5,198 results for 2014

  • Who wants to be a surgeon? Patterns of medical student career choice

    Shirley, Otis; Addison, B; Poole, Phillippa (2014-11-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    AIM: NZ needs a surgical workforce with the capacity to meet the increasing health demands of an aging population. This study determined longitudinal patterns of medical student interest in a surgical career and factors influencing that choice. METHOD: We studied medical students entering the Auckland medical programme from 2006-2008 who completed an entry and exit questionnaire on career intentions. Four notional groups were created, depending on the level of interest at entry and at exit. Demographic factors for each category were compared. Analysis of influencing factors was also undertaken. RESULTS: Of 488 students, 310 (64%) completed both an entry and exit questionnaire. Over 50% of students had a strong interest in a surgical career at entry, dropping to 26% at exit. The 'Never Evers' (No interest at entry /No interest at exit) made up 39%,'Divergers' (Strong/No) 35%, 'Die Hards' (Strong/Strong) 18%, and 'Convertibles' (No/Strong) 8%. Less interest in a surgical career was seen among female (P=0.001) and older students (P=0.017). Influencing factors differentiating the 'Die Hards' from the 'Divergers' were work hours and flexibility (less influence among 'Die Hards'), with procedural nature and consultants/mentors (higher). CONCLUSION: There is a significant reduction in interest in a surgical career over the course of the undergraduate programme, especially among female and older students. Yet the level appears sufficient for available training places. Consultant role models are an important career influence. Lack of flexibility in work and training programmes continue to provide challenges in creating a diverse surgical workforce.

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  • Critical issues facing New Zealand entomology

    Lester, PJ; Brown, SDJ; Edwards, ED; Holwell, Gregory; Pawson, SM; Ward, Darren; Watts, CH (2014-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Here, we identify current high-priority issues in New Zealand entomology. These 'critical issues' were defined by being of national entomological interest, and in urgent need of research or attention. The issues were derived in consultation with the Entomological Society of New Zealand members and as part of a workshop at the 62nd New Zealand Entomological Society Conference. We present a list of nine priority areas (presented here without any ranking priority). These areas are: 1. conserving indigenous invertebrate diversity; 2. limiting predator pressure exerted by exotic vertebrate predators; 3. limiting the effects of invasive invertebrates, especially Vespula wasps in honeydew beech forests; understanding the influence of pesticides and pathogens on honey bees; 4. maintaining and enhancing efficient biosecurity systems to keep out invasive pests and diseases; 5. enhancing support for taxonomy; 6. enhancing entomological teaching, training and support for entomology graduates; 7. utilising the hidden knowledge of retired entomologists; and 8. supporting amateurs in entomology. For each of these topics we briefly discuss the state of the current situation or knowledge gaps. We consider this a road map to enhance entomology in New Zealand. ?? 2014 The Entomological Society of New Zealand.

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  • Self-assembled insect muscle bioactuators with long term function under a range of environmental conditions

    Baryshyan, AL; Domigan, Laura; Hunt, B; Trimmer, BA; Kaplan, DL (2014-08-15)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The use of mammalian muscles as device actuators is severely limited by their sensitivity to environmental conditions and short lifetime. To overcome these limitations insect muscle stem cells were used to generate organized 3D muscle constructs with significant enhancements in environmental tolerance and long term function. These tissues self-assembled, self-repaired, survived for months in culture without media replenishment and produced stresses of up to 2 kPa, all under ambient conditions. The muscle tissues continued to function for days even under biologically extreme temperature and pH. Furthermore, the dimensions and geometry of these tissues can be easily scaled to MEMS or meso-scale devices. The versatility, environmental hardiness and long term function provide a new path forward for biological actuators for device needs.

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  • An RCT of Triple P Online for parents of hyperactive/ inattentive pre-schoolers

    Franke, Nike; Keown, Louise; Sanders, M (2014-02-20)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Evaluation of an online parenting program: For parents of hyperactive/ inattentive preschool children

    Keown, Louise; Franke, Nike; Sanders, MR (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Patterns of beetle diversity in kauri forest

    Ward, Darren; Young, M; Booth, Kelly; Beggs, Jacqueline (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Kauri forest represents a major ecosystem in northern New Zealand; however, the invertebrate fauna and their ecological diversity in these forests is very poorly known. This article investigates the composition and diversity of beetle communities in two kauri forest remnants, sampled by pitfall traps each month for one year. In total 4777 beetles were caught, representing 28 families, 84 genera and 107 species. Estimates of species richness indicate there were 173 species at both sites combined. The five most abundant species contributed 71%, and the top 10 species contributed 88% of all beetles caught. The abundance, richness and composition of the beetle community were consistent throughout the year. Patterns of niche overlap also show that the same set of species co-occur throughout the year, rather than temporal partitioning of the environment on an annual time scale. This data suggests that seasonality plays a limited role in explaining the composition and diversity of beetle communities in kauri forest.

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  • A conjecture of De Koninck regarding particular square values of the sum of divisors function

    Broughan, Kevin A.; Delbourgo, Daniel; Zhou, Qizhi (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    We study integers n > 1 satisfying the relation σ(n) = γ(n)², where σ(n) and γ(n) are the sum of divisors and the product of distinct primes dividing n, respectively. If the prime dividing a solution n is congruent to 3 modulo 8 then it must be greater than 41, and every solution is divisible by at least the fourth power of an odd prime. Moreover at least 2/5 of the exponents a of the primes dividing any solution have the property that a + 1 is a prime power. Lastly we prove that the number of solutions up to x > 1 is at most x¹/⁶⁺є, for any є > 0 and all x > xє.

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  • Indigenous children from three countries with non-cystic fibrosis chronic suppurative lung disease/bronchiectasis

    Singleton, RJ; Valery, PC; Morris, P; Byrnes, Catherine; Grimwood, K; Redding, G; Torzillo, PJ; McCallum, G; Chikoyak, L; Mobberly, C; Holman, RC; Chang, AB (2014-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objective Indigenous children in developed countries are at increased risk of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD), including bronchiectasis. We evaluated sociodemographic and medical factors in indigenous children with CSLD/bronchiectasis from Australia, United States (US), and New Zealand (NZ). Methods Indigenous children aged 0.5-8 years with CSLD/bronchiectasis were enrolled from specialist clinics in Australia (n = 97), Alaska (n = 41), and NZ (n = 42) during 2004-2009, and followed for 1-5 years. Research staff administered standardized parent interviews, reviewed medical histories and performed physical examinations at enrollment. Results Study children in all three countries had poor housing and sociodemographic circumstances at enrollment. Except for increased household crowding, most poverty indices in study participants were similar to those reported for their respective local indigenous populations. However, compared to their local indigenous populations, study children were more often born prematurely and had both an increased frequency and earlier onset of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs). Most (95%) study participants had prior ALRI hospitalizations and 77% reported a chronic cough in the past year. Significant differences (wheeze, ear disease and plumbed water) between countries were present. Discussion Indigenous children with CSLD/bronchiectasis from three developed countries experience significant disparities in poverty indices in common with their respective indigenous population; however, household crowding, prematurity and early ALRIs were more common in study children than their local indigenous population. Addressing equity, especially by preventing prematurity and ALRIs, should reduce risk of CSLD/bronchiectasis in indigenous children.

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  • "All Men Are Entitled to Justice By the Government": Black Workers, Citizenship, Letter Writing, and the World War I State

    Taillon, Paul (2014-09-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article examines the letter writing of black railroad workers to the United States Railroad Administration during World War I. Engaging with scholarship on the African American experience during the war years, the article considers the ways in which ordinary African Americans acted on the opportunities presented by the mobilization for challenging Jim Crow and seeking racial justice. The article disagrees with interpretations that see the war period as one of promise but ultimately failure and disappointment for advocates of racial justice. Rather, attention to the epistolary undertakings of black railroaders reveals how letter writing itself figured as a form of political action through which black workers sought to bend the state to their purposes. The content of black railwaymen???s letters demonstrates the importance of citizenship and the centrality of economic justice to civil rights activism. Moreover, these letters illustrate how letter writing could be empowering. Not only did black workers demand fair treatment at work but in the course of writing many of them also fashioned themselves as fully endowed citizens. In Jim Crow America, in a society and culture that publicly denied African Americans agency as well as basic rights and liberties, the capacity of letter writing to facilitate ???self-narration??? against dominant exclusionary definitions of citizenship helped African Americans, in the words of historian Chad Williams, ???resist white supremacy, affirm their citizenship, and assert their humanity.???

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  • Overview and key to the New Zealand Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera).

    Ward, Darren (2014-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An overview of Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera) in New Zealand is presented with information on families, genera, and when available, species. Notes on their distribution, biology, and a taxonomic key are provided. The New Zealand cynipoid fauna is very poorly known, with only 11 described species, and five genus-only taxa. The fauna is dominated by introduced species; two species have been deliberately introduced as biological control agents, and at least 12 taxa are definitely or probably adventives. Many of these species are widespread and collected from modified and non-native habitats. New generic records of Figitidae for New Zealand include: Xyalaspis (Anacharitinae), Ganaspis, (Eucoilinae), and Thoreauella (Emargininae), all of which are considered adventives. There are no native species of gall forming wasps (Cynipidae) in New Zealand, and only two native species of Figitidae are present: Anacharis zealandica Ashmead, 1900 and Kleidotoma subantarcticana Yoshimoto, 1964.

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  • Modelling the impacts of an invasive species across landscapes: A step-wise approach

    Ward, Darren; Morgan, F (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We estimate the extent of ecological impacts of the invasive Asian paper wasp across different landscapes in New Zealand. We used: (i) a baseline distribution layer (modelled via MaxEnt); (ii) Asian paper wasp nest density (from >460 field plots, related to their preferences for specific land cover categories); and (iii) and their foraging intensity (rates of foraging success, and the time available to forage on a seasonal basis). Using geographic information systems this information is combined and modelled across different landscapes in New Zealand in a step-wise selection process. The highest densities of Asian paper wasps were in herbaceous saline vegetation, followed closely by built-up areas, and then scrub and shrubland. Nest densities of 34 per ha, and occupancy rates of 0.27 were recorded for herbaceous saline vegetation habitats. However, the extent of impacts of the Asian paper wasp remains relatively restricted because of narrow climate tolerances and spatial restriction of preferred habitats. A step-wise process based on geographic information systems and species distribution models, in combination with factors such as distribution, density, and predation, create a useful tool that allows the extent of impacts of invasive species to be assessed across large spatial scales. These models will be useful for conservation managers as they provide easy visual interpretation of results, and can help prioritise where direct conservation action or control of the invader are required.

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  • Versatile multi-functionalization of protein nanofibrils for biosensor applications

    Sasso, L; Suei, S; Domigan, Laura; Healy, J; Nock, V; Williams, MAK; Gerrard, Juliet (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Protein nanofibrils offer advantages over other nanostructures due to the ease in their self-assembly and the versatility of surface chemistry available. Yet, an efficient and general methodology for their post-assembly functionalization remains a significant challenge. We introduce a generic approach, based on biotinylation and thiolation, for the multi-functionalization of protein nanofibrils self-assembled from whey proteins. Biochemical characterization shows the effects of the functionalization onto the nanofibrils' surface, giving insights into the changes in surface chemistry of the nanostructures. We show how these methods can be used to decorate whey protein nanofibrils with several components such as fluorescent quantum dots, enzymes, and metal nanoparticles. A multi-functionalization approach is used, as a proof of principle, for the development of a glucose biosensor platform, where the protein nanofibrils act as nanoscaffolds for glucose oxidase. Biotinylation is used for enzyme attachment and thiolation for nanoscaffold anchoring onto a gold electrode surface. Characterization via cyclic voltammetry shows an increase in glucose-oxidase mediated current response due to thiol-metal interactions with the gold electrode. The presented approach for protein nanofibril multi-functionalization is novel and has the potential of being applied to other protein nanostructures with similar surface chemistry.

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  • The insidious threat of invasive invertebrates

    Ward, Darren (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Exotic invertebrates make up a sizeable, and growing, proportion of invertebrates in both Australia and New Zealand. However, there is a general lack of awareness of the impacts (realised or potential) of invasive invertebrates, and very few species have a high public profile. Border interception records show the sheer number and diversity of invertebrates being transported around the globe by human trade. In-depth studies on empty sea containers, ants and forestry insects, confirm that trade pathways are regularly contaminated with timber, agricultural and nuisance arthropod pests. A principal feature of the biosecurity systems in Australia and New Zealand is their holistic nature of managing invasive species through assessing threats pre-border, having high levels of surveillance at the border, and their rapid response to any incursions of new species. However, despite these systems many new species establish each year. Several issues are discussed that will be important over the next few decades: (i) the need for evidence of ecological impacts; (ii) climate change and trade liberalisation (which will affect which species will become invasive in the future); and (iii) improved technology and capability (needed to show there is the ability to manage invasive invertebrates).

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  • Augmented retail reality: Situated cognition for healthy food choices

    Chyinski, M; De Ruyter, K; Sinha, A; Northey, Gavin (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The emerging Augmented Reality (AR) technology, defined as the virtual overlay of the physical world aided by the proliferation of portable computing devices (such as the smartphone), transforms consumer behaviour in traditional retail settings. With the right application, consumers gain the unique ability to virtually manipulate the choice set in physical retail environments. We look at the cognitive processing of Augmented Reality information in terms of situated cognition. We demonstrate that choice restriction via the AR significantly affects consumer decisions in the context of healthy food choices and the effect is strengthened through priming situated cognition. We discuss implications for consumers and retailers.

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  • Creamy red and crunchy blue? How colour interacts with perceptions of texture

    Northey, Gavin; Chylinski, M; Ngo, LV (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study explores the sensory-marketing effects of cross-modal interaction between vision and haptic perceptions of texture. Specifically, we show that moving up the colour spectrum from red to blue dampens the perception of particular types of food texture. Conceptually, we relate such cross-modal sensitivity with indicators of overall haptic predisposition for an individual in terms of Need for Touch (NFT) and Self-Orientation (SO). Our results show that the association between colour and texture interacts with the NFT and SO.

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  • The effect of collaborative learning on perceived engagement and academic outcomes

    Northey, Gavin; Bucic, T; Chylinski, M; Govind, R (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Educators are constantly searching for ways to engage students. Literature indicates engagement and knowledge co-creation are fundamental for deeper learning. However, the means to achieve this are less understood. In this paper, in-class participation rewards were used to stimulate out-of-class discussion and collaborative learning, the aim being to increase student engagement and positively influence academic outcomes (final grade). Using data from a longitudinal experiment, the findings show the use of inclass rewards motivates students to join an out-of-class (Facebook) group, but doesn???t influence their level of group activity. Interestingly, membership in the group didn???t result in increased perceived engagement, even though it has a positive effect on academic outcomes. The findings also show that group membership has a more positive effect on final grade for international students, despite them not being as active as domestic students during group discussions. Implications for marketing education and suggestions for future research are discussed.

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  • Heated humidification improves clinical outcomes, compared to a heat and moisture exchanger in children with tracheostomies

    McNamara, DG; Asher, Monica Innes; Rubin, BK; Stewart, Alistair; Byrnes, Catherine (2014-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: The upper airway humidifies and warms inspired gases before they reach the trachea, a process bypassed by the insertion of a tracheostomy, necessitating humidification of inspired gases. The optimal method of humidification is not known. METHODS: We conducted a short-term 20-hour study and a long-term 10-week randomized crossover study comparing a heated humidifier (HH) to a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) in children with established tracheostomies. Subjects were assessed for clinical events, clinical examination findings, airway cytokine levels, and airway secretion viscoelasticity. RESULTS: For the short-term study, 15 children were recruited; for the long-term study, 14 children were recruited. Children using the HH had decreased respiratory examination score (P < .001) but no change in clinical events over the short term. There was a decrease in acute clinical events (P = .008) in the long-term study. No differences were found in airway secretion viscoelasticity results or cytokine levels in either study, but these sample numbers were limited. CONCLUSIONS: Over 20 hours use, HH, compared to HME, improved work of breathing. Over a longer 10 week treatment period HH resulted in decreased adverse clinical events.

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  • Characterizing the ex vivo mechanical properties of synthetic polypropylene surgical mesh

    Li, Xinxin; Kruger, Jennifer; Jor, Jessica; Wong, Lai-Peng; Dietz, HP; Nash, Martyn; Nielsen, Poul (2014-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The use of synthetic polypropylene mesh for hernia surgical repair and the correction of female pelvic organ prolapse have been controversial due to increasing post-operative complications, including mesh erosion, chronic pain, infection, and support failure. These morbidities may be related to a mismatch of mechanical properties between soft tissues and the mesh. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the biomechanical behavior of Prolene polypropylene mesh (Ethicon, Sommerville, NJ, USA), which is widely used for a variety of surgical repair procedures. The stiffness and permanent deformation of Prolene mesh were compared in different directions by performing uniaxial tensile failure tests, cyclic and creep tests at simulated physiological loads in the coursewise (0??), walewise (90??) and the diagonal (45??) directions. Failure tests suggest that the mechanical properties of the mesh is anisotropic; with response at 0?? being the most compliant while 90?? was the stiffest. Irreversible deformation and viscoelastic behavior were observed in both cyclic and creep tests. The anisotropic property may be relevant to the placement of mesh in surgery to maximize long term mesh performance. The considerable permanent deformation may be associated with an increased risk of post-operative support failure.

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  • Exploring the Hierarchical Structure of Pacific Identity and Wellbeing

    Manuela, Sam; Sibley, Christopher (2014-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    To understand outcomes for Pacific peoples in New Zealand we need to further our psychological knowledge of the relationship between Pacific identity and wellbeing. We map the hierarchical organization of Pacific identity and wellbeing using a novel top-down factor analytic approach applied to the Pacific Identity and Wellbeing Scale (PIWBS; N = 586). Analyses indicated that Pacific identity experiences were organized within two broad dimensions reflecting Identity Engagement and Cultural Wellbeing. Critically, our analysis showed that Religious Centrality and Embeddedness emerged jointly from these dual broad domains. Religious identification provides a bridging link between identity and wellbeing for Pacific peoples. Identifying the relationships of Pacific identity and wellbeing factors, and how religious identification emerges jointly from these two broad domains, provides valuable information in how the Pacific self may be cognitively organized and may assist in future research directions in this area. We assert that this general statistical model provides broad conceptual insights into how Pacific peoples experience their identity and culture, and how this relates to various social indicators of health and wellbeing at a broad, theoretical level. In particular, we offer a conceptual analysis of possible insights from our hierarchical model of identity and wellbeing for understanding Pacific suicide in New Zealand.

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  • Effect of global cardiac ischemia on human ventricular fibrillation: Insights from a multi-scale mechanistic model of the human heart

    Kazbanov, IV; Clayton, RH; Nash, Martyn; Bradley, Christopher; Paterson, DJ; Hayward, MP; Taggart, P; Panfilov, AV (2014-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Acute regional ischemia in the heart can lead to cardiac arrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation (VF), which in turn compromise cardiac output and result in secondary global cardiac ischemia. The secondary ischemia may influence the underlying arrhythmia mechanism. A recent clinical study documents the effect of global cardiac ischaemia on the mechanisms of VF. During 150 seconds of global ischemia the dominant frequency of activation decreased, while after reperfusion it increased rapidly. At the same time the complexity of epicardial excitation, measured as the number of epicardical phase singularity points, remained approximately constant during ischemia. Here we perform numerical studies based on these clinical data and propose explanations for the observed dynamics of the period and complexity of activation patterns. In particular, we study the effects on ischemia in pseudo-1D and 2D cardiac tissue models as well as in an anatomically accurate model of human heart ventricles. We demonstrate that the fall of dominant frequency in VF during secondary ischemia can be explained by an increase in extracellular potassium, while the increase during reperfusion is consistent with washout of potassium and continued activation of the ATP-dependent potassium channels. We also suggest that memory effects are responsible for the observed complexity dynamics. In addition, we present unpublished clinical results of individual patient recordings and propose a way of estimating extracellular potassium and activation of ATP-dependent potassium channels from these measurements.

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