4,556 results for 2009

  • The perception and preferences and preferences of parents of children with tracheostromies in a study of humidification therapy

    McNamara, David; Dickinson, Annette; Byrnes, Catherine (2009-09-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article reports a grounded theory study which was the qualitative phase of a randomized-controlled trial in children with tracheostomies comparing two techniques for providing humidified inspired gases. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight mothers of children with tracheostomies recruited from the trial, one mother who was not involved in the trial and four experienced nurses. Data were analysed using open, selective and theoretical coding. A core category was identified of parents managing the child???s care in response to a set of problematic and constraining states. Parents were seen to utilize strategies of constant checking, becoming the expert, the family pulling together and electing to use preferred technology. The findings of this study mirror those of previous studies and reinforce the primacy of caregivers as managers of their child???s health care. Mothers elected to use or not use a given technology within this context, utilizing a process of balancing.

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  • Characterisation of dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) from Bacillus anthracis

    Domigan, Laura; Scally, SW; Fogg, MJ; Hutton, CA; Perugini, MA; Dobson, RCJ; Muscroft-Taylor, AC; Gerrard, Juliet; Devenish, SRA (2009-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that is the causative agent of anthrax disease. The use of anthrax as a bioweapon has increased pressure for the development of an effective treatment. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyses the first committed step in the biosynthetic pathway yielding two essential bacterial metabolites, meso-diaminopimelate (DAP) and (S)-lysine. DHDPS is therefore a potential antibiotic target, as microbes require either lysine or DAP as a component of the cell wall. This paper is the first biochemical description of DHDPS from B. anthracis. Enzyme kinetic analyses, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), mass spectrometry and differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) were used to characterise B. anthracis DHDPS and compare it with the well characterised Escherichia coli enzyme. B. anthracis DHDPS exhibited different kinetic behaviour compared with E. coli DHDPS, in particular, substrate inhibition by (S)-aspartate semi-aldehyde was observed for the B. anthracis enzyme (K(si(ASA))=5.4+/-0.5 mM), but not for the E. coli enzyme. As predicted from a comparison of the X-ray crystal structures, the B. anthracis enzyme was not inhibited by lysine. The B. anthracis enzyme was thermally stabilised by the first substrate, pyruvate, to a greater extent than its E. coli counterpart, but has a weaker affinity for pyruvate based on enzyme kinetics and ITC studies. This characterisation will provide useful information for the design of inhibitors as new antibiotics targeting B. anthracis.

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  • Inequality may retard growth but sometimes progressive redistribution makes it worse

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasis; Tang, X (2009)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    We provide an empirically plausible endogenous growth model to prove analytically that sometimes a progressive redistribution from rich to poor lowers the growth rate of consumption per capita in all subsequent periods. The model accommodates the growth-retarding effect of income inequality by combining the assumptions of no credit market and a production technology with diminishing returns to the combined inputs of physical and human capital. Also, to make the model's assumptions consistent with the evidence reported by leading labor economists, we assume that the parental human capital sufficiently improves the effectiveness of expenditure on a child's education, in order to induce increasing returns to scale in the education technology. A reduction in the progressivity of redistribution, under such education technology, enhances the average human capital of all future cohorts of parents, which in turn boosts the growth rate of average human capital. The immediate resulting gain in the growth rate of consumption per capita sufficiently outweighs the subsequent growth loss due to the decline in TFP brought about by the associated increase in income inequality. Consequently, in our model, a policy of progressive redistribution is dynamically inefficient.

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  • Challenges of the Southern Ocean - "The Antarctic Beyond the Continent".

    Bombosch, Annette; Laird, Islay; Little, Lorna; Tubby, Michael (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Southern Ocean is the fourth largest ocean in the world, it sustains a wide variety of marine life and plays a significant role in the global climate. No legal definition of the Southern Ocean exists, although there are biological and physical boundaries. Various human activities, such as science, tourism, bioprospecting and fishing have been identified. They pose environmental and legislative challenges to the Southern Ocean which have not yet been fully resolved. Climate change, which is often neglected as a result of human activity, is also interfering with the marine ecosystem. The current shortcomings in regulating these activities have been identified and recommendations have been made in order to protect the future of the Southern Ocean. The Southern Ocean is the fourth largest ocean in the world, it sustains a wide variety of marine life and plays a significant role in the global climate. No legal definition of the Southern Ocean exists, although there are biological and physical boundaries. Various human activities, such as science, tourism, bioprospecting and fishing have been identified. They pose environmental and legislative challenges to the Southern Ocean which have not yet been fully resolved. Climate change, which is often neglected as a result of human activity, is also interfering with the marine ecosystem. The current shortcomings in regulating these activities have been identified and recommendations have been made in order to protect the future of the Southern Ocean.

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  • Antarctica Subglacial Lakes The Race to the Bottom

    Emnet, Philipp; Given, Andrew; Armstrong, Martina; Bouckoms, Sarah (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Ever since subglacial lakes have been known about they have grabbed the attention and imagination of the scientific and general community alike. These lakes may potentially hold the answers to questions on the climate history Of the earth within their sediments, as well as contain unique life forms within their waters that can help us understand the diversity and adaptability of life and its evolution within extreme environments of low temperature, high pressures, and total darkness. The limited knowledge that exists today on subglacial lakes only comes from indirect methods such as sonar and radar, but there are currently two projects underway that propose to drill into a subglacial lake and sample its waters directly. A Russian-led research group and a second group from the UK plan to lead the way in subglacial lake exploration at Lake Vostok and Lake Ellsworth respectively. However because the area of subglacial lakes is still a relatively new to science there is still much debate happening on the proper steps a scientific research group should follow during their research activities to reduce environmental impacts. This report will provide a background on subglacial lakes, and their significance to science. It will also explore the history and future plans of the two research groups interested in Lake Vostok and Lake Ellsworth, while addressing several questions that many believe still need to be fully answered before direct subglacial lake exploration should take place. Ever since subglacial lakes have been known about they have grabbed the attention and imagination of the scientific and general community alike. These lakes may potentially hold the answers to questions on the climate history Of the earth within their sediments, as well as contain unique life forms within their waters that can help us understand the diversity and adaptability of life and its evolution within extreme environments of low temperature, high pressures, and total darkness. The limited knowledge that exists today on subglacial lakes only comes from indirect methods such as sonar and radar, but there are currently two projects underway that propose to drill into a subglacial lake and sample its waters directly. A Russian-led research group and a second group from the UK plan to lead the way in subglacial lake exploration at Lake Vostok and Lake Ellsworth respectively. However because the area of subglacial lakes is still a relatively new to science there is still much debate happening on the proper steps a scientific research group should follow during their research activities to reduce environmental impacts. This report will provide a background on subglacial lakes, and their significance to science. It will also explore the history and future plans of the two research groups interested in Lake Vostok and Lake Ellsworth, while addressing several questions that many believe still need to be fully answered before direct subglacial lake exploration should take place.

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  • "The White Book" and Beyond: A look at the achievements of the ATS over the past 50 years, and what achievements we might expect over the next 50 years.

    Idiens, Melissa; Jones, Belinda; Martin, Sinead; O'Brien, Greg (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    December 1 st 2009 marked the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in Washington D.C by the twelve original parties. As we are approaching the 50th anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty coming into force on the 23rd of June 1961, now is a fitting time to reflect on the achievements of the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) over the first 50 years. At the 31 meeting of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (ATCM XXXI) held in Kiev, Ukraine in 2008, the Chilean delegation introduced a working paper (#62) outr a proposal to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty in 2011 through the joint publication of a White Book', a "collective document on the achievements of the Antarctic Treaty System" I This report is a response to the White Book concept, a consideration of what the most significant achievements ofthe ATS have been Over the first fifty years, from the original Antarctic Treaty through to recent achievements. The report will also consider possible future achievements that could act as asprational goals for the ATS over the coming decades. December 1 st 2009 marked the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in Washington D.C by the twelve original parties. As we are approaching the 50th anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty coming into force on the 23rd of June 1961, now is a fitting time to reflect on the achievements of the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) over the first 50 years. At the 31 meeting of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (ATCM XXXI) held in Kiev, Ukraine in 2008, the Chilean delegation introduced a working paper (#62) outr a proposal to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty in 2011 through the joint publication of a White Book', a "collective document on the achievements of the Antarctic Treaty System" I This report is a response to the White Book concept, a consideration of what the most significant achievements ofthe ATS have been Over the first fifty years, from the original Antarctic Treaty through to recent achievements. The report will also consider possible future achievements that could act as asprational goals for the ATS over the coming decades.

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  • Towards an Antarctic Tourism Policy: a framework for policy analysts.

    O’Brien, Gregory (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Few places on Earth have the power to invoke the imaginative potential of the human mind as great as Antarctica. The place draws connotations of heroism, hardship and unique natural beauty, as well as a recent reinvention as a talisman in the Climate Change debate. So it should not come as a surprise that the demand for Antarctic tourism is high and increasing. Tourism in Antarctica provides some unique challenges to policymakers. The policy development process, whether through the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) or through self regulation through the International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators (IAATO), is very different to that faced by domestic policy specialists. Yet the potential for negative impacts on the pristine Antarctic environment means that regulation is required to mitigate and minimise harmful effects. This essay sets out the first stage towards a policy analysis of the Antarctic tourism industry, exploring the current state of the industry, potential impacts that the tourism industry may have on the Antarctic environment, along with characteristics of Antarctic tourism that exacerbate the risk of these impacts, and finally a brief look at recent debates within the ATS regarding the future regulation of tourism. These three sections are designed to provide the context that is required for the future development of an Antarctic Tourist policy.

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  • Provenance Analysis of the Leap Year Group, Northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica.

    Laird, Marion (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Leap Year Group is located within the Bowers terrane, in northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica and comprises quartz‐rich rocks of the Camp Ridge Quartzite and Reilly Conglomerate. Seven samples were analysed, six from the Camp Ridge Quartzite and one from the Reilly Conglomerate, for provenance analysis. SEM‐CL images were compared to thin section investigations and point count data, and suggest the likely source of the sediments within the Leap Year Group originate from a metamorphic terrane. It is therefore probable that the source of these rocks is the metsediment – rich Wilson terrane.  

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  • Wastewater Treatment in Antarctica.

    Tarasenko, Sergey (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Human wastes production is a necessary result of research and logistic activity in Antarctica. Solid and liquid wastes disposal may lead to irreversible changes of the Antarctic environment. This problem can partly be solved by application of efficient methods of wastewater treatment. Minimum requirements for sewage treatment and disposal are prescribed in The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Transferring treatment technologies to Antarctica is not simple because of quite a number of reasons. The principles guiding the design of the water disposal systems are firstly, to minimize environmental impact; secondly, to make rational layout for minimizing land occupation; and thirdly, to operate safely and reliably and make the system easy to manage.

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  • Communicating Gateway Identity.

    Taylor, Laura (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Fundamental aspects of Antarctic interpretation, the history of Antarctic arts, technology as applied to Antarctic communication, and the history of Antarctic celebrations and festivals are complex and very interesting fields. However, many of these have already been examined in seminal works elsewhere, such as Stephen J. Pyne’s The Ice (1986), Paul Simpson-Housley’s Antarctica: Exploration, Perception, Metaphor (1992), and recently, Lynne Andrews’ Antarctic Eye: The Visual Journey (2007). While these have not exhausted the subject, this project instead seeks to consider these fields as they apply to New Zealand as an Antarctic Gateway nation, in the modern context of environmental awareness. Communicating Gateway Identity is particularly conceived in light of the future importance of Antarctica’s role as a barometer of global warming and actor in climate change, and the need for means in which a growing sense of stewardship over the continent can be supported. Rationale for the support in particular of Antarctic arts and the New Zealand Antarctic Festival are also discussed, since technology is largely driven by individuals.

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  • Lichen Life in Antarctica: A review on growth and environmental adaptation of Lichens

    Little, Lorna (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Antarctica is a harsh environment with very little vegetation. The Antarctic continent and the surrounding areas can be divided into two or three general regions. Most often the continental area of Antarctica is identified,  with the Antarctic Peninsula being included as the maritime Antarctic due to oceanic influences (Lindsay, 1978; Sancho and Pintado, 2004). Usually a third area is also identified as being separate from the maritime antarctic, the sub antarctic (Robinson et al., 2003). The focus of this review is the continental and maritime regions. There are only two native flowering plants in Antarctica, with the terrestrial vegetation being primarily composed of cryptograms. Lichen are the most species rich, with 350 species   currently described (Kappen, 2000; Robinson et al., 2003). However, there is some debate about this total, depending on classifications, with a more conservative total also being put forward (Lindsay, 1978).

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  • The Interplay of Gaseous Chemical Species and the extent of the Ozone Hole

    Emnet, Philipp (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Ozone hole formation over Antarctica during the southern hemisphere spring depends strongly on the presence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) during the Antarctic winter, which in turn depend strongly on the temperature of the stratosphere1 . PSCs act as heterogeneous catalysts that mediate the conversion of chlorine reservoir species such as HCl and ClONO2 into active chlorine species such as ClO 2 . They also facilitate the removal of NOx by conversion into HNO3 and subsequent incorporation into PSC ice crystals 2 . The latter process is called denitrification, and is the main factor in the extent of ozone destruction, as NOx species convert active chlorine back into inactive forms. Permanent removal of HNO3 can occur if the ice crystals become heavy enough for sedimentation 2 . As the sun returns in spring, ClO is converted into Cl via photolysis and ozone destruction commences. As the sun’s activity increases the PSC ice crystals begin to melt and release HNO3, which is converted into NO2 via photolysis which converts the Cl species back to inactive forms 2 . As the atmosphere keeps on warming the polar vortex collapses, bringing ozone levels back to normal by November as ozone rich air from the tropics can now mix with the ozone depleted air 3 .

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  • Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) determined surface-wave velocity profile and its relation to observation of the near-surface polar firn layers.

    Armstrong, Martina (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A Multichannel Analysis of Surface-Waves (MASW) determined shear-wave (Vs) profile was related to observations of the near-surface polar firn layers on the Erebus Ice Shelf, Ross Island, Antarctica. The surface-wave method (MASW) provides a useful non-invasive tool where information about elastic properties of near-surface polar firn can be effectively obtained. It is not clear at this point if the method can directly determine density variations of the firn without further correlative P-wave or poisons ratio information. The Vs profile obtained shows a general increase in velocity with increasing depth, from 600 m/s at the surface to 1400 m/s at a depth of 12 m. The results indicate that further experiments are likely to yield useful data on the elastic properties of whole firn zone. Recommendations are made regarding equipment set up for further surveys carried out on the Erebus Ice Shelf.

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  • Energy Simulation and Reconstruction in String 63 for the IceCube Neutrino Detector.

    Bouckoms, Sarah (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The remote neutrino telescope, IceCube, lies beneath the surface at the South Pole in Antarctica. It consists of a series of strings each equipped with 60 Digital Optical Modules (DOMs) every 17 meters[4]. The strings are placed approximately 130 meters apart. This creates an effective grid to make scientific observations. The DOMs were constructed to detect Cerenkov radiation emitted as high energy neutrinos interact with atomic nuclei[1]. Neutrinos interact with atomic nuclei to produce electrons. The electrons then undergo energy loss through Bremsstrahlung of photons[8]. The radiation loss occurs as a photon when the electron changes direction[6]. The photon then produces an electron and positron pair. The new electron releases further photons and more pairs are created. The processes is repeated and grows exponentially[8]. This cascading effect continues until all the energy is absorbed. The length of the cascade is proportional to the energy of the original event[8].

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  • Marine Biology in Antarctica: Then and Now.

    Bombosch, Annette (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Marine life around Antarctica, dictated by its extreme climate, has always been a fascinating topic for biologists. In the 19th century, first documentations of the abundant marine life were revealed through the eyes of the first sealers. Those expeditions further contributed significant information on the diversity and distribution of Antarctic marine life (McClintock, Amsler et al. 2001). But despite several expeditions, Antarctica was regarded as a 'terra incognita' at the end of the 19th century. The beginning of the 20th century, however, brought a change with the departure of several scientific expeditions into Antarctic regions. While geographical exploration and magnetic studies were of major importance, biologists were eager to discover and study the marine life and its adaptations to the Antarctic climate (McClintock, Amsler et al. 2001; Lüdecke 2003). Until today, Antarctic marine biology has undergone major changes, but is still of major interests for marine biologists, due to its extreme environments and importance in the world's ocean cycles (Hempel 2007). Six expeditions (Table 1), leaving into Antarctic regions at the turn of the 19th century, were selected for this report and will be investigated for methods and research areas of marine biology. These methods will further be compared to and reviewed for their influence on modern studies in marine biology. A further aspect includes international collaboration of scientific studies during early expeditions and today.

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  • New Zealand’s Antarctic Bilateral Diplomacy

    Holland, Elizabeth (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    There is little attention paid to the international political linkages that New Zealand has forged thorough its connection to Antarctica. On the ground in Antarctica itself there is evidence abound that New Zealand is enjoying strong bilateral cooperation with a number of parties, from Malaysian scientists using Scott Base as a base of operations US air force planes have ‘City of Christchurch’ written on their side. However, virtually no research has been done into the nature of these relationships, how they were formed, their dynamics and the benefits and burdens they place upon New Zealand. This paper intends to provide some research into this area by using primary resources to paint a picture as to how New Zealand has created and maintained bilateral relationships regarding Antarctica. Those resources are old documents of the now disbanded Antarctic Division of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, sourced through Archives New Zealand.

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  • The South Polar Skua (Gatharacta maccormicki): A study of past research and future opportunity.

    Given, Andrew (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The South Polar Skua is a bird well known to those who have spent time in Antarctica. For many it is the only seabird they encounter during their time in the region. It has a reputation as a hostile species, and in many ways is poorly understood. The common perception that all South Polar Skuas rely on penguins for food is unfounded. Research into the phylogenetics of the skua family has shown classification within the group to be problematic. One of the members of the family, the South Polar Skua, has been the subject of research in the Antarctic since the early days of Antarctic exploration. The species is widely distributed around the Antarctic coastline. In the Ross Sea area, work over the last 40 years has provided a good understanding of distribution, with the total population in the region estimated to be about 15,000 individuals. Research into the feeding ecology of the South Polar Skuas shows that their foraging method depends on the particular environment they inhabit as well as the presence of competing species. Siblicide is relatively common in South Polar Skuas, but questions remain as to why the behaviour occurs in some broods and not others. Significant opportunities exist in research relating to South Polar Skuas, with a need for long-term studies to assist in answering some questions.

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  • Impact of the Madrid Protocol on the Environment of Deception Island

    Taylor, Laura (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This article summarises the history of human activity on Deception Island and its impact on the environment, and details various attempts to manage current and expected activity levels. In particular, the application of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty is detailed. Although scientific activities on Deception Island today are minimal, sea-based tourist visitation is increasing at a great rate. Strategic management of this Antarctic island must be a priority if environmental impacts are to be successfully minimised as per the intention of the Madrid Protocol's Article 3. Though the tourism industry is becoming increasingly regulated through the application of the ATS and other initiatives, the potential for greater than minimal or transitory environmental impacts remains and with it the need for response planning. These issues are currently under consideration by the Committee for Environmental Protection and due for discussion at the next Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting in Baltimore, United States, in 2009.

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  • A History of Problem Solving: Evolutionary Trends in Adaptation and Specialisation of Antarctic Vertebrates.

    Tubby, Michael (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The modern Antarctic environment is typified by extremes in temperature and light. However extreme temperatures only developed within the last 35 million years. Before this Antarctic supported a temperate-climate vertebrate fauna which possessed few adaptations to extreme cold. However, dinosaurs, dicynodonts, marine reptiles and pterosaurs may have possessed adaptations for sustained darkness such as migration, hibernation and highly developed vision for remaining active in low light. After the K-T extinction event Antarctica began to cool gradually, eventually becoming too cold for its native mammals, birds and other terrestrial vertebrates which became extinct. Notothenioids thrived in the oceans and diverged significantly over a great length of time. New vertebrates have colonised Antarctica, though the extreme conditions promote bradytelic, R-selected taxa and convergent evolution. The adaptations of the modern Antarctic fauna generally can’t be attributed to Antarctica’s ancient vertebrates as conditions are too dissimilar, there is not relatedness and the modern animals are relatively ‘new’.

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  • Contemporary debates on tourism in the Antarctic

    O’Brien, Gregory (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Few human activities in the Antarctic have been as consistently controversial as the question of tourism. Conservationists that see the increasing tourist numbers released each season by the International Association of Antarctic Tourist Operators (IAATO) become increasingly concerned about the impact of the industry on the Antarctic environment. Governments are concerned about the potential interference tourism could pose for their scientific programmes, or are eager to develop the economic benefits that tourism represents for their ports. Recent events have ensured that Antarctic tourism stays on the top of the agenda for the Antarctic community: the first voyage of the 4,1601 capacity MS Golden Princess into Antarctic waters (Bertram, Gunn and Stonehouse, 2007), the largest tourist vessel to date, the sinking of the emblematic M/V Explorer in 2007 (Austen, 2007) and the grounding of the M/V Ushuaia in 2008 (Revkin and Robbins, 2008). Previous reviews of the literature on Antarctic tourism have found that the majority of research falls into three broad themes: tourism patterns; tourism impacts; and tourism policy and management2 (Stewart, Draper and Johnston 2005). Stewart, Draper and Johnston suggest two further research clusters which require development to further our understanding of Antarctic tourism: Tourist experience; and Global changes and Large‐scale influences, with the former starting to receive attention (Powell, Kellert and Ham, 2008).   This review will not attempt to replicate the existing reviews of Antarctic tourism. Instead it will try and supplement existing reviews by looking at the most recent debates that have developed in the last few years. These debates include: ongoing discussion by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (ATCPs) at their annual Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM), the latest being ATCM XXXI held in Kyiv, Ukraine, on ways to improve regulation of Antarctic tourism; debates around monitoring the impact of tourism, including the efficacy of the existing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) regime and inclusion of benefits, such as the ‘ambassadorial’ effect; and debates around new tourism activities, such as extreme adventure activities and new ‘mega‐yachts’ acting outside the IAATO system. The review will survey these debates along the three themes outlined, with tourist patterns and tourism impacts examined in turn, with the responses of the ATCPs included throughout

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