5,355 results for 2014

  • Electrical Bioimpedance Measurement as a Tool for Dysphagia Visualization

    Chester CJ; Gaynor PT; Jones RD; Huckabee ML (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    A non-invasive and portable bioimpedance method and a device for detecting superior to inferior closure of the pharynx during swallowing have been developed. The 2-channel device measures electric impedance across the neck at two levels of the pharynx via injected currents at 40 and 70 kHz. The device has been trialled on both healthy and dysphagic subjects. Results from these trials revealed a relationship (r = 0.59) between the temporal separation of the second peaks in the bioimpedance waveforms and descending pressure sequence in the pharynx as measured by pharyngeal manometry. However, these features were only clearly visible in the bioimpedance waveforms for 64% of swallows. Further research is underway to improve the bioimpedance measurement reliability and validate waveform feature correlation to swallowing to maximise the device's efficacy in dysphagia rehabilitation.

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  • KEYNOTE Connecting the Land of the Long White Cloud: The Unique Opportunities for Digital Humanities in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Millar P (2014)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • XP in a small software development business: Adapting to local constraints

    Babb, JS; Hoda, Rashina; N??rbjerg, J (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    While small software development shops have trended towards the adoption of Agile methods, local conditions and high iteration pressure typically cause adaptations and appropriations of Agile methods. This paper shares evidence from a study concerning how a small software development company adopts and adapts, XP to suit their business. Based on a Dialogical Action Research project, the study reflects on the conditions leading to Agile process adaptation, and why ad hoc and ???a la carte??? approaches may be problematic. Limitations and drawbacks to aspects of XP are also discussed. The Agile practices most sustainable for small shop teams, with process maintenance and viability as a goal, are highlighted.

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  • Cricket batting placement distribution analyzed by bowling line and length

    Genet R; Petersen C (2014)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Fielder positioning is a key task undertaken by cricket captains, and contributes greatly to a team’s success, as bowling maiden overs has been shown to be more important in the later stages of an international tournament (Petersen et al., 2008). We analysed the performance analysis data of hit ball distribution on the cricket playing field at the 2013 ICC Champions Trophy Tournament to determine the particular distribution resulting from specific bowling delivery classifications. Each bowling delivery was assigned one pitch position from a matrix of 18 possible width (line) and length combinations, based on the first bounce location. Hit deliveries were allocated into one of ten regions on the field, based on the directional angle the ball travelled after being hit. Each of these regions corresponds to a specific cricket fielding position. Furthermore, each delivery was further classified by several variables that influence its resultant position, including the handedness of both the bowler and batsmen, the bowlers type classification (fast, medium, off spin, leg spin), and the side of the wicket the bowler delivered from (over or around-the-wicket).

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  • Embedding reflection and learning into agile software development

    Babb, J; Hoda, Rashina; N??rbjerg, J (2014-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The theoretical underpinnings of agile principles emphasize regular reflection as a means to attain a sustainable development pace and continuous learning. In practice, high iteration pressure can diminish opportunities for ongoing learning and reflection threatening to deprive software teams of learning and reflection and possibly stagnating process evolution. The Reflective Agile Learning Model (REALM) combines insights and results from studies of agile development practices in India, New Zealand, and the US with Sch??n's theory of reflective practice. Using REALM, agile teams can establish self-organized learning as well as regular process maintenance and opportunities for process evolution to continuously improve practice.

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  • Invasive Rat Research and Management on Tropical Islands: A Case Study in the Iles Eparses

    Ringler, D; Le Corre, M; Russell, James (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Fill that blank! An iOS-based literacy application

    Gu, E; Tzou, M-H; Hoda, Rashina (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    There are many existing software applications that claim to teach English literacy. However, these applications often cater to preschoolers, only teach vocabulary or phonetics and mostly focus on fundamental reading skills, and not comprehension. This project aims to develop an application that teaches 7-10 years old children comprehension of the English language. Research was conducted into existing applications and pedagogy leading to the elicitation of requirements specification and design. Our iOS app is designed as a tailored cloze activity ("fill-in-the-blanks") in the context of a story. A usability study was conducted with 18 children in the target age group at two primary schools from different socio-economic areas. Overall response to the application was positive with high intuitiveness and engagement ratings. Future work includes refinements and can explore effectiveness of the app through a longer case study.

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  • Towards designing assistive software applications for discrete trial training

    Picardo, Valerie; Metson, S; Hoda, Rashina; Amor, Robert; Arnold-Saritepe, A; Brand, D (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Discrete Trial Training (DTT) is one of the most effective training methods for children diagnosed with Autism. Traditional DTT suffers from limitations of inconsistencies on account of human error, disruptions due to in-session data collection by trainers, and difficulties of producing physical within-stimulus prompts. Current software solutions either support sole child usage thereby eliminating the social interaction benefits of DTT or lack automated data collection. Designed by an inter-disciplinary team of software engineers, HCI, and psychology experts and certified behaviour analysts for a touch-tabletop, DTTAce is an assistivesoftware that provides digital consistency and integrity and supports customization of trials, automated data collection, and within-stimulus prompts while preserving natural interactions and the social nature of DTT. It is an important step towards designing effective assistive software for Discrete Trial Training.

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  • It???s not them, it???s us! Why computer science fails to impress many first years

    Hoda, Rashina; Andreae, P (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    High attrition and failure in first year computer science and software engineering courses has often been linked to the personal traits and skills of students -- dividing the world into those that "get it" and those "that don't". We present several concrete strategies based on the recently developed Learning Edge Momentum (LEM) theory, which when applied together, were found useful in reducing failure rates. Based on the our experiences, we challenge our current understanding of attrition and failure in first year courses and dare to claim that maybe it's not them, it's us that is the problem.

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  • Math Tutor: An interactive android-based numeracy application for primary education

    Masood, Zainab; Hoda, Rashina (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    With growing exposure of children to handheld and mobile devices, there is an increasing interest in exploring the use of mobile technology for educational purposes. In particular, touch-based devices seem to promise great potential in this domain. In this paper, we present Math Tutor -- an Android-based application designed to help children learn and practice early numeracy addition and subtraction (take away) as well as help teachers monitor and review children's progress, with support for English and M??ori languages. We describe the design and development process, features of the application, and the results of a usability evaluation. This project takes a step towards creating interactive platforms required for educating the upcoming generation of digital natives.

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  • Tephrochronology

    Lowe, DJ; Alloway, Brent (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Variable density concrete walls engineered for energy performance

    Bellamy LA (2014)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper investigates the energy performance of variable density concrete wall panels that combine the thermal insulation of a layer of lightweight concrete with the thermal mass of a layer of structural concrete. The effect of layer thickness and thermal conductivity on wall energy performance is assessed by determining the equivalent U-factors of different wall panel designs at eight temperate locations. The analysis indicates that variable density concrete panels can be engineered to achieve net-zero wall energy performance, although heat may have to be actively added to a panel in order to achieve this level of performance at cool locations. A simulation analysis of the energy performance of a house constructed with variable density wall panels is conducted using the ESP-r simulation program. This analysis indicates that variable density concrete wall panels are suitable for use in netzero energy houses, especially in warm temperate locations.

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  • Thermal environments and indoor air quality of P-12 educational facilities in Australia: A critical review of standards, regulations and policies

    Andamon M; Bellamy LA; Ridley I (2014)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper presents the key findings of a review commissioned by the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD) in Victoria, Australia, that explores thermal comfort, indoor air quality and ventilation requirements for Preparatory to Year 12 (P-12) educational facilities. The objectives of the review are to identify and compare national and international standards, regulations and policies associated with the provision of thermal environment and indoor air quality in these facilities, and to examine current knowledge on the relationship between indoor conditions and educational outcomes for the P-12 group. The review shows there is a knowledge gap concerning the benefits, costs and consequences of indoor environment quality improvements in schools, and a poor understanding of the relationship between the indoor environment and learning outcomes. This paper establishes the need for research that determines the current state of indoor environments in Australian educational facilities and the relationship with the learning outcomes of students.

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  • Peripheral mitochondrial function in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

    Chakraborty, Mandira (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is the predominant cause of death in intensive care units worldwide but treatment remains supportive. Although mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to occur in sepsis related MODS, mitochondrial function in MODS remains poorly understood. An important barrier has been the requirement for organ biopsies to measure mitochondrial function because performing organ biopsies in patients with MODS poses significant risk of fatal bleeding and infection. A peripheral marker of mitochondrial function was therefore required. The hypotheses were that mitochondrial function can be measured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, changes through the disease course and reflects disease severity in MODS. The aims were to develop an assay of mitochondrial function from peripheral blood and to apply it in patients in MODS through their disease course. Mitochondrial respiration assay was developed in the laboratory using peripheral blood from healthy volunteers and healthy male Wistar rats. The assay was used in experimental models of hypertension and mild acute pancreatitis and in a clinical trial of mild acute pancreatitis. Finally, peripheral blood mitochondrial function was measured daily during the first week, at three weeks and at six months in patients with MODS. Mitochondrial function from peripheral blood changed over the course of disease in MODS. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species increased early and was followed by a decrease in mitochondrial respiration in MODS. Temporal mitochondrial respiration negatively correlated with temporal organ failure scores and mitochondrial respiration did not discriminate between septic and non septic causes of MODS. Mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial superoxide correlated with each other throughout the first week. There were persistent features of mitochondrial dysfunction in septic MODS at six months. Multiple aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction occurred in patients with MODS and correlated with the severity of MODS. The results imply that shutting down mitochondrial respiration may be an adaptive response in MODS and manipulating mitochondrial respiration in MODS may be beneficial. The results from testing the assay in other disease states enabled a broader understanding of mitochondrial function in MODS. These findings have opened up several avenues for further clinical and laboratory research.

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  • Transport Capacity Improvement in and around Ports: A Perspective on the Empty-container-truck Trips Problem

    Islam, Md (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The problem of capacity shortage is an important issue for the major ports of the world. In particular, there is an increased necessity for additional transport capacity for containerised goods travelling to and from the hinterland (the region served by the port). For such travel, transportation using roads is often more popular than other methods (e.g., rail). A potential mechanism to increase road-side transport capacity is to lessen the number of empty truck trips by transferring increased numbers of containers using the same number of trucks. This forms the key Research Question (RQ) for this thesis. Namely, how can the number of empty container truck trips to and from a port be reduced to increase the road transport capacity? To date, much of the existing literature on the empty trips issue has been largely of an analytical nature (e.g., the backhaul problem) and thus has generally disregarded the potential benefits of the idea of involving all of the parties concerned in the container transport chain. To bridge that research gap, this thesis extends the shared-transportation concept, which is already proving popular in other areas (car-sharing and bike-sharing systems, for example), to the maritime logistics domain, in the form of truck-sharing. For this reason, the overall thesis work involves a combination of different research methodologies, which may be either qualitative (e.g., exploratory) or quantitative (e.g., simulation). However, before diving into the specifics of empty truck trips, the thesis looks broadly at capacity shortages at ports and particularly at how can a port's capacity be improved? Therefore, a system-dynamics framework is produced based on a review of the factors influencing port capacity, to guide and improve overall port capacity (including, but not limited to, transport capacity). The thesis also shows the potential usefulness of the suggested framework as an operational tool for capacity-expansion decisions (e.g., transport capacity improvement). In support of the question of reducing empty container truck trips, the thesis has four supporting research questions. First, RQ1 is: What are the different mechanisms available in different disciplines and domains for reducing empty truck trips? One of the key findings for this question is the prospect of using the truck-sharing concept for container transportation. RQ2 is: Is it possible to introduce a dynamic truck-sharing facility for a computer-based matching system to reduce empty truck trips? This research question further applies and extends the truck-sharing concept. Therefore, the model developed to answer this question is referred to as a Truck-sharing Service (TSS). However, the successful implementation of the suggested truck-sharing model depends on truck-sharing constraints that have not been fully explored. Therefore, RQ3 is: What are the truck-sharing challenges in achieving a higher level of collaboration among carriers to gain optimal container-truck utilisation and how to best overcome those challenges? Research findings show that port-related attributes, such as a lack of flexibility in the truck appointment system, form constraints against truck-sharing. Finally, to quantify the effect of the truck-sharing model on the potential for the improvement of transport capacity and its related carbon emission saving possibilities, RQ4 is: How will the case study port???s transport capacity be affected by different scenarios? Simulation results show improvement in performance using the truck-sharing idea. In particular, the truck-sharing concept boosts port gate- and transport-capacity, handles the increasing future truck volume effectively, and decreases carbon emissions generated from container trucks. The findings of this thesis work have important implications for the study of both freight transportation and maritime logistics in the reduction of the number of empty trips made by container trucks; this thesis provides theoretical grounds for practical ways of understanding and reforming the containerised cargo transportation process for road carriers. The aim is to increasing freight transport capacity and achieving sustainable transportation benefits at the port.

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  • AGEing Peptides: Synthesis and Analysis of Peptides Site-Specifically Modified by Advanced Glycation Endproducts

    Kamalov, Meder (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) are a family of modified amino acids that form when proteins react with sugars and sugar degradation products. AGEs are commonly found in processed food as well as in human organs, where they accumulate in tissue proteins, such as collagen, during the normal process of ageing. AGE accumulation dramatically accelerates with the onset of diabetes mellitus and the associated hyperglycaemia, a condition in which levels of sugars and sugar degradation product are above those considered healthy. Relative quantities of AGEs in different organs correlate with the pathophysiologic changes in these organs that occur with both advanced age and long-term hyperglycaemia. Emerging evidence indicates that AGE levels not only correlate with organ damage but may also play a causative role in such damage. Increased chelation of copper ions appears to play an important role in this process. However, the precise impact of AGE formation and accumulation on the biochemical properties of the host proteins is yet to be determined. Given their possible role in the detrimental outcomes of ageing (discussed in Chapter 1), in-depth studies of the AGE biochemistry are necessary. The overall aim of this work was to enable such in-depth studies of the AGE biochemistry by providing access to synthetic peptides that can be site-specifically modified by particular AGEs. Five prominent lysyl AGEs, N??-carboxymethyllysine (CML), N??-carboxyethyllysine (CEL), pyrraline, glyoxal lysine dimer (GOLD), and methylglyoxal lysine dimer (MOLD), were selected as targets. Synthesis of AGE building blocks, suitably protected for peptide incorporation, is discussed in Chapter 2. Efficient synthetic strategies were developed to provide access to all five AGE building blocks N??-protected by 9-Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) group. Synthesis of Fmoc-CML and Fmoc-CEL was accomplished using a facile and practical approach that involved the Fukuyama amino alkylation methodology. Fmoc-pyrraline was synthesised using an efficient pyrrole introduction protocol. Cross-linked building blocks, Fmoc2GOLD and Fmoc2MOLD, were prepared in the Debus-type amino-cyclisation procedure. Incorporation of the AGE building blocks into peptides is discussed in Chapter 2. Collagen, since it is a major target of glycation, was used as a source of synthetic peptides. By use of solid phase peptide synthesis, peptides mimicking the quaternary structures of collagen were prepared with and without AGEs. Incorporation of the CML, CEL, and pyrraline building blocks into collagen model peptides and collagen telopeptides was successfully carried out using Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis protocol. A straightforward and cost-effective synthetic procedure to access CML-containing peptides via on-resin N-alkylation of lysyl amines has also been developed. Importantly, conditions for efficient incorporation of the lysyl AGE cross-links, GOLD and MOLD, have been successfully developed and employed in the first syntheses of crosslinked collagen model peptides and collagen telopeptides. Access to site-specifically glycated peptides has enabled us to probe the biochemical properties of glycated peptides (discussed in Chapter 4). Circular dichroism revealed that the introduction of monolysyl AGEs did not hamper the formation of triple helices by collagen model peptides. However, introduction of cross-linking AGEs effectively prevented the collagen model peptides from forming the triple helical structure. Studies of proteolytic digestion using trypsin have revealed the dramatic effect that introduction of lysyl AGEs had on the relative enzymatic digestion rates of the host peptides. These AGEs effectively prevented trypsin from digesting the host telopeptides. Our potentiometric study of copper binding by collagen telopeptides with and without CML has shown that introduction of CML dramatically increased the host peptides capacity to bind copper. Mass spectrometric analysis effectively confirmed the results of potentiometric measurements and provided the first direct evidence of increased copper binding by an AGE-modified peptide.

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  • Tools for Neuroscience: Developing Devices to Study Brain Injury and Disease

    Jowers, Casey (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is increasingly becoming one of the major causes of death and disability in the world, and yet, no successful treatments exist for humans. To develop better drug therapies for TBI there is a need for closely controlled trauma delivery to cultured human brain cells such as astrocytes, neurons, and meningeal fibroblasts. This thesis aims to generate novel devices to provide neuroscience researchers with automated, high-throughput injury models that are both standardized and physiologically relevant. The work to follow outlines the design, characterization, and experimental testing of two devices for TBI research. In Part I, a novel, automated system for delivering controlled scratch-induced trauma to brain cells cultured in multi-well plates is created and characterized. The system is equipped with high-throughput imaging and analysis capabilities, enabling quantitative measurements of cell migration for an improved Scratch Wound Assay. The system also provides more consistent patterns of scratch-induced trauma to cultured cells when compared to traditional methods and is an effective platform for quantifying the injury response of cells. The device has applications in testing the effectiveness of drugs on cell migration and proliferation which might potentially treat traumatic brain injury. Blast-induced Traumatic Brain Injury (bTBI), a specific type of mechanical brain injury, is rapidly gathering attention due to the recent conflicts in the Middle East and the increasing prevalence of bTBI in battlefield injuries. In fact, blast injuries now make up the majority of injuries reported by US military personnel. No treatment has proven successful for bTBI and there is limited knowledge on this specific type of brain injury. To advance bTBI knowledge and develop treatments there is also a need for novel injury-producing devices. A novel injury model was created and characterized in Part II of this thesis to provide a controlled and standardized trauma, which mimics the injury mechanism of bTBI, to human brain cell cultures.

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  • The Evolution of the Japanese Strategic Imagination and Generation Change: A Generationally-Focused Analysis of Public and Elite Attitudes towards War and Peace in Japan

    Wallace, Corey (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    A significant post-Cold War development in Japan???s politics has been the rise of a group of hawkish security elites with substantial political and institutional influence. A common scholarly and popular narrative that has accompanied this development is that the younger generation in Japan is more open to the pursuit of security on the basis of realpolitik attitudes in particular, and that this will lead to the Japanese government abandoning its postwar antimilitarist security orientation. By systematically examining these claims, this study evaluates whether generational change will become a salient factor that will challenge Japan???s traditional antimilitarism and drive radical change in Japan???s security policy orientation. Members of the Heisei social generation, born between 1965 and 1989, are the core focus of this study. Members of this Heisei cohort witnessed significant change in Japan???s foreign and domestic policy environments during their formative years when political socialisation is likely to have the greatest impact upon attitude formation. Using the concept of militant internationalismas an analytical framework, this study evaluates quantitative data on public attitudes and primary interview data to identify any notable overlap in attitudes towards national security between the Heisei cohort and Japan???s hawkish security elites. This study rejects the militant internationalist characterisation by showing that the Heisei public cohort continues to support military restraints on Japan???s security policy and military posture. The analysis of attitudes does reveal, nevertheless, that antimilitarism is no longer an appropriate descriptive label to apply to the contemporary security identity embraced by the Heisei cohort. The assumption of Japanese having an instinctive aversion to the use of military tools for maintaining Japan???s security no longer holds, particularly in relation to the Heisei elite cohort. In deepening the analysis, this study does show, however, that a distinctive but evolved anti-war peace nation identity is still salient among both the Heisei public and elite cohorts. Such an identity will continue to play a notable role in restraining Japan???s evolution as a military actor in regional and global affairs, particularly in regards to Japan being able to use force inside the territory of other nations.

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  • Practice Variation and Individual Agency: CEO Compensation and the Choice between Isomorphic vis??- vis Nonisomorphic Strategies

    Benischke, Mirko (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Although neoinstitutional theory has been increasingly used to explain a firm???s strategic choices, there is a paucity of research explaining firm heterogeneity in the adoption of strategies. Drawing on the behavioral agency model (BAM), this study argues that when managerial agents such as Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) are confronted with a tension between legitimacy risk ??? associated with non-conformance to institutional practices ??? and business risk, they will weigh the possibility of losses to their reputation and personal wealth associated with the downsides of both forms of risk. Thus, this study combines the arguments of neoinstitutional perspective arguing that managers will seek legitimacy through their choices on behalf of the firm and behavioral agency suggesting that managers are motivated by the need to limit losses of their reputation and personal wealth. The empirical framework is tested by examining 4,125 cross-border alliances and acquisitions that have been conducted by multinational corporations (MNCs) headquartered in the US in the period 1993-2010. Consistent with the theoretical framework put forward in this study, the results suggest that CEOs are less likely to reduce legitimacy risks by adopting cross-border acquisitions in response to institutional pressures when the CEO has higher levels of risk bearing, defined as wealth-at-risk of loss, in the form of stock options and cash compensation. These findings have important implications for neoinstitutional theory. In particular, the results of this study challenge the longstanding neoinstitutional assumption that firms ??? and their CEOs ??? are willing to select isomorphic strategies if reduction in firm legitimacy risk compensates for any increase in business risk. That prevailing logic implies that CEOs make strategic choices without regard to their personal risk preferences. Instead, this study has shown that the CEO is cognizant of the threat posed to their accumulated firm-specific wealth by these two dimensions of firm risk ??? i.e., legitimacy and business risk ??? and will therefore actively manage the tension between the two. Moreover, these findings also provide an alternative explanation for heterogeneity in firm strategies within organizational fields. Specifically, the results reported in this study suggest that the interplay between institutional pressures and the CEO???s risk bearing explains strategic choices and firm heterogeneity within organizational fields.

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  • Malory, Loss and Faith

    Forsberg, Andrew (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis addresses the narrative world, value systems, and narrative structures of Sir Thomas Malory???s Le Morte Darthur. I read these more literally than criticism has generally been inclined to do, and I arrive at the conclusion that the work, while complex, is remarkably consistent internally. Further, I argue the work is consistent while accurately representing in its narrative world issues for two most divergent strains of contemporary theoretical discourse on human conduct: Rene?? Girard???s work on mimesis and sacrificial logic, complemented by Michel Serres???s works on the same; and Gilles Deleuze???s reading of Friedrich Nietzsche???s oeuvre for systems of evaluating worth. The introduction begins with a brief summary of Malory???s scholarly criticism and positions itself within that critical context before providing an outline of the thesis proper and the theoretical works employed there. The remainder of the thesis is split into two parts. The first, in three chapters, unpacks the text for a cosmology, an axiology, and then a narratology. The second explores how the problems inherent in the fictional world thus composed are treated, by addressing in turn how Malory???s episodic narrative configures its beginnings, endings, and middles. I argue that in this fictional realm???s foundations, Malory???s use of Fate as a numinous agent functions as the sacred does for Girard in myth: by attempting to hide the scapegoat victim of collective murder. However, contingent and localized details intrude in Malory???s narrative to reveal that murder, and yet they do not, indeed cannot, prevent it. Further, the repetitive episodic narrative is structured in sequences that resonate with themes of desire, rivalry, and envy. These ideas are central to Girard???s mimetic hypotheses regarding the violent rituals, culture, and institutions that result from a founding sacrifice. Repetition highlights both the interminable nature of this violence, and the intrusive nature of the contingent, wherever someone is blamed. Counter to the tensions of the mythic narrative and the historical (contingent) narrative is the third term of a noble will. In accord with Deleuze???s criteria, this will is active and affirmative in Malory. It plays an increasingly prominent role in this thesis???s second part, where the focus shifts from examining narrative systems to modes; that is, to the way the narrative is told. In the time of reading, whether beginning, ending, or in a repetitive loop, the quality of a character???s will is manifest in the moment. In the best of Malory???s knights, as in Nietzsche???s hero, this will is more than affirmative: it is declarative about what is good, noble, and worthy. The hero wills chance and Fate and calls it good, and I examine how in every respect this is opposed to envy and rivalry, to the conditions that make mimesis and sacrificial logic possible. The character of this will does not prevent the destruction of the realm, no more than Balin survived its foundation, but the noble will does reach beyond and is, I argue, all the more worthy for the poignancy of its loss and faith.

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