and between-session reliability for both ultrasound machines. The between-session reliability indices for cross-sectional area were acceptable for both ultrasound machines. Conclusion The results of the current study suggest that regardless of the type ultrasound machine, intra-tester reliability for the measurement the abductor hallucis muscle parameters is very high.

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  • Methods for field measurement and remote sensing of the swash zone

    Pitman SJ (2014)

    Chapters
    University of Canterbury Library

    Swash action is the dominant process responsible for the cross-shore exchange of sediment between the subaerial and subaqueous zones, with a significant part of the littoral drift also taking place as a result of swash motions. The swash zone is the area of the beach between the inner surfzone and backbeach that is intermittently submerged and exposed by the processes of wave uprush and backwash. Given the dominant role that swash plays in the morphological evolution of a beach, it is important to understand and quantify the main processes. The extent of swash (horizontally and vertically), current velocities and suspended sediment concentrations are all parameters of interest in the study of swash processes. In situ methods of measurements in this energetic zone were instrumental in developing early understanding of swash processes, however, the field has experienced a shift towards remote sensing methods. This article outlines the emergence of high precision technologies such as video imaging and LIDAR (light detection and ranging) for the study of swash processes. Furthermore, the applicability of these methods to large-scale datasets for quantitative analysis is demonstrated.

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  • Shared mobility in a Maori community

    Ngarangi, Haerewa; Stephenson, Janet; Hopkins, Debbie (2018-04)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Shared mobility is being advanced as a novel, technologically sophisticated approach to reducing the environmental impacts of high levels of car ownership. However, communities have long shared modes of transport for reasons other than environmental quality. We describe the shared mobility practices undertaken in a Māori community in the East Cape region of New Zealand. They reveal long-established ways of sharing that are underpinned by, and support, cultural principles. Shared mobility provides an appropriate and comfortable environment for people to share vital and sacred information and to strengthen social bonds. It also reflects the desire of tribal members to retain cultural practices that benefit the collective. The findings make it clear that sharing transport has far more than economic and environmental benefits. We suggest that it is time for the social and cultural benefits of sharing transport to become part of the global narrative on twenty-first-century collaborative consumption

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  • Influence of genotype, floral stage, and water stress on floral nectar yield and composition of mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium)

    Clearwater, Michael J.; Revell, Maria; Noe, Stevie; Manley-Harris, Merilyn (2018)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    • Background and Aims Floral nectar can be variable in composition, influencing pollinator behaviour and the composition of honey derived from it. The non-peroxide antibacterial activity of mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium, Myrtaceae) honey results from the chemical conversion of the triose sugar dihydroxyacetone (DHA), after DHA accumulates for an unknown reason in the nectar. This study examined variation in nectar DHA, glucose, fructose and sucrose content with floral stage of development, between mānuka genotypes with differing flower morphology, and in response to water stress. • Methods Six mānuka genotypes were grown without nectar-feeding insects. Stages of flower development were defined, nectar was harvested and its composition was compared between stages and genotypes, and with floral morphology. Water stress was imposed and its effect on nectar composition was examined. • Key Results Nectar was present from soon after flower opening until the end of petal abscission, with the quantity of accumulated nectar sugars rising, then stabilizing or falling, indicating nectar secretion followed by reabsorption in some genotypes. The quantity of DHA, the ratio of DHA to other nectar sugars and the fructose to glucose ratio also varied with stage of development, indicating differences in rates of production and reabsorption between nectar components. Nectar composition and yield per flower also differed between genotypes, although neither was positively related to nectary area or stomatal density. Drying soil had no effect on nectar composition or yield, but variation in nectar yield was correlated with temperature prior to nectar sampling. • Conclusions Mānuka nectar yield and composition are strongly influenced by plant genotype, flower age and the environment. There were clear stoichiometric relationships between glucose, fructose and sucrose per flower, but DHA per flower was only weakly correlated with the amount of other sugars, suggesting that accumulation of the triose sugar is indirectly coupled to secretion of the larger sugars by the nectary parenchyma.

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  • The manipulation of gene expression and the biosynthesis of Vitamin C, E and folate in light-and dark-germination of sweet corn seeds

    Liu, Fengyuan; Xiang, N.; Hu, J. G.; Shijuan, Y.; Xie, L.; Brennan, Charles S.; Huang, W.; Guo, X.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    This study investigates the potential interrelationship between gene expression and biosynthesis of vitamin C, E and folate in sweet corn sprouts. Germination of sweet corn kernels was conducted in light and dark environments to determine if this relationship was regulated by photo-illumination. Results indicated that light and dark environments affected the DHAR, TMT and GTPCH expression and that these genes were the predominant genes of vitamin C, E and folate biosynthesis pathways respectively during the germination. Levels of vitamin C and folate increased during the germination of sweet corn seeds while vitamin E had a declining manner. Sweet corn sprouts had higher vitamin C and E levels as well as relevant gene expression levels in light environment while illumination had little influence on the folate contents and the gene expression levels during the germination. These results indicate that there might be a collaborative relationship between vitamin C and folate regulation during sweet corn seed germination, while an inhibitive regulation might exist between vitamin C and E.

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  • New Zealand's Statutory Compensation Scheme for Treatment Injuries: a Critical Analysis of its Ethical Premises

    Skaler, Tanya (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

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  • Estimating the effect of burrowing shrimp on deep-sea sediment community oxygen consumption

    Leduc, Daniel; Pilditch, Conrad A. (2017-05-11)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) is a proxy for organic matter processing and thus provides a useful proxy of benthic ecosystem function. Oxygen uptake in deep-sea sediments is mainly driven by bacteria, and the direct contribution of benthic macro- and mega-infauna respiration is thought to be relatively modest. However, the main contribution of infaunal organisms to benthic respiration, particularly large burrowing organisms, is likely to be indirect and mainly driven by processes such as feeding and bioturbation that stimulate bacterial metabolism and promote the chemical oxidation of reduced solutes. Here, we estimate the direct and indirect contributions of burrowing shrimp (Eucalastacus cf. torbeni) to sediment community oxygen consumption based on incubations of sediment cores from 490 m depth on the continental slope of New Zealand. Results indicate that the presence of one shrimp in the sediment is responsible for an oxygen uptake rate of about 40 µmol d−1, only 1% of which is estimated to be due to shrimp respiration. We estimate that the presence of ten burrowing shrimp m−2 of seabed would lead to an oxygen uptake comparable to current estimates of macro-infaunal community respiration on Chatham Rise based on allometric equations, and would increase total sediment community oxygen uptake by 14% compared to sediment without shrimp. Our findings suggest that oxygen consumption mediated by burrowing shrimp may be substantial in continental slope ecosystems.

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  • Geodetic, hydrologic and seismological signals associated with precipitation and infiltration in the central Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Oestreicher, Nicolas (2018)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Southern Alps of New Zealand is an actively deforming mountain range, along which collision between the Pacific and Australian plates is manifest as elevated topography, orographic weather, active contemporary deformation, and earthquakes. This thesis examines interactions between surface processes of meteorological and hydrological origin, the ground surface deformation, and processes within the seismogenic zone at depth. The two main objectives of the thesis are a better understanding of the reversible repetitive ground surface deformation in the central Southern Alps and the analysis of the evolution of the rate of microseismicity in the area to explore relationships between seismicity rates and the hydrologic cycle. Surface deformation in the central Southern Alps is characterised by a network of 19 continuous GPS stations located between the West Coast (west) and the Mackenzie Basin (east), and between Hokitika (north) to Haast (south). These show repetitive and reversible movements of up to ∼55mm on annual scales, on top of long-term plate motion, during a 17 year-long period. Stations in the high central Southern Alps exhibit the greatest annual variations, whereas others are more sensitive to changes following significant rain events. Data from 22 climate stations (including three measuring the snowpack), lake water levels and borehole pressure measurements, and numerical models of solid Earth tides and groundwater levels in bedrock fractures, are compared against geodetic data to examine whether these environmental factors can explain observed patterns in annual ground deformation. Reversible ground deformation in the central Southern Alps appears strongly correlated with shallow groundwater levels. Observed seasonal fluctuation and deformation after storm events can be explained by simple mathematical models of groundwater levels. As a corollary, local hydrological effects can be accounted for and ameliorated during preprocessing to reduce noise in geodetic data sets being analysed for tectonic purposes. Two catalogues of earthquakes (containing 38 909 and 89 474 events) in the area spanning the period 2008–2017 were built using a matched-filtered detection technique. The smaller catalogue is based on 211 template events, each of known focal mechanism, while the latter is based on 902 templates, not all of which have focal mechanisms, providing greater temporal resolution. Microseismicity data were examined in both time and frequency domains to explore relationships between seismicity rates and the hydrologic cycle. Microseismicity shows a pronounced seasonality in the central Southern Alps, with significantly more events detected during winter than during summer. These changes cannot be easily accounted for by either acquisition or analysis parameters. Two models of hydrologically-induced seasonal seismicity variations have been considered — surface water loading and deep groundwater circulation of meteoric fluids — but neither model fully explains the observations, and further work is required to explain them fully. An observed diurnal variation in earthquake detection rate is believed to originate mostly from instrumental effects, which should be accounted for in future seismological studies of earthquake occurrence in the central Southern Alps. Relationships and correlations observed between hydrological, geodetic, and seismological data from the central Southern Alps provide clear indications that surface processes exert at least some degree of influence on upper-crustal seismicity adjacent to the Alpine Fault.

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