5,300 results for 2014

  • On the use of continuous relative phase: Review of current approaches and outline for a new standard

    Lamb, Peter; Stöckl, Michael (2014-05)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    In this paper we review applications of continuous relative phase and commonly reported methods for calculating the phase angle. Signals with known properties as well as empirical data were used to compare methods for calculating the phase angle. Our results suggest that the most valid, robust and intuitive results are obtained from the following steps: 1) centering the amplitude of the original signals around zero, 2) creating analytic signals from the original signals using the Hilbert transform, 3) calculating the phase angle using the analytic signal and 4) calculating the continuous relative phase. The resulting continuous relative phase values are free of frequency artifacts, a problem associated with most normalization techniques, and the interpretation remains intuitive. We propose these methods for future research using continuous relative phase in studies and analyses of human movement coordination.

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  • Effects of suspended sediment on freshwater fish

    Cavanagh JE; Harding JS (2014)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report integrates new information on the effects of suspended sediment on fish with existing literature information to further develop guidance for determining acceptable suspended sediment concentrations in freshwater systems on the West Coast. The project was carried out for the West Coast Regional Council under Envirolink Grant 1445-WCRC129.

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  • Collecting with Digital Collections: Digital Humanities, Universities and Archives in Australasia

    Millar P (2014)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Report of the Committee Established to Review the Faculty of Arts at the University of Samoa, 2014

    Millar P; Hume E; Tuimalealiifano M; Lowry J; Grey S (2014)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Dwelling within political violence: Palestinian women's narratives of home, mental health, and resilience.

    Sousa, CA; Kemp, Susan; El-Zuhairi, M (2014-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Political violence is increasingly played out within everyday civilian environments, particularly family homes. Yet, within the literature on political violence and mental health, the role of threats to home remains under-explored. Using focus group data from 32 Palestinian women, this paper explores the implications of violations to the home within political violence. Threats to the privacy, control, and constancy of the family home ??? key dimensions of ontological security (Giddens, 1990) emerged as central themes in women???s narratives. Surveillance, home invasions, and actual or threatened destruction of women???s home environments provoked fear, anxiety, grief, humiliation, and helplessness, particularly as women struggled to protect their children. Women also described how they mobilized the home for economic, familial and cultural survival. Study findings illuminate the impact of threats to intimate environments on the well-being of women and their families living with chronic political violence, and underscore the importance of attention to violations of place and home in research on civilian experiences of and responses to political violence.

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  • Strengths-based practice and parental engagement in child welfare services: An empirical examination

    Kemp, Susan; Marcenko, MO; Lyons, SJ; Kruzich, JM (2014-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Child welfare policy and practice increasingly emphasize the use of strength-based practice in concert with efforts to reduce identified risks to child safety. Compared with strategies for assessing risk, however, strength-based child welfare interventions lack a robust empirical foundation. Using data from a linked sample of primary caregivers (n = 679) and child welfare caseworkers (n = 327), the present study used path analysis to examine the relationship between parent report of workers' use of strength-based practice and parent investment in child welfare services. The study also examined the role of worker characteristics, organizational factors, child placement status, and parent risk factors. As hypothesized, parents' perceptions regarding their workers' use of strength-based practices robustly predicted their buy-in to services. Furthermore, those parents with a child in out-of-home placement, compared to those receiving in-home services, were less likely to perceive their worker as strength-based or to engage in services. The only significant organizational variable was workers' positive challenge, directly influencing strength-based practices and indirectly affecting parent engagement. Further, parents who reported using substances and those experiencing more economic hardship were more likely to buy-in to services. The findings provide empirical support for the link between parents' willingness to engage in services and the use of strength-based interventions, and contribute to current discussions regarding the appropriate balance between reducing risks to child safety and strengthening family capacities.

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  • Review of the book: Weavers of Dreams, Unite! Actors' Unionism in Early Twentieth-Century America, by Sean P. Holmes

    Taillon, Paul (2014-06-01)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Grand accomplishments in social work

    Sherraden, M; Stuart, P; Angell, B; Barth, RP; Mahoney, K; Kemp, Susan; Brekke, J; Lubben, J; Padilla, Y; Hawkins, JD; DiNitto, D; Coulton, C; Padgett, D; McRoy, R; Schroepfer, T; Walters, K; Catalano, R; Healy, L (2014-02)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Semantic Signatures for Places of Interest

    Janowicz K; Adams BT (2014)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Geographic Information Observatories for Supporting Science

    Adams BT; Gahegan M; Gupta P; Hosking R (2014)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this paper we explore two questions that we feel are im- portant to investigate further if geographic information observatories are to be fruitful research endeavor in GIScience. The rst question is sim- ply `what is a geographic information observatory (and what is it not)?' and the second question is `what use is a geographic information obser- vatory?'. The construction of large-scale geographic information obser- vatories has the potential to be an exciting development, but it remains unclear what forms they might take. Furthermore, the reasons articulated so far for building these observatories remain largely in the domain of information science and have not been motivated in context to broader scienti c problems, such as global climate change. We investigate how geographic information observatories can support science in other elds, focusing on the example of socio-ecological system research. We argue that it is in the application of geographic information observatories to- ward solving big problems that they can garner community buy-in and demonstrate real impact.

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  • Young people, technology and the future of te Reo Māori

    Keegan, Te Taka Adrian Gregory; Cunliffe, Daniel (2014)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    After decades of neglect and, in some instances, suppression, te reo Māori has achieved a degree of recognition and support from the Government and people. Language strategies have been written, schooling is available in both languages, and since 1987 the language has had official status. However, despite demonstrable progress in some areas, it remains a small-minority language. Within New Zealand there are 157,000 speakers of te reo Māori, about 4.1 percent of the population (Statistics New Zealand: Te Tari Tatau, 2007), and the language is classified as 'vulnerable' by UNESCO (Mosley, 2010). The language continues to face considerable pressure from English, not just because English is a majority national language but because it is an increasingly global language, with a significant presence in culture, science, media and technology. This chapter considers the relationships between young people, technology and te reo Māori. It argues that technology is an important domain of use for te reo Māori, particularly the continued use of the language by young people.

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  • Researching perceptions of childhood sexuality: Using vignettes in interviews with teachers, counsellors, parents and young children

    Flanagan, Paul (2014)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Adults interpret children’s actions from their own positionings within culture and gender discourses. Children’s ‘sexual’ actions or ‘sexualised behaviour’ is responded to from ideas of innocence and indifference to moral panics and protective interventions. Adults express discomfort and uncertainty about how to understand and respond to young children acting this way. Researching sexuality traverses social and cultural environments in which people live. Frayser (2003) refers to ‘shifting cultural maps’ as constructions of sexuality move from reproductive to relational and recreational understandings. “An expanded view of sexuality has meant an expanded interpretation of what is sexual; Words, looks, touches, pictures, and movements can all be construed in sexual ways” (Frayser, 2003, p. 267). Mitchell (2005), researching children’s sexuality in the Australian context, noted limitations in the literature, including the conceptualisation of sexuality; the difficulty of defining ‘normal’ sexual development when children’s sexuality is not considered in a wider, social and cultural context; and the dearth of research about children’s understandings of sexuality. This paper describes a New Zealand doctoral study exploring discourses shaping constructions of sexuality in childhood. In particular, the paper focuses on the methodological approach of using vignettes. Primary school teachers, parents, counsellors and children responded to a series of vignettes within focus groups and semi-structured interviews. The use of vignettes produced a context of safe participation for participants. This method supported participants’ confidence and trust with both the research process and their relationship with the researcher. As understandings were shared, enquiry brought forward further ideas and experiences from participants. Many readily disclosed more personal information, telling stories of child sexual activity: about themselves; their own children; family members; or stories of other children known to them. A social constructionist framework underpins this research: children’s experiences are multi-storied and multiple meanings are available in understandings of sexuality. Foucault’s concepts of the genealogical method are used in the analysis of the literature, policies and practices on childhood sexuality, together with discursive positioning from the participants’ narratives. Vignettes gave a safe entry into discussions about childhood sexuality, beginning with less problematic stories and then further examples of developing complexity. They provided stories to be viewed at a distance, then allowing for closer and more personal sharing of experiences. Awareness and understanding multiple social and cultural discourses shaping constructions of childhood sexuality is useful for teachers, parents and counsellors.

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  • Above the treeline: a nature guide to alpine New Zealand [Book review]

    Gemmill, Chrissen E.C. (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book "Above the treeline: a nature guide to alpine New Zealand", by Sir Alan F. Mark (with contributors).

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  • Partial protective effect of intranasal immunization with recombinant Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein 17 against toxoplasmosis in mice

    Wang, H-L; Zhang, T-E; Yin, L-T; Pang, M; Guan, L; Liu, H-L; Zhang, J-H; Meng, X-L; Bai, Jizhong; Zheng, G-P; Yin, G-R (2014-09-25)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a variety of mammals, including humans. An effective vaccine for this parasite is therefore needed. In this study, RH strain T. gondii rhoptry protein 17 was expressed in bacteria as a fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the recombinant proteins (rTgROP17) were purified via GST-affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice were nasally immunised with rTgROP17, and induction of immune responses and protection against chronic and lethal T. gondii infections were investigated. The results revealed that mice immunised with rTgROP17 produced high levels of specific anti-rTgROP17 IgGs and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response of IgG2a predominance. The systemic immune response was associated with increased production of Th1 (IFN-??and IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines, and enhanced lymphoproliferation (stimulation index, SI) in the mice immunised with rTgROP17. Strong mucosal immune responses with increased secretion of TgROP17-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes were also observed in these mice. The vaccinated mice displayed apparent protection against chronic RH strain infection as evidenced by their lower liver and brain parasite burdens (59.17% and 49.08%, respectively) than those of the controls. The vaccinated mice also exhibited significant protection against lethal infection of the virulent RH strain (survival increased by 50%) compared to the controls. Our data demonstrate that rTgROP17 can trigger strong systemic and mucosal immune responses against T. gondii and that ROP17 is a promising candidate vaccine for toxoplasmosis.

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  • Secondary school technology education in New Zealand: Does it do what it says on the box?

    Reinsfield, Elizabeth (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Technology education, as mandated in the New Zealand Curriculum (Ministry of Education, 2007) provides an opportunity for schools and teachers to offer contextually relevant and innovative curriculum responses. Recent governmental initiatives appear to offer additional transitional pathways for ‘at risk’ students but signpost new challenges for technology teachers who are already experiencing tensions between political agenda, school compliance and community expectations. The research upon which this article is based highlights that even when technology teachers feel motivated and empowered to enact curriculum change in their schools, local constraints require ongoing, negotiated responses to ensure that all of their students’ diverse learning needs are being addressed. This article asserts that the continued political shift towards vocational education through initiatives such as the introduction of the Youth Guarantee Scheme, have the potential to further undermine the position of technology teachers and technology education within the New Zealand secondary schooling system.

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  • Frequency Response of an Agricultural Fence and the Implications for Data Transmission

    McMullan, Jonathon (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The electric fence has been used as a data transmission medium in Gallagher Products for a number of years. This has allowed the energizer to be remotely controlled and, with the current generation, to monitor the performance of the fence remotely. Very little investigation has been conducted into determining the optimum frequency bands to transmit in to give optimum performance. We propose that the fence spectrum be split into three frequency bands. A Fence Pulse Guard Band which extends from DC to 10 kHz, a Low Frequency Channel which extends from 10 kHz to 250 kHz, and a High Frequency Channel which extends from 250 kHz to 10 MHz. The fence frequency response is dependent on the length of the fence and is dominated by transmission line effects and radiative losses. For the test fence, the spectrum up to 250 kHz is flat without any frequency selective fading. Above 250 kHz, the spectrum is very unstable and the frequency selective fading can exceed 15 dB. Operating in this region requires an advanced system to utilise the available bandwidth. The impedance of the human operator in the system is best characterised as a fractional capacitor in series with a resistor. Higher frequencies are attenuated less up to 10 MHz after which the impedance is dominated by the resistance. The impedance of an insulating joint is best characterised as a capacitor in series with a resistor. Higher frequencies are attenuated less and are the preferred method for reducing the effect of insulating joints. The Low Frequency Channel is suitable for less robust systems which cannot tolerate frequency selective attenuation. The High Frequency Channel is suitable for robust systems which prioritise performance. We present a number of possible solutions for improving the efficiency of the modulation and error correction strategies. Solution 3 utilising Phase Shift Keying (PSK) with eight symbols and Trellis Code Modulation (TCM) is recommended as the first solution to be implemented and evaluated. A forward error correction strategy as outlined in Solution 1 is also recommended for implementation first. This research suggests that the electric fence system could be significantly improved in performance and reliability using the methods mentioned above but at some cost.

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  • The Great Recession and the New Frontiers of International Investment Law: The Economics of Early Warning Models and the Law of Necessity

    Alvarez-Jimenez, Alberto (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The Great Recession has prompted unparalleled economic research on the causes and handling of crises. It is then important for international investment law to catch up with the new conceptual developments. This article is an attempt in this direction. Its first part presents a description of one of the main tools to avoid economic collapses— early warning models (EWMs)—which have received increasing attention by the European Central Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the Fed. This part also presents the debate among economists about the meaningfulness of EWMs. The second part shows how international investment law should respond to this debate and proceed with an assessment of the role that EWMs may have in the interpretation of emergency clauses in BITs and the customary rule of necessity. In particular, this part deals with the question of what happens in international legal terms when a State, which relies on EWMs to adopt measures aimed at preventing a crisis, adversely affects foreign investors. The section also discusses the level of deference that investor/State tribunals may accord to States relying on EWMs when taking economic preventive action and illustrates how international arbitration tribunals should deal with debates on the quality of the given EWMs.

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  • Climate change and health: on the latest IPCC report

    Woodward, Alistair; Smith, KR; Campbell-Lendrum, D; Chadee, DD; Honda, Y; Liu, Q; Olwoch, J; Revich, B; Sauerborn, R; Chafe, Z; Confalonieri, U; Haines, A (2014-04-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • An Investigation of the Dynamic Response of Airway Smooth Muscle in Sensitized Animal Models

    Jo-Avila, Miguel (2014-04-24)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease, characterized by inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and obstruction of the airways. During an asthma attack, the contraction of airway smooth muscle (ASM) in combination with increased mucus production reduces the bronchial diameter, increasing the resistance to airflow into the lungs. New Zealand has one of the highest prevalence rates for asthma in the world, with a total estimated cost around NZ$ 825 million per year. The intrinsic causes of asthma are currently not well understood. Several treatments have been developed, but none of them present a cure for this chronic disease. Most of these treatments pharmacological with side effects sometimes fatal and affecting many patients. Some patients show no response to existing treatments. ASM contraction is believed to be the main driving mechanism in asthma attacks. The response of ASM in healthy and asthmatic airways seems to be influenced by breathing patterns such as tidal breathing and deep inspiration, with strong differences between healthy and asthmatic airways. Therefore understanding airway mechanics and the dynamic response of ASM in vivo seems to be an essential component in the search for a new alternative in the treatment of asthma. The proposed research investigates the response of ASM in sensitized models in the presence of imposed oscillations in vivo and in vitro. The results from this study in combination with the previous work done in this area will help to increase the understanding of how length oscillations affect the response of ASM in healthy and asthmatic subjects.

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  • Life Imitating Art: Asian Romance Movies As a Social Mirror

    Rahman, K (2014-02-19)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    As a genre of mass media, the romance movie has the potential to influence and shape audience’s views on socio-cultural issues of the time (Rahman, 2013). Asian romance movies often depict behaviours that challenge their moral code such as obeying authority, adherence to cultural norms and putting society before self. For dramatic effect, such movies would often showcase scandalous themes and socially objectionable behaviours which are eventually resolved, indicating a return to socially accepted codes of conduct. There is a clear appreciation of values considered ideal in romantic partnerships including honesty and fidelity. Interestingly, such movies appear to capture the Asian diaspora, challenging social norms and negotiating its values, behaviours and beliefs against foreign elements. This article explores the scandals and consequences portrayed in some of these Asian movies, evaluating the effect that this might have on its actors and a receptive audience. Elements of scandal in the personal lives of some of the actors make a case for life and art imitating the other in a cycle of challenge, compromise and conformity.

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