4,563 results for 2009

  • Transforming rural water governance: Towards deliberative and polycentric models?

    Neef, Andreas (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In recent years, many countries have experienced a formal shift from command-and-control and prescriptive management of natural resources towards policy making and planning processes that build on collaboration, negotiation and deliberation among policy-makers, scientists and local stakeholders (Bouwen and Tallieu, 2004; Warner, 2006; Ansell and Gash, 2008). Public participation in environmental decision-making and implementation has become part and parcel of the environmental governance rhetoric in many industrialised countries (Sabatier et al., 2005; Messner et al., 2006; Cronin and Ostergren, 2007; Ferreyra et al., 2008; Medd and Marvin, 2008; Marshall, in press). In emerging economies and developing countries 'participatory environmental governance' has also been discussed as an alternative to centralised, top-down approaches towards natural resource conservation and management (e.g. Gupte and Bartlett, 2007; Neaera Abers, 2007; Huang et al., 2009). At the international policy level, the Rio Declaration and the Agenda 21 (1992), the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (2002), and the 1998 UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) "Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters" (the so-called Aarhus Convention) have been the most important drivers for enhanced citizen participation in environmental governance.

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  • Analysis and Evaluation of Single Piles in Laterally Spreading Soil

    McGann CR (2009)

    Theses / Dissertations
    University of Canterbury Library

    Liquefaction–induced lateral spreading is an important load case for pile–founded bridges and port facilities located in seismically active regions. This work presents a kinematic analysis of the effects of lateral spreading on a single pile embedded in a layered soil profile and discusses the applicability of conventional analysis methods to the lateral spreading problem. A series of three–dimensional finite element models are created and analyzed using the OpenSees finite element analysis platform developed at the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Center. The developed FEA considers a single pile (modeled using beam elements) embedded in a soil continuum (modeled using brick elements). Beam–Solid contact elements are utilized to define the interface between the pile and soil elements. Three distinct reinforced concrete pile designs are considered in the models. Elastoplastic behavior is considered in both the pile and the soil through the use of fiber sections and a Drucker–Prager constitutive model, respectively. Each individual component in the model is validated through a series of simple analyses, ensuring that the desired behavior is captured. Force density–displacement (p – y) curves are extracted from the finite element models and compared to several conventional methods for establishing these curves. The characteristic parameters used in this comparison are initial stiffness and ultimate resistance. Additional, one–dimensional models are created which utilize the same beam elements and consider the soil response through the use of p – y curves generated using both the FEA results and conventional means. The results for the lateral spreading models show that elastoplastic soil behavior must be considered in order to determine appropriate maximum moment demands for piles. Through the extraction of p – y curves from the 3D models, it is determined that the kinematics of the pile greatly influence the extracted curves. A rigid pile undergoing a uniform displacement with depth is the most suitable method for obtaining sensible p – y curves from the models. It is shown that the methods commonly used to establish the characteristic parameters for p – y curves at large overburden pressure (greater depth) estimate values which are in excess of those returned by the finite element models, especially for large pile diameters. In the one– dimensional models, the extracted p – y curves produce moment–curvature demands in piles which are similar to the results of the three–dimensional simulations, while the conventional curves produce demands which do not correlate well with the 3D modeling effort. It is determined that the conventionally–used methods are most applicable for moderately–sized piles subject to loads applied at or above the ground surface, but misrepresent a deeper event such as lateral spreading.

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  • New natural products in the discorhabdin A- and B-series from New Zealand-sourced Latrunculia spp. sponges

    Grkovic, Tanja; Copp, Brent (2009-08-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A survey of the secondary metabolite chemistry profiles of New Zealand sponges of the genus Latrunculia has yielded new members of the discorhabdin A- and B-type families. The structure elucidation of (+)-(6R,8S)-1-thiomethyldiscorhabdin G???/I (5) and both enantiomers of 16a,17a-dehydrodiscorhabdin W (6) are reported. Absolute configurations were assigned by comparison with a dataset of recently reported electronic circular dichroism spectra of discorhabdin alkaloids. A stereochemical correction of the recently reported natural product (+)-3-dihydrodiscorhabdin A from (3S,5R,6S,8S)-(7) to the C3-epimeric (+)-(3R,5R,6S,8S)-(8) and assignment of absolute configuration is also presented. Semi-synthesis of (+)-(3S,5R,6S,8S)-(7) from (+)-discorhabdin A provided further evidence for this structure revision. Cytotoxicity data is reported for 5???8.

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  • Marine Natural Products

    Blunt, JW; Copp, Brent; Hu, W; Munro, MHG; Northcote, PT; Prinsep, Michele (2009-02-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Covering: 2007.

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  • The use of Constant Temperature Anemometry for permeate flow distribution measurement in a submerged hollow fibre system

    Wicaksana, Filicia; Fane, AG; Wing-Keung Law, A (2009-09-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study investigates the application of the Constant Temperature Anemometry (CTA) technique to determine the flow distribution among hollow fibre bundles in a submerged membrane system. Membrane filtration was performed at constant permeate flux with five submerged hollow fibre membrane mini-bundles, representing regions of a submerged module, operating in parallel through a common suction pump. Five CTA sensors were located in a matrix above the outlets of the bundles so that the individual contributions of each bundle region to the net permeate flow could be monitored. This allowed measurement of the system response to simulated localised fouling or blocking, aeration failure and restoration of aeration. The CTA sensors were able to monitor the permeate flow distribution among the fibre bundles when mal-distribution of flow occurred in the system. Satisfactory performance of the CTA sensors was verified by comparing the amount of cake deposited on the membrane surface of the fibre bundles with the local flux behaviour. The results demonstrated the potential of using the CTA approach to characterise the cross-sectional fouling or blocking variation in a submerged hollow fibre membrane system. It is evident that this approach could be applied in other module configurations. Technical challenges to this CTA application are discussed.

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  • Global Justice: A Cosmopolitan Account

    Brock, Gillian (2009)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    This book develops a viable cosmopolitan model of global justice that takes seriously the equal moral worth of persons, yet leaves scope for defensible forms of nationalism and for other legitimate identifications and affiliations people have. The book addresses two prominent skeptics about global justice: those who doubt its feasibility and those who believe that cosmopolitanism interferes illegitimately with the defensible scope of nationalism by undermining goods of national importance, such as authentic democracy or national self???determination. The model addresses concerns about implementation in the world, showing how we can move from theory to public policy that makes progress toward global justice. It also makes clear how legitimate forms of nationalism are compatible with commitments to global justice. The book is divided into three central parts. In the first, the book defends a cosmopolitan model of global justice. In the second, which is largely concerned with public policy issues, it argues that there is much we can and should do toward achieving global justice. The book addresses several pressing problems, discussing bo theoretical and public policy issues involved with each. These include tackling global poverty, taxation reform, protection of basic liberties, humanitarian intervention, immigration, and problems associated with global economic arrangements. In the third part, the book shows how the discussion of public policy issues can usefully inform our theorizing; in particular, it assists our thinking about the place of nationalism and equality in an account of global justice.

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  • Securing the Aintree Intubation Catheter

    Baker, Paul; Hounsell, GL (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The perception and preferences and preferences of parents of children with tracheostromies in a study of humidification therapy

    McNamara, David; Dickinson, Annette; Byrnes, Catherine (2009-09-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article reports a grounded theory study which was the qualitative phase of a randomized-controlled trial in children with tracheostomies comparing two techniques for providing humidified inspired gases. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight mothers of children with tracheostomies recruited from the trial, one mother who was not involved in the trial and four experienced nurses. Data were analysed using open, selective and theoretical coding. A core category was identified of parents managing the child???s care in response to a set of problematic and constraining states. Parents were seen to utilize strategies of constant checking, becoming the expert, the family pulling together and electing to use preferred technology. The findings of this study mirror those of previous studies and reinforce the primacy of caregivers as managers of their child???s health care. Mothers elected to use or not use a given technology within this context, utilizing a process of balancing.

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  • Characterisation of dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) from Bacillus anthracis

    Domigan, Laura; Scally, SW; Fogg, MJ; Hutton, CA; Perugini, MA; Dobson, RCJ; Muscroft-Taylor, AC; Gerrard, Juliet; Devenish, SRA (2009-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that is the causative agent of anthrax disease. The use of anthrax as a bioweapon has increased pressure for the development of an effective treatment. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyses the first committed step in the biosynthetic pathway yielding two essential bacterial metabolites, meso-diaminopimelate (DAP) and (S)-lysine. DHDPS is therefore a potential antibiotic target, as microbes require either lysine or DAP as a component of the cell wall. This paper is the first biochemical description of DHDPS from B. anthracis. Enzyme kinetic analyses, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), mass spectrometry and differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) were used to characterise B. anthracis DHDPS and compare it with the well characterised Escherichia coli enzyme. B. anthracis DHDPS exhibited different kinetic behaviour compared with E. coli DHDPS, in particular, substrate inhibition by (S)-aspartate semi-aldehyde was observed for the B. anthracis enzyme (K(si(ASA))=5.4+/-0.5 mM), but not for the E. coli enzyme. As predicted from a comparison of the X-ray crystal structures, the B. anthracis enzyme was not inhibited by lysine. The B. anthracis enzyme was thermally stabilised by the first substrate, pyruvate, to a greater extent than its E. coli counterpart, but has a weaker affinity for pyruvate based on enzyme kinetics and ITC studies. This characterisation will provide useful information for the design of inhibitors as new antibiotics targeting B. anthracis.

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  • Inequality may retard growth but sometimes progressive redistribution makes it worse

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasis; Tang, X (2009)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    We provide an empirically plausible endogenous growth model to prove analytically that sometimes a progressive redistribution from rich to poor lowers the growth rate of consumption per capita in all subsequent periods. The model accommodates the growth-retarding effect of income inequality by combining the assumptions of no credit market and a production technology with diminishing returns to the combined inputs of physical and human capital. Also, to make the model's assumptions consistent with the evidence reported by leading labor economists, we assume that the parental human capital sufficiently improves the effectiveness of expenditure on a child's education, in order to induce increasing returns to scale in the education technology. A reduction in the progressivity of redistribution, under such education technology, enhances the average human capital of all future cohorts of parents, which in turn boosts the growth rate of average human capital. The immediate resulting gain in the growth rate of consumption per capita sufficiently outweighs the subsequent growth loss due to the decline in TFP brought about by the associated increase in income inequality. Consequently, in our model, a policy of progressive redistribution is dynamically inefficient.

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  • Challenges of the Southern Ocean - "The Antarctic Beyond the Continent".

    Bombosch, Annette; Laird, Islay; Little, Lorna; Tubby, Michael (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Southern Ocean is the fourth largest ocean in the world, it sustains a wide variety of marine life and plays a significant role in the global climate. No legal definition of the Southern Ocean exists, although there are biological and physical boundaries. Various human activities, such as science, tourism, bioprospecting and fishing have been identified. They pose environmental and legislative challenges to the Southern Ocean which have not yet been fully resolved. Climate change, which is often neglected as a result of human activity, is also interfering with the marine ecosystem. The current shortcomings in regulating these activities have been identified and recommendations have been made in order to protect the future of the Southern Ocean. The Southern Ocean is the fourth largest ocean in the world, it sustains a wide variety of marine life and plays a significant role in the global climate. No legal definition of the Southern Ocean exists, although there are biological and physical boundaries. Various human activities, such as science, tourism, bioprospecting and fishing have been identified. They pose environmental and legislative challenges to the Southern Ocean which have not yet been fully resolved. Climate change, which is often neglected as a result of human activity, is also interfering with the marine ecosystem. The current shortcomings in regulating these activities have been identified and recommendations have been made in order to protect the future of the Southern Ocean.

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  • Antarctica Subglacial Lakes The Race to the Bottom

    Emnet, Philipp; Given, Andrew; Armstrong, Martina; Bouckoms, Sarah (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Ever since subglacial lakes have been known about they have grabbed the attention and imagination of the scientific and general community alike. These lakes may potentially hold the answers to questions on the climate history Of the earth within their sediments, as well as contain unique life forms within their waters that can help us understand the diversity and adaptability of life and its evolution within extreme environments of low temperature, high pressures, and total darkness. The limited knowledge that exists today on subglacial lakes only comes from indirect methods such as sonar and radar, but there are currently two projects underway that propose to drill into a subglacial lake and sample its waters directly. A Russian-led research group and a second group from the UK plan to lead the way in subglacial lake exploration at Lake Vostok and Lake Ellsworth respectively. However because the area of subglacial lakes is still a relatively new to science there is still much debate happening on the proper steps a scientific research group should follow during their research activities to reduce environmental impacts. This report will provide a background on subglacial lakes, and their significance to science. It will also explore the history and future plans of the two research groups interested in Lake Vostok and Lake Ellsworth, while addressing several questions that many believe still need to be fully answered before direct subglacial lake exploration should take place. Ever since subglacial lakes have been known about they have grabbed the attention and imagination of the scientific and general community alike. These lakes may potentially hold the answers to questions on the climate history Of the earth within their sediments, as well as contain unique life forms within their waters that can help us understand the diversity and adaptability of life and its evolution within extreme environments of low temperature, high pressures, and total darkness. The limited knowledge that exists today on subglacial lakes only comes from indirect methods such as sonar and radar, but there are currently two projects underway that propose to drill into a subglacial lake and sample its waters directly. A Russian-led research group and a second group from the UK plan to lead the way in subglacial lake exploration at Lake Vostok and Lake Ellsworth respectively. However because the area of subglacial lakes is still a relatively new to science there is still much debate happening on the proper steps a scientific research group should follow during their research activities to reduce environmental impacts. This report will provide a background on subglacial lakes, and their significance to science. It will also explore the history and future plans of the two research groups interested in Lake Vostok and Lake Ellsworth, while addressing several questions that many believe still need to be fully answered before direct subglacial lake exploration should take place.

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  • "The White Book" and Beyond: A look at the achievements of the ATS over the past 50 years, and what achievements we might expect over the next 50 years.

    Idiens, Melissa; Jones, Belinda; Martin, Sinead; O'Brien, Greg (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    December 1 st 2009 marked the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in Washington D.C by the twelve original parties. As we are approaching the 50th anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty coming into force on the 23rd of June 1961, now is a fitting time to reflect on the achievements of the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) over the first 50 years. At the 31 meeting of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (ATCM XXXI) held in Kiev, Ukraine in 2008, the Chilean delegation introduced a working paper (#62) outr a proposal to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty in 2011 through the joint publication of a White Book', a "collective document on the achievements of the Antarctic Treaty System" I This report is a response to the White Book concept, a consideration of what the most significant achievements ofthe ATS have been Over the first fifty years, from the original Antarctic Treaty through to recent achievements. The report will also consider possible future achievements that could act as asprational goals for the ATS over the coming decades. December 1 st 2009 marked the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in Washington D.C by the twelve original parties. As we are approaching the 50th anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty coming into force on the 23rd of June 1961, now is a fitting time to reflect on the achievements of the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) over the first 50 years. At the 31 meeting of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (ATCM XXXI) held in Kiev, Ukraine in 2008, the Chilean delegation introduced a working paper (#62) outr a proposal to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty in 2011 through the joint publication of a White Book', a "collective document on the achievements of the Antarctic Treaty System" I This report is a response to the White Book concept, a consideration of what the most significant achievements ofthe ATS have been Over the first fifty years, from the original Antarctic Treaty through to recent achievements. The report will also consider possible future achievements that could act as asprational goals for the ATS over the coming decades.

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  • Towards an Antarctic Tourism Policy: a framework for policy analysts.

    O’Brien, Gregory (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Few places on Earth have the power to invoke the imaginative potential of the human mind as great as Antarctica. The place draws connotations of heroism, hardship and unique natural beauty, as well as a recent reinvention as a talisman in the Climate Change debate. So it should not come as a surprise that the demand for Antarctic tourism is high and increasing. Tourism in Antarctica provides some unique challenges to policymakers. The policy development process, whether through the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) or through self regulation through the International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators (IAATO), is very different to that faced by domestic policy specialists. Yet the potential for negative impacts on the pristine Antarctic environment means that regulation is required to mitigate and minimise harmful effects. This essay sets out the first stage towards a policy analysis of the Antarctic tourism industry, exploring the current state of the industry, potential impacts that the tourism industry may have on the Antarctic environment, along with characteristics of Antarctic tourism that exacerbate the risk of these impacts, and finally a brief look at recent debates within the ATS regarding the future regulation of tourism. These three sections are designed to provide the context that is required for the future development of an Antarctic Tourist policy.

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  • Provenance Analysis of the Leap Year Group, Northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica.

    Laird, Marion (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Leap Year Group is located within the Bowers terrane, in northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica and comprises quartz‐rich rocks of the Camp Ridge Quartzite and Reilly Conglomerate. Seven samples were analysed, six from the Camp Ridge Quartzite and one from the Reilly Conglomerate, for provenance analysis. SEM‐CL images were compared to thin section investigations and point count data, and suggest the likely source of the sediments within the Leap Year Group originate from a metamorphic terrane. It is therefore probable that the source of these rocks is the metsediment – rich Wilson terrane.  

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  • Wastewater Treatment in Antarctica.

    Tarasenko, Sergey (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Human wastes production is a necessary result of research and logistic activity in Antarctica. Solid and liquid wastes disposal may lead to irreversible changes of the Antarctic environment. This problem can partly be solved by application of efficient methods of wastewater treatment. Minimum requirements for sewage treatment and disposal are prescribed in The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Transferring treatment technologies to Antarctica is not simple because of quite a number of reasons. The principles guiding the design of the water disposal systems are firstly, to minimize environmental impact; secondly, to make rational layout for minimizing land occupation; and thirdly, to operate safely and reliably and make the system easy to manage.

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  • Communicating Gateway Identity.

    Taylor, Laura (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Fundamental aspects of Antarctic interpretation, the history of Antarctic arts, technology as applied to Antarctic communication, and the history of Antarctic celebrations and festivals are complex and very interesting fields. However, many of these have already been examined in seminal works elsewhere, such as Stephen J. Pyne’s The Ice (1986), Paul Simpson-Housley’s Antarctica: Exploration, Perception, Metaphor (1992), and recently, Lynne Andrews’ Antarctic Eye: The Visual Journey (2007). While these have not exhausted the subject, this project instead seeks to consider these fields as they apply to New Zealand as an Antarctic Gateway nation, in the modern context of environmental awareness. Communicating Gateway Identity is particularly conceived in light of the future importance of Antarctica’s role as a barometer of global warming and actor in climate change, and the need for means in which a growing sense of stewardship over the continent can be supported. Rationale for the support in particular of Antarctic arts and the New Zealand Antarctic Festival are also discussed, since technology is largely driven by individuals.

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  • Lichen Life in Antarctica: A review on growth and environmental adaptation of Lichens

    Little, Lorna (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Antarctica is a harsh environment with very little vegetation. The Antarctic continent and the surrounding areas can be divided into two or three general regions. Most often the continental area of Antarctica is identified,  with the Antarctic Peninsula being included as the maritime Antarctic due to oceanic influences (Lindsay, 1978; Sancho and Pintado, 2004). Usually a third area is also identified as being separate from the maritime antarctic, the sub antarctic (Robinson et al., 2003). The focus of this review is the continental and maritime regions. There are only two native flowering plants in Antarctica, with the terrestrial vegetation being primarily composed of cryptograms. Lichen are the most species rich, with 350 species   currently described (Kappen, 2000; Robinson et al., 2003). However, there is some debate about this total, depending on classifications, with a more conservative total also being put forward (Lindsay, 1978).

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  • The Interplay of Gaseous Chemical Species and the extent of the Ozone Hole

    Emnet, Philipp (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Ozone hole formation over Antarctica during the southern hemisphere spring depends strongly on the presence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) during the Antarctic winter, which in turn depend strongly on the temperature of the stratosphere1 . PSCs act as heterogeneous catalysts that mediate the conversion of chlorine reservoir species such as HCl and ClONO2 into active chlorine species such as ClO 2 . They also facilitate the removal of NOx by conversion into HNO3 and subsequent incorporation into PSC ice crystals 2 . The latter process is called denitrification, and is the main factor in the extent of ozone destruction, as NOx species convert active chlorine back into inactive forms. Permanent removal of HNO3 can occur if the ice crystals become heavy enough for sedimentation 2 . As the sun returns in spring, ClO is converted into Cl via photolysis and ozone destruction commences. As the sun’s activity increases the PSC ice crystals begin to melt and release HNO3, which is converted into NO2 via photolysis which converts the Cl species back to inactive forms 2 . As the atmosphere keeps on warming the polar vortex collapses, bringing ozone levels back to normal by November as ozone rich air from the tropics can now mix with the ozone depleted air 3 .

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  • Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) determined surface-wave velocity profile and its relation to observation of the near-surface polar firn layers.

    Armstrong, Martina (2009)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A Multichannel Analysis of Surface-Waves (MASW) determined shear-wave (Vs) profile was related to observations of the near-surface polar firn layers on the Erebus Ice Shelf, Ross Island, Antarctica. The surface-wave method (MASW) provides a useful non-invasive tool where information about elastic properties of near-surface polar firn can be effectively obtained. It is not clear at this point if the method can directly determine density variations of the firn without further correlative P-wave or poisons ratio information. The Vs profile obtained shows a general increase in velocity with increasing depth, from 600 m/s at the surface to 1400 m/s at a depth of 12 m. The results indicate that further experiments are likely to yield useful data on the elastic properties of whole firn zone. Recommendations are made regarding equipment set up for further surveys carried out on the Erebus Ice Shelf.

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