5,372 results for 2010

  • Respiratory infections in Tamariki (children) and Taitamariki (young people) Maori, New Zealand

    Byrnes, Catherine; Trenholme, A (2010-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The M??ori population is young, with 53% aged less than 25 years and with a higher prevalence of both acute (bronchiolitis, pneumonia, pertussis, tuberculosis) and chronic (bronchiectasis) respiratory tract infections than non-M??ori. Environmental, economic and poorer access to health promotion programmes and health care rather than specific or genetic underlying disorders appear to contribute to this burden. While new initiatives are needed, we can do better with current public health programmes and building on regional initiatives that have already proven successful.

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  • Derechos linguisticos como derechos humanos: Language rights as human rights

    May, Stephen (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In the last 60 years, we have seen the growing development and articulation of human rights, particularly within international law and within and across supranational organizations. However, in that period, the right to maintain one???s language(s), without discrimination, remains peculiarly under???represented and/or problematized as a key human right. This is primarily because the recognition of language rights presupposes a recognition of the importance of wider group memberships and social contexts ??? conceptions that ostensibly militate against the primacy of individual rights in the post???Second World War era. This paper will explore the arguments for and against language rights, particularly for minority groups within Europe, arguing that language rights can and should be recognized as an important human right. In so doing, the paper will draw on theoretical debates in political theory and international law, as well as the substantive empirical example of Catalonia.

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  • Cessation of Whaling in Antarctic Waters - A Case for Regulation under the Antarctic Treaty

    Dahlenburg, Jessika; Hodgson, Jasmine; Madden, Celia; Toland, Eleanor (2010)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The group’s investigations were to determine if the Cessation of whaling in Antarctic waters is a case for regulation under the Antarctic treaty. It was found that the treaty is an apolitical document with no exclusive title or duress under national or international regulation. That is, an area owned by no one but managed by everyone. The Japanese Whaling Research Program states that sustainable use and management of all marine resources should be based on proper scientific findings however, Japan’s research can be difficult to access and to translate. Japan states they need to kill whales to find out their age, diets and sex. But Australian and New Zealand scientists are using non-lethal methods to do similar research without having to kill the whales. Their methods include obtaining faeces and skin samples for diet and age respectively. The Australian branch of the Humane Society International took the Japanese whalers to court due to a breach in the Australia’s Environmental Protection Act. Following four years of deliberation the Federal Court awarded the Australians victory and issued an injunction against Japanese whalers who were hunting in Australia’s claimed area. This injunction however, has been largely ignored by Japan. The court case and its results placed strain on the tenuous relationships under the Antarctic Treaty System. Adding further strain is Greenpeace who consider themselves to be ‘leading’ the struggle against whaling. Greenpeace and other anti-whaling organisations believe that the Japanese Scientific whaling program was invented to disguise the fact that whales are being hunted for their meat. Prolonged deaths of whales are considered deeply unethical by anti-whaling nations. According to the Japanese culture, whaling is considered a vital part of national identity with historical importance dating back until at least the 12th Century. Furthermore there are factions between different environmental groups, with organisations such as Sea Shepherd believing more extreme action against whaling is necessary. Due to the issues of protests over sovereignty, it would prove more beneficial to keep the Antarctic Treaty System intact. The Treaty has protected Antarctica for the past 50 years, by managing national rivalry and territorial disputes. An environmental stance would be more appropriate to protect resources from excessive exploitation. International Whaling Commission Meetings goals are to maintain peaceful purposes in Antarctica, protecting the Antarctic environment, ensure scientific freedom for research and exchanges of information, and to finally create economic benefits for all. These goals could be achieved by reaching out to the youth of Japan to take an anti-whaling stance to potentially unite opposing beliefs of whale conservation and sovereignty.

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  • Windmills in Antarctica

    McKenzie, Chris; Stephen, Kim; Xin, Zhang; Wagner, Matthias; Wainwright, Daniel (2010)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Scott Base, the New Zealand research station on Ross Island in Antarctica was 100% dependent on fossil fuel and diesel generators to satisfy power and heat, until the summer of 2010. To cover this demand, the fuel was bought from the bigger American station, McMurdo, which is next to Scott Base. McMurdo receives fuel deliveries every two years by a big tanker arriving at the station’s little port. Having carried out investigations about wind energy from early 2005 onwards, the decision for three wind turbines on Ross Island was made by Antarctica NZ in April 2008. This joint project with the United States Antarctic Program (USAP) and Antarctica New Zealand is predicted to save almost half a million litres of diesel, reducing the two bases’ fuel consumption by 11%. (Vance and Shaw, 2008; IEE, 2008) Following an environmental evaluation and the permission by the government three turbines were installed in the season 2009/2010. An electrical grid was developed and installed to connect the two bases so that both were connected, resulting in Scott Base and McMurdo benefiting from the renewable energy source. The little wind farm was opened officially on 16 January 2010 and is now producing energy for powering the bases. Further projects are predicted to receive up to 50% of the needed energy from wind are already investigated. (Martaindale, 2006) But a wind farm in Antarctica? The decreasing dependence on fossil fuels and the new renewable green generators are strong arguments for these projects, but is Antarctica the right place to use them? The Protocol on Environmental Protection (Article 3) of the Antarctic Treaty recognises wilderness and aesthetic values as well as the conduct of scientific research.. The wind turbines stand out more than the bases and can be seen from far in the magnificent landscape. They also have to be anchored in the ground, which disturbs the ground. Should there be a wind farm, or are these three turbines already too much? Can these turbines be justified as a need for science? Or is it a necessary step-in becoming more environmentally friendly in Antarctica? (Protocol on Environmental Protection, 1991) These questions will be discussed in the following. Arguments for and against the wind turbines will be explained as well as their suitability for Antarctica. The environmental values and the purposes mentioned within the Antarctic Treaty documents will be regarded and compared with turbines as a renewable energy source. Alternatives are considered and in the end a possible conclusion is drawn, as to answer if and how wind turbines should be used in Antarctica.

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  • Antarctic Specially Protected Areas - ARE THEY SERVING THE ANTARCTIC WELL?

    Clarkin, Thomas; Redmond, Henry; Williams, Chrissie; Scott, Nigel (2010)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report sets out to respond to the question imposed: Antarctic Specially Protected Areas – Are they serving the Antarctic well? The Treaty documents that define Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPA) are summarized, and the requirements and guidelines for designation are outlined. An analysis of the 71 existing ASPA is completed. Using a series of case studies for the three main values – Historic, Environmental and Scientific, the effectiveness of current ASPA is reviewed, and generally is found to be serving the Antarctic well. The report identifies a major weakness in that there is not a systematic framework to establish a comprehensive and representative network of protected areas. Frameworks from the Treaty system and elsewhere are suggested as a possible basis for establishing such networks, and a process involving Treaty committees is outlined.

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  • Progress on the Remote Sensing application of MODIS in Antarctica

    Xin, Zhang (2010)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The remote sensing technique is widely used in Antarctica, and MODIS is one of the most important satellite sensors in the domain of remote sensing. In the beginning of this article, MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiomete), including the information of its satellites, its system constitute and hardware characteristic, its large spectra and usual applications are briefly introduced. Then, it is the particular introduction of MODIS’s use in Antarctica, which refers to the Antarctic physiognomy, Antarctic atmosphere and Antarctic ocean, with citing many examples. At last, it views the development of MODIS and its serious sensors in the future, including the improved applications in Antarctica.

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  • Energy Audit for Field Camp K220

    Wagner, Matthias (2010)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    To improve efficiency on field camps Antarctica New Zealand wants to introduce a guideline for researchers to help them organising their energy demands in the field. Therefore an energy audit was carried out at the field event K220 from 21 December to 29 December 2009. During the field camp 14 students and 5 supervisors from Gateway Antarctica, University of Canterbury, carried out different activities on the Ice to learn more about the continent, flora and fauna, research and history. This included trips to historic huts, geography at Castle Rock and seal census at Hutton Cliffs. The camp was run very basic to keep the energy demand low. As a result most of the energy was consumed for transportation and cooking. In the following, the camp as well as the used equipment is described shortly. The energy demanding tools and vehicles are shown and the frequency of usage is presented. After discussing the individual fuel consumptions the total usage is summarized. Then, the energy demands of two other field activities will also be presented based on the gained experience at K220. Finally, they will be compared to each other to gain a better understanding for energy demands and distribution in Antarctic field camps.

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  • The Future History of the Antarctic Treaty

    Redmond, Henry (2010)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Since 1959 the Antarctic Treaty System has come to be regarded as a model of coordinated scientific effort marked by a spirit of international cooperation unparalleled in the political world. As Hillary Clinton observed at the opening of the Antarctic Consultative Meeting in Baltimore in April 2009, “The Antarctic Treaty stands as an example of how agreements for one age can serve the world in another, and how when nations can work together at their best the benefits are felt not only by their own people but by all people and by succeeding generations… the treaty is a blueprint for the kind of international cooperation that will be needed more and more to address the challenges of the 21st century, and it is an example of smart power at its best”.(1) However, at 50 years of age the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) is showing signs of stress and its days as a viable system appear fraught with challenges from new players on the international scene and imperilled by increasing demands on ever-decreasing global resources. At 50 the ATS is operating in a global climate that is vastly removed from the context in which it was born as a pragmatic answer to the problems of that time. That the ATS failed to address the issues of the time, rather shelving them in the expectation of buying time and the hope that they would work themselves out, is at the heart of its dilemma. The problems then, as now, are the question of ownership of land (sovereignty) and the question of exploitation of the land (resources).

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  • Does the commercial fishing of Antarctic toothfish have a future? A critical assessment from a Ngai Tahu tikanga perspective

    Scott, Nigel (2010)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper critically assesses the long-term sustainability of the Antarctic toothfish fishery from a Ngai Tahu tikanga (customary practices) perspective. The investigation assesses the current toothfish fishery, as determined by the Commission for the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, against key Ngai Tahu ‘best practice’ fishing customs. ‘Best practice’ fisheries management criteria from various international sources have also been incorporated into the assessment, as and when appropriate, to add emphasis. To critically assess the true, long-term sustainability of the toothfish fishery within Antarctic waters, the investigation focuses on key aspects of fisheries management, including: • Catch limits; • Size limits; • The use of seasonal and spatial closures; • Protection of important habitats for fisheries management; • Protection of associated and dependant species; and • Compliance and enforcement. The assessment also touches on key environmental management issues associated with commercial fishing such as pollution and bioinvasion of alien species.

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  • Weather Forecasting Accuracy Ross Island, Antarctica

    McKenzie, Chris (2010)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The forecast accuracy of AMPS (Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System) for the Ross Island region was analysed during 20th to 31st December 2009. Forecast outputs are correlated with AWS (automatic weather stations) observations at five sites around Ross Island. Results are presented in the appendix. Appendix 1 presents the PCAS (Post Graduate Certificate in Antarctica Studies) AWS observations and corresponding forecasts, appendix 2 Windless Bight AWS, appendix 3 Willie Field AWS, appendix 4 Emilia AWS and appendix 5 is a case study of Christmas day. Air pressure was forecasted the most accurately for all forecast hours, resulting in a <3hpa variance and AMPS bias not greater than -2.45hpa. The timing of a change in temperature was accurately forecasted within 2 hours but the extent of the change was less accurate. Relative humidly was lower than forecasted over Christmas day with a +16% AMPS bias. This paper discusses the most notable results found in the appendix in an aim to determine forecast accuracy.

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  • A typical season in Ryder Bay,West Antarctic Peninsula

    Hodgson, Jasmine (2010)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this report is to describe an average season (in terms of sea ice, temperature and chlorophyll a levels) in Ryder Bay, near the Rothera research station on the West Antarctic Peninsula. The data has been collected by a long term ecological research project called RaTS which has been in operation since 1997. This data shows there is very strong seasonality in terms of all three parameters. On average, solid sea ice can be present for approximately 5 months and while the sea ice is ‘fast’ there is no chlorophyll growth. As the warmer waters begin to break up the ice, chlorophyll growth increases dramatically. This pattern is repeated throughout 11 years of data. The duration and intensity of each season is variable year to year, and is influenced by factors outside the scope of this report. However the trend is for shorter sea ice seasons, longer chlorophyll a seasons and little significant change in sea water temperature.

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  • Be careful, Here is Antarctica - the statistics and analysis of the grave accidents in Antarctica

    Xin, Zhang (2010)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Imagine wind chills that freeze exposed skin in seconds, blizzards that reduce visibility to a few feet, months of darkness, and seemingly endless expanses of featureless snow and ice. Here is Antarctica, which is well known to have the lowest temperature, the strongest wind and the longest night in the world. Accordingly, it is one of the most dangerous places which have much accident in the history. This essay lists the recorded grave accidents in Antarctica from two aspects. The first paragraph introduces the ancient accidents along the history of people’s activities in this continent, with analyzing the reasons of them. The second part of the assoeted accidents subsequently emphasize some kinds of the severe accidents happened in Antarctica, also combing with the reason and ponderance investigation. The last paragraph summarizes the safety precautions from these grave accidents.

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  • Penetration of subglacial Lake Vostok through the existing holes - a good idea?

    Wagner, Matthias (Matt) (2010)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In winter 1958, the first drilling experiences for ice sheet exploration at Vostok Station, a Russian research station in Antarctica, took place. This was one year after the Vostok Station was established in 1957 during the International Geophysical Year. The existence of the subglacial lakes was unknown at that time for they were not discovered until the late 1960s. [19,21] After coming to a depth of 52m in 1958, drilling was stopped for almost a decade until 1969. From then on, various holes were drilled and as a result thousands of meters of ice cores were recovered at Vostok Station. The drilling at borehole number 5G started on 20 February 1990 and it reached its record depth of 3650m in the summer season 2005/06. The data obtained by these ice cores revealed much information about the last 420,000 years. [21] In the late 1960s due to seismic soundings water was assumed to be beneath the ice sheet. In the 1970s, an airborne radar mapping project driven by the US, UK and Denmark revealed flat reflections at the bottom of the ice sheet which also suggested water beneath it. The existence of Lake Vostok was first noted in 1973 by scientists of the Scott Polar Research Institute [15]. The full size of Lake Vostok, the biggest lake under the Antarctic ice sheet, was revealed by the European satellite ERS-1 in 1996 (Fig.1). Its surface covers an area of 14,000km2 and it has a water volume of about 5400km3 . The size is comparable to Lake Ontario in North America. [15,19]

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  • Global linkages and influences – The Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Thermohaline Conveyor Belt

    Scott, Nigel (2010)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This review assesses the available literature and documents a contemporary understanding of the oceanic thermohaline circulation system and the oceanic currents that surround Antarctica, with an emphasis being placed on the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The review then focuses on an assessment of the role of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current within the world-wide Thermohaline ‘Conveyor Belt’. In addition, the review also critically assesses key papers that outline the possible impacts of climate change on the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Thermohaline Conveyor Belt.

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  • Developments in the Research and Testing of Clothing Worn in Polar Environments between 1960 and 2008

    Madden, Celia (2010)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Clothing worn in polar regions has been subjected to investigation and development for the purpose of improving comfort, practicality and efficiency for those wearing it. Extreme cold weather and harsh climatic conditions provide life threatening scenarios for those living and working on the ice. Monitoring and testing of clothing has advanced our understanding of the mechanics of heat production and loss, thermal insulation, vapour transmission and external environmental variables. Research and testing of fibre and fabric have led to the development of man-made fibres, design improvement and practicality in the field. Testing procedures have changed over the years where equipment, technology and procedures have improved the quality of research results from subjective to objective standards. As polar environments become more attractive and accessible places to work or play in, effective extreme weather clothing remains a life-saving necessity.

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  • Responses of Antarctic Penguins to the Effects of Climate Change

    Hodgson, Jasmine (2010)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Penguins have adapted to their environment through millenia of great climate changes. This makes them more susceptible to climate change as their size, morphology and other cold weather adaptations restricts their ability to feed and travel. They are living at the extreme of their capabilities and small changes can have a huge impact on them. For Antarctic penguins the process of adapting to the polar climate has taken millennia to achieve and the current climatic changes are happening too fast for them to keep up. The effects of Antarctic warming are influencing the penguins breeding habitats, chick success, food availability, competition and distribution. The specific responses of penguins to climate change include: poleward shifts in geographic distribution; range contraction (or expansion); changes in the timing of biological events (their phenology) and changes in predator/prey interactions. This review will overview the current knowledge of how Adélie and Emperor penguins specifically respond to the current changing climate.

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  • The Literature of the Antarctic Heritage Trust and the Mawson’s Huts Foundation

    Redmond, Henry (2010)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Human endeavour exists within the context of time and space. The context of time is lineal and ephemeral. An event takes place only once and is then the subject of oral, visual or written history. Its existence and immediacy is transitory in the context of time. Perhaps as a response to the transitory nature of human existence mankind seeks to maintain tangible links with the past. New Zealand holds closely to a written treaty that we see as a touchstone with our recent past. The Treaty of Waitangi is not only the cornerstone of race relations it has major ramifications in our country in all areas of economic and social reality. It defines who we are as a nation. It is a tangible connection with history. Whether mankind reveres a treaty or the building in which that treaty was signed, it is universal that we hold as central and important such objects that take us closer to our transitory and ephemeral past. Antarctica stands unique in that the first human dwellings built on the continent are still intact. In fact, all human endeavours in Antarctica have taken place within the space of just over two centuries and much of it is still in existence. Time has passed since the ‘Heroic Age’ of exploration, but, the actual dwellings connected with the Heroic Age of exploration are still with us. Those basic huts erected by Scott, Shackleton and Borchgrevink are tangible links with our past and as such take on an importance far beyond their physical entity. They are as powerful in our country’s collective consciousness as the Liberty Bell is for the United States or the Stone of Scone is for Scotland. They have the power to fire the collective imagination and they remain potent symbols of our nation’s identity. As such they have an importance to New Zealand’s sense of national identity far in excess of their physical entity. Our closest neighbour, Australia, has an Antarctic history equally as important to them and the preservation and restoration of their Antarctic heritage is similarly seen as vitally important to their sense of national identity. The importance of Australia’s greatest Antarctic explorer, Douglas Mawson, is esteemed so highly in their national consciousness that he features on their $100 dollar bill. Ed Hillary only features on our $5 dollar bill! Could this be indicative of the relative importance the Australians attach to their Antarctic history? In Australia the preservation and restoration of Antarctic heritage is charged to the Mawson’s Huts Foundation. New Zealand’s Antarctic Heritage Trust (AHT) was formed in 1987, nine years earlier than the Mawson’s Huts Foundation (MHF). The AHT is an independent charitable trust based in Christchurch. The AHT is charged with the preservation and restoration of our Antarctic heritage. More specifically, it was created to care for sites important to the history of the Heroic Age of exploration located in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica The Antarctic Heritage Trust and the Mawson’s Huts Foundation are effectively parallel societies undertaking comparable roles in neighbouring countries. Countries who share much in common in their development, nationhood and ethos on the international stage.

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  • The Past is the Key to the Future How will West Antarctica Ice sheet respond to the current climatic warming?

    McKenzie, Chris (2010)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The West Antarctica Ice Sheet (WAIS) is warming and is predicted to continue for decades to come (IPCC, 2007). How will WAIS respond to this warming? To answer this question we need to know how it responded to climate changes in the geological past. One of the best places to find this is in the Ross Sea, which is a depositional basin that has a record of all the sediments coming off Antarctica over millions of years (Chapman, et al. 2006). Many coring programs have drilled in the Ross Sea, with the ANDRILL (ANtarctica DRILLing) project being the most recent. It has unveiled much of Antarctica’s climate for the last approximate 40 million years (Naish, 2008). These Ross Sea coring projects have given us an understanding of how much ice was present on Antarctica during a given global CO₂ concentration and global temperature in the past (Foreman et al. 2007). They also show Antartica’s past climate range supported forests through to glaciations (Chapman, et al. 2006). The data retrieved from these drilled sediments can be incorporated into mathematical models which give insight to the extent of the WAIS in the near future.

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  • Recompression and Adjunctive Therapy for Decompression Illness: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Bennett, MH; Lehm, JP; Mitchell, Simon; Wasiak, J (2010-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    INTRODUCTION: Decompression illness (DCI) is caused by bubble formation in the blood or tissues after a reduction in ambient pressure. Clinically, DCI may range from a trivial illness to paralysis, loss of consciousness, cardiovascular collapse, and death. Recompression is the universally accepted standard for the treatment of DCI. When recompression is delayed, a number of strategies have been suggested to improve the outcome. We examined the effectiveness and safety of both recompression and adjunctive therapies in the treatment of DCI. METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2); MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online) (1966 to July 2009); CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) (1982 to July 2009); EMBASE (Excerpta Medica Database) (1980 to July 2009); the Database of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) in Hyperbaric Medicine (July 2009); and hand-searched journals and texts. We included RCTs that compared the effect of any recompression schedule or adjunctive therapy with a standard recompression schedule and applied no language restrictions. Three authors extracted the data independently. We assessed each trial for internal validity and resolved differences by discussion. Data were entered into RevMan 5.0 software (Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008). RESULTS: Two RCTs satisfied the inclusion criteria. Pooling of data was not possible. In one study, there was no evidence of improved effectiveness with the addition of a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug to routine recompression therapy (at 6 weeks: relative risk 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90???1.20, P = 0.58), but there was a reduction in the number of recompression treatments required when tenoxicam was added (P = 0.01, 95% CI: 0???1). In the other study, the odds of multiple recompressions were lower with a helium and oxygen (heliox) table compared with an oxygen treatment table (relative risk 0.56, 95% CI: 0.31???1.00, P = 0.05). DISCUSSION: Recompression therapy is the standard for treatment of DCI, but there is no RCT evidence. The addition of a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (tenoxicam) or the use of heliox may reduce the number of recompressions required, but neither improves the odds of recovery. The application of either of these strategies may be justified. The modest number of patients studied demands a cautious interpretation. Benefits may be largely economic, and an economic analysis should be undertaken. There is a case for large randomized trials of high methodological rigor to define any benefit from the use of different breathing gases and pressure profiles during recompression.

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  • Risk factors and immunity in a nationally representative population following the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic

    Bandaranayake, D; Huang, S; Bissielo, A; Wood, T; Mackereth, G; Baker, MG; Beasley, R; Reid, S; Roberts, S; Hope, V; on behalf of 2009 H1N1 serosurvey investigation team (2010-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: Understanding immunity, incidence and risk factors of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic (2009 H1N1) through a national seroprevalence study is necessary for informing public health interventions and disease modelling. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected 1687 serum samples and individual risk factor data between November-2009 to March-2010, three months after the end of the 2009 H1N1 wave in New Zealand. Participants were randomly sampled from selected general practices countrywide and hospitals in the Auckland region. Baseline immunity was measured from 521 sera collected during 2004 to April-2009. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titres of ≥1:40 against 2009 H1N1 were considered seroprotective as well as seropositive. The overall community seroprevalence was 26.7% (CI:22.6-29.4). The seroprevalence varied across age and ethnicity. Children aged 5-19 years had the highest seroprevalence (46.7%;CI:38.3-55.0), a significant increase from the baseline (14%;CI:7.2-20.8). Older adults aged ≥60 had no significant difference in seroprevalence between the serosurvey (24.8%;CI:18.7-30.9) and baseline (22.6%;CI:15.3-30.0). Pacific peoples had the highest seroprevalence (49.5%;CI:35.1-64.0). There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between both primary (29.6%;CI:22.6-36.5) and secondary healthcare workers (25.3%;CI:20.8-29.8) and community participants. No significant regional variation was observed. Multivariate analysis indicated age as the most important risk factor followed by ethnicity. Previous seasonal influenza vaccination was associated with higher HI titres. Approximately 45.2% of seropositive individuals reported no symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Based on age and ethnicity standardisation to the New Zealand Population, about 29.5% of New Zealanders had antibody titers at a level consistent with immunity to 2009 H1N1. Around 18.3% of New Zealanders were infected with the virus during the first wave including about one child in every three. Older people were protected due to pre-existing immunity. Age was the most important factor associated with infection followed by ethnicity. Healthcare workers did not appear to have an increased risk of infection compared with the general population.

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