3,473 results for 2007

  • Refining effectuality of development aid: Donors??? malfeasances

    Ngin, C (2007)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Marine natural products

    Blunt, JW; Copp, Brent; Hu, WP; Munro, MHG; Northcote, PT; Prinsep, MR (2007-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This review covers the literature published in 2005 for marine natural products, with 704 citations (493 for the period January to December 2005) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green algae, brown algae, red algae, sponges, coelenterates, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates and echinoderms. The emphasis is on new compounds (812 for 2005), together with their relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, rst syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.

    View record details
  • Natural product growth inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Copp, Brent; Pearce, Allison (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Covering: 2003???2005.

    View record details
  • Whole organism approaches to drug discovery: the promising role of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Lan, Chuan-Ching; Laurenson, S; Copp, Brent; Cattin, Peter; Love, DR (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Chemical genomics is a new and rapidly developing field. It refers to the use of cell-permeable small molecules, which are highly specific for their protein targets, in order to dissect biological pathways and to discover new drug leads. Small-molecule screening is usually limited to high-throughput approaches that use defined cell lines; however, whole organism screening is gaining increasing attention. This review addresses the latter concept and highlights the advances in whole organism-based screening, with an emphasis on the use of the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    View record details
  • LDL receptor deficiency results in decreased cell proliferation and presynaptic bouton density in the murine hippocampus

    Mulder, M; Koopmans, G; Wassink, Guido; Al Mansouri, G; Simard, M-L; Havekes, LM; Prickaerts, J; Blokland, A (2007-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An aberrant cholesterol metabolism in the brain may contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The LDL receptor (LDLR) regulates plasma cholesterol levels and recently we and others obtained evidence that it is also involved in regulating brain cholesterol homeostasis. Moreover, we found that LDLR-deficient mice display impaired spatial memory. Because cholesterol, in part derived from cellular uptake via LDLR, is required for peripheral cell proliferation and growth, we examined the effect of absence of the LDLR on hippocampal proliferation and the density of synaptic connections. Mice deficient for the LDLR displayed a reduced number of proliferating (BrdU-labeled) cells in the hippocampus as compared to wild type control mice. In addition, the number of synaptophysin-immunoreactive presynaptic boutons in the hippocampal CA1 and the dentate gyrus (DG) areas, but not in cortical areas, was lower in the LDLR-knockout mice than in the control mice. In vitro experiments showed that LDLR activity is increased when cell growth is enhanced by the addition of N2 supplement. This further supports a role for the LDLR in the outgrowth of neurites. These findings support the notion that, similar to its role in the periphery, the LDLR is important for the cellular uptake of cholesterol in the brain and that disturbance of this process affects neuronal plasticity.

    View record details
  • Pre-existing hypoxia is associated with a delayed but more sustained rise in T/QRS ratio during prolonged umbilical cord occlusion in near-term fetal sheep

    Wibbens, B; Bennet, Laura; Westgate, Jennifer; De Haan, HH; Wassink, Guido; Gunn, Alistair (2007-09-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    There is limited information about whether preexisting fetal hypoxia alters hemodynamic responses and changes in T/QRS ratio and ST waveform shape during subsequent severe asphyxia. Chronically instrumented near-term sheep fetuses (124 ?? 1 days) were identified as either normoxic PaO2 > 17 mmHg (n = 9) or hypoxic PaO2 ??? 17 mmHg (n = 5); then they received complete occlusion of the umbilical cord for 15 min. Umbilical cord occlusion led to sustained bradycardia, severe acidosis, and transient hypertension followed by profound hypotension in both groups. Preexisting hypoxia did not affect changes in mean arterial blood pressure but was associated with a more rapid initial fall in femoral blood flow and vascular conductance and with transiently higher fetal heart rate at 2 min and from 9 to 11 min of occlusion compared with previously normoxic fetuses. Occlusion was associated with a significant but transient rise in T/QRS ratio; preexisting hypoxia was associated with a significant delay in this rise (maxima 3.7 ?? 0.4 vs. 6.2 ?? 0.5 min), but a slower rate of fall. There was a similar elevation in troponin-T levels 6 h after occlusion in the two groups [median (range) 0.43 (0.08, 1.32) vs. 0.55 (0.16, 2.32) ??g/l, not significant]. In conclusion, mild preexisting hypoxia in normally grown singleton fetal sheep is associated with more rapid centralization of circulation after umbilical cord occlusion and delayed elevation of the ST waveform and slower fall, suggesting that chronic hypoxia alters myocardial dynamics during asphyxia.

    View record details
  • Regulation of cytochrome oxidase redox state during umbilical cord occlusion in preterm fetal sheep

    Bennet, Laura; Roelfsema, V; Dean, Justin; Wassink, Guido; Power, GG; Jensen, EC; Gunn, Alistair (2007-04-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The preterm fetus is capable of surviving prolonged periods of severe hypoxia without neural injury for much longer than at term. To evaluate the hypothesis that regulated suppression of brain metabolism contributes to this remarkable tolerance, we assessed changes in the redox state of cytochrome oxidase (CytOx) relative to cerebral heat production, and cytotoxic edema measured using cerebral impedance, during 25 min of complete umbilical cord occlusion or sham occlusion in fetal sheep at 0.7 gestation. Occlusion was followed by rapid, profound reduction in relative cerebral oxygenation and EEG intensity and an immediate increase in oxidized CytOx, indicating a reduction in electron flow down the mitochondrial electron transfer chain. Confirming rapid suppression of cerebral metabolism there was a loss of the temperature difference between parietal cortex and body at a time when carotid blood flow was maintained at control values. As occlusion continued, severe hypotension/hypoperfusion developed, with a further increase in CytOx levels to a plateau between 8 and 13 min and a progressive rise in cerebral impedance. In conclusion, these data strongly suggest active regulation of cerebral metabolism during the initial response to severe hypoxia, which may help to protect the immature brain from injury.

    View record details
  • The ontogeny of hemodynamic responses to prolonged umbilical cord occlusion in fetal sheep

    Wassink, Guido; Bennet, Laura; Booth, Lindsea; Jensen, EC; Wibbens, B; Dean, Justin; Gunn, Alistair (2007-10-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    There is evidence that preterm fetuses have blunted chemoreflex-mediated responses to hypoxia. However, the preterm fetus has much lower aerobic requirements than at term, and so moderate hypoxia may not be sufficient to elicit maximal chemoreflex responses; there are only limited quantitative data on the ontogeny of chemoreflex and hemodynamic responses to severe asphyxia. Chronically instrumented fetal sheep at 0.6 (n = 12), 0.7 (n = 12), and 0.85 (n = 8) of gestational age (GA; term = 147 days) were exposed to 30, 25, or 15 min of complete umbilical cord occlusion, respectively. At all ages, occlusion was associated with early onset of bradycardia, profoundly reduced femoral blood flow and conductance, and hypertension. The 0.6-GA fetuses showed a significantly slower and lesser fall in femoral blood flow and conductance compared with the 0.85-GA group, with a correspondingly reduced relative rise in mean arterial blood pressure. As occlusion continued, the initial adaptation was followed by loss of peripheral vasoconstriction and progressive development of hypotension in all groups. The 0.85-GA fetuses showed significantly more sustained reduction in femoral conductance but also more rapid onset of hypotension than either of the younger groups. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was suppressed during occlusion in all groups, but the degree of suppression was less at 0.6 GA than at term. In conclusion, the near-midgestation fetus shows attenuated initial (chemoreflex) peripheral vasomotor responses to severe asphyxia compared with more mature fetuses but more sustained hemodynamic adaptation and reduced suppression of EEG activity during continued occlusion of the umbilical cord.

    View record details
  • Vegetation and climate of Auckland, New Zealand, since ca. 32 000 cal. yr ago: support for an extended LGM

    Newnham, RM; Lowe, DJ; Giles, T; Alloway, Brent (2007-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Auckland occupies a climatically sensitive position close to a major biogeographic boundary in the southern mid-latitudes. A new pollen record from Kohuora maar crater, Auckland, displays vegetation and climatic changes for the past ca. 32???000 years. Of particular interest are the inferred climatic patterns for the first part of the interval, encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The Kohuora record corresponds closely with pollen records from other Auckland sites indicating that the patterns observed are at least regional in extent. It is also broadly consistent with a variety of palaeoenvironmental evidence from across New Zealand, including the glacial record from Westland, other palynological records from North Island, other palaeoecological records from the South Island, and aeolian quartz sequences from western North Island. These records show that glacial conditions prevailed across most, if not all, of New Zealand during the interval ca. 29???19???k cal.???yr???BP, longer and earlier than the LGM sensu stricto. We suggest that the term extended LGM (eLGM) may be more appropriate for the New Zealand region. Within this predominantly cold interval, the Auckland pollen records indicate a climatic amelioration for the interval ca. 26???24???k cal. yr BP, also consistent with other palaeocological data from Canterbury, that fall within a period of climate amelioration recognised between the first two eLGM glacial advances in Westland. We refer to this warming interval as the eLGM Interstadial. The ca. 27???k cal. yr BP Kawakawa/Oruanui tephra is instrumental in most of these inter-site comparisons and occurs after the first peak of eLGM cooling in a short-lived comparatively mild phase. A subsequent return to apparently colder climate in the Auckland records may indicate a volcanic cooling effect or, more likely, widespread landscape disturbance following this major eruption event. Strong correspondence between biotic responses, glacial fluctuations and aeolian quartz deposition linked to major shifts in strength and latitudinal extent of the southern westerlies suggest that both the eLGM and eLGM Interstadial may be more widely registered, at least across the Southern Ocean. Support for this assertion comes from parallel investigations in western and southernmost South America and isotopic and palaeoecological records from Southern Ocean marine cores. Recent reconstructions of the globally averaged ice-equivalent sea-level history are in line with this evidence from the Southern Hemisphere, suggesting that the eLGM may have a global registration. In light of these observations, we suggest a re-examination of the defined timing of the LGM along with renewed effort to establish climatic patterns during this period and understand their causes.

    View record details
  • Correlation and characterisation of individual glass shards from tephra deposits using trace element laser ablation ICP-MS analyses: current status and future potential

    Pearce, NJG; Denton, JS; Perkins, WT; Westgate, JA; Alloway, Brent (2007-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is a high spatial resolution analytical method which has been applied to the analysis of silicic tephras. With current instrumentation, around 30 trace elements can be determined from single glass shards as small as ??? 40?????m, separated from tephra deposits. As a result of element fractionation during the ablation process using a 266???nm laser, a relatively complex calibration strategy is required. Nonetheless, such a strategy gives analyses which are accurate (typically within ??5%) and have an analytical precision which varies from ??? ??2% at 100???ppm, to ??? ??15% at 1???ppm. Detection limits for elements used in correlation and discrimination studies are well below 1???ppm. Examples of the application of trace element analysis by LA-ICP-MS in tephra studies are presented from the USA, New Zealand and the Mediterranean. Improvements in instrumental sensitivity in recent years have the potential to lower detection limits and improve analytical precision, thus allowing the analysis of smaller glass shards from more distal tephras. Laser systems operating at shorter wavelengths (e.g. 193???nm) are now more widely available, and produce a much more controllable ablation in glasses than 266???nm lasers. Crater sizes of <10?????m are easily achieved, and at 193???nm many of the elemental fractionation issues which mar longer wavelengths are overcome. By coupling a short wavelength laser to a modern ICP-MS it should be possible to determine the trace element composition of glass shards as small as 20?????m and, providing sample preparation issues can be overcome, the determination of the more abundant trace elements in glass shards as small as 10?????m is within instrumental capabilities. This will make it possible to chemically fingerprint tephra deposits which are far from their sources, and will greatly extend the range over which geochemical correlation of tephras can be undertaken.

    View record details
  • On the Prospects of Modal Fictionalism

    Turp MJ (2007)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    View record details
  • Rheumatic heart disease detected by echocardiographic screening

    Webb, Rachel; Wilson, N; Lennon, Diana (2007-11-15)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Novel neutrophil-derived proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid indicate an exaggerated inflammatory response in pediatric cystic fibrosis patients

    McMorran, BJ; Ouvry Patat, SA; Carlin, JB; Grimwood, K; Jones, A; Armstrong, DS; Galati, JC; Cooper, PJ; Byrnes, Catherine; Francis, PW; Robertson, CF; Hume, DA; Borchers, CH; Wainwright, CE; Wainwright, BJ (2007-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis (CF) is exaggerated and characterized by neutrophil-mediated tissue destruction, but its genesis and mechanisms remain poorly understood. To further define the pulmonary inflammatory response, we conducted a proteome-based screen of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected from young children with and without CF experiencing endobronchial infection. Methods: We collected BALF samples from 45 children younger than 5 years and grouped them according to the presence of respiratory pathogens: ???1 ?? 105 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL BALF (18 and 12 samples with and without CF, respectively) and <1 ?? 105 CFU/mL (23 and 15 samples). BALF proteins were analyzed with SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) and H4 ProteinChips??. Proteins were identified and characterized using trypsin digestion, tandem MS, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance MS, immunoblotting, and ELISA. Results: The SELDI-TOF MS BALF profiles contained 53 unique, reliably detected proteins. Peak intensities of 24 proteins differed significantly between the CF and non-CF samples. They included the neutrophil proteins, ??-defensin 1 and 2, S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12, as well as novel forms of S100A8 and S100A12 with equivalent C-terminal deletions. Peak intensities of these neutrophil proteins and immunoreactive concentrations of selected examples were significantly higher in CF than non-CF samples. Conclusions: Small neutrophil-derived BALF proteins, including novel C-terminal truncated forms of S100A proteins, are easily detected with SELDI-TOF MS. Concentrations of these molecules are abnormally high in early CF lung disease. The data provide new insights into CF lung disease and identify novel proteins strongly associated with CF airway inflammation.

    View record details
  • Central role of TRPM4 channels in cerebral blood flow regulation

    Reading, Stacey; Brayden, JE (2007-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The transient receptor potential channel TRPM4 is critically linked to the myogenic constrictor response of cerebral arteries that occurs when intravascular pressure increases. This myogenic behavior is thought to be fundamentally involved in the mechanisms of blood flow autoregulation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TRPM4 channels in cerebrovascular myocytes contribute to cerebral blood flow autoregulation in vivo.In vivo suppression of cerebrovascular TRPM4 expression was achieved by infusing antisense oligodeoxynucleotides into the cerebral spinal fluid of 400- to 550-g Sprague-Dawley rats at 80 microg x day(-1) for 7 days using an osmotic pump that discharged into the lateral cerebral ventricle. Absolute cerebral blood flow measurements were obtained over a range of mean arterial pressures using fluorescent microsphere methods.Oligonucleotides infused into the cerebrospinal fluid were detected in the smooth muscle cells of pial arteries. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated that the message for TRPM4 was decreased in the cerebral arteries of antisense-treated rats. Myogenic constriction was decreased by 70% to 85% in cerebral arteries isolated from TRPM4 antisense- compared with control sense-treated rats. Cerebral blood flow was significantly greater in TRPM4 antisense- versus sense-treated rats at resting and elevated mean arterial pressures, indicating that autoregulatory vasoconstrictor activity was compromised in TRPM4 antisense-treated animals.In vivo suppression of TRPM4 decreases cerebral artery myogenic constrictions and impairs autoregulation, thus implicating TRPM4 channels and myogenic constriction as major contributors to cerebral blood flow regulation in the living animal.

    View record details
  • Runholding in the Wakatipu Basin 1900-1950

    Scrivener, Ross (2007)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The pastoral high country, encompassing the tussock-clad hill and mountain lands running down the backbone of the South Island of New Zealand, has since the mid- 1800s been the domain of vast Crown pastoral runs producing most of the nation's fine-wool. The men who held and ran these properties were, and still are, commonly known as runholders. Lake Wakatipu, and the rugged, mountainous land surrounding its shores, forms part of this high country geography. This thesis examines the practice of runholding in the Wakatipu basin between 1900 and 1950. It considers the many inter-relationships between the economic, social, environmental and political aspects of runholding. The history of twentieth century runholding is often viewed dichotomously - of an exploitative, inefficient, and sometimes negligent phase up until the passing of the 1948 Land Act and a more prosperous and sustainable era thereafter. Using various primary archival sources that provide information on over twenty high county stations in the Wakatipu, this thesis explores some of these assumptions. It reveals that runholding was frequently rendered unprofitable through environmental and economic shocks. Throughout the period, the underlying factors of climate, geography and ecology formed the basis ofrunholding's marginality as a form of land use and livelihood. This study shows that while the runs and runholders of the Wakatipu shared many similarities, hardships and successes, there was often considerable variability in the fortunes of different properties.

    View record details
  • Fixing the NCEA: Ongoing problems, current reforms and proposed changes

    Thomas, Steven (2007)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Minerals Under Ice How far do we go to utilize Antarctic resources? Minerals Under Ice How far do we go to utilize Antarctic resources?

    Temminghoff, Maria; Kruetzmann, Nikolai; Danninger, Matthias; Lawton, Ella; Rynbeck, Sarah (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Speculation about future mining in Antarctica is increasing. This unique, untouched continent is dominated by its severe climate and inaccessibility. Its rich mineral deposits are expected due to its geological history, yet exact amounts and quality of the minerals are unknown. This syndicate report focuses on Current concerns about mining in Antarctica. A fictitious, yet possible scenario Of uranium mining in the future is presented in detail, to underline the feasibility of mining in Antarctica. The report also discusses coal and Oil and a less well known "mineral" in Antarctica, icebergs. The debate about environmental concerns is outlined using current case studies of Arctic mines, and Canadian and Australian uranium mines. Although it has never been ratified, the regulation Of Antarctic mining is covered by CRAMRA and is discussed as a likely outline of legal and political issues. Our predictions about future development of mining on this continent are made, with the focus On how far we should go to utilize Antarctica's minerals. Speculation about future mining in Antarctica is increasing. This unique, untouched continent is dominated by its severe climate and inaccessibility. Its rich mineral deposits are expected due to its geological history, yet exact amounts and quality of the minerals are unknown. This syndicate report focuses on Current concerns about mining in Antarctica. A fictitious, yet possible scenario Of uranium mining in the future is presented in detail, to underline the feasibility of mining in Antarctica. The report also discusses coal and Oil and a less well known "mineral" in Antarctica, icebergs. The debate about environmental concerns is outlined using current case studies of Arctic mines, and Canadian and Australian uranium mines. Although it has never been ratified, the regulation Of Antarctic mining is covered by CRAMRA and is discussed as a likely outline of legal and political issues. Our predictions about future development of mining on this continent are made, with the focus On how far we should go to utilize Antarctica's minerals.

    View record details
  • Funding for Scientific Research in the Antarctic How can we best achieve value for money?

    Ho, Theresa; Mason, James; Taylor, Samuel; Tibble, Pam (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Research in Antarctica and the Southern Oceans is relevant to New Zealand for many reasons. Biological diversity, global significance and sovereignty are some of the key factors that shape the generation of funds for Antarctic science. The interdependence of funding agencies and organisations that form science support will be explained. Funding for New Zealand science is in short supply. This report aims to address the issues that influence science funding in Antarctica and ultimately the output from research. In particularly, the issues to be discussed are the:  drive to control the types of Antarctic research, and discuss whether the themes should be determined by the funding agencies or by scientific curiosity.  difference between small group versus large group research teams.  efficiency of younger versus older researchers.  measurements of scientific success in the Antarctic context. In 2005, Antarctica NZ 1 convened an international review panel to assess the science supported by Antarctica NZ over the past seven years. This report will describe the matters arising from this review and the outcome.

    View record details
  • Defining and Valuing Wilderness in Antarctica

    Hunter, Anne; Ellis, Jane; Ridley, Tim; Jack, Gareth (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Wilderness is a difficult term to define as it is a subjective concept. This paper uses three paradigms as a framework for discussing wilderness in general, and the Antarctic wilderness in particular. It looks at the Utilitarian view of wilderness; the view that wilderness is there to be used by man to ensure the greatest benefit for the greatest number. In contrast it looks at the Deep Ecology view of wilderness. This view sees wilderness as of intrinsic valuable, and human beings as just another part of the ecosystem with no right to damage it for any purpose. According to this view, man should get out of Antarctica and just allow the continent to be; to remain the last great wilderness. Finally, it looks at Libertarianism; the view that the Antarctic wilderness only has value in terms of its usefulness to human beings. This philosophy promotes private ownership as the way to protect the wilderness. The Antarctic Treaty System is then analysed in terms of these paradigms. It looks at which paradigm shaped the Treaty, finding that it was largely informed by the Utilitarian view. This changed in the 1980s when, with the failure of CRAMRA, there was a move towards a Deep Ecology paradigm with its emphasis on the intrinsic worth of the wilderness, and therefore the necessity of putting measures in place to protect it. This approach has been consistent up until today. However, future commercial pressures on the Antarctic wilderness may provide a catalyst to change this approach. These pressures may come from tourism companies wishing to expand tourism in the region, from firms wanting to carry out bioprospecting and from mining interests. This must result in a shift in the paradigm that shapes the working of the Antarctic Treaty System.

    View record details
  • The Committee for Environmental Protection: How effective has this body been and what are the key issues moving forward?

    McKellar, Alison; Lintott, Bryan; Leisti, Hanna; Baldwin, Renee (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP) is an advisory body established as part of the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) in accordance with Article 11 of The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Madrid Protocol or ‘The Protocol’). This report will discuss the committee’s advisory role to Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings (ATCM), the cross-over between being an advisory committee and an environmental advocate, how the committee’s existence and actions have related to other environmental issues and developments in the Antarctic, and its relationship to other groups. Three examples will be reviewed to judge the effectiveness of the CEP in terms of remediating past environmental damage at the joint United States and New Zealand base remains at Cape Hallett, dealing with the controversial proposal to drill into Lake Vostok as well as area and species management. Clearly there are a broad range of environmentally related policies, programmes and activities occurring in Antarctica that are linked, or in some cases not linked, to the work of the CEP. The CEP’s own analysis of issues it perceives as being relevant as it moves forward will then be discussed. This report draws on ATCM and CEP meeting records, working papers and other related material. In preparing this report Dr Neil Gilbert kindly spent an hour with syndicate members discussing CEP related developments and issues currently being worked on by the committee.

    View record details