6,796 results for 2011

  • Do New Zealand children with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis show disease progression?

    Munro, KA; Reed, PW; Joyce, H; Perry, D; Twiss, J; Byrnes, Catherine; Edwards, EA (2011-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background There is minimal literature available on the long-term outcome of pediatric non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Aim To document 5-year outcomes of children with chest computerized tomography (CT) scan diagnosed bronchiectasis from a tertiary New Zealand (NZ) respiratory clinic. Methods Review of a clinical database identified 91 children. Demographics, clinical data, lung function, chest X-ray (CXR), sputum, presumed etiology, admission data, and the NZ deprivation index (NZDep) were collected. Univariate and multivariate regression were used to correlate clinical findings with lung function data and CXR scores using the Brasfield Scoring System.

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  • Modelling collagen fibre orientation in porcine skin based upon confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Jor, Jessica; Nielsen, Poul; Nash, Martyn; Hunter, Peter (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The mechanical properties of skin, and its ability to resist a wide range of deformations, are mainly determined by the collagen network within the dermis. Aims: In order to quantify the structure???function relationship of skin, quantitative data on collagen orientation are acquired in this study. Materials & Methods: Saggital cryosections from the abdominal region of young pigs were stained with picrosirus red for collagen detection and images were acquired by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Spatial distributions of collagen orientation were determined using a structure???tensor approach. Orientation data were fitted to a mixture of two von Mises distributions. Results: It was observed that collagen is organised into large bundles in the reticular dermis that run obliquely between the epidermis to hypodermis along two predominant orientations. Discussion: This distinct lattice structure was apparent in all sections, regardless of the sectioning orientation. Based on our observations from CLSM images,we propose a conceptual model expressed in terms of a density distribution function to describe collagen orientation. Conclusion: We demonstrate that two parameters of this distribution (the mean and spread parameter) may be directly determined using CLSM image analysis. An important advantage of this approach is that model parameters can be estimated directly from observable microstructural features.

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  • A discrete model to study reaction-diffusion-mechanics systems

    Weise, LD; Nash, Martyn; Panfilov, AV (2011-07-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article introduces a discrete reaction-diffusion-mechanics (dRDM) model to study the effects of deformation on reaction-diffusion (RD) processes. The dRDM framework employs a FitzHugh-Nagumo type RD model coupled to a mass-lattice model, that undergoes finite deformations. The dRDM model describes a material whose elastic properties are described by a generalized Hooke's law for finite deformations (Seth material). Numerically, the dRDM approach combines a finite difference approach for the RD equations with a Verlet integration scheme for the equations of the mass-lattice system. Using this framework results were reproduced on self-organized pacemaking activity that have been previously found with a continuous RD mechanics model. Mechanisms that determine the period of pacemakers and its dependency on the medium size are identified. Finally it is shown how the drift direction of pacemakers in RDM systems is related to the spatial distribution of deformation and curvature effects.

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  • Lymphatic drainage and tumour prevalence in the breast: a statistical analysis of symmetry, gender and node field independence

    Blumgart, Evan; Uren, RF; Nielsen, Poul; Nash, Martyn; Reynolds, Hayley (2011-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Current understanding of the lymphatics draining the breast is controversial, despite its known importance in the spread of breast cancer. Similarly, knowledge regarding the spatial distribution of primary tumours in the breast is limited. This study sought to test commonly held assumptions in this field, including: (i) that breast lymphatic drainage and tumour prevalence are symmetric between the left and right sides of the body, (ii) that males and females have the same drainage patterns and tumour prevalences, and (iii) that lymphatic drainage in the breast occurs independently to different node fields. This study has used lymphoscintigraphy data from 2304 breast cancer patients treated at the RPAH Medical Centre, Sydney, Australia. Symmetry of lymphatic drainage and tumour distribution as well as gender differences were tested using Fisher's exact test. Drainage independence was assessed using Fisher's exact test, and a multivariate probit model was used to test for drainage correlations. Results showed that the breasts are likely to have symmetric lymphatic drainage and tumour prevalence, and that there is no significant difference between males and females. Furthermore, results showed that direct lymphatic drainage of the breasts is likely to be independent between node fields. Collectively, these results serve to further our understanding of lymphatic anatomy and the distribution of tumours in the breast.

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  • Predicting lymphatic drainage patterns and primary tumour location in patients with breast cancer

    Blumgart, Evan; Uren, RF; Nielsen, Poul; Nash, Martyn; Reynolds, HM (2011-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Detailed knowledge of the lymphatic drainage of the breast is limited. Lymphoscintigraphy is a technique used during breast cancer treatment to accurately map patterns of lymphatic drainage from the primary tumour to the draining lymph nodes. This study aimed to create a statistical model to analyse the spread of breast cancer and primary tumour location using a large lymphoscintigraphy database, and visualise the results with a novel computational model. This study was based on lymphoscintigraphy data from 2,304 breast cancer patients treated at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Medical Centre in Sydney, Australia. Bayesian inferential techniques were implemented to estimate the probabilities of lymphatic drainage from each region of the breast to each draining node field, to multiple node fields, and to determine probabilities of tumour prevalence in each breast region. A finite element model of the torso and discrete model of the draining node fields were created to visualise these data and a software tool was developed to display the results (www.abi.auckland.ac.nz/breast-cancer). Results confirmed that lymphatic drainage is most likely to occur to the axillary node field, and that there is significant likelihood of drainage to the internal mammary node field. The likeli- hood of lymphatic drainage from the whole breast to the axillary, internal mammary, infraclavicular, supraclavicular and interpectoral node fields were 98.2, 35.3, 1.7, 3.1, and 0.7%, respectively; whilst the probability of lymphatic drainage to multiple node fields was estimated to be 36.4%. Additionally, primary tumours are most likely to develop in the upper regions of the breast. The models developed pro- vide quantitative estimates of lymphatic drainage of the breast, giving important insights into understanding breast cancer metastasis and have the potential to benefit both cli- nicians and patients during breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

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  • Optimising echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease in New Zealand: Not all valve disease is rheumatic

    Webb, Rachel; Wilson, NJ; Lennon, Diana; Wilson, EM; Nicholson, RW; Gentles, TL; O'Donnell, CP; Stirling, JW; Zeng, Sui; Trenholme, AA (2011-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Echocardiography detects a greater prevalence of rheumatic heart disease than heart auscultation. Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease combined with secondary prophylaxis may potentially prevent severe rheumatic heart disease in high-risk populations. We aimed to determine the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in children from an urban New Zealand population at high risk for acute rheumatic fever. To optimise accurate diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease, we utilised a two-step model. Portable echocardiography was conducted on 1142 predominantly M??ori and Pacific children aged 10???13 years. Children with an abnormal screening echocardiogram underwent clinical assessment by a paediatric cardiologist together with hospital-based echocardiography. Rheumatic heart disease was then classified as definite, probable, or possible. Portable echocardiography identified changes suggestive of rheumatic heart disease in 95 (8.3%) of 1142 children, which reduced to 59 (5.2%) after cardiology assessment. The prevalence of definite and probable rheumatic heart disease was 26.0 of 1000, with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 12.6 to 39.4. Portable echocardiography overdiagnosed rheumatic heart disease with physiological valve regurgitation diagnosed in 28 children. A total of 30 children (2.6%) had non-rheumatic cardiac abnormalities, 11 of whom had minor congenital mitral valve anomalies. We found high rates of undetected rheumatic heart disease in this high-risk population. Rheumatic heart disease screening has resource implications with cardiology evaluation required for accurate diagnosis. Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease may overdiagnose rheumatic heart disease unless congenital mitral valve anomalies and physiological regurgitation are excluded.

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  • Human ventricular fibrillation during global ischemia and reperfusion: Paradoxical changes in activation rate and wavefront complexity

    Bradley, Christopher; Clayton, RH; Nash, Martyn; Mourad, A; Hayward, M; Paterson, David; Taggart, P (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background- Ischemic ventricular fibrillation in experimental models has been shown to progress through a series of stages. Progression of ischemic VF in the in vivo human heart has not been determined. Methods and Results- We studied 10 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Ventricular fibrillation was induced by burst pacing. After 30 seconds, global myocardial ischemia was induced by aortic cross-clamp and maintained for 2.5 minutes, followed by coronary reflow. Epicardial activity was sampled (1 kHz) with a sock that contained 256 unipolar contact electrodes. Dominant frequencies were calculated with a fast Fourier transform with a moving window. The locations of phase singularities and activation wavefronts were identified at 10-ms intervals. Preischemic (perfused) ventricular fibrillation was maintained by a disorganized mix of large and small wavefronts. During global myocardial ischemia, mean dominant frequencies decreased from 6.4 to 4.7 Hz at a rate of -0.011??0.002 Hz s(-1) (P<0.01) and remained unchanged during reflow, at 10.3. The number of wavefronts showed a similar time course to the number of phase singularities. Conclusions- In human ventricular fibrillation, we found an increase in complexity of electric activation patterns during global myocardial ischemia, and this was not reversed during reflow despite an increase in activation rate.

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  • Quantitative characterisation of seafloor substrate and bedforms using advanced processing of multibeam backscatter???Application to Cook Strait, New Zealand

    Lamarche, Geoffroy; Lurton, X; Verdier, A-L; Augustin, J-M (2011-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A comprehensive EM300 multibeam echo-sounder dataset acquired from Cook Strait, New Zealand, is used to develop a regional-scale objective characterisation of the seafloor. Sediment samples and high-resolution seismic data are used for ground-truthing. SonarScope?? software is used to process the data, including signal corrections from sensor bias, specular reflection compensation and speckle noise filtering aiming at attenuating the effects of recording equipment, seafloor topography, and water column. The processing is completed by correlating a quantitative description (the Generic Seafloor Acoustic Backscatter???GSAB model) with the backscatter data. The calibrated Backscattering Strength (BS) is used to provide information on the physical characteristics of the seafloor. The imagery obtained from the BS statistical compensation is used for qualitative interpretation only; it helps characterizing sediment facies variations as well as geological and topographic features such as sediment waves and erosional bedforms, otherwise not recognised with the same level of detail using conventional surveying. The physical BS angular response is a good indicator of the sediment grain size and provides a first-order interpretation of the substrate composition. BS angular response for eight reference areas in the Narrows Basin are selected and parameterised using the GSAB model, and BS angular profiles for gravelly, sandy, and muddy seafloors are used as references for inferring the grain size in the reference areas. We propose to use the calibrated BS at 45?? incidence angle (BS45) and the Specular-To-Oblique Contrast (STOC) as main global descriptors of the seafloor type. These two parameters enable global backscatter studies by opposition to compensated imagery whose intensity is not comparable from one zone to the other. The results obtained highlight the interest of BS measurements for seafloor remote sensing in a context of habitat-mapping applications.

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  • Current dilemmas and controversies in allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications

    Novitskaya, ES; Dean, SJ; Craig, Jennifer; Alexandroff, AB (2011-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Identifying contact allergens in ophthalmic medications can be a challenging and daunting experience. We summarize data on topical ophthalmic medications with the potential to cause periorbital contact dermatitis and allergic conjunctivitis, highlighting current dilemmas and controversies in this area. The following groups of allergens are reviewed: preservatives, antiglaucoma medications (prostaglandin analogues, ??-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, parasympathomimetics, sympathomimetics), antiinflammatory medications (nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, corticosteroids), antibiotics, antivirals, antiallergic medications (antihistamines, cromones), anaesthetics, mydriatics, and cycloplegics.

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  • Alternative price indexes for medical care: Evidence from the MEPS survey

    Aizcorbe, A; Bradley, B; Greenaway-McGrevy, Ryan; Herauf, B; Kane, R; Liebman, E; Pack, S; Rozental, L (2011-02)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Spending on medical care is a large and growing component of GDP. There are wellknown measurement problems that are estimated to overstate inflation and understate real growth for this sector by as much as 1-1/2 percentage points per year. Because of its size, this would translate into an overstatement of inflation for the overall economy of about ?? percentage point with an equal understatement in real GDP growth. In this paper, we use data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to obtain new, more comprehensive estimates for this bias and to explore a possible adjustment to existing official price indexes. The MEPS data show an upward bias to price growth in this sector of 1 percentage point, which translates into an overstatement of overall inflation of .2 percentage point and an understatement of GDP growth of the same amount. We also find that an adjustment recently used in Bradley et al provides a useful approximation to the indexes advocated by health economists.

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  • Is GDP or GDI a better measure of output? A statistical approach

    Greenaway-McGrevy, Ryan (2011-02)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Gross domestic product (GDP) and gross domestic income (GDI) are in theory estimates of the same concept, namely economic production over a defined span of time and space. Yet the two measures are compiled using different source data, and the two measures often give different indications of the direction of the economy. This raises the issue of which of the two measures is a more accurate estimate of economic production. In this paper we present a time-series statistical framework for addressing this issue. Our findings indicate that the latest vintage of GDP has been a better measure of true output over the 1983-2009 period than the latest vintage of GDI. Our model also implies an optimal weighting of GDP and GDI can yield a more accurate estimate of economic output than either GDP or GDI alone. Our empirical findings indicate that a weighting of approximately 60% to GDP yields the best estimate for the 1983-2009 period. When we consider vintages of estimated output, we find that GDI often contains additional information to GDP regarding true output.

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  • Rheology and Processing of Novatein Thermoplastic Protein

    Mohan, Velram (2011-05-02)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Biopolymers have become suitable alternatives to petro-chemical polymers as they can biodegrade and are considered environmentally friendly. Novatein Thermoplastic Protein (NTP) is a newly developed plastic material using bovine bloodmeal. Knowledge of the rheology of NTP is required to assess processability and to optimise process design. The objective of this research was to use capillary rheometry and batch mixing to determine the rheology and processing behaviour of NTP. These were evaluated at constant plasticiser content, but using three different ratios of water to plasticiser (triethylene glycol, TEG). Each of these was evaluated at 115, 120 and 125 ??C. It was shown that NTP is a non-Newtonian, shear thinning fluid with similar behaviour compared to linear low density polyethylene. It was found that viscosity is highly dependent on water content; decreasing with increasing water content. At a shear rate of 15 s-1 , the apparent viscosity for the standard formulation (60 parts water per hundred parts bloodmeal) was 2000 Pa.s compared to 7000 Pa.s for the formulation containing 30 parts water [water (30) : TEG (30)], measured at 115 ??C. Viscosity decreased slightly with increasing temperature and the degree of non-Newtonian behaviour was mostly unaffected by temperature. The flow behaviour index, n, was found to be in the range 0.11 to 0.17, with no discernable temperature dependence. In the standard formulation, the total amount of plasticiser and ratio water to TEG was higher, which resulted in different flow behaviour with respect to temperature. Batch mixing was used to determine the processing window (???t) by monitoring torque changes over time during mixing. Processing window for standard NTP decreased from 260 to 220 seconds when the mixing speed was increased from 75 to 95 RPM. The processing window was shortened with reducing water content or an increase in temperature. At 125 ??C and 95 RPM the processing window was only 67 seconds for the formulation with 30 parts water and 30 parts TEG. It was concluded that crosslinking was accelerated with an increase in shear and temperature or a reduction in moisture content. Thermal or mechanical energy activates crosslinking, while water plasticises the polymer which decreases the rate of crosslinking. Processing NTP required a delicate balance of supplying enough mechanical and thermal energy for chain rearrangement and consolidation, but preventing fast crosslinking. Crosslinking can be retarded using larger amounts of water, but excessive water may lead to problems after product moulding. Replacing water with TEG does not prevent crosslinking, but does lower the apparent viscosity during processing.

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  • A pragmatic utopia: should the Ross Sea be designated a Marine Protected Area?

    Beer, Kate; Brears, Robert; Briars, Lacey; Roldan, Gabriela (2011)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Ross Sea is a prominent embayment in the Antarctic continent, of around 650,000km2 – an area equal to two percent of the Southern Ocean. Approximately two-thirds of this area is covered by the Ross Ice Shelf. The region is widely recognised as being the last ecosystem on Earth that is little affected by human interference. The Ross Sea is home to a plethora of unusual, unique and globally rare species; the area has high levels of biological diversity, productivity and endemism, all of which suggest the area is worth protecting. Historically, there has been some exploitation of the seal and whale populations of the Ross Sea. More recently, the area has been subject to tourism, scientific whaling, and commercial fishing for the Antarctic toothfish. Of particular concern is the growing presence of fishing vessels taking part in illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing activities. The Antarctic toothfish has life-history traits that make the species vulnerable to exploitation, and little is understood about its breeding biology. IUU fishing is worrisome because it represents an unknown level of extraction for a species that appears to hold a crucial position in the Ross Sea food web. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been gaining popularity worldwide as a management tool for protecting areas of special biological importance. Currently it is difficult to create and manage MPAs in areas beyond national jurisdiction – that is, the high seas – but for some areas, regional fisheries management organisations exists. The Southern Ocean is one such place, where the management falls under the auspices of CCAMLR, the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, and the associated Commission. CCAMLR successfully created the first ever high seas MPA in the Southern Ocean near the South Orkney Islands in 2010. We believe this sets an important precedent for what could be achieved in the Ross Sea. This paper presents three possible plans for creating an MPA in the Ross Sea. Plan A would see the entire Ross Sea become a no-take area indefinitely. Plan B would create a network of MPA sub-areas within the Ross Sea. Plan C would create a management intervention in the form of a moratorium on all extractive resource use (fishing, whaling, bioprospecting) in the Ross Sea for 30 years. The role of CCAMLR and the relative merits of the three options are discussed. Finally, some options are presented for how an MPA in the Ross Sea could be enforced. The Royal New Zealand Navy has boats suitable for enforcement work in the Southern Ocean; the Air Force already conducts surveillance activities, and the future acquisition of an unmanned drone is another possibility. However the most successful outcomes would be achieved via cooperative enforcement taken by a number of nations with interests in the Southern Ocean. To conclude, the authors suggest protection of the Ross Sea is both feasible and warranted. The time to act is now

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  • A conceptual approach to climate change and ecosystem management in Antarctica

    Raines, Samantha; Roberts, Jamie; Tang, Petra; Wiliams, Tessa (2011)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Since the beginning of Antarctic exploration measures have been progressively implemented as attempts to protect the Antarctic environment from human induced disturbances. Historically these disturbances were of a scale that they could be managed via regulations over fixed spatial areas. Present methods for delineating boundaries for ecosystem protection, under the ATS do not account for the natural migration and variation of ecosystems. Areas where changes occur rapidly, such as ice shelves, clearly illustrate the limitations of the fixed aerial projection approach. Ecosystem management in Antarctica cannot be undertaken as a uniform approach. It needs to be informed by the spatial and temporal scales, and physical attributes of the ecosystems concerned. Strategies should be derived from both the natural and cultural context of Antarctica. We propose that ecosystem management principles could be derived from any number of cartographic principles including longitude, latitude, network and elevational projections. In addition, acceptance and recognition of dynamic natural edges is also key to effective management. Managing human activity as part of the ecosystem is not separate to strategies such as the temporal sequencing of visitation, minimising introduction of competitor species, localised physical interventions and cultural engagement will all be important. Integrating management across marine and terrestrial environments is also at the core of the issue. The division between the administration of management in marine and terrestrial ecosystems, whilst logistically easier to apply, does not assist in the development of an integrated and creative approach to ecosystem management. Currently the issue of consensus decision-making that underpins the ATS limits the potential for future innovations in this area. Should climate continue to change as predicted, the present system will need to be modified for the purpose of protected areas to be realised. This report provides a stepping of point for that creative process when the environmental and political incentives to change become unavoidable.

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  • Tourism in Antarctica: a numbers game

    Christensen, Aurora; Faber, Daniel; Herbert, Jessie; Jones, Tim (2011)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Call after call has been made over many years for more international regulation - in many different flavours - to limit the number of Antarctic tourists. The authors remain unconvinced by this approach. This report describes the weaknesses of the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) and the challenges it will face as the number of tourists visiting Antarctica increases. It is shown that regulation of tourism operators under the ATS, as proposed in literature, is legally ambiguous and is unlikely to be enacted and/or enforced. The most likely evolution of regulation in this area is no regulation at all. An alternative evolutionary model of regulation is examined, where the tourism industry itself develops policies and procedures which maintain an authentic Antarctic tourist experience, based on a healthy Antarctic environment, the two being interdependent. The authors have adopted the term “emergent regulation’’ to describe a situation where regulatory and enforcement systems arise spontaneously to meet operators’ needs (and thus their customers’ demands) and to preserve their long term economic interests.

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  • Valuing Antarctica: the imposition of human values on Antarctica

    Evans, Julian; McFadyen, Emma; Moffat-Wood, Alex; Wilson, Daniel (2011)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study investigated individuals‟ personal experience of Antarctica - physical and/or intellectual – in relation to the wider human engagement with the continent. Schwartz‟s (1994) definition of values was used to identify values apparent in personal experiences of Antarctica (through analysis of the authors‟ own values), and in the wider human engagement with Antarctica (through analysis of the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) Final Reports from 2001, 2005 and 2010, and the activities conducted in Antarctica). The values of access, cooperation, environmental conservation, exceptionalism, peace and wealth were represented consistently between the authors‟ personal values and in the values of the wider human engagement with Antarctica, whereas historical conservation, globalism, power, science, wilderness/aesthetic value differed. These values and their and their inter-relations provide a useful lens for understanding issues in Antarctica. Recommendations are made for future research to continue the investigation and categorisation of values related to Antarctica, to explore quantitative, statistical analysis of ATCM reports and to investigate the deconstruction of the values identified –particularly science.

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  • Lt "Teddy" Evans and Hilda Russell 1902-1913 - biographical research

    Evans, Julian (2011)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The research for this project was conducted Online and at the Canterbury Museum in Christchurch. Online resources included extensive searches of newspaper in paperspast including The Lyttleton Times, The Christchurch Times, and The Star. References to Hilda's father Mr. T. G. Russell, his family, and children provided fascinating background and established a vivd context. These articles also revealed information about her school and wedding. The school archives were subsequently consulted and provided more useful information. Baden Norris furnished me with a copy of various essential documents including the Marriage Certificate and Board of Trade documents for the crews of Morning and Terra Nova. The Macdonald Dictionary of Canterbury Biographies, the electoral roll, and the Cemetery Database provided details of the Russell family. Pounds biography of Admiral Lord Mountevans and Evans own autobiography completed the picture. As a 21 year old Lt Evans joined the relief ship Morning as second officer. The ship took essential supplies to the British National Antarctic Expedition, joining Discovery in Antarctica. While in New Zealand Evans married Hilda Russell of Christchurch. Her father T. G. Russell had emigrated to Tasmania with his family when he was a child. He and his brother moved to Christchurch in the 1870s. T. G. Russell enjoyed a career as a highly successful barrister and business man. His brother became a journalist and politician, serving in the cabinet in the First World War

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  • A critical evaluation of NZ's Antarctic art programmes, 1957-2011

    Jones, Tim (2011)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The author considers the programmes that have enabled artists to travel to Antarctica as part of the New Zealand Antarctic programme between 1957 and 2011. Details of artists and their visits are given, followed by a descriptive history of the artist programme itself, outlining its origins, development and current status. Finally the artists’ opinions and expectations of their visit are described and the art that has been produced is considered. The programme is currently held to be in good shape, with Antarctica New Zealand satisfied with its outcomes and artists keen to participate.

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  • Weddell Seal Pup Production in relation to harvesting pressure and the B-15 iceberg

    Briars, Lacey (2011)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Ross Sea, one of two large embayments on the Antarctic continent, provides scientific opportunity to study marine ecosystem processes. The Weddell Seal Leptonychotes weddelli resides in the Ross Sea, with breeding colonies in Erebus Bay, McMurdo Sound. The Weddell Seal‟s life-history is well documented in the literature; females congregate in „pupping colonies‟ along cracks in the sea ice and give birth to their pups in October. Since the austral summer of 1968/69 every pup born into the Erebus Bay population has been tagged and the tag number, sex, year of tagging, location, and age at tagging recorded, creating a database containing datum for over 20,000 individual seals. Weddell Seals produce one pup per year. The age at which first reproduction occurs is an important life-history decision, mediated by several trade-offs. Age at first reproduction also has potential impacts for fitness and reproductive output/pup production – a fact also well documented in the literature. The Ross Sea has a history of exploitation; when permanent research stations were established in McMurdo Sound, adult Weddell Seals in Erebus Bay were harvested to feed resident dog teams. Additionally, in the year 2000 a large tabular (~10,000km2 ) iceberg named B-15, calved off the Ross Sea Ice Shelf, blocking the usual advection of sea ice from McMurdo Sound until the winter of 2006. Several earlier studies have documented the large scale effects that both harvesting and iceberg calving had on the size of the Erebus Bay population of Weddell Seals, and the effects on age at first reproduction, however, no studies have focused on pup production. This study investigated pup production in the Erebus Bay population of Weddell Seals to determine if harvesting pressure and iceberg calving affected the number of pups produced in Erebus Bay from 1969 to 2009. The results of the current study illustrate that both harvesting pressure and environmental disturbances (iceberg calving) affected pup production in Erebus Bay. Pup production reached very low levels in the years that harvesting occurred but increased following the cessation of harvesting in 1985. A similar trend was witnessed from 2000 to 2006 when the B-15 iceberg was blocking McMurdo Sound. Pup production decreased between 2000 and 2006 inclusive, but rapidly increased once the effects of B-15 were removed. While harvesting of Weddell Seals no longer occurs in the Ross Sea, iceberg calving still does. If this was to continue in the future, it is likely that Weddell Seal pup production in Erebus Bay will be somewhat negatively impacted. Other Antarctic seal species such as the Crabeater seal may be negatively affected also

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  • Can the Antarctic Treaty create erga omnes oglibations enforceable under international law applicable to third party states?

    Christensen, Aurora (2011)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The ability to enforce treaty obligations on third party States has always been a complex and difficult task legally. The Antarctic Treaty is no different and comes with further complications as there is no sovereign body, with overall control of the region, to champion the process. Further, it is recognised widely that Antarctica plays a fundamental role in the environmental health of the globe, and plays a vital role as a laboratory where scientific research is carried out to address issues that impact the whole world. The following are two of those issues: illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing in the southern oceans and the growing hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica. In the instances above, and others, the issue of enforceability on third party states becomes so much more relevant. This essay will explore the Antarctic Treaty and only two of many doctrines of international law, with regard to the Antarctic treaty and explore their ability to enforce erga omnes obligations.

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