2,461 results for Use commercially

  • Predictors of Workplace Bullying and Cyber-Bullying in New Zealand

    Gardner, Dianne; O’Driscoll, Michael P.; Cooper-Thomas, Helena D.; Roche, Maree A.; Bentley, Tim; Catley, Bevan; Teo, Stephen T. T.; Trenberth, Linda (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Background: The negative effects of in-person workplace bullying (WB) are well established. Less is known about cyber-bullying (CB), in which negative behaviours are mediated by technology. Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, the current research examined how individual and organisational factors were related to WB and CB at two time points three months apart. Methods: Data were collected by means of an online self-report survey. Eight hundred and twenty-six respondents (58% female, 42% male) provided data at both time points. Results: One hundred and twenty-three (15%) of participants had been bullied and 23 (2.8%) of participants had been cyber-bullied within the last six months. Women reported more WB, but not more CB, than men. Worse physical health, higher strain, more destructive leadership, more team conflict and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more WB. Managerial employees experienced more CB than non-managerial employees. Poor physical health, less organisational support and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more CB. Conclusion: Rates of CB were lower than those of WB, and very few participants reported experiencing CB without also experiencing WB. Both forms of bullying were associated with poorer work environments, indicating that, where bullying is occurring, the focus should be on organisational systems and processes.

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  • Lineage overwhelms environmental conditions in determining rhizosphere bacterial community structure in a cosmopolitan invasive plant

    Bowen, J. L.; Kearns, P. J.; Byrnes, J. E. K.; Wigginton, S.; Allen, Warwick; Greenwood, M.; Tran, K.; Yu, J.; Cronin, J. T.; Meyerson, L. A.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Plant–microbe interactions play crucial roles in species invasions but are rarely investigated at the intraspecific level. Here, we study these interactions in three lineages of a globally distributed plant, Phragmites australis. We use field surveys and a common garden experiment to analyze bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of P. australis stands from native, introduced, and Gulf lineages to determine lineage-specific controls on rhizosphere bacteria. We show that within-lineage bacterial communities are similar, but are distinct among lineages, which is consistent with our results in a complementary common garden experiment. Introduced P. australis rhizosphere bacterial communities have lower abundances of pathways involved in antimicrobial biosynthesis and degradation, suggesting a lower exposure to enemy attack than native and Gulf lineages. However, lineage and not rhizosphere bacterial communities dictate individual plant growth in the common garden experiment. We conclude that lineage is crucial for determination of both rhizosphere bacterial communities and plant fitness.

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  • Acceptance of Using an Ecosystem of Mobile Apps for Use in Diabetes Clinic for Self-Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Pais, S; Parry, D; Petrova, K; Rowan, J

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Mobile applications (apps) for self-management of diseases such as diabetes and for general well-being, including keeping track of food, diet, and exercise, are widely available. However, consumers face a flood of new mobile apps in the app stores and have no guidance from clinicians about choosing the appropriate app. As much as clinicians would like to support a patient-centered approach and promote health and wellness mobile apps, they may be unable to provide advice due to the lack of comprehensive and reliable app reviews. This research reviewed a selection of health and wellness mobile apps suitable for the self-management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A prototype of an ecosystem that integrated the data generated by the apps was built and its usefulness and ease of use were evaluated. The results show that the ecosystem can provide support for GDM self-management by sharing health and wellness data across the diabetes clinic.

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  • “It’s Not the Way We Use English”—Can We Resist the Native Speaker Stranglehold on Academic Publications?

    Strauss, P

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    English dominates the academic publishing world, and this dominance can, and often does, lead to the marginalisation of researchers who are not first-language speakers of English. There are different schools of thought regarding this linguistic domination; one approach is pragmatic. Proponents believe that the best way to empower these researchers in their bid to publish is to assist them to gain mastery of the variety of English most acceptable to prestigious journals. Another perspective, however, is that traditional academic English is not necessarily the best medium for the dissemination of research, and that linguistic compromises need to be made. They contend that the stranglehold that English holds in the publishing world should be resisted. This article explores these different perspectives, and suggests ways in which those of us who do not wield a great deal of influence may yet make a small contribution to the levelling of the linguistic playing field, and pave the way for an English lingua franca that better serves the needs of twenty-first century academics.

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  • The NZ Social Science Journal System: Characteristics and Visibility

    Crothers, C

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Academic journals are central to the social science knowledge of any society. The set of social science journals sourced in New Zealand or focusing on New Zealand is described in terms of the characteristics of its constituent journals, pointing to ways the system has changed over time. An attempt is made to assess the adequacy of the system as a whole, as well as explaining trends in its development. Without expanding this study considerably it seems possible to draw conclusions that demand for NZ publishing is reasonably balanced with its supply, although there seem to be some areas of considerable supply and a few where there are apparent gaps in coverage. When it comes to the actual operation of journals there may be more strain, with reviewing often requiring many failed attempts before sufficient referees are located. There have been a considerable number of journal ‘failures’ but for the remaining journals their futures seem well-secured, although given the pace of technological developments the longer-term future for the whole of academic publishing seems clouded.

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  • Novel Nutrition Profiling of New Zealanders’ Varied Eating Patterns

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    There is increasing recognition that the relationship between nutrition and health is influenced by complex eating behaviors. The aims of this study were to develop novel nutrition profiles of New Zealanders and to describe the prevalence of these profiles. Observational, cross-sectional data from the Sovereign Wellbeing Index, 2014 was used to develop the profiles in an a-priori process. Descriptive prevalence for the total data (N = 10,012; 4797 males; 18+ years) and profiles were reported. Nutrition question responses were presented as: Includers (consumed few time a week or more), Avoiders (few time a month) and Limiters (not eaten). Fruit or non-starchy vegetables were Included (fruit: 83.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 82.7, 84.1); vegetables: 82.6% (81.8, 83.4)) by the majority of the sample. Also Included were confectionary (48.6% 95% CI (47.6, 49.6)) and full sugar drinks (34.3% (33.4, 35.2)). The derived nutrition profiles were: Junk Food (22.4% 95% CI (21.6, 23.3)), Moderator (43.0% (42.1, 44.0)), High-Carbohydrate (23.0% (22.2, 23.8)), Mediterranean (11.1% (10.5, 11.8)), Flexitarian (8.8% (8.2, 9.4)), and Low-Carbohydrate (5.4% (4.9, 5.8)). This study suggests that New Zealanders follow a number of different healthful eating patterns. Future work should consider how these alternate eating patterns impact on public health.

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  • Optimising Batting Partnership Strategy in the First Innings of a Limited Overs Cricket Match

    Brown, Patrick (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In cricket, the better an individual batsman or batting partnership performs, the more likely the team is to win. Quantifying batting performance is therefore fundamental to help with in-game decisions, to optimise team performance and maximise chances of winning. Several within-game metrics exist to summarise individual batting performances in cricket. However, these metrics summarise individual performance and do not account for partnership performance. An expectation of how likely a batting partnership is to survive each ball within an innings can enable more effective partnership strategies to optimise a team’s final total. The primary objective of this research was to optimise batting partnership strategy by formulating several predictive models to calculate the probability of a batting partnership being dismissed in the first innings of a limited overs cricket match. The narrowed focus also reduced confounding factors, such as match state. More importantly, the results are of practical significance and provide new insight into how an innings evolves. The model structures were expected to reveal strategies for optimally setting a total score for the opposition to chase. In the first innings of a limited overs cricket match, there is little information available at the commencement and during the innings to guide the team in accumulating a winning total score. The secondary objective of this research was to validate the final models to ensure they were appropriately estimating the ball-by-ball survival probabilities of each batsman, in order to determine the most effective partnership combinations. The research hypothesised that the more effective a batting partnership is at occupying the crease, the more runs they will score at an appropriate rate and the more likely the team is to win the match, by setting a defendable total. Data were split into subsets based on the batting position or wicket. Cox proportional hazard models and ridge regression techniques were implemented to consider the potential effect of eight batting partnership performance predictor variables on the ball-by-ball probability of a batting partnership facing the next ball without being dismissed. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) was implemented as a performance measure used to rank the batting partnerships. Based on One-Day International (ODI) games played between 26th December 2013 and 14th February 2016, the model for opening batting partnerships ranked Pakistani’s A Ali and S Aslam as the optimal opening batting partnership. This method of calculating batting partnership rankings is also positively correlated with typical measures of success: average runs scored, proportion of team runs scored and winning. These findings support the research hypothesis. South African’s, HM Amla and AB de Villiers are ranked as the optimal partnership at wicket two. As at 28th February 2016, these batsmen were rated 6th equal and 2nd in the world respectively. More importantly, these results show that this pair enable South Africa to maximise South Africa’s chances of winning, by setting a total in an optimal manner. New Zealand captain, Kane Williamson, is suggested as the optimal batsman to bat in position three regardless of which opener is dismissed. Reviewing New Zealand’s loss against Australia on 4th December 2016, indicates a suboptimal order was used with JDS Neesham and BJ Watling batting at four and five respectively. Given the circumstances, C Munro and C de Grandhomme were quantified as a more optimal order. The results indicate that for opening batsmen, better team results are obtained when consecutive dot balls are minimised. For top order and middle order batsmen, this criteria is relaxed with the emphasis on their contribution to the team. Additionally, for middle order batsmen, minimising the occasions where 2 runs or less are scored within 4 deliveries is important. In order to validate the final models, each one was applied to the corresponding Indian Premier League (IPL) 2016 data. These models were used to generate survival probabilities for IPL batting partnerships. The probabilities were then plotted against survival probabilities for ODI batting partnerships at the same wicket. The AUC was calculated as a metric to determine which models generated survival probabilities characterising the largest difference between IPL partnerships and ODI partnerships. All models were validated by successfully demonstrating the ability of these models to distinguish between higher survival probabilities for ODI partnerships compared with IPL partnerships at the same wicket. This research has successfully determined ball-by-ball survival probabilities for individual batsmen and batting partnerships in limited overs cricket games. Additionally, the work has provided a rigorous quantitative framework for optimising team performance.

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  • Issues and Challenges around the fostering of a productive respectful community ethos within an integrated/inclusive class context

    Cheesman, Sue (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    In teaching and facilitating dance in integrated community contexts, building a community among participants seems critically important. In this context, how are the differing needs of a class managed in order to foster a respectful productive learning environment? How is a sense of agency cultivated? What pedagogical issues arise in such a context? In this article, I attempt to interrogate these questions, recognising strategies, identifying and unpacking some of the negotiations, issues and challenges. My approach draws on the work of Chappell (2011), Kuppers (2007, 2014), Shapiro (1998) and Zitomer (2013). Theorising my personal practice from a dance teacher’s ‘self-narrative’ point of view, interwoven with other viewpoints from dance and educational research, it can be argued that much is to be gained from reflection that empowers teachers and learners in integrated community contexts.

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  • Loss of functional diversity and network modularity in introduced plant–fungal symbioses

    Dickie, Ian; Cooper, J. A.; Bufford, Jennifer; Hulme, Philip E.; Bates, S. T.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The introduction of alien plants into a new range can result in the loss of co-evolved symbiotic organisms, such as mycorrhizal fungi, that are essential for normal plant physiological functions. Prior studies of mycorrhizal associations in alien plants have tended to focus on individual plant species on a case-by-case basis. This approach limits broad scale understanding of functional shifts and changes in interaction network structure that may occur following introduction. Here we use two extensive datasets of plant–fungal interactions derived from fungal sporocarp observations and recorded plant hosts in two island archipelago nations: New Zealand (NZ) and the United Kingdom (UK). We found that the NZ dataset shows a lower functional diversity of fungal hyphal foraging strategies in mycorrhiza of alien when compared with native trees. Across species this resulted in fungal foraging strategies associated with alien trees being much more variable in functional composition compared with native trees, which had a strikingly similar functional composition. The UK data showed no functional difference in fungal associates of alien and native plant genera. Notwithstanding this, both the NZ and UK data showed a substantial difference in interaction network structure of alien trees compared with native trees. In both cases, fungal associates of native trees showed strong modularity, while fungal associates of alien trees generally integrated into a single large module. The results suggest a lower functional diversity (in one dataset) and a simplification of network structure (in both) as a result of introduction, potentially driven by either limited symbiont co-introductions or disruption of habitat as a driver of specificity due to nursery conditions, planting, or plant edaphic-niche expansion. Recognizing these shifts in function and network structure has important implications for plant invasions and facilitation of secondary invasions via shared mutualist populations

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  • Ammonium sorption and ammonia inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria explain contrasting soil N₂O production

    Venterea, R. T.; Clough, Timothy J.; Coulter, J. A.; Breuillin-Sessoms, F.; Wang, P.; Sadowsky, M. J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Better understanding of process controls over nitrous oxide (N₂O) production in urine-impacted 'hot spots' and fertilizer bands is needed to improve mitigation strategies and emission models. Following amendment with bovine (Bos taurus) urine (Bu) or urea (Ur), we measured inorganic N, pH, N₂O, and genes associated with nitrification in two soils ('L' and 'W') having similar texture, pH, C, and C/N ratio. Solution-phase ammonia (slNH₃) was also calculated accounting for non-linear ammonium (NH₄⁺) sorption capacities (ASC). Soil W displayed greater nitrification rates and nitrate (NO₃⁻) levels than soil L, but was more resistant to nitrite (NO₂⁻) accumulation and produced two to ten times less N₂O than soil L. Genes associated with NO₂⁻oxidation (nxrA) increased substantially in soil W but remained static in soil L. Soil NO₂⁻was strongly correlated with N₂O production, and cumulative (c-) slNH₃ explained 87% of the variance in c-NO₂⁻. Differences between soils were explained by greater slNH₃ in soil L which inhibited NO₂⁻oxidization leading to greater NO₂⁻ levels and N₂O production. This is the first study to correlate the dynamics of soil slNH₃, NO₂⁻, N₂O and nitrifier genes, and the first to show how ASC can regulate NO₂⁻ levels and N₂O production. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

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  • Toward an Electronic Ephemera: Exploring Architectural Atmosphere in Real-time Virtual Engines

    Blenkarne, Eliot (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Architectural visualisation is often viewed with a degree of hesitancy by the architectural profession, for a perceived lack of criticality in the methods and outputs – particularly with the rise of hyper-real still imagery production. However, photography too suffers from a certain disconnect from an authentic experience of space, which we experience through our moving within it, our sensory gamut stimulated by the atmosphere memorable architecture possesses. This atmosphere is a holistic assemblage of design decisions made by the building designer, connected to mass, light, materiality, sound, among others. The field of gaming has been able to deploy many of these characteristics in virtual space for decades in some manner, and the tools used have been refined to the point where they are technically, and fiscally accessible to architecture. This thesis proposes that real-time virtual engines, as used by game designers, can extend the field of architectural representation and design, by better conveying a sense of architectural atmosphere and providing increased immersion in virtual space compared to traditional techniques. It first seeks to define what architectural atmosphere may be recognised as, and how it may be caused to manifest, and then applies these findings to virtual space as a means to test the relationship between the real and unreal. Further to this, it applies this methodology to an iterative design process of both an architectural and virtual nature, with a final output that demonstrates the result of both concurrently.

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  • After the Fall

    Duncan, William (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Since 2011, the Syrian Civil War has been causing devastation to ancient historic sites and forcing Syrians out of their ancestral homes. These people have the ability to flee from their country to temporary safe havens while the war continues - the ancient ruins however do not have the ability to avoid the war. This design-led thesis looks at innovative ways to create a new symbol of hope in the form of a museum acting as a memorial to the horrific disaster. It looks at a how new architecture may preserve fragments from not only the war but all historical periods as an allegorical time line. In doing so, the outcome hopes to allow the returning people to recognise the building as a reminder to the war in a sensitive way which then holds key fragments to a time which is now part of the history of Syria. The ancient city of Bosra al-Sham is the site for this thesis as it (along with many others) has sustained considerable destruction due to the ongoing war. Bosra has obtained significant loss to not only contemporary homes, but also to its ancient ruins, which represents Bosra’s cultural heritage to Syria. This research project looks at speculative ideas of how to best preserve both contemporary and historic artefacts which have sustained damaged from the war in a museum context - in turn creating a memorial through the experience and journey of each space.

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  • Mediating publicness: An analysis of Pacific audiences’ desire for a sphere of their own in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Ross T (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper suggests that Pacific groups are positioned narrowly in New Zealand publicness, often in ways that run counter to Pacific audiences’ demand for in-depth news and information and public debate. Focus groups held with Pacific audiences at several urban centres in New Zealand found that Pacific news media are a key site of Pacific people’s publicness in New Zealand. Audiences looked to Pacific media (and, interestingly, Māori media) to fulfil their expectations for timely, in-depth and high-quality journalism, and for a space in which their communities could safely discuss issues and enact their citizenship. However, it is clear that more could be done to realise this role, not just on the part of Pacific media producers, but also funders and policy makers whose focus on Pacific media in terms of ethnicity and culture tends to overlook audiences’ demand for in-depth news and debate. This paper concludes that viewing ethnic media within categories of ethnicity or culture (as do funders, scholars and, often, media producers) risks both exaggerating the ‘otherness’ of ethnic minority groups and overlooking Pacific audiences’ media needs in terms of their participation in society. Instead, it suggests, policy-makers and funders could do more to recognise the journalistic and public sphere roles of the Pacific news media they fund.

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  • Developing Efficient Workflows for Contemporary Design Processes and Robotics

    Smith, Cameron (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This Master’s thesis forms a section of a team based research project with the aim to understand how contemporary tools can inform a contemporary design workflow. This workflow is primarily focused on utilizing a robotic arm to incrementally form sheet aluminium into architectural components. Specifically, my role within this team is from the Project Management point of view trying to understand how Project Management can improve team focused contemporary design. The goal of the thesis is to establish a workflow outlining an efficient process for designing and fabricating prototype architectural systems. Research Questions: Team: How can contemporary tools inform a contemporary digital workflow? Individual: How can Project Management improve the performance and efficiency of team focused contemporary design workflows? The aims of the research are to first establish an understanding of the digital fabrication workflow and establish what management tools best fit within the workflow. This aligns with the team goal to create and establish how digital fabrication and robotics could be applied to New Zealand construction practice. The goal is not to suggest a replacement for current methods, but to understand and integrate a methodology using a parametric design process and, to aid the introduction of complexity in design not currently available through traditional construction and joinery methods. Understanding the function Project Management has for workflow management and development is a primary research goal which can be broken down into parts. - How can activities be efficiently designed? - What procedures need to be implemented? - What are the best process management techniques? The knowledge gained through an iterative work study shows that project managers have a unique perspective within the development of digital fabrication workflows. A project manager integrated into this process is able to influence and define the key performance indicators of projects undertaken within this contemporary environment. The method used to establish and develop a workflow for digital fabrication processes, is a work study. This involves developing a workflow based on similar cases and then redevelop it based on performance indicators from literature. Identifying key areas of failure is a part of this process and is a common method within industry for improving organisation efficiency and productivity. A limiting factor of this research is the fact the team was learning the process overtime. Therefore, people are subject to unequal levels of understanding of what needs to be considered as part of workflow development gaining new perspective with hindsight. This is not, and cannot be accounted for, however is noted as part of lessons learnt during the reflection process of the work-study.

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  • Virtual Trials of the NICE-SUGAR Protocol: The Impact on Performance of Protocol and Protocol Compliance

    Uyttendaele U; Dickson JL; Shaw GM; Desaive T; Chase JG (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemia and blood glucose (BG) variability are associated with worsened outcomes in critical care. However, NICE-SUGAR trial showed no clinical benefit from intensive insulin therapy. This study compares the table-based NICE-SUGAR and model-based STAR protocols to assess their relative capability to achieve safe, effective control for all patients. Validated virtual patients (n=443) were used to simulate glycemic outcomes of the NICE-SUGAR and STAR protocols. Key outcomes evaluate tightness and safety of control for all patients: %BG in 80–144 mg/dL range (PTR); Per-Patient Mean BG (PPM_BG); and Incidence of Hypoglycaemia (BG<40 mg/dL). These metrics determine performance overall, for each patient, and safety. Results are assessed for NICE-SUGAR measuring per-protocol (~24/day) and at reported average rate (~3-hourly; ~8/day). STAR measures 1-3-hourly, averaging 12/day. Per-protocol, STAR provided tight control, with higher PTR (90.7% vs. 78.3%) and tighter median [IQR] PPM_BG (112[106-119] vs. 117[106–137] mg/dL), and greater safety from hypoglycaemia (5 (1%) vs. 10 patients (2.5%)) compared to NICE-SUGAR simulations as per protocol. The 5-95th percentile range PPM_BG for NICE-SUGAR (97–185 mg/dL) showed ~5% of NICE-SUGAR patients had mean BG above 180mg/dL matching clinically reported performance. STAR’s 5th-90th PPM_BG percentile range was (97–146 mg/dL). Measuring as recorded clinically, NICE-SUGAR had PTR of 77%, PPM_BG of 122 [110-140] mg/dL and 24(6%) of patients experienced hypoglycaemia. These results match clinically reported values well (mean BG 115 vs. 118 mg/dL clinically vs. simulation, clinically 7% of patients had a hypoglycemic event). Glycaemic control protocols need to be both safe and effective for all patients before potential clinical benefits can be assessed. NICE-SUGAR clinical results do not match results expected from their protocol, and show reduced safety and performance in comparison to STAR.

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  • Possible mechanisms of pollination failure in hybrid carrot seed and implications for industry in a changing climate

    Broussard MA; Mas F; Howlett B; Pattemore D; Tylianakis JM (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Approximately one-third of our food globally comes from insect-pollinated crops. The dependence on pollinators has been linked to yield instability, which could potentially become worse in a changing climate. Insect-pollinated crops produced via hybrid breeding (20% of fruit and vegetable production globally) are especially at risk as they are even more reliant on pollinators than open-pollinated plants. We already observe a wide range of fruit and seed yields between different cultivars of the same crop species, and it is unknown how existing variation will be affected in a changing climate. In this study, we examined how three hybrid carrot varieties with differential performance in the field responded to three temperature regimes (cooler than the historical average, average, and warmer that the historical average). We tested how temperature affected the plants' ability to set seed (seed set, pollen viability) as well as attract pollinators (nectar composition, floral volatiles). We found that there were significant intrinsic differences in nectar phenolics, pollen viability, and seed set between the carrot varieties, and that higher temperatures did not exaggerate those differences. However, elevated temperature did negatively affect several characteristics relating to the attraction and reward of pollinators (lower volatile production and higher nectar sugar concentration) across all varieties, which may decrease the attractiveness of this already pollinator-limited crop. Given existing predictions of lower pollinator populations in a warmer climate, reduced attractiveness would add yet another challenge to future food production

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  • Analysis of Neonatal Pulmonary Mechanics

    Chakson J; McNearney E; Argus FJ; Sutherland CJ; Dickson JL; Redmond D; Kim K; Chase JG (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is widely used in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) for patients suffering from respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). MV treatment is difficult due to intra-patient and inter-patient differences in lung mechanics over time, highlighting the need for patient-specific methods. Model-based methods allow identification of patient-specific lung mechanics which can be used to guide care. The aim of this study is to determine if the single compartment lung model can be used with neonatal MV data to provide more insight into their lung mechanics. Neonatal patient data was collected from published literature, and results were compared to data obtained from previously conducted clinical trials in the adult ICU. The single compartment lung model was found to fit the data very well (model fit error range: 2.2 - 6.6%) giving patient-specific elastance and resistance values for each breath. Lung elastance was compared for adults and infants and it was found that infants have ~30x stiffer lungs than adults (elastance: 1-1.75cmH2O/mL vs. 0.017-0.059cmH20/mL) for similar driving pressures. The ventilated neonatal lung has different lung mechanics to an adult’s, suggesting that the lung of a neonate should not be treated as a small adult lung. Further work will validate these results using patient data collected from the NICU. Ultimately, this research will provide more knowledge into neonatal pulmonary mechanics and can be used as the first step towards optimised patient-specific care in the NICU.

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  • Predicting the Effects of Changing PEEP Using a Basis Function Method

    Argus FJ; Sutherland CJ; Chakson J; McNearney E; Dickson JL; Redmond D; Kim K; Docherty PD; Chase JG (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Current methods to optimise mechanical ventilation involve increasing positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) in steps to maximize recruitment. If PEEP is too high, overdistension and damage occur. There is thus an inherent risk involved when increasing PEEP. This study predicts dynamic elastance and lung mechanics for higher PEEP using clinically relevant elastance basis functions, capturing distension, recruitment and constant stiffness, in a first order model of lung mechanics. The clinically relevant basis functions were used to fit elastance using a single compartment lung model for 10 patients undergoing recruitment maneuvers, where 2-4 PEEP levels were analysed, and then used to predict the elastance and pressure waveforms for PEEP level increases of 5 and 10 cmH2O. The mean error for the pressure fits from the clinically relevant basis functions was 2.06%. Mean error for pressure predictions with a PEEP level increase of 5 cmH2O was 3.8-5.5%. Mean error for PEEP level increases of 10 cmH2O was slightly higher, between 5.0 and 6.6%. Good pressure fits and predictions show these basis functions accurately fit and predict elastance and thus lung behavior at increased PEEP levels. Each clinically relevant basis function behaved as expected, however improvements to the identifiability of distension would further improve the overall accuracy.

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  • Te ara e heke mai nei. Science, innovation and the Māori economy: mapping Māori enterprise (scoping phase)

    Ruckstuhl, Katharina; Ruwhiu, Diane; Lont, David; Yap, Max; Turner, Rachel (2013)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The aim of this TPK scoping report is to give insight into the extent to which it is possible to map the Māori economy from a High Value Manufacturing & Service Sector perspective. The intention is to determine what the current system is able to offer Māori business from a research, science and innovation perspective and to what extent Māori enterprises are ready to, are capable of, or have the desire or need to access those offerings. We also wish to better understand how discourse abour R&D intersects with what is known already about how New Zealand enterprises succeed and whether such models are applicable to Māori enterprises. Our concluding observation is that we suspect that developing a national innovation system that is comprehensive, flexible and capable of responding to an indigenous economy is ground-breaking from an international perspective.

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  • Assessment of Self-Management Skills in a Project-Based Learning Paper

    Scott, Jonathan B.; Khoo, Elaine G.L.; Seshadri, Sinduja; Cree, Michael J. (2017)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    This initial study revealed the potential of having management-specific assessment and business-related demonstrating staff in undergraduate engineering project- based classes. This will offer students valuable insights in preparing for engineering industries that are increasingly incorporating interdisciplinary expertise and ideas to solve complex issues.

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