3,461 results for 2007

  • Rheumatic heart disease detected by echocardiographic screening

    Webb, Rachel; Wilson, N; Lennon, Diana (2007-11-15)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Novel neutrophil-derived proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid indicate an exaggerated inflammatory response in pediatric cystic fibrosis patients

    McMorran, BJ; Ouvry Patat, SA; Carlin, JB; Grimwood, K; Jones, A; Armstrong, DS; Galati, JC; Cooper, PJ; Byrnes, Catherine; Francis, PW; Robertson, CF; Hume, DA; Borchers, CH; Wainwright, CE; Wainwright, BJ (2007-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis (CF) is exaggerated and characterized by neutrophil-mediated tissue destruction, but its genesis and mechanisms remain poorly understood. To further define the pulmonary inflammatory response, we conducted a proteome-based screen of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected from young children with and without CF experiencing endobronchial infection. Methods: We collected BALF samples from 45 children younger than 5 years and grouped them according to the presence of respiratory pathogens: ???1 ?? 105 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL BALF (18 and 12 samples with and without CF, respectively) and <1 ?? 105 CFU/mL (23 and 15 samples). BALF proteins were analyzed with SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) and H4 ProteinChips??. Proteins were identified and characterized using trypsin digestion, tandem MS, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance MS, immunoblotting, and ELISA. Results: The SELDI-TOF MS BALF profiles contained 53 unique, reliably detected proteins. Peak intensities of 24 proteins differed significantly between the CF and non-CF samples. They included the neutrophil proteins, ??-defensin 1 and 2, S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12, as well as novel forms of S100A8 and S100A12 with equivalent C-terminal deletions. Peak intensities of these neutrophil proteins and immunoreactive concentrations of selected examples were significantly higher in CF than non-CF samples. Conclusions: Small neutrophil-derived BALF proteins, including novel C-terminal truncated forms of S100A proteins, are easily detected with SELDI-TOF MS. Concentrations of these molecules are abnormally high in early CF lung disease. The data provide new insights into CF lung disease and identify novel proteins strongly associated with CF airway inflammation.

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  • Central role of TRPM4 channels in cerebral blood flow regulation

    Reading, Stacey; Brayden, JE (2007-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The transient receptor potential channel TRPM4 is critically linked to the myogenic constrictor response of cerebral arteries that occurs when intravascular pressure increases. This myogenic behavior is thought to be fundamentally involved in the mechanisms of blood flow autoregulation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TRPM4 channels in cerebrovascular myocytes contribute to cerebral blood flow autoregulation in vivo.In vivo suppression of cerebrovascular TRPM4 expression was achieved by infusing antisense oligodeoxynucleotides into the cerebral spinal fluid of 400- to 550-g Sprague-Dawley rats at 80 microg x day(-1) for 7 days using an osmotic pump that discharged into the lateral cerebral ventricle. Absolute cerebral blood flow measurements were obtained over a range of mean arterial pressures using fluorescent microsphere methods.Oligonucleotides infused into the cerebrospinal fluid were detected in the smooth muscle cells of pial arteries. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated that the message for TRPM4 was decreased in the cerebral arteries of antisense-treated rats. Myogenic constriction was decreased by 70% to 85% in cerebral arteries isolated from TRPM4 antisense- compared with control sense-treated rats. Cerebral blood flow was significantly greater in TRPM4 antisense- versus sense-treated rats at resting and elevated mean arterial pressures, indicating that autoregulatory vasoconstrictor activity was compromised in TRPM4 antisense-treated animals.In vivo suppression of TRPM4 decreases cerebral artery myogenic constrictions and impairs autoregulation, thus implicating TRPM4 channels and myogenic constriction as major contributors to cerebral blood flow regulation in the living animal.

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  • Runholding in the Wakatipu Basin 1900-1950

    Scrivener, Ross (2007)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The pastoral high country, encompassing the tussock-clad hill and mountain lands running down the backbone of the South Island of New Zealand, has since the mid- 1800s been the domain of vast Crown pastoral runs producing most of the nation's fine-wool. The men who held and ran these properties were, and still are, commonly known as runholders. Lake Wakatipu, and the rugged, mountainous land surrounding its shores, forms part of this high country geography. This thesis examines the practice of runholding in the Wakatipu basin between 1900 and 1950. It considers the many inter-relationships between the economic, social, environmental and political aspects of runholding. The history of twentieth century runholding is often viewed dichotomously - of an exploitative, inefficient, and sometimes negligent phase up until the passing of the 1948 Land Act and a more prosperous and sustainable era thereafter. Using various primary archival sources that provide information on over twenty high county stations in the Wakatipu, this thesis explores some of these assumptions. It reveals that runholding was frequently rendered unprofitable through environmental and economic shocks. Throughout the period, the underlying factors of climate, geography and ecology formed the basis ofrunholding's marginality as a form of land use and livelihood. This study shows that while the runs and runholders of the Wakatipu shared many similarities, hardships and successes, there was often considerable variability in the fortunes of different properties.

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  • Minerals Under Ice How far do we go to utilize Antarctic resources? Minerals Under Ice How far do we go to utilize Antarctic resources?

    Temminghoff, Maria; Kruetzmann, Nikolai; Danninger, Matthias; Lawton, Ella; Rynbeck, Sarah (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Speculation about future mining in Antarctica is increasing. This unique, untouched continent is dominated by its severe climate and inaccessibility. Its rich mineral deposits are expected due to its geological history, yet exact amounts and quality of the minerals are unknown. This syndicate report focuses on Current concerns about mining in Antarctica. A fictitious, yet possible scenario Of uranium mining in the future is presented in detail, to underline the feasibility of mining in Antarctica. The report also discusses coal and Oil and a less well known "mineral" in Antarctica, icebergs. The debate about environmental concerns is outlined using current case studies of Arctic mines, and Canadian and Australian uranium mines. Although it has never been ratified, the regulation Of Antarctic mining is covered by CRAMRA and is discussed as a likely outline of legal and political issues. Our predictions about future development of mining on this continent are made, with the focus On how far we should go to utilize Antarctica's minerals. Speculation about future mining in Antarctica is increasing. This unique, untouched continent is dominated by its severe climate and inaccessibility. Its rich mineral deposits are expected due to its geological history, yet exact amounts and quality of the minerals are unknown. This syndicate report focuses on Current concerns about mining in Antarctica. A fictitious, yet possible scenario Of uranium mining in the future is presented in detail, to underline the feasibility of mining in Antarctica. The report also discusses coal and Oil and a less well known "mineral" in Antarctica, icebergs. The debate about environmental concerns is outlined using current case studies of Arctic mines, and Canadian and Australian uranium mines. Although it has never been ratified, the regulation Of Antarctic mining is covered by CRAMRA and is discussed as a likely outline of legal and political issues. Our predictions about future development of mining on this continent are made, with the focus On how far we should go to utilize Antarctica's minerals.

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  • Funding for Scientific Research in the Antarctic How can we best achieve value for money?

    Ho, Theresa; Mason, James; Taylor, Samuel; Tibble, Pam (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Research in Antarctica and the Southern Oceans is relevant to New Zealand for many reasons. Biological diversity, global significance and sovereignty are some of the key factors that shape the generation of funds for Antarctic science. The interdependence of funding agencies and organisations that form science support will be explained. Funding for New Zealand science is in short supply. This report aims to address the issues that influence science funding in Antarctica and ultimately the output from research. In particularly, the issues to be discussed are the:  drive to control the types of Antarctic research, and discuss whether the themes should be determined by the funding agencies or by scientific curiosity.  difference between small group versus large group research teams.  efficiency of younger versus older researchers.  measurements of scientific success in the Antarctic context. In 2005, Antarctica NZ 1 convened an international review panel to assess the science supported by Antarctica NZ over the past seven years. This report will describe the matters arising from this review and the outcome.

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  • Defining and Valuing Wilderness in Antarctica

    Hunter, Anne; Ellis, Jane; Ridley, Tim; Jack, Gareth (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Wilderness is a difficult term to define as it is a subjective concept. This paper uses three paradigms as a framework for discussing wilderness in general, and the Antarctic wilderness in particular. It looks at the Utilitarian view of wilderness; the view that wilderness is there to be used by man to ensure the greatest benefit for the greatest number. In contrast it looks at the Deep Ecology view of wilderness. This view sees wilderness as of intrinsic valuable, and human beings as just another part of the ecosystem with no right to damage it for any purpose. According to this view, man should get out of Antarctica and just allow the continent to be; to remain the last great wilderness. Finally, it looks at Libertarianism; the view that the Antarctic wilderness only has value in terms of its usefulness to human beings. This philosophy promotes private ownership as the way to protect the wilderness. The Antarctic Treaty System is then analysed in terms of these paradigms. It looks at which paradigm shaped the Treaty, finding that it was largely informed by the Utilitarian view. This changed in the 1980s when, with the failure of CRAMRA, there was a move towards a Deep Ecology paradigm with its emphasis on the intrinsic worth of the wilderness, and therefore the necessity of putting measures in place to protect it. This approach has been consistent up until today. However, future commercial pressures on the Antarctic wilderness may provide a catalyst to change this approach. These pressures may come from tourism companies wishing to expand tourism in the region, from firms wanting to carry out bioprospecting and from mining interests. This must result in a shift in the paradigm that shapes the working of the Antarctic Treaty System.

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  • The Committee for Environmental Protection: How effective has this body been and what are the key issues moving forward?

    McKellar, Alison; Lintott, Bryan; Leisti, Hanna; Baldwin, Renee (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP) is an advisory body established as part of the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) in accordance with Article 11 of The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Madrid Protocol or ‘The Protocol’). This report will discuss the committee’s advisory role to Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings (ATCM), the cross-over between being an advisory committee and an environmental advocate, how the committee’s existence and actions have related to other environmental issues and developments in the Antarctic, and its relationship to other groups. Three examples will be reviewed to judge the effectiveness of the CEP in terms of remediating past environmental damage at the joint United States and New Zealand base remains at Cape Hallett, dealing with the controversial proposal to drill into Lake Vostok as well as area and species management. Clearly there are a broad range of environmentally related policies, programmes and activities occurring in Antarctica that are linked, or in some cases not linked, to the work of the CEP. The CEP’s own analysis of issues it perceives as being relevant as it moves forward will then be discussed. This report draws on ATCM and CEP meeting records, working papers and other related material. In preparing this report Dr Neil Gilbert kindly spent an hour with syndicate members discussing CEP related developments and issues currently being worked on by the committee.

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  • Real Data tests of the IceCube verification software incl. Installation guide for Ice Ver V00-02-06.

    Danninger, Matthias (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This project explains how to set up a working platform for the IceCube software IceVer. As a functional check of the software, ice properties of the Ice sheet at the South-pole are researched with the interstring flasher verification project. Relative string positions of the 2006 IceCube configuration are determined out of flasher-data and compared to the real grid positions.

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  • Myoglobin expression in notothenioid ancestor Bovichtus variegatus suggests loss is not cold adaptive.

    Rynbeck, Sarah (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The icefish family Channichthyidae has been the focus of considerable research in myoglobin expression. It is known that none of the sixteen species studied produce myoglobin protein in their pectoral muscle, and six species do not produce myoglobin at all. This loss of expression has occurred by at least three separate events and two different mechanisms, and was thought be an adaptation to the cold waters of Antarctica. Four Bovichtus variegatus individuals were studied as the basal ancestor to the notothenioid suborder, and was compared to five notothenioids, a non-Antarctic notothenioid and an outgroup. Preliminary results suggest myoglobin expression is not cold adaptive as none of the species produced myoglobin protein in the pectoral adductor profundus muscle, including the outgroup, NZ Spotty (Notolabrus celidotus). All species had myoglobin protein present in the heart tissue ranging in size from 14kDa to 16kDa, and could only be seen by comparing the red muscle and heart tissue of each species. The RNA was better quality than the gDNA but neither cDNA (RT product) or gDNA bound well to the primers, and only very faint bands could be seen on the gels. Further analysis should be undertaken to confirm the results of this study by purifying the samples to gain brighter bands on the gel and sequencing the product to check it is myoglobin.

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  • Antarctic Dosimetry: A preliminary study of background radiation levels at high latitude.

    Kruetzmann, Nikolai (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A significant proportion (13%) of the natural background radiation is of cosmic origin. Charged particles (e.g. from the Sun), such as protons, interact with the magnetic field of the Earth and can be deflected by it. This effect is reduced at the magnetic poles. Still, particles that enter the Earth’s atmosphere commonly do not reach its surface, as they are slowed down by scattering and collisions. Therefore, most of their energy reaches the Earth’s surface in the form secondary particles and photons (e.g. X-rays). As charged particles are less deflected at the magnetic poles, an increase of ionising radiation dose similar to what has been reported in aircrew, is expected at high (magnetic) latitudes. Similarly, it is well known that UV radiation levels are raised in Antarctica, where the atmosphere has been compromised. Measurements of UV and X-ray radiation levels were conducted in Antarctica in December and January 2006/2007, in order to investigate the relative intensities of both ionising and non-ionising radiation in the South Polar Region compared to Christchurch, New Zealand. While increased levels of UVA and UVB radiation were measured, the TLD dosimeters used for X-ray measurements were found to be too insensitive to significantly detect changes in radiation levels.

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  • Ocular Damage in the Dry Antarctic Environment A Preliminary Study on Corneal Changes

    Ho, Theresa (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have confirmed that high levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation a definite risk factor for certain types of cataract, with peak efficacy in the UV-B waveband. Over the last 20 years, circumpolar UV levels have increased, yet studies of ocular health have been limited to the Arctic regions. Low humidity in Antarctica may exacerbate this damaging environment for the eyes. Literature review in both ocular health and general medical journals has found that more data is critically needed before risk assessment can occur. In this preliminary investigation, enquiry into the incidence of ocular problems is made, and some conventional treatments are applied. There is further explanation regarding the impetus for emphasizing a study of corneal changes in this environment. Measurements of UV radiation levels were conducted in Antarctica between December 2006 and January 2007, in order to investigate their relative intensities between the South Polar regions and Christchurch, New Zealand. Significantly increased levels of UV-A and UV-B radiation were measured,

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  • Sustainable Development in Antarctic: Does the shoe fit?

    Lawton, Ella (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Globally Sustainable Development is becoming recognised as a means to assess the state of the environment through ‘total systems’ thought process. Regional sustainable development strategies are being used as a tool to control the impact human activities are having on the environment. Environment in this context includes both ‘human ecology’ and the natural ecology on which we rely. Society works on a complex set of interactions termed the ‘fours spheres’ of Sustainable Development, the environment, economy, society and governing systems. Development in Antarctica is inevitable. Activity is increasing in scope and scale. Currently, there are no governing mechanism to deal with issues of sustainability, associated with activity in Antarctica. Some leadership in ‘total systems thinking’ is emerging from sources, such as member states and associated groups such as ASOC. For Antarctica to retain its ideals as a place for peace and science ‘in the interest of all mankind’, it is essential that the governing bodies take a closer look at the ‘big picture’ impacts Antarctic activities are having on the Antarctic and the rest of the world. An Antarctic Sustainable Development Strategy would create a long-term vision for the future health of the Antarctic. A number of tools have been suggested to guide the vision and a governing system to compliment it. A mechanism such as a sustainable development strategy needs to be implemented soon, before the opportunity for control is lost.

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  • Food in the Field: a Nutritional Analysis of New Zealand's Antarctic Field Rations.

    Taylor, Sam (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The area of field nutrition in Antarctica has undergone extensive development during the course of Antarctic exploration and has been the focus of many studies by nutritionists and physiologists looking to understand the dietary requirements of personnel working in Antarctic conditions. Early expeditions led by Scott, Shackleton and Mawson drew attention to the harsh realities of living in Antarctica for extended periods and many of these men suffered from diet-related problems, compounded by stresses already being experienced in conditions of extreme cold and physical exhaustion (Taylor 1992). Dietary shortfalls in energy intake and vitamins were common in many early field parties, which affected the health of expedition members such as Lieutenant Evans who died of scurvy on Scott’s 1910 Expedition (Cherry-Garrard 1951). A sledging expedition led by Sir Douglas Mawson at the same time as Captain Scott’s fateful return from the pole experienced dietary problems of a different nature, when Mawson and his companion Mertz were forced to eat their dogs. They were afflicted by hypervitaminosis-A, a type of vitamin toxicity resulting from the consumption of large amounts of vitamin A from the livers of the huskies (Shearman 1978). This condition eventually killed Mertz, and Mawson was lucky to survive (Shearman 1978).

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  • The European Union and the convention on the conservation of Antarctic marine living resources.

    Ridley, Timothy (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) is a conglomeration of international agreements which have evolved from the Antarctic Treaty (1957) to form a legal framework to manage the Antarctic whilst circumventing competing territorial claims. The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) (1980) is an integral part of the ATS framework as the international agreement which forms the regulatory basis for conservation and harvesting activities in Antarctic waters. Demanding seas, a short season due to ice coverage and limited markets for Antarctic fish have resulted in relatively small amounts of fish being caught south of the Antarctic convergence; except for within the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of the British, French and Argentine territories in the region. However, fishing in the region is increasing as new technologies provide for viable and safe fishing operations and as fish stocks become increasingly depleted in other parts of the world.

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  • Global Warming Effects on Antarctic Ecosystems with Special Reference to Consequences for the Krill Dependant Penguins, Fur seals and Whales.

    Temminghoff, Maria (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this project is to find out about possible effects of global warming on selected Antarctic animals. Through this research, I want to confirm global warming's capacity to not only disturb an individual species but rather alter an entire ecosystem. Climate change is often viewed abstractly, but this analysis is framed to prove how many complex factors associated with global warming intersect to alter entire habitats. I feel this approach is the most effective way to study global warming.

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  • Nest site selection and egg laying behaviour in seabirds.

    McKellar, Alison (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Seabirds are described as birds that rely on the marine environment for food resources, they spend a substantial part of their lives foraging in the marine environment. Foraging is generally done alone and they feed on krill, squid and fish. Seabirds make up 3% of the worlds bird species. There are 328 species of seabirds in four orders. Spenisciformes is the penguins and there is 17 species in one family. Procellariiformes is the albatrosses, shearwaters, petrels, diving petrels, and storm petrels and there are 125 species in four families. Pelecaniformes is the pelicans, tropicbirds, frigatebirds, gannets and cormorants and there are 61 species in five families. Charadriiformes is the gulls, terns, skuas, skimmers and auks, and there are 128 species in four families. Seabirds live longer and breed later than the other bird types. Some albatross and petrel species live for more than 60 years. Mortality rates are low in adults and offspring. Many seabird species are threatened by human activities. This is mostly as seabird bycatch through commercial and private fishing. Many of these species are at risk of extinction, particularly the albatross, petrels and shearwaters. They are attracted to the bait used by boats and get caught in the fishing hooks and lines. They are then dragged down into the ocean where they drown. Seabird breeding sites are all threatened by human activities. They are lost through increased human settlement and through human degradation such as oil spills. Humans have introduced invasive animals such as rats to offshore islands which predate on seabirds while they are on land breeding.

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  • Photovoltaic Energy at South Pole Station

    Mason, James (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The provision of energy is one of the most important issues currently confronting the global community as conventional fuel reserves are depleted; together with increased demand from developing countries and the environmental impact of burning fossil fuels. Consequently finding alternative energy sources and using conventional sources more efficiently are a clear priority for the worldwide community. In Antarctica, the scientific bases are dependant upon imported fuel oil to maintain operations and to provide a safe working environment. The primary uses of the fuel oil is electricity generation, heating and transport ( both ground and air operations ). The cost of importing this fuel into Antarctica is high and so are the risks involved in its supply and distribution. Perhaps the greatest environmental threat to Antarctica from the operation of these bases is from oil pollution. The inaccessibility of Antarctica makes the cost of delivering fuel oil high, especially where bases are not accessible by sea. Consequently it would be highly desirable to reduce the dependence of Antarctic bases on fuel oil. Sustainable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, provide an opportunity to provide alternative energy sources for Antarctica. Although the environment offers significant engineering challenges for the implementation of such systems, the high cost of present generation methods could make the implementation of renewable energy schemes attractive from an economic, as well as environmental, perspective. Although solar energy is obviously limited in its application in Antarctica due to the months of darkness, it does offer advantages as a supplementary power source at permanent bases. Clearly base activity increases during the summer months and this leads to an increased demand for power. If solar energy could fulfill some of this demand then significant improvements in efficiency could be achieved. Although solar energy can be harnessed in various ways, for example in heating, water production and electrical generation, this report covers the application of photovoltaic1 systems to generate electrical power in Antarctica. South Pole Station provides a promising opportunity for the implementation of solar energy since it is at the end of a complicated and expensive logistics chain for the supply of fuel oil. The demands on the current system of logistical supply for fuel and generation capacity are creating pressures on the existing infrastructure which favour the provision of a supplementary power source.

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  • Hydroponic Food Production at Scott Base

    Jack, Gareth (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Originally, this study was intended to review material that Antarctica New Zealand held concerning its abandoned hydroponics system. After the review, suggestions were to be made on implementations that could overcome the problems experienced in the previous system. However, with evident lethargy and lack of interest Antarctica New Zealand failed to provide any substantive information regarding the previous operation, despite their agreement to do so. For this reason, the following report is largely a review of hydroponic gardening. There is some attempt to relate this to the Antarctic and similar application.  

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  • Science Teaching Resource Kit.

    Baldwin, Renne (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    With a background in Science and in recent years focusing studies towards ecology (freshwater and terrestrial), physical geography, resource management, environmental science and conservation disciplines, I have an educated understanding of physical systems from an ecosystem perspective. I am passionate about the Antarctic environment and the unique processes and natural phenomenon that occur. What I also find intriguing is how organisms are adapted to sustain a niche in the harsh Antarctic conditions. The importance of the Polar Regions at a global scale and their influence on the global ecosystem are concepts that should be understood. I believe these understandings need attention and that it is important that our younger generation are equipped with knowledge so that they too may develop passions for such exceptional natural landscapes. With this they may continue the work of our generation into the future to conserve and preserve such a pristine environment. Within our society, anthropogenic influences on the environment are something humans have been aware of but have only recently begun to react to. We can not change the actions of the past or remediate the effects, but what we can have an influence on is the future. My way of conserving and preserving Antarctica at this stage, is to help educate and whet the appetites of our younger generation so that they may understand the beauty and importance of spectacular regions of the world.

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