4,167 results for 2008

  • Marine Natural Products

    Blunt, JW; Copp, Brent; Hu, W; Munro, MHG; Northcote, Peter; Prinsep, Michele (2008-01-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Covering: 2006.

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  • Allantoin as a Biomarker of Inflammation in an Inflammatory Bowel Disease Mouse Model: NMR Analysis of Urine

    Dryland, Philippa; Love, Donald; Walker, Michael; Dommels, Y; Butts, C; Rowan, D; Roy, NC; Helsby, Nuala; Browning, Brian; Zhu, Shuotun; Copp, Brent; Ferguson, Lynnette (2008-06-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Crohn???s disease (CD) is an Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) that is characterised by destructive inflammation of the intestinal wall. Current methods for determining inflammation of the bowel are costly, time consuming and can cause discomfort to the patients. In order to address these problems, biomarker analysis of more accessible tissues is receiving increasing attention. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the promotion of inflammation. Allantoin has recently been reported as a biomarker for oxidative stress in human serum and urine. This paper investigates allantoin as a biomarker of inflammation in a mouse model of CD. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy was used to analyse allantoin in urine from the mdr1a -/- mouse which is a model of CD. The data show that the levels of allantoin are strongly correlated with histological injury scores of mouse colonic tissue samples. Allantoin appears to be a useful biomarker of gut inflammation, involving oxidative stress, in a mouse model of CD and may be a potential biomarker in human CD studies

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  • Palisade [Fence]

    Jack, Fiona (2008-04)

    Artefact
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • An association between ethnicity and cardiovascular outcomes for people with Type 2 diabetes in New Zealand

    Kenealy, Timothy; Elley, Carolyn; Robinson, Elizabeth; Bramley, Dale; Drury, Paul; Kerse, Ngaire; Moyes, Simon; Arroll, Bruce (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aims To investigate the association between ethnicity and risk of first cardiovascular (CV) event for people with Type 2 diabetes in New Zealand. Methods A prospective cohort study using routinely collected data from a national primary health care diabetes annual review programme linked to national hospital admission and mortality data. Ethnicity was recorded as European, Maori, Pacific, Indo-Asian, East-Asian or Other. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate factors associated with first CV event. Data was collected from 48 444 patients with Type 2 diabetes, with first data collected between 1 January 2000 and 20 December 2005, no previous cardiovascular event at entry and with complete measurements. Risk factors included ethnicity, gender, socio-economic status, body mass index, smoking, age at diagnosis, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, serum lipids, glycated haemoglobin and urine albumin : creatinine ratio. The main outcome measures were time to first fatal or non-fatal CV event. Results Median follow-up was 2.4 years. Using combined European and Other ethnicities as a reference, hazard ratios for first CV event were 1.30 for Maori (95% confidence interval 1.19???1.41), 1.04 for Pacific (0.95???1.13), 1.06 for Indo-Asian (0.91???1.24) and 0.73 for East-Asian (0.62???0.85) after controlling for all other risk factors. Conclusions Ethnicity was independently associated with time to first CV event in people with Type 2 diabetes. Maori were at 30% higher risk of first CV event and East-Asian 27% lower risk compared with European/Other, with no significant difference in risk for Pacific and Indo-Asian peoples.

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  • Governing for the good: What does it really mean?

    Thomas, Steven (2008)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Safety of bronchoalveolar lavage in young children with cystic fibrosis.

    Wainwright, CE; Grimwood, K; Carlin, JB; Vidmar, S; Cooper, PJ; Francis, PW; Byrnes, Catherine; Whitehead, BF; Martin, AJ; Robertson, IF; Cooper, DM; Dakin, CJ; Masters, IB; Massie, RJ; Robinson, PJ; Ranganathan, S; Armstrong, DS; Patterson, LK; Robertson, CF (2008-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objective: Our aim was to determine the safety of BAL in young children <38.5??C). Low percentage BAL return (P???=???0.002) and focal bronchitis (P???=???0.02) were associated with clinically significant deterioration. Multivariable analysis identified Streptococcus pneumoniae (OR 22.3; 95% confidence interval (CI); 6.9,72), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.0, 5.8), respiratory signs (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.7, 14.6) and focal bronchitis (OR 5.9; 95% CI 1.2, 29.8) as independent risk factors for post-bronchoscopy fever ???38.5??C. Conclusions: Adverse events are common with BAL in young CF children, but are usually transient and well tolerated. Parents should be counseled that signs of a pre-existing lower respiratory infection are associated with increased risk of post-BAL fever.

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  • Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, vascular tone and autoregulation of cerebral blood flow

    Brayden, JE; Earley, S; Nelson, MT; Reading, Stacey (2008-09)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily are present in vascular smooth muscle cells and play important roles in the regulation of vascular contractility. The TRPC3 and TRPC6 channels are activated by stimulation of several excitatory receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells. Activation of these channels leads to myocyte depolarization, which stimulates Ca2+ entry via voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCC), leading to vasoconstriction. The TRPV4 channels in arterial myocytes are activated by epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, and activation of the channels enhances Ca2+ spark and transient Ca2+-sensitive K+ channel activity, thereby hyperpolarizing and relaxing vascular smooth muscle cells. The TRPC6 and TRPM4 channels are activated by mechanical stimulation of cerebral artery myocytes. Subsequent depolarization and activation of VDCC Ca2+ entry is directly linked to the development of myogenic tone in vitro and to autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in vivo. These findings imply a fundamental importance of TRP channels in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle tone and suggest that TRP channels could be important targets for drug therapy under conditions in which vascular contractility is disturbed (e.g. hypertension, stroke, vasospasm).

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  • Marine Protected Areas

    Pallesen, Ana; Ericson, Jessica; Winton, Holly; Steel, Andrea (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In recent years the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity beyond areas of national jurisdiction has received increasing attention, there is growing agreement that Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) should be considered as an integrated and flexible management tool for the ocean. MPAs, in particular areas closed to certain fishing activities are proposed as a useful protective measure within the framework of precautionary and ecosystem based approaches, to reduce the impact of fishing on vulnerable marine habitats and species. The impacts are particularly acute in fisheries of deepwater demersal species, because of the use of non selective gears that potentially impact fragile habitats, in particular seamounts and other deepwater features. The need for adequate international and regional frameworks for implementing spatial based fisheries management measures in the high seas and methods to prevent illegal activities are widely noted in international discussions. These concerns are of particular importance to the implementation of high seas MPAs. At the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, governments agreed on the objective to implement representative networks of MPAs by 2012, with the aim of conserving marine biodiversity and allowing sustainable use of marine resources (IUCN 2006). This paper seeks to address the question of whether this goal of achieving a network of MPAs can be met by 2012. How can this be achieved and what resources are necessary to implement and maintain the MPAs or, if this is not achievable not why not?

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  • The Longest Journey in the World: An investigation into the liability annex and its evolution

    Pilcher, Natalie (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Human-induced harm to the Antarctic environment is not only likely, it is inevitable. This harm might be the incidental effect of activities, such as maintaining a base and conducting scientific research, or it could be the result of some form of accident. While Antarctica is considered among the most beautiful places on earth, it is also unpredictable and dangerous. The terrain and weather are particularly unpredictable, increasing the likelihood that accidents will occur. There have been several well publicised accidents involving ships in Antarctica. These include the grounding of the Bahia Paraiso in 1989 and more recently, the sinking of the M/S Explorer in 2007, spilling 600,000 litres of oil and 185,000 litres of diesel into the environment respectively.12 Paradoxically, Antarctica is as vulnerable as it is powerful. The Antarctic environmental is well known to be slow in recovering from disruption and as tourist levels swell, the number and extent of these disruptions will increase, along with the general risk to the environment. Continued activity there can only result in harm to this unique place, so it is crucial that responsibility is distributed to pre-empt it by reducing the likelihood of its occurrence and take measures to protect the environment when it does happen. It is this sobering thought that inspired the creation of a liability Annex to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. The main obligation established by the Annex is for Parties to ensure their operators take responsibility for harm they cause to the Antarctic Treaty area (south of 60° South Latitude). The Annex was adopted as a legally binding measure at the 28th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting at Stockholm on June 17, 2005 after 13 years of negotiation. It will not come into force until it has been ratified by all 29 Antarctic Treaty consultative Parties3 , at which point it will bind all Parties.4 This paper sets out to examine how the Annex has evolved through the negotiation process and what it will achieve when it comes into force. It begins by outlining the Annex in its current form and history and context in which it was developed. It then looks specifically at the substantive issues that needed to be resolved as well as the procedural challenges that slowed the process down, requiring more than a decade of negotiation. It will also discuss the future, in terms of how further guidelines might help in the Annex’s practical implementation, as well as the development of additional Annexes.

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  • Maori Associations with the Antarctic

    McFarlane, Turi (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    “It may have been about our year 750 that the astonishing Hui-Te-Rangiora, in his canoe Te Iwi-o-Atea, sailed from Rarotonga on a voyage of wonders in that direction (South): he saw the bare white rocks that towered into the sky from out the monstrous seas, the long tresses of the woman that dwelt therefin, which waved about under the waters and on their surface, the frozen sea covered with pia or arrowroot, the deceitful animal that dived to great depths – ‘a foggy, misty dark place not shone on by the sun’. Icebergs, the fifty foot long leaves of bullkelp, the walrus or sea-elephant, the snowy ice fields of a clime very different from Hui-Te-Rangiora’s own warm islands – all these he had seen”.1 The Maori of Aotearoa - New Zealand have stories which talk about this land far to the south of their home. However, until the expeditions of the age of Antarctic discovery the land that is covered in ice was to a fairly great extent still shrouded in a sense of mystery that is of the unknown. Thus not until the documentation of the late 19th and early 20th century adventurers who landed on the continent came into publication was this mystery, or veil, lifted. The scientific age of exploration which to a certain extent has dissipated the mythology of the Antarctic is the product of interest in the continent that goes back for thousands of years. What it is about the Antarctic that has drawn such great interest for people, in early times on the literal, mythological and even cosmological level as well as the times during and after its physical and scientific exploration? And how is this historic relationship with the Antarctic realised in contemporary Maori society? This report hopes to consolidate a reference of Maori associations with the Antarctic – building on the rich historical context and looking forward to where this relationship has positioned Maori today.

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  • Mountain Waves and their effect on Ozone Depletion

    Woollands, Robyn (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report presents a discussion and comparison of the physical stratospheric processes occurring ill both of the polar regions. Analysis of data from the POAM Ill satellite col- lected between 1999 and 2005, along with Strateole/Vorcore balloon measurements for 2005 affirms our hypothesis that mountain waves play a crucial role in Southern Hemisphere PSCs formation, closely matching the previously accepted wisdom for the Northern Hemisphere. This report presents a discussion and comparison of the physical stratospheric processes occurring ill both of the polar regions. Analysis of data from the POAM Ill satellite col- lected between 1999 and 2005, along with Strateole/Vorcore balloon measurements for 2005 affirms our hypothesis that mountain waves play a crucial role in Southern Hemisphere PSCs formation, closely matching the previously accepted wisdom for the Northern Hemisphere.

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  • Christchurch: the leading Antarctic gateway city?

    Steel, Andrea (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this paper is to explore the concept of Christchurch being the leading Antarctic gateway city. It will define what combination of qualities and offerings are expected of the world’s best gateway to the ice and compare these to what Christchurch is currently offering. Initially the paper will explore the concept of a gateway city, and examine the function and offerings of various gateway cities around the world, however, for the purposes of this project the focus for the main comparison will be between Christchurch and Hobart due to the close physical location and access to the Ross Sea region. The final section will explore how “leading” can be qualified and measured. According to the Oxford dictionary a gateway is defined as “a settlement, usually occupying a favourable commanding site, which acts as a link between two areas”. However, it is now recognised that this gateway role has grown as intermediate destinations for those people with an interest in Antarctica. This has been facilitated by the local and national governments who recognise an opportunity for regional and economic development. Recent economic impact studies recognise the financial gains with respect to the supply function of the gateway cities and ports. For example, a recent economic impact study in Canterbury estimates that Antarctic related activity benefits the region to around $155.1 million per annum and creates employment opportunities for 1256 people. (Saunders et al. 2007) According to Hall and Johnston (1995) the economic and commercial exploitation of the Antarctic has in the past tended to concentrate on issues such as fisheries, oil and mineral exploitation but more recently tourism has been the focus.

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  • Change Detection around the West Antarctic Coastline between 1997 and 2001 using Satellite Derived Images

    Winton, Victoria (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Southern Ocean and the area of the Antarctic Ice Sheet are intrinsically linked to global climate; and changes in shape and extent of the Antarctic Ice Shelf may be diagnostic indicators of climate change. The recent recession of ice shelves around the West Antarctic coastline has been subject to major scrutiny by glaciologists and the media. This project aims to reveal the recent changes in area along the West Antarctic coastline that have not yet been measured. This change detection was analysed, using ENVI and ArcGIS software, around the West Antarctic coastline in 1997 and in 2001. The most recent satellite image of Antarctica, Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica completed in 2007, was compared to the Radarsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (1997). Measurements of changes in area revealed that retreat and break up of the larger ice shelves (37,341.85 km2 ) in the region was the most prominent change. The Ronne Ice Shelf unexpectedly retreated the most, followed by the Ross Ice Shelf, the Northern Larsen Ice Shelf and the Thwaites Glacier. Sea ice expanded by a total of 35,806.78 km2 . In addition, iceberg and ice shelf advance were investigated. The change detection results closely correlate with climate change records taken from nearby Antarctic stations. During the four-year study period the temperature increased by one-degree Celsius. It can be concluded that ice shelves are an indicator of climate change in the region.

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  • Identifying Artefacts Associated with Captain Robert Falcon Scott’s British Antarctic Expedition 1910 – 1913 held in Canterbury, New Zealand Considered Suitable for Exhibition

    Wills, Fiona (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Between 1895 and 1917 (known as the heroic era of Antarctic exploration) a number of expeditions set out to explore and open Antarctica to the world. Given New Zealand’s proximity to the Ross Sea region of Antarctica, three of the heroic era expeditions departed and returned to/from Antarctica from the port of Lyttelton, Canterbury, New Zealand. As a result of the longstanding relationship with the people of Canterbury, the province’s organisations such as the Canterbury Museum, Lyttelton Museum and Antarctic Heritage Trust collectively house one of the world’s leading publicly accessible artefact collections from this period of Antarctic exploration. A century on the public fascination with the expeditions remains. The upcoming centenary of one of the most famous of the expeditions, the British Antarctic (Terra Nova) Expedition 1910-1913, led by Captain Robert Falcon Scott, provides unique opportunities to celebrate and profile the expedition and its leader, a man who has gone on to become legendary in the world of exploration. This paper identifies key artefacts associated with the expedition currently held by Canterbury institutions which have been identified as potentially suitable for public exhibition. Criteria was based on factors such as historical significance, visual impact and their ability to be exhibited. The research undertaken reconfirms Canterbury’s status as holding a collection of world leading artefacts relating to this period of history. Artefacts uncovered, many never publicly displayed before, include personal items belonging to expedition members such as Herbert Ponting’s skis and Apsley CherryGarrard’s sledging mask and artefacts associated with some of Antarctica’s most notable feats of endurance.

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  • Whale Watching in the Southern Ocean

    Phillips, Andrew (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Whale watching is regulated by the International Whaling Commission (IWC). Although reasonably productive, the bipolar nature of the organisation and the inherent association with non-lethal utilization with the anti-whaling lobby means regulation is required elsewhere to be truly effective. The need for regulation is clear, studies have shown approach behaviour, sounds made, duration of stay, and position in relation to other vessels, habituation responses, and many other factors can lead to negative consequences for cetaceans. The Southern Ocean is deemed particularly vulnerable, due to its central role in a large percentage of whale lifecycles and it has been made a sanctuary under the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW). However, there is no regulation applicable to the area other than the industry guidelines. Although more stringent than the ideal guidelines set down by the IWC and New Zealand’s Marine Mammal Protection Regulations 1992, the significant expansion of the industry will not be conducive to keeping with its broad environmental goals. Under the Antarctic Treaty System, the Environmental Impact Analysis under the Environmental Protocol could be invoked. However, it is not an effective tool to use for the nature of whaling operations. Instead, a new instrument is proposed to regulate the growing tourist numbers with an Annex relevant to whale watching. More liberal powers of discussion and debate should be employed to allow the debate of the true political motives underlying decisions based on scientific uncertainty.

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  • The Legality of Marine Mining in the Antarctic Treaty Area

    Pallesen, Ana (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Application of international law in Antarctica is so very complex and unworkable that the expert legal commentators assert with confidence that there are no real solutions in the law to provide. It is in this legal climate that this paper discusses the legal rights of different parties, should mining activity begin in the Antarctic. It will outline the legal rights and implications for the different parties who could be involved in mining activities in the future. In 1972 a member at the meeting of Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties is reported to have said, ‘This Treaty will last till a big mineral discovery is made – then it will be every man for himself.’ 1 The right to mine in Antarctica is intricately tied to international law. As the different states in Antarctica have differing and disputed status under international law, the legality of mining becomes complicated. The “frozen” claims, while practicable in terms of running a harmonious system, leaves a lot to be desired for legal clarity, as the legal status of the maritime area is subject to a multitude of different interpretations. The over lapping claims of Argentina, Chile and United Kingdom, and the unclaimed area of Marie Byrd Land Only adds to the difficulty of applying the typical international rules to the Antarctic. The seven Antarctic claimant states are party to UNCLOS. The United States helped draft the Convention, but has not signed it. The US has not made a claim in Antarctica, however, and in the event of the claims being tried, the US could feasibly attempt claim the entire continent, as could Russia. The rights of these parties will be discussed in a later section. The rights and duties surrounding the mining of the deep seabed will also be discussed in later paragraphs, but the question of whether the law of the sea zoning is applicable in Antarctica must first be canvassed.

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  • Feeling the Heat – The Antarctic Treaty System

    Davidson, Scott (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Unit's focus is on the Antarctic Treaty System and how its evolution has been important in the past and for the future preservation of Antarctica. As New Zealand's founding document is also a Treaty (The Treaty of Waitangi) and because of the close political, historical and ecological ties with Antarctica, this Unit contains essential learning about New Zealand.

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  • Antarctic Education Resources: A guide for New Zealand teachers

    Logan, Rebecca (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Antarctica is an interesting and relevant context for teaching New Zealand students about a wide range of topics. Subjects such as Science and Social Studies can easily be related to Antarctica, but links can also be made in many other areas of the curriculum. At the primary level, a holistic approach can be taken, where Antarctica is used as a context to cover many learning areas (Science, Social Studies, Art, English, Music etc). Students could focus on the lives of the early explorers, or present-day scientists who work in the field. Contexts such as this provide the opportunity for meaningful and exciting learning. At the secondary level, Antarctica can be included in teaching programmes in not only Science and Social Studies, but also in subjects such as Geography, Biology, Physics, History, Politics, English, Art, Music and many more (if you are creative!). A huge range of resources already exist for teachers who wish to include Antarctica in their teaching programmes. These include websites, books, TV series and films, exhibitions, competitions and many others. Teachers who have been lucky enough to visit Antarctica have produced whole units of work, across a range of subject areas. It is also possible to find Antarctic resources for individual lessons, rather than focussing an entire unit on Antarctica. The New Zealand curriculum (2007) provides the opportunity for teachers to choose relevant learning contexts for their students. Examples of how Antarctica could be integrated into teaching programmes for secondary Science and Social Studies (levels 4 and 5) are included in the tables on the next page.

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  • New Light on the British National Antarctic Expedition (Scott’s Discovery Expedition) 1901-1904

    Atkin, Andrew (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This work analyses some elements of Scott’s Discovery expedition and is specifically informed by materials available in the Canterbury district of New Zealand. It draws on fresh resources now accessible in the public domain in the antipodes, and from a private collection held by the family of physicist, Louis Bernacchi. A central source for this work is the original journal of Louis Bernacchi, (for most of 1902) that resides in the manuscripts collection of the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. (Bernacchi 1902) Letters and documents in the possession of Bernacchi’s granddaughter, a resident of Lincoln, also in the Canterbury district, further inform this research. This collection has only recently been acquired and my preliminary analysis (over two days in early 2008) is the first made by a polar historian. The collection may have gone unread for almost a century. It is extensive and has yet to be fully catalogued and annotated. Section 1 of this paper provides a brief history of Bernacchi in order to set the context and to rectify some oftenrepeated biographical errors. There are some letters written from the ice by Louis to his close brother Roderick that support my reasoning. Bernacchi’s correspondence with messmates upon the return of the Discovery inform my opinions about the measure of success of the expedition and provide clues regarding expedition management. There is also a significant body of (mostly brief) correspondence with central figures in British polar circles of the early twentieth century. These sources expand our knowledge of character and personality of expedition members of the Discovery. Baden Norris (Emeritus Curator of Antarctic History at the Canterbury Museum) has made the diary of Petty Officer James Duncan, shipwright and Carpenter’s Mate available to me. It contains some personal comments and provides a different (lower deck) view of routine life on the ship, especially during the winter months. This is only otherwise available in Dundee Museum (to the best of my knowledge) so I have mined this source of commentary from the mess deck of the Discovery

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  • The Iron Wedge and a Climate on the Edge: The potential for artificial iron fertilisation of the Southern Ocean as a viable carbon dioxide mitigation strategy

    Ericson, Jess (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Although it still remains a misunderstood concept amongst the majority of the world’s population, ‘climate change’ is a term which sticks in the minds of people from all walks of life. Scientists have proven that CO2 levels in the atmosphere are increasing due to anthropogenic activity, although it remains uncertain just how much of an effect this increase may have in the future, due to the lag time associated with the increase and the consequent response.   Countless mitigation schemes have been put forward that could be used either to cut down the amounts of CO2 entering the atmosphere, or alternatively remove significant amounts of CO2 using the worlds natural carbon sinks. Terrestrial ecosystems are thought to be the largest sink, fixing 1 – 2 tonnes of carbon per km2 annually through photosynthesis (Myers and Kent 2005). In the past, it has been assumed that oceans have a minor role to play in the carbon cycle, contributing only to small carbon fluxes. It has since been proven that the ocean has the potential to hold up to sixty times more inorganic carbon than the atmosphere (Bathmann et al. 2000). The ocean’s role in the carbon cycle is illustrated below.

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