5,173 results for 2015

  • Changing the (video) game: Innovation, user satisfaction and copyrights in network market competition

    Goltz, Nachshon (Sean); Franks, Jaimie; Goltz, Shem (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This paper explores the emerging trend of user-generated content and innovation in the development of new products and ideas, breaking the traditional producer-consumer paradigm that once dominated the marketplace. In particular, the paper evaluates and compares the relationship between innovation and user satisfaction within the video game industry. To do so, the paper assesses data collected from the online communities of two very different games, Minecraft and Call of Duty in order to determine if there is a link between user-innovation and user-satisfaction in a product. The authors predict that more innovation in a game leads to more user satisfaction. The results of the research do not support this prediction. As observed in the online communities of the two games, there is no clear connection between high levels of innovation with higher user satisfaction. In fact, there is no direct connection between innovation and user satisfaction. However, Minecraft was found to be the more innovative game of the two and did have an overall higher level of user satisfaction than compared to Call of Duty. The data also suggests that Minecraft players experience a greater fluctuation in their enjoyment of the game compared to the players of the game with less innovation, Call of Duty. Finally, “radical innovation” was only found in Minecraft and not in the game with less player-control. This paper then goes on to discuss the role of innovation and user-generated digital content within the realm of intellectual property law and the resulting copyright implications for video game producers and players alike.

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  • Teacher Education in indigenous contexts: Critical considerations of teacher educator understandings and decision-making related to treaty issues and social justice

    Stark R; Fickel LH (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Despite the existence of a treaty (Tiriti o Waitangi/Treaty of Waitangi, 1840) in Aotearoa New Zealand that promised the indigenous Māori that their language and culture would be protected, these rights to autonomy and self-determination have not been fully realised. The persistent gap in the education system’s responsiveness to Māori educational aspirations and well-being poses a significant social justice challenge to educators, in particular teacher educators. In order to successfully respond to the educational needs of Māori as tangata whenua (the ‘people of the land’ or indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand) teacher educators must develop the necessary sociocultural knoweldge and culturally-responsive pedagogies to enact the fullness of their professional responsibilities as treaty partners with Māori. By focusing on the indigenous context of teacher education in Aotearoa New Zealand, we seek to illuminate a particular aspect of this complexity as a means to extend and problematise the discourse around international teacher educator knowledge and practice with respect to issues of diversity, culturally responsive practice, and social justice. In undertaking this inquiry, we draw from a larger qualitative investigation examining the perspectives of a small group of teacher educators regarding their understandings of the treaty in relation to their educational practice. Our analysis is informed by critical theory (Giroux, 2007; Kincheloe, 2008) and the notion of ‘teachers as gatekeepers” (Thornton, 1991, p 238).

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  • Inquiring into PLD Facilitator Practice to Support Culturally Responsive Literacy Pedagogy

    Fickel LH; Henderson C; Price G (2015)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper presents a documentary account of one aspect of the PLD programme being implemented by the Literacy Language Learning Te Waipounamu PLD Team. The Team’s ongoing inquiry, research and evaluation processes identified appreciative inquiry and ‘smart tools’ as “high leverage acts” within the PLD programme. We focus here on a particular ‘slice’ of this ongoing embedded inquiry, namely the use and impact of the “Focus Student Protocol” as a PLD innovation. The protocol is used within the Teaching as Inquiry process that underpins the PLD programme. Through this account we highlight the positive outcomes of this approach for both teachers and students.

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  • Measuring critical thinking about deeply held beliefs: Can the California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory help?

    Goldberg, Ilan Yaakov; Kingsbury, Justine; Bowell, Tracy; Howard, Darelle Jane (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory (CCTDI) is a commonly used tool for measuring critical thinking dispositions. However, research on the efficacy of the CCTDI in predicting good thinking about students’ own deeply held beliefs is scant. In this paper we report on our study that was designed to gauge the usefulness of the CCTDI in this context, and take some first steps towards designing a better method for measuring strong sense critical thinking.

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  • Interprofessional supervision: Opportunities and challenges

    Davys, Allyson; Beddoe, Elizabeth (2015-12-11)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Utilizing piezovibrocone in marine soils at Tauranga Harbor, New Zealand

    Jorat, M. Ehsan; Moerz, T; Moon, Vicki G.; Kreiter, Stefan; de Lange, Willem P. (2015-07-01)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Piezovibrocones have been developed to evaluate the liquefaction potential of onshore soils, but have not yet been utilized to evaluate the in-situ liquefaction behavior of offshore marine and volcanoclastic sediments. Two static and vibratory CPTu (Cone Penetration Tests) were performed at Tauranga Harbor, New Zealand. The lithology is known from nearby drillholes and the influence of vibration on different types of marine soils is evaluated using the reduction ratio (RR) calculated from static and vibratory CPTu. A sediment layer with high potential for liquefaction and one with a slight reaction to cyclic loading are identified. In addition to the reduction ratio, the liquefaction potential of sediment is analyzed using classic correlations for static CPTu data, but no liquefaction potential was determined. This points to an underestimation of liquefaction potential with the classic static CPTu correlations in marine soil. Results show that piezovibrocone tests are a sensitive tool for liquefaction analysis in offshore marine and volcanoclastic soil.

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  • Why do the design stage elemental cost plan and final tender sum differ in New Zealand?

    Adafin, Johnson; Rotimi, JOB; Wilkinson, Suzanne (2015)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Purpose ??? The aim of this study is to investigate the reasons for disparity between design stage elemental cost plan and final tender sum (contract sum) in building procurement. A number of risk factors responsible for such variation were identified through case study projects from which data were extracted. Design/methodology/approach ??? Literature review determined the risk factors inherent in the preparation of design stage elemental cost plan. Interviews and thematic analysis identified the risk factors responsible for the disparity between design stage elemental cost plans and final tender sums. Analysis of documents obtained from the archives of study participants (consultant quantity surveyors) complemented responses from the interviews. Findings ??? The review revealed a number of inherent risks in the design stage elemental cost plan development. The interviews further indicated that risks have an impact on and are responsible for the deviations experienced. The assessment of these risk elements could assist in determining the final tender sum from cost plans. Research limitations/implications ??? Findings revealed disparity between elemental cost plans and final tender sums in the region of - 14 and + 16 per cent. The risk factors identified were responsible for the deviations observed. With this information, Quantity Surveyors are more able to accurately forecast final tender sums of building projects from cost plans through proper risk identification and analysis, thus increasing the accuracy of design stage elemental costing. Originality/value ??? To the best of the knowledge of the researchers, there is no recent documentary evidence of an investigation into the reasons for disparity between design stage elemental cost plan and final tender sum in traditional building procurement in New Zealand construction.

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  • Assessing women’s risk of recidivism: An investigation into the predictive validity of the Dynamic Risk Assessment for Offender Re-entry (DRAOR) with matched samples of community-sentenced women and men

    Scanlan, Jessica (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Although men and women share risk factors for offending, some scholars claim these factors operate differentially by gender and that certain proposed women-specific risk factors are neglected in the existing gender-neutral risk assessment tools. The present research evaluated one such gender-neutral risk assessment tool used by New Zealand Department of Corrections: The Dynamic Risk Assessment for Offender Re-entry (DRAOR; Serin, 2007; Serin, Mailloux, & Wilson, 2012). The research was comparative and examined the predictive validity of the DRAOR for breaches of sentence and criminal reconvictions in matched samples of New Zealand women and men who had served community supervision sentences. Cox regression and AUC analyses showed the initial DRAOR had mixed predictive validity and the proximal DRAOR comparative predictive validity across gender. Additionally, the proximal DRAOR assessment consistently outperformed the initial DRAOR in the prediction of reconvictions for both women and men. Further, offenders made significant change on the DRAOR between two assessment points and overall the change made on the DRAOR was significantly related to reconvictions for women and men. For both samples, the RoC*RoI did not predict breach reconvictions; however, the proximal DRAOR TS provided incremental predictive validity above the RoC*RoI for criminal reconvictions. To conclude, the research supports the continued use of the DRAOR as a risk prediction tool with community-sentenced women and men and thus supports gender neutrality. Further, the research supports the dynamic nature of the DRAOR and highlighted the importance of updating dynamic risk assessments. Additionally, the research recommends that change made on a dynamic risk assessment tool over time be considered useful for predictive purposes for women and men alike.

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  • Total synthesis of panicein A2

    Yeung, L; Pilkington, Lisa; Cadelis, Melissa; Copp, Brent; Barker, David (2015-10-26)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The first total synthesis of the unusual aromatic sesquiterpene panicein A2 is reported and the structure of the natural product has been confirmed. When tested by the NCI against a range of human cancer cell lines, it was found that panicein A2 exhibits very little antiproliferative activity at 10 ??M ??? an observation that is at odds with the earlier report that stated panicein A2 exhibits in vitro cytotoxicity against a number of tumour cell lines.

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  • Potential neuroprotective strategies for perinatal infection and inflammation

    Ranchhod, Sonya; Gunn, Katherine; Fowke, TM; Davidson, Joanne; Lear, Christopher; Bai, Jizhong; Bennet, Laura; Mallard, C; Gunn, Alistair; Dean, Justin (2015-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Preterm born infants have high rates of brain injury, leading to motor and neurocognitive problems in later life. Infection and resulting inflammation of the fetus and newborn are highly associated with these disabilities. However, there are no established neuroprotective therapies. Microglial activation and expression of many cytokines play a key role in normal brain function and development, as well as being deleterious. Thus, treatment must achieve a delicate balance between possible beneficial and harmful effects. In this review, we discuss potential neuroprotective strategies targeting systemic infection or the resulting systemic and central inflammatory responses. We highlight the central importance of timing of treatment and the critical lack of studies of delayed treatment of infection/inflammation.

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  • Recombinant rat CC16 protein inhibits LPS-induced MMP-9 expression via NF-??B pathway in rat tracheal epithelial cells

    Pang, M; Wang, H; Bai, Jizhong; Cao, D; Jiang, Y; Zhang, C; Liu, Z; Zhang, X; Hu, X; Xu, J; Du, Y (2015-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Clara cell protein (CC16) is a well-known anti-inflammatory protein secreted by the epithelial Clara cells of the airways. It is involved in the development of airway inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Previous studies suggest that CC16 gene transfer suppresses expression of interleukin (IL)-8 in bronchial epithelial cells. However, its role in the function of these cells during inflammation is not well understood. In this study, we evaluated the effect of CC16 on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat tracheal epithelial cells and its underlying molecular mechanisms. We generated recombinant rat CC16 protein (rCC16) which was bioactive in inhibiting the activity of phospholipase A2. rCC16 inhibited LPS-induced MMP-9 expression at both mRNA and protein levels in a concentration-dependent (0-2?????g/mL) manner, as demonstrated by real time RT-PCR, ELISA, and zymography assays. Gene transcription and DNA binding studies demonstrated that rCC16 suppressed LPS-induced NF-??B activation and its binding of gene promoters as identified by luciferase reporter and gel mobility shift assays, respectively. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining analyses further revealed that rCC16 concentration dependently inhibited the effects of LPS on nuclear increase and cytosol reduction of NF-??B, on the phosphorylation and reduction of NF-??B inhibitory I??B??, and on p38 MAPK-dependent NF-??B activation by phosphorylation at Ser276 of its p65 subunit. These data indicate that inhibition of LPS-mediated NF-??B activation by rCC16 involves both translocation- and phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways. When the tracheal epithelial cells were pretreated with chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, cellular uptake of rCC16 and its inhibition of LPS-induced NF-??B nuclear translocation and also MMP-9 production were significantly abolished. Taken together, our data suggest that clathrin-mediated uptake of rCC16 suppresses LPS-mediated inflammatory MMP-9 production through inactivation of NF-??B and p38 MAPK pathways in tracheal epithelial cells.

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  • A roadmap for Antarctic and Southern Ocean science for the next two decades and beyond

    Kennicutt, MC; Chown, SL; Cassano, JJ; Liggett, D; Peck, LS; Massom, R; Rintoul, SR; Storey, J; Vaughan, DG; Wilson, TJ; Allison, I; Ayton, J; Badhe, R; Baeseman, J; Barrett, PJ; Bell, RE; Bertler, N; Bo, S; Brandt, A; Bromwich, D; Cary, S. Craig; Clark, MS; Convey, P; Costa, ES; Cowan, D; Deconto, R; Dunbar, R; Elfring, C; Escutia, C; Francis, J; Fricker, HA; Fukuchi, M; Gilbert, N; Gutt, J; Havermans, C; Hik, D; Hosie, G; Jones, C; Kim, YD; Le Maho, Y; Lee, SH; Leppe, M; Leitchenkov, G; Li, X; Lipenkov, V; Lochte, K; López-Martínez, J; Lüdecke, C; Lyons, W; Marenssi, S; Miller, H; Morozova, P; Naish, T; Nayak, S; Ravindra, R; Retamales, J; Ricci, CA; Rogan-Finnemore, M; Ropert-Coudert, Y; Samah, AA; Sanson, L; Scambos, T; Schloss, IR; Shiraishi, K; Siegert, MJ; Simões, JC; Storey, B; Sparrow, MD; Wall, DH; Walsh, JC; Wilson, G; Winther, JG; Xavier, JC; Yang, H; Sutherland, WJ (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Antarctic and Southern Ocean science is vital to understanding natural variability, the processes that govern global change and the role of humans in the Earth and climate system. The potential for new knowledge to be gained from future Antarctic science is substantial. Therefore, the international Antarctic community came together to ‘scan the horizon’ to identify the highest priority scientific questions that researchers should aspire to answer in the next two decades and beyond. Wide consultation was a fundamental principle for the development of a collective, international view of the most important future directions in Antarctic science. From the many possibilities, the horizon scan identified 80 key scientific questions through structured debate, discussion, revision and voting. Questions were clustered into seven topics: i) Antarctic atmosphere and global connections, ii) Southern Ocean and sea ice in a warming world, iii) ice sheet and sea level, iv) the dynamic Earth, v) life on the precipice, vi) near-Earth space and beyond, and vii) human presence in Antarctica. Answering the questions identified by the horizon scan will require innovative experimental designs, novel applications of technology, invention of next-generation field and laboratory approaches, and expanded observing systems and networks. Unbiased, non-contaminating procedures will be required to retrieve the requisite air, biota, sediment, rock, ice and water samples. Sustained year-round access to Antarctica and the Southern Ocean will be essential to increase winter-time measurements. Improved models are needed that represent Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in the Earth System, and provide predictions at spatial and temporal resolutions useful for decision making. A co-ordinated portfolio of cross-disciplinary science, based on new models of international collaboration, will be essential as no scientist, programme or nation can realize these aspirations alone.

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  • A contextualized report on the impact of pre-service training on language teachers in Taiwan

    Johnson, Diane (2015)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    The beliefs and practices of contemporary language teachers who have undergone professional training are expected to reflect some of the major changes and developments that have been reported in the literature on language teaching and learning. To determine whether this is actually the case, a large-scale research project was initiated at the University of Waikato in New Zealand a decade ago. Twelve PhD students have conducted research involving over 1,200 teachers of five different languages in a number of different countries . Each of the students has used a mixed method approach that combines questionnaire-based surveys with semi-structured interviews and classroom observations. .....

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  • Afterword: Emotional reason: Challenging cognitivism in education

    Peters, Michael A. (2015)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    In 2004 R. W. Picard and nine colleagues at the MIT Media Lab published “Affective Learning – A Manifesto” that registered a challenge to cognitive theories recognizing the way that the computer as model and metaphor had tended to skew research on learning as a form of information processing by privileging the “cognitive” over the “affective.” The manifesto attempted to redress the imbalance to support an increasingly research-based “view of affect as complexly intertwined with cognition in guiding rational behaviour, memory retrieval, decision-making, creativity, and more” (Picard, 2004). They wanted to build new learning systems that used affect as a basis for new education and machine learning. They noted that “the extension of cognitive theory to explain and exploit the role of affect in learning is in its infancy.”

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  • Simple harmonic error cancellation in time of flight range imaging

    Streeter, Lee V.; Dorrington, Adrian A. (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Amplitude modulated continuous wave (AMCW) time of flight (ToF) range imaging provides a full field of distance measurement, but common hardware is implemented with digital technology which leads to unwanted harmonic content, a principle source of error in the distance measurements. Existing strategies for correction of harmonics require auxiliary measurements and amplify noise. A small modification of the data acquisition procedure is described which, intrinsically, is invariant to at least one harmonic. The third harmonic, the main cause of harmonic error, is targeted. Compared to traditional measurements the third harmonic is eliminated with no significant increase in noise variance observed.

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  • Alerting corporate leaders to the need for ethical deliberation and sustainability

    Sharma, Umesh Prasad; Kelly, Martin (2015)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    In order to categorise business as “good” one must choose what characterises “Good Business”. Some argue that any profitable business is good business, but profitable business sometimes creates social and environmental problems. Anyone can list what good business characteristics are, but the list will not be acceptable to everyone. We argue that, over the past sixty years, many business students and managers have been prepared to accept unquestioningly what they are told good business characteristics are, without relating those characteristics to societal and environmental wellbeing. Some decision makers have been persuaded that ethical norms associated with good living are not relevant to business decisions, except when imposed by law. Business has created many problems in society. The Ancient Greeks chose to think carefully about the characteristics that should be encouraged in society. The results were sometimes questionable: women were not given a voice in societal decisions; the owning of slaves was acceptable. Nevertheless the decision makers of the time were required to build ethical arguments in to their decision making. In recent times business leaders have obtained huge power in society, but they have been excused building ethical considerations in to their decision models. Consequently our world is in jeopardy. Unless we build ethical considerations in to our deliberations, the world as we know it may collapse due to failures in the ecosystems, or rebellion from the huge number of intolerably poor people. We don’t believe it is possible to instruct future managers how to make correct ethical decisions, but we encourage them not to accept any extant decision model unquestioningly. Managers must install ethical considerations of their own choosing in to their decision models. Those responsible for management education must help future managers recognise the need for self-constructed ethical decision models in society.

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  • Biomass estimation of invasive fish

    Hicks, Brendan J.; Brijs, Jeroen; Daniel, Adam Joshua; Morgan, Dai K.J.; Ling, Nicholas (2015)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Invasive fish have a variety of effects on indigenous fish communities and freshwater ecosystems generally, and the magnitude of these effects is partly dependent on invasive fish biomass. For example, a koi carp biomass of 120–130 kg/ha was sufficient to depress macroinvertebrate and plant biomass, and to elevate chlorophyll a concentrations (Haas et al. 2007; Bajer et al. 2009; Hicks et al. 2011). The purpose of this section is to provide (i) estimates of the relative biomasses of invasive fish that have been established by boat electrofishing in a range of lake and riverine habitats in the North Island; and (ii) some estimates of absolute biomass derived from mark-recapture studies in shallow lakes. Collectively, these data provide a basis for future comparisons of invasive fish monitoring information in a region where coarse fish have proliferated.

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  • Costs and effectiveness of different methods for capturing invasive fish

    Hicks, Brendan J.; Daniel, Adam Joshua; Ling, Nicholas; Morgan, Dai K.J.; Gauthier, Stephane (2015)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Comparisons of the effectiveness of different fishing techniques in non-wadeable habitats give insights into the relative abundance of invasive fish and native fish, which is important to provide evidence for changes in fish abundance over time. Such comparisons can also be used to determine the most effective methods to remove invasive fish. The objective of this section is to examine methods that yield the most fish for the least cost (i.e. maximise the catch per unit effort). Because comparisons are most effective when applied in a single habitat, they are best considered as case histories at one location. All costs of removal in this chapter are in $NZ. Rotenone has been applied successfully in New Zealand in small waterbodies (e.g. the 0.7 ha Lake Parkinson near Auckland—Tanner et al. 1990; Rowe & Champion 1994) and routinely by the Department of Conservation; use of rotenone to control invasive fish is not considered in this section because it is dealt with in Section 4.1. Boat electrofishing is a technique that has been applied widely in the North Island of New Zealand since 2003 (e.g. Hicks & Bell 2003; Hicks & Tempero 2013; Section 4.4), and provides a useful basis for comparing other methods as it is highly effective at capturing some fish species in non-wadeable habitats. For instance, while boat electrofishing 700 m2 of the Lake Whangape littoral margin (0.4–0.7 m deep) during the spawning season in September 2003, 24 koi carp were caught in 11 minutes, weighing 87.4 kg, with a mean fish mass of 3.64 kg and a catch rate of 349 fish/person-day or 1,271 kg/personday. The calculated population estimate of 68 carp from the single removal (24 carp), applying Equation 1 in Section 4.4, implies a biomass of 3,541 kg/ha. The electrofishing boat normally has a crew of three, so assuming a cost of $480/person-day and a time of 0.07 person-day, the capture cost was $0.38/kg. The average catch rate for koi carp across our entire data set for locations with koi carp (205 capture occasions) by boat electrofishing is 62 fish/person-day and 99 kg/person-day, suggesting an average capture cost of $4.85/kg for labour for fishing time. These costs do not take into account consumables, travel, capital costs, depreciation or maintenance.

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  • Youth and sporting (im)mobilities in disrupted and conflicted spaces

    Thorpe, Holly Aysha (2015)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    War, conflict and natural disasters disrupt millions of lives around the world each year. With fighting and wars raging across the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia, death tolls are "on the rise" (Storm, 2015), and the United Nations recently estimated the cost of natural disasters at $300 billion per year (UN Global Assessment, 2015). Scholars working in the social sciences and humanities have long been looking beyond the casualties and economic impacts of such events, to examine the social and psychological consequences of such events on individuals, families and communities.

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  • A diversity of digital smartness: A case study of children's uses of information and communication technology in an early childhood education setting

    Archard, Sara; Archard, Simon (2015)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Information and Communication Technology is regarded as playing an ever-increasing role in the lives of people, which includes young children. The role of ICT in early childhood educational services in Aotearoa New Zealand is still being argued by teachers despite policy expectations that endorse and support its integration into practice. This chapter draws upon a small qualitative case study involving young children and their uses of ICT in one early childhood setting. It identifies and examines the diversity of ways that children, and other people involved in their lives, might use ICT as a means of initiating, facilitating and supporting learning. We define this as digital smartness. A socio-cultural perspective is used to recognise and examine this notion of children’s digital smartness. ICT and learning is examined in terms of the social and cultural contexts of the young children with particular focus on the influences of family/whānau and the early childhood education setting. We examine how the digital smartness of children can be understood and affirmed in early childhood settings. We identify the Bourdieuian construct of habitus as a valid perspective to informing and meeting obligations of a more coherent teacher pedagogy of ICT. We contend that certain factors need to be in place to welcome the diversity of children’s digital habitus into early childhood education settings that affirm the digital smartness of children learning and living in the 21st century.

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