4,189 results for 2008

  • 'Gathering places' : the mixed descent families of Foveaux Strait and Rakiura/Stewart Island, 1824-1864

    Stevens, Kate (2008)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    […] This dissertation explores the social world of the mixed descent or 'half caste' population based around Foveaux Strait and Rakiura/Stewart Island up until the purchase of Rakiura by the Crown in 1864. I examine the extent to which individuals of mixed descent in this region developed a distinct identity and the processes by which this happened: namely, through marriage practices and patterns, and the attempts of colonial officials to define, categorise and control this ambiguous and potentially disruptive group. I further examine the ways in which the government's view of the mixed descent community in Foveaux Strait and Stewart Island, as embodied in the terms of the Rakiura/Stewart Island purchase and subsequent related legislation and debates, corresponded with, and/or diverged from, these individuals' own sense of identity. The 1864 purchase is the key moment which frames this study, though many of the sources examined date from after this event, as the subsequent land claims and petitions made by mixed descent children and their parents provide important insights to personal notions of identity and political rights. […] I argue that histories of interracial marriage and mixed descent families in New Zealand represent a fruitful area of research that incorporates a wider variety of social, cultural, economic and political issues than are examined in the context of the Tribunal. […] The social and political issues surrounding interracial marriage were arguably most significant in the far south, in the Foveaux Strait and Rakiura/Stewart Island, where sustained interaction between Kai Tahu and the early Pakeha settlers had begun earlier and continued longer than elsewhere in New Zealand. […] This dissertation is therefore focused on the ways in which colonialism 'played out on the ground', in what Pickles and Rutherdale call the embodied encounter zone. In this conceptualisation, the encounter or contact zone represents both a physical and a cultural site of interaction. Centring the study in a specific place has the advantage of revealing personal narratives and experiences of colonialism as they are shaped by local conditions and avoids inappropriate totalising generalisations and metanarratives about 'colonialism'. This focus on the specific and dynamic interaction of colonisation 'on the ground', as understood through the lens of interracial marriage, follows in the tradition of postcolonial scholarship, which exposes the limitations of grand overarching historical schemas and draws attention to the voices of previously marginalised groups. The work is framed by the notion of 'gathering places': the sites in which mixed descent families encountered each other and the state, as well as ideas about class, religion and respectability. […] While this dissertation draws upon the personal and embodied experiences of interracial marriage and hybridity in the far south, this history must also be understood within the broader colonial project, and tied to questions of colonial power and authority. Interracial marriage and hybridity was a reality in the colonies and was followed by state management and intervention. The management of sexuality and intimacy was critical to imperial projects. Interracial unions and mixed race children threatened and undermined the crucial hierarchies of race and distinctions between the binaries of ruler and ruled upon which rested the moral basis of colonisation. Hybridity, with the ambiguities, boundary crossings and negotiations of identity it entails, is a key concept which encapsulates these ideas. The concept of hybridity and 'colonial desire' has been applied effectively to scholarship on mixed descent individuals and communities in a range of localities, though further elaboration of the significance of this theory in a New Zealand context is needed. [Extracts from Introduction]

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  • Fire Engineering Design Guide

    (2008)

    Authored Books
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Fire Engineering Design Guide was first published in 1994, following the introduction in 1991 of a new building regulatory environment in New Zealand. This regulatory environment allows building designers to meet the requirements of the New Zealand Building Code either through the use of prescriptive provisions or by the use of specific fire engineering design, sometimes referred to as ‘performance-based design’. The second edition of the Design Guide was published in 2001 and it contained several new chapters, including more information on the Australian building regulatory environment. The use of performance-based design in fire engineering has become more prevalent around the world with several countries now allowing for specific fire engineering design solutions and others looking to follow suit in the near future. This Design Guide provides a useful introduction to fire engineering to those who are new to the discipline or want to get an overview of the range of problems that fire engineers deal with. Fire science and engineering continues to develop at a rapid pace and new research findings, design methods and computer tools are being made available all of the time. Since this Design Guide was first published there have been many newer and much more detailed books published in the fields of fire science and engineering. Readers should consult these books to get a deeper understanding of the topics covered in this Design Guide. The third edition has built on the work of the original contributors, with the help of several new authors and reviewers. New chapters on Fire Risk and Rural Fires have been added to this edition, as well as major updates to several other chapters.

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  • Ko te Kōauau: Its historical journey, aspects of construction, socio-cultural relevance, and performance

    Komene, Jo'el (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    In recent years there has been a revival of interest in traditional Māori musical instruments, including the Kōauau (sometimes called a flute ). Most of the information on record is from Pākehā perspectives of music and culture. This thesis studies Kōauau in a Māori framework, giving weight to traditional Māori knowledge and practices, while bringing together much scattered information. The research links the origins/whakapapa of the Kōauau to the gods and their natural world, especially Hineraukatauri. The thesis analyses the materials used for Kōauau, the circumstances under which materials were acquired, their significance, design and methods of construction, and the tools employed in making Kōauau. The study discusses techniques for playing Kōauau, including its range of sounds, occasions on which they were played, and for what purposes they were used. Reference is made to the story of Hinemoa and Tūtānekai, with the suggestion that more knowledge can be drawn from pakiwaitara and pūrākau. As part of the research, several Kōauau available in the Auckland Museum were examined, showing that close inspection of these taonga significantly extended the information on them held by the Museum. Despite the constraints of the research in terms of time and other resources, the thesis makes an important contribution to knowledge, by collating widely distributed documentation into a concise form, by placing the Kōauau into a Māori perspective, emphasizing the spiritual dimensions of the instrument in its origins and its function, and by indicating what kinds of further research will assist in strengthening the revival of the Kōauau.

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  • Tā Pikitia Hei Āwhina Kōrero Collaborative Drawing and Storying

    Kururangi, Aorere Helen Mary (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Creating a Māori medium context for beginning learners of te reo Māori to converse in genuine dialogue, was a real challenge for our mainstream bilingual unit. This study involved six Year 3-5 primary school students working in two groups of three. The bilingual unit is in a contributing school in an urban setting. The teacher, a second language learner herself, found students seldom initiated any spontaneous Māori dialogue and tended to respond only to questions or formal teacher initiated direction. So the project sought to develop and explore the approach Tā Pikitia hei āwhina kōrero or Collaborative Drawing and Storying, to improve Children's Oral Language Acquisition in Māori, using a socially responsive approach (Glynn, Wearmouth, Berryman, 2006) This method encouraged students to initiate, respond and share their own learning in a social and interactive community of learners. The method also allowed students the freedom to generate conversations about their own interests, ideas and background experiences without teacher intervention or direction. The only requirement was me kōrero Māori i nga wā katoa (speak Māori all the time). A collaborative picture was created as each group of students quickly illustrated their ideas on a large piece of paper. Each student was pre tested and post tested using the Aromatawai Reo A Waha - Kia Tere Tonu (Berryman Langdon, 2001).This test assessed each student's Māori vocabulary knowledge and their ability to speak spontaneously about a familiar item. The daily conversations created by each student group involved Tā Pikitia hei āwhina kōrero was recorded on tape, then transcribed verbatim each day to assess changes over time. Student ownership of the learning and their positive participation resulted in improved language outcomes. At the end of the ten week period there were encouraging gains in the post test, Aromatawai Reo A Waha - Kīanga or spontaneous phrases students were able to generate. Furthermore an improved ability to focus on an oral task, and improved engagement by the students were unexpected positive outcomes of this easy to implement activity.

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  • Is there a difference in airway clearance practices between children with non cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis?

    Butler, SA; Hill, LJ; Harrison, J; Reed, P; Nikora, Gwen; Takai, C; Byrnes, Catherine; Edwards, EA (2008-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Studies have investigated airway clearance techniques in CF but few exist for non-CF bronchiectasis, particularly in children. The aim of this study si to compare airway clerance praactices in NZ children with CF and non-CF bronchiectasis. The study was conducted in the context of a clinical quality assurance audit of a hospital clinic service. Children and their families living in Greater Auckland and attending tertiary respiratory clinics were interviewed by a physiotherapist, who completed a questionnaire on frequency of cough, amount and type of airway clearance performed. Demographic data, age at diagnosis, duration of disease and the NZ Deprivation Index were noted. Children were grouped according to age-appropriate airway clearance techniques. 106 questionnaires were completed (81 bronchiectasis; 21 CF). Significant differences were demonstrated for ethnicity, depreivation score and duration of disease between groups. In teh 9-17 year olds 75% used a positive expiratory pressure device (23/35 bronchiectasis; 13/13 CF). in the 0-4 year olds 60% perfromed modified postural draining (13/25 bronchiectasis; 5/5 CF). When well, children wwith CF did more regular airway clearance than those with bronchiectasis (p=0.0004). Both groups increased the amount of airway clearance when unwell (p=>0.005). Similar numbers (<8%) reported doing no airway clearance techniques. The implications of the findings for paediatric physiotherapy practice in NZ are discussed.

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  • Improvements To A Digital Music Stand

    Pagwiwoko, Johannes (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    After more than 10 years since the concept of digital music stand was first seriously designed, the research area in the field of digital music stand have somewhat matured. However, there are still improvements that can be done. One of the most useful aspects of a digital music stand is its ability to perform page turns silently to aid musicians in reading music during music performance. We found out, in this investigation, that using animation for page turning is more efficient in aiding musicians than the current page turning techniques: the half-page preview technique. We also present three multi-paged view page turning animations: OneStep, SimultaneousStep and MultiStep animations which further expand the capability of digital music stand to meets musicians’ needs in having multiple page view during performance. We found out that test participants prefer SimultaneousStep the most. Finally, we discuss on how our evaluation needs can be improved and what kind of other improvements that can be done on digital music stands.

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  • Towards a negotiable student model for constraint-based ITSs

    Thomson, David (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Much research has been done on open student models within adaptive educational systems. It has been shown that opening up the student model, and allowing the student to view their model is useful in the learning process. Open student models help support meta-cognitive process, such as self-reflection. Negotiable student models take this a step further, and allow students to negotiate and potentially modify their model. A few negotiable student models have been implemented, but only in relatively simple systems, and not integrated into a complex ITS. As such, it is not clearly known if negotiable student models pose a significant advantage over the traditional open student models. This research implements a basic negotiable student model into a version of a complex and internationally deployed ITS. Subjective evaluation is performed, and shows promising results. Participants felt the negotiable student model was both useful for learning, and enjoyable to use. With a few improvements, this negotiable student model implementation could be used in a wide-scale objective analysis to help determine the usefulness of negotiable student models.

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  • GPU Based Algorithms for Terrain Texturing

    Nicholson, Kris; Naicker, Ashish (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Three dimensional terrain rendering is used for various computer applications such as mapping software, flight and other simulations, and computer games. Rendering these terrains at a real time frame rate, with a continuously changing view point can be difficult since they contain a large number of polygons. Techniques have been developed to simplify the rendering task. Level of detail (LOD) algorithms can be applied to these terrains to reduce the detail when it is not required. Effective texturing and lighting is usually applied to keep realism while decreasing the polygon count. Using available graphics hardware for these techniques is very useful for increasing performance. Current programmable graphics hardware allows much greater performance for graphics applications than traditional algorithms running on the CPU. Previous research has shown various improvements in terrain rendering performance using GPU programming. In this report, we investigate GPU based procedural texturing and lighting techniques on three dimensional terrain using real terrain data. We implemented some of these techniques and comment on the visual result to help developers consider which techniques to use.

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  • Applications of Gait Analysis Data Compression for 3D Character Animation

    Lechte, Robert (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    We investigate a streamlined method for compression, approximation and fast interpolation of gait analysis data using Catmull-Rom Splines. We are interested not only in raw compression, but also extracting the most useful data from an animation for subsequent manipulation. Our method allows compression approaching 85 percent while the resulting animation remains indistinguishable by humans from the original animation, resulting in significant memory savings, while the untransformed compressed animation has possible usefulness in gait retargeting.

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  • Sequential Estimation of Variance in Steady-State Simulation

    Schmidt, Adriaan; Pawlikowski, Krzysztof; McNickle, Don (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Today, many studies of communication networks rely on simulation conducted to assess their performance. Steady-state simulation is used to draw conclusions about the long-run behaviour of stable systems. Current methodology of analysis of output data from steady-state simulation focuses almost exclusively on the offline estimation of the steady-state means of the parameters under investigation. Thus, the literature on “variance estimation” mostly deals with the estimation of the variance of the mean, which is needed to construct a confidence interval of the estimated mean values. So far, little work has been done on the estimation of the steady-state variance of simulated processes. In the performance analysis of communication networks, we find applications where the packet delay variation or jitter is of interest. In audio or video streaming applications, networking packets should take approximately the same time to arrive at their destination; the delay itself is less important (see e.g. Tanenbaum, 2003). To find the jitter of a communication link, the variance of the packet delay times needs to be estimated. The theoretical background of this research includes sequential steady-state simulation, stochastic processes, basic results on the estimation of the steady-state mean, and stochastic properties of the variance. These are briefly summarised in Chapter 2. The aim of this research is the sequential (online) estimation of the steady-state variance, along with the variance of the variance which is used to construct a confidence interval of the estimate. To this end, we propose and evaluate several variance estimators in Chapter 4.

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  • Revisiting Read Wear: Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of a Footprints Scrollbar

    Alexander, Jason; Cockburn, Andy; Stephen, Fitchett; Carl, Gutwin; Saul, Greenberg (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this paper, we show that people frequently return to previously-visited regions within their documents, and that scrollbars can be enhanced to ease this task. We analysed 120 days of activity logs from Microsoft Word and Adobe Reader. Our analysis shows that region revisitation is a common activity that can be supported with relatively short recency lists. This establishes an empirical foundation for the design of an enhanced scrollbar containing scrollbar marks that help people return to previously visited document regions. Two controlled experiments show that scrollbar marks decrease revisitation time, and that a large number of marks can be used effectively. We then design an enhanced Footprints scrollbar that supports revisitation with several features, including scrollbar marks and mark thumbnails. Two further experiments show that the Footprints scrollbar was frequently used and strongly preferred over traditional scrollbars.

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  • Effectiveness of Automatic Fire Sprinklers in High Ceiling Areas & the Impact of Sprinkler Skipping

    Dyer, J. W. (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    There is a misconception that sprinklers will offer little value in non-storage areas with high ceiling heights such as seating areas in theatres, atria in high rise buildings, auditoriums, sports arenas, school and university gymnasiums, meeting rooms in convention centres and hotels, exhibition halls, movie and television studios, casinos, concert halls and the back of stage of theatres or auditoriums. This project examines the misconception that sprinklers offer little value in non-storage areas with high ceilings, with the goal of determining whether sprinklers are effective in these areas. This project also examines the issue of sprinkler skipping, which fire testing has shown to be more pronounced for areas with higher ceiling clearances and the effect that sprinkler skipping has on the effectiveness of sprinklers in areas with high ceiling clearances.

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  • Study of Full Scale Fire Test Results Versus BRANZFIRE Zone Model Output

    Thomas, C R (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    During 1995 a series of full scale rig tests were carried out by the Building Research Establishment (BRE) in the United Kingdom to study the tenability conditions in the lounge and upstairs bedroom of a typical domestic residence in the event of a fire in the lounge. A typical foam cushion chair was set alight in the lounge of the house and the temperature, smoke density, gas concentrations and smoke alarm activation times were measured in the rooms of the house. From this data the time to untenable conditions in the lounge and upstairs bedroom were calculated for each of the tests that was carried out. The use of computational zone models for the prediction of conditions in enclosures has increased in the past two decades with the advent of cheap and powerful personal computers. One such zone model is BRANZFIRE which is a multi compartment two zone model that is based on a set of differential equations which are derived from the principles of conservation of energy and mass, and the ideal gas law. The experimental setup from the BRE full scale rig was entered into BRANZFIRE and a series of the test scenarios were simulated. The simulations included defining the hallway, stair and landing rooms in two different methods, one using two compartments to describe the three rooms and the other using three compartments to describe the three rooms. Two of the full scale rig tests with the lounge door closed were examined, and one of these tests was simulated with two arrangements for the door from the lounge to the hallway. One simulation used a small horizontal vent across the width of the door, the other used a narrow vertical vent the full height of the door. The simulations showed BRANZFIRE to overestimate the compartment temperatures in the room of fire origin and to predict accurate results or under predict the temperature in other compartments in these tests. The oxygen concentration was generally predicted to lower to a greater extent than was seen in the full scale testing and the carbon dioxide concentration was under estimated by the simulations. The optical density was over estimated by a significant factor in all of the rooms and this had an impact on the prediction of smoke alarm activation times with faster activation times predicted by the simulations than were seen in the full scale testing. The predicted time for an occupant ii to receive a fractional effective dose of 1.0 due to heat was predicted well when compared to the full scale rig testing. The time to receive an incapacitating fractional effective dose due to asphyxiant gases was under estimated by the simulations. The comparison between the simulation results and the full scale rig testing data highlighted the sensitivity of the simulation outputs to the information that is input into the simulation. Wherever possible a sensitivity analysis for both the inputs and the compartment geometries should be carried out.

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  • Development of Low-Cost Fire Blocking Inter-Liners for New Zealand Furniture

    Martini, Paul (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Over the past 20 years soft furniture in New Zealand has followed the same global trend of incorporating an ever increasing proportion of synthetic polymeric materials. Despite the proven flammability potential of the products, the willingness to introduce regulations controlling the threat of flammability of these household items has been absent. During the same period substantial improvements have been made in the field of fire retardant or fire and heat resistant fibres, however, application of these in the furniture market has not been widely supported. This research project aims to demonstrate that relatively simple and low-cost fire barriers can be produced which substantially reduce the heat release rate and delay the time to peak heat release rate of polyurethane filled soft furniture. The approach taken here considers the reduction of the thermal contribution from the polyurethane inner core that forms the major proportion of the products’ fire load. This research does not consider or seek to eliminate the threats created by a flammable upholstery layer. It is noted that the latter threat is also an important consideration and the achievement of a truly fire resistant furniture product can only be obtained by the fire resistance of all of its components. The research described in this report has shown that an effective low-cost fire barrier for furniture is achievable using blends of readily available fibres and additive treatments, combined in a non-woven substrate.

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  • Searching for standards in the NCEA: Assessing musical performance

    McPhail, Graham (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this paper it is argued that the theory and practice of standardsbased assessment within the context of the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) has not been clearly articulated for teachers. The difficulty of specifying and promulgating standards in appropriate forms and the lack of clarity present in the support materials and training provided for teachers are examined. Through the analysis of an internally assessed Music Achievement Standard currently available in the NCEA, it will be argued that standards can be neither definitively described nor easily assessed, but that a credible standard is reliant on a number of components. It is the combination of these components that is significant if standards are to function effectively in summative contexts, particularly for high stakes national qualifications. The support materials and training music teachers received during the introduction of the NCEA lacked clarity and this has resulted in a weak link in the chain of components required for a robust assessment system. Teachers need access to quality support materials and the opportunity for on-going professional development in relation to standardsbased assessment.

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  • Agile Project Management

    Hoda, Rashina; Noble, J; Marshall, S (2008)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    As agile software development gains awareness and popularity in the software industry, it also continues to capture the interest of the research community. There are several topics within the agile software development area that demand deeper understanding and research. One such topic is 'Agile Project Management' which relates to the management of software projects that are developed using various agile frameworks such as eXtreme Programming (XP) and Scrum. This paper outlines proposed research on agile project management. In particular we hope to explore the role of the project manager, the process and problems of transitioning into an agile framework, and the management of outsourced agile projects.

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  • Marine Natural Products

    Blunt, JW; Copp, Brent; Hu, W; Munro, MHG; Northcote, Peter; Prinsep, Michele (2008-01-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Covering: 2006.

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  • Allantoin as a Biomarker of Inflammation in an Inflammatory Bowel Disease Mouse Model: NMR Analysis of Urine

    Dryland, Philippa; Love, Donald; Walker, Michael; Dommels, Y; Butts, C; Rowan, D; Roy, NC; Helsby, Nuala; Browning, Brian; Zhu, Shuotun; Copp, Brent; Ferguson, Lynnette (2008-06-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Crohn???s disease (CD) is an Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) that is characterised by destructive inflammation of the intestinal wall. Current methods for determining inflammation of the bowel are costly, time consuming and can cause discomfort to the patients. In order to address these problems, biomarker analysis of more accessible tissues is receiving increasing attention. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the promotion of inflammation. Allantoin has recently been reported as a biomarker for oxidative stress in human serum and urine. This paper investigates allantoin as a biomarker of inflammation in a mouse model of CD. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy was used to analyse allantoin in urine from the mdr1a -/- mouse which is a model of CD. The data show that the levels of allantoin are strongly correlated with histological injury scores of mouse colonic tissue samples. Allantoin appears to be a useful biomarker of gut inflammation, involving oxidative stress, in a mouse model of CD and may be a potential biomarker in human CD studies

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  • Palisade [Fence]

    Jack, Fiona (2008-04)

    Artefact
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • An association between ethnicity and cardiovascular outcomes for people with Type 2 diabetes in New Zealand

    Kenealy, Timothy; Elley, Carolyn; Robinson, Elizabeth; Bramley, Dale; Drury, Paul; Kerse, Ngaire; Moyes, Simon; Arroll, Bruce (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aims To investigate the association between ethnicity and risk of first cardiovascular (CV) event for people with Type 2 diabetes in New Zealand. Methods A prospective cohort study using routinely collected data from a national primary health care diabetes annual review programme linked to national hospital admission and mortality data. Ethnicity was recorded as European, Maori, Pacific, Indo-Asian, East-Asian or Other. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate factors associated with first CV event. Data was collected from 48 444 patients with Type 2 diabetes, with first data collected between 1 January 2000 and 20 December 2005, no previous cardiovascular event at entry and with complete measurements. Risk factors included ethnicity, gender, socio-economic status, body mass index, smoking, age at diagnosis, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, serum lipids, glycated haemoglobin and urine albumin : creatinine ratio. The main outcome measures were time to first fatal or non-fatal CV event. Results Median follow-up was 2.4 years. Using combined European and Other ethnicities as a reference, hazard ratios for first CV event were 1.30 for Maori (95% confidence interval 1.19???1.41), 1.04 for Pacific (0.95???1.13), 1.06 for Indo-Asian (0.91???1.24) and 0.73 for East-Asian (0.62???0.85) after controlling for all other risk factors. Conclusions Ethnicity was independently associated with time to first CV event in people with Type 2 diabetes. Maori were at 30% higher risk of first CV event and East-Asian 27% lower risk compared with European/Other, with no significant difference in risk for Pacific and Indo-Asian peoples.

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