5,021 results for 2015

  • Spontaneous activity drives local synaptic plasticity in vivo

    Winnubst, J; Cheyne, Juliette; Niculescu, D; Lohmann, C (2015-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Spontaneous activity fine-tunes neuronal connections in the developing brain. To explore the underlying synaptic plasticity mechanisms, we monitored naturally occurring changes in spontaneous activity at individual synapses with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and simultaneous calcium imaging in the mouse visual cortex in vivo. Analyzing activity changes across large populations of synapses revealed a simple and efficient local plasticity rule: synapses that exhibit low synchronicity with nearby neighbors ( fashion through proBDNF/p75(NTR) signaling to refine neuronal connectivity.

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  • Exploring Risk and Protective Factors for Recent and Past Intimate Partner Violence Against New Zealand Women

    Fanslow, Janet; Gulliver, Pauline (2015-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify risk and protective factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) in a high-income country (New Zealand) and to identify those factors that distinguish between current versus previous exposure to IPV. Data were drawn from the New Zealand replication of the World Health Organization's Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence. Logistic regression was conducted to identify those variables associated with experience of IPV. Problem drinking, a partner who has concurrent sexual relationships, and a partner who is violent outside the home were associated with increased likelihood of current as opposed to previous experience of IPV. Increased household income and both the respondent and her partner being employed were associated with reduced likelihood that women would experience current as opposed to prior IPV. The findings point toward the need for comprehensive approaches to reduce all forms of violence and to contribute to the primary prevention of IPV. Strategies that address early exposure to violence, problematic alcohol consumption, gender transformative approaches to working with boys and men, and economic empowerment for women may all hold promise.

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  • Kura kaupapa M??ori: Preparing graduates to live as M??ori in the world today

    Tocker, Kimai (2015-11-26)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Preparing graduates from the first kura kaupapa M??ori to participate in the wider world. Kura kaupapa M??ori are a unique New Zealand primary school education system in which children are immersed in a M??ori language and cultural environment with the aim of enabling graduates to ???live as M??ori??? and to make positive contributions as bilingual and bicultural citizens to New Zealand society and to the wider world. Narratives from some of the graduates from the first kura established in Auckland between 1984-1989, provide information about the learning of English language literacy skills, part of the goal of attaining bilingualism. In the early days of kura, classrooms were set up specifically for the teaching of English and placed apart from the main teaching areas to ensure the students??? M??ori language was kept intact. The graduates share their varied experiences of learning English at kura and express a recognition of the benefits of being skilled in the literacies of both M??ori and the English language. For the majority of the graduates it has been the M??ori language knowledge that has secured them employment in television, teaching and, for those who have chosen the academic world, their M??ori and bicultural knowledge has provided valuable understandings and insight for study and associated work. As bilingual and bicultural adults the graduates demonstrate self-confidence, self-determination and the ability to advance their talents to high levels of achievement. This presentation will interest all those who work or study in indigenous education, and particularly those curious about the place of English literacy in indigenous language education.

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  • The beginning of kura kaupapa M??ori: Indigenous schooling in Aotearoa, New Zealand

    Tocker, Kimai (2015)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Kura kaupapa M??ori are a unique New Zealand primary school education system in which children are immersed in a M??ori language and cultural environment with the aim of enabling graduates to ???live as M??ori??? within the wider world. This presentation provides a background of the events that led to the establishment of kura kaupapa M??ori in New Zealand. Interviews with founding members from the first Auckland kura kaupapa M??ori give a critical sense of the hopes and aspirations that guided them in their struggle to set up the kura kaupapa M??ori initiative. The desire to provide suitable schooling for their children, who had been educated in a pre-school M??ori immersion environment, led the pioneers on a two year political and legal battle to preserve M??ori language and culture and to provide a M??ori education that validates traditional M??ori knowledge and pedagogy. Narratives from the key figures in kura kaupapa M??ori movement provide information about the hardship they and their families endured in the setting up of kura kaupapa M??ori without government assistance, as well as clarification about the political strategies they employed in the pursuit of the legalisation of kura. The restructuring of New Zealand???s Education Department opened a space for the development of kura kaupapa M??ori, leading to legislation in 1989 and formal recognition in 1999 of the Te Aho Matua document, the guiding philosophy for the majority of kura today. The New Zealand case offers a lot to those considering how to engage in structural educational change. This paper will interest all those who work or study in indigenous education, and particularly those curious about the complex and often demanding political strategies required for the establishment of a state-funded school system for indigenous populations. Key words: M??ori immersion education, kura kaupapa M??ori, Te Aho Matua

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  • The development of kura kaupapa M??ori. The struggle for M??ori language schooling

    Tocker, Kimai (2015-07-01)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Measurement of Two Phase Flows in Geothermal Pipelines using Radio Frequency (RF) Power Measurements: Experimental Results

    Sisler, J; Zarrouk, Sadiq (2015)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    A sensor scheme using radio frequency (RF) power has been investigated for the measurement of two phase flow in geothermal pipelines. The method can provide continual monitoring and be installed into piping in areas of limited pipe runs. The measurement is used to calculate dryness fraction, void fraction, and possibly flow rate in the pipe, and should be independent of temperature. It is accomplished by measurement of RF energy transmitted into the contents of the pipe by antenna, and received by a separate receive antenna. Tests were performed to determine feasibility, investigate antenna designs, and improve transmitter protection schemes. The results and analysis presented in this work show the method has the potential to measure two-phase flow in geothermal pipelines and wells with at least 2% accuracy. It may be used to complement (improve) the accuracy of existing two-phase orifice plates currently in use in geothermal pipelines, or may be used stand-alone, for the measurement of total mass flow rate and enthalpy in geothermal or other pipelines and wells on a continuous basis.

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  • Childhood food allergy in the New Zealand context: An exploration of trends, prevalence, risk factors, and the impact on quality of life

    McMilin, Colleen (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Although food allergy has been extensively described, diagnosed, managed and researched, many questions still linger. For over 2000 years scientists have sought to understand the effects of food on the human body. Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine, had recognition that food can cause illnesses, disease and health concerns for some people. In 1906, Dr Clemens von Pirquet suggested the use of the word ???allergy??? to describe an inappropriate reaction to food or other substances not typically harmful or bothersome. Researchers are just beginning to recognise potential influences on the development and progression of food allergy. The prevalence and incidence rates of food allergies worldwide have been the subject of much debate in recent decades due to what many observe as a dramatic increase in childhood food allergies. A food allergy touches the life of not only the individual diagnosed but also their family, friends, health care providers, food producers, retailers, and schools. The epidemiology of food allergy in New Zealand has been incompletely described and there is minimal published data that allows for any estimation of the disease burden caused by food allergy in New Zealand. Aims Although New Zealand has a high prevalence of asthma, the epidemiology of other atopic disease has not been studied. Based on other studies completed around the world and the data available in New Zealand this thesis set out to better understand: (1) temporal trends in food allergy; (2) prevalence of peanut allergy and risk factors for peanut allergy; and (3) the impact of childhood food allergy on quality of life. Methods To meet the objectives of this thesis four projects made up of five studies were completed. Each project utilised a different data set to allow comparisons to be made of data from New Zealand with that which has been reported from other countries and to provide several perspectives on how food allergies are impacting New Zealand children. 1) To determine whether Emergency Department presentations can be used to describe temporal trends in food allergy presentations an audit was completed for all emergency department (ED) presentations from 1988 to 2011 of children (0 to 14 years old) to the public hospital ED in the Auckland District Health Board (ADHB) region, for which the ICD codes ???anaphylaxis, unspecified??? or ???allergy, unspecified???, were assigned. 2) The new knowledge learnt from project one was then applied to the National Minimum Dataset (NMDS), a national collection of public and private hospital discharge information, temporal trends in emergency department (ED) presentations for food-related acute allergic reactions from 1988 to 2011 of children (0 to 14 years old) were investigated. 3) Utilising data from the Growing Up in New Zealand cohort study the prevalence of peanut allergy and factors associated with the presence of peanut allergy at age two years were investigated. 4) The impact of food allergy on quality of life was investigated through the use of reflexive photography, photo elicitation, and the autodriven interview with food allergic children and their families. Results Understanding Administrative Coding of Emergency Department Visits for Unspecified Acute Allergic Reactions The aim of this project was to determine the proportion of ED visits coded as ???anaphylaxis, unspecified??? or ???allergy, unspecified??? that are food-related allergic reactions. Food-related acute allergic reactions account for 29% of hospital presentations that were assigned a discharge code for ???anaphylaxis, unspecified??? or ???allergy, unspecified in the ADHB. The ED presentation rate with food-related allergic reactions from 2004-2011 was almost twice as high as that which occurred from 1988-1995 (RR=1.98, 95%CI 1.10-3.72). By contrast, ED presentation rates for non-food-related allergic reactions did not change over these years. This apparent increase in New Zealand is consistent with observations using comparable data sources reported from Australia and the United States. Hospital Presentations Due to Acute Allergic Reactions Related to Food Between 1988 and 2011, 3,735 children 0 to 14 years old presented to a New Zealand hospital with an acute allergic reaction identified by ICD-9-CMA-II codes 692.5 (contact dermatitis and other eczema due to food in contact with), 693.1 (Dermatitis due to food taken internally), 995.0 (Anaphylactic reaction due to unspecified food), 995.3 (Allergy, unspecified), and 995.60-995.69 (Anaphylactic reaction due to food unspecified and specified). An average yearly increase of 8% in hospital presentations due to acute allergic reactions (p=<0.001). Peanut Allergy in the New Zealand Context Based on parental reported data collected from Growing Up in New Zealand, a contemporary longitudinal birth cohort study, 162 (2.1%) children were identified as peanut allergic. Within this cohort, factors associated with the development of a peanut allergy were categorized based on the measurement of child, family & wider influences on disease in early childhood as defined by: child characteristics, proximal social environments, distal social environments, and macro environmental factors. The odds of having parental reported peanut allergy at age two years were increased for boys, children diagnosed with eczema since 9 months, children whose mother had a history of atopic disease (eczema, hay fever, or food allergy), and mothers who identified as being of Asian ethnicity. The odds of having parental reported peanut allergy at age two years were decreased for children who had never tried nuts or peanuts, or whose mothers had no secondary qualifications or secondary school/NCEA 1-4. Impact of Food Allergy on New Zealand Families The impact a food allergy has on a family is influenced by environment and includes four levels home, school, community, and beyond the community. This is due, in part, to the amount of control a food allergic family has within these environments. The ability to control the environment gradually decreases as a food allergic family moves away from the home. Based on the impact a food allergy has on the food allergic family, three outcomes of living with a food allergy are evident responsibility, exclusion, and resilience. The lessons learned from these families can be used to guide other food allergic families through education and advocacy. Based on the family???s description of the impact of a food allergy on their quality of life and management strategies, there is a need for consistent national school policy focused on food allergies and the provision of education and training to hospitality workers. These changes could positively impact food allergic families at multiple environmental levels. Discussion Consistent with what has been reported from several other countries the prevalence of childhood food allergy appears to have increased in recent decades. The rate of parental self-report of peanut allergy in New Zealand is similar to other countries. In New Zealand, children of male gender or who have eczema are at increased, and those who have never tried nuts or peanuts by age two years were at decreased risk of parental reported peanut allergy. In New Zealand children of atopic mothers or mothers of Asian ethnicity are at increased risk and children of less educated mothers are at decreased risk of parental reported peanut allergy. A food allergy impacts all members of a food allergic family based on the level of control within various environments. Food allergy is a complex condition and this thesis provides insight into the current state of food allergy in New Zealand.

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  • Dimensions of ???Quality??? In The Case Of Foreign Degree Awarding Institutes of Sri Lanka: A Multiple Stakeholder Perspective

    Amugoda K Dona Wickramasinghe, MN (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The provision of quality higher education is of critical importance for the economy of a developing country like Sri Lanka. This research considering the quality issues of the foreign degree awarding institutes of Sri Lanka investigates the dimensions of quality in relation to these institutes from a multiple stakeholder perspective. The central argument of this thesis is that it is necessary to understand what constitutes as quality in order to improve it. Thus, the study is aimed to identify various understandings of quality in relation to these institutes and their consequences to various stakeholders of these institutes. The study identifies key definitions, purposes and practices associated with the term quality. The students??? and the professionals??? perceptions of how these institutes implement and maintain the key quality criteria and the key issues arriving from the various understandings of quality are also investigated from the receiver country???s perspective. The study adopted a mix of vertical case study and mixed methods approach and worked within a pragmatic paradigm. A questionnaire survey, semi structured interviews and documentary data served as sources of data. The perceptions of students, lecturers and senior managers of five selected foreign degree awarding institutes of Sri Lanka and the officials of three government higher education organizations were sought to achieve the research objectives. The findings revealed a variety of definitions of quality and also various meanings to these definitions, indicating the elusive nature of quality. It was revealed that quality is shaped by external factors such as economy, culture, gender and social class. The different viewpoints of these stakeholders also created confusion, discrepancies and many challenges to quality in these institutes. The findings revealed that the quality of these institutes analysed are neither up to the standards of the government universities of Sri Lanka nor to the standards of their home universities. The way that some of these institutes studied, implemented and maintained quality did not resemble their claimed definitions, purposes and practices of quality, and these mismatches brought out several consequences to the stakeholder groups, while also making a negative impact on the higher education sector of Sri Lanka. The study provided recommendations to the key stakeholder groups to overcome these identified issues of quality.

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  • Community resilience and urban core shelter implementation: A Wellington case study

    Titmuss, Ralph Peter (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    As a result of climate change, extreme weather events are becoming more common around the world. Coupled with the ever-present threat of sea level rise that coastal cities face there is a potential for far more severe weather events to occur. This thesis will seek to understand how an existing city can adapt to a more hostile environment, and how in the event of an extreme weather occurrence it maintains its function. There is an urgent need to understand how a city can respond when faced with these situations. Previous extreme weather events, Katrina, the Indian Ocean tsunami, and extreme flooding around the world, highlight the danger of a lack of preparedness and resilience found in most cities. The purpose of this thesis is to understand how the concept of a core shelter, as a way to address the threats of extreme weather events, can be applied to a well-established urban context, Wellington NZ. A core shelter is a structure that in the event of a large-scale disaster, protects its users, and post-disaster still reaches permanent housing standards without being deemed to be a permanent dwelling. It will also look at whether it is possible to create areas in an existing city that can be considered “safe havens” in the event of an extreme natural incident. This thesis outlines the need for these shelters by identifying the potential threats of climate change in a Wellington context, and by understanding the vulnerability of Wellington’s current building stock. It reaches a conclusion that through the implementation of core shelters in Wellington NZ, resilience will be improved, disaster response efforts will be aided, and destruction arising from extreme weather events will be reduced. In addition, it identifies the areas of Wellington that are deemed to be of higher risk in a disaster or extreme weather event, analyses an existing building’s potential to become a community resilience/core shelter, and proposes a custom building that could be built on Leeds St and Ghuznee St.

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  • Does National Standards reporting help parents to understand their children???s learning?

    Dixon, HR; Hawe, Eleanor; Pearson, R (2015)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Does National Standards written reporting fully inform parents of their child???s achievements and thus better place them to support their child???s learning? Using the reporting of progress and achievement in writing, and the perceptions of eight parents, the current study pays particular attention to the nature, scope, and complexity of the information communicated to parents in written reports, and their understandings of this information. Questions are raised regarding whether and how National Standards reporting is meeting the remit of establishing a learning-focused relationship between home and school. Suggestions are made about how schools can evoke parental support of school learning by using a broader range of information, communicated in language that is accessible to parents.

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  • Can certified health professionals treat obesity in a community-based programme? A quasi-experimental study

    Miedema, B; Reading, Stacey; Hamilton, RA; Morrison, KS; Thompson, AE (2015-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    To test the effectiveness of a non-pharmaceutical programme for obese participants in a rural Eastern Canadian Province using certified health professionals.A prospective quasi-experimental design with repeated premeasure and postmeasure.146 participants with obesity (body mass index >30???kg/m(2)) from rural and urban communities in an Eastern Canadian Province were divided into four groups.A 6-month intensive active community-based lifestyle intervention (InI) delivered by Certified Exercise Physiologists, Certified Personal Trainers and Registered Dietitians, followed by 6???months of self-management. A second intervention (InII) was nested in InI and consisted of group-mediated cognitive-behavioral intervention (GMCBI) delivered by an exercise psychologist to two of the four InI groups.(1) Improving health outcomes among the participants' preactive and postactive 6-month intervention and self-management period, (2) Documenting the impact of InII (GMCBI) and location of the intervention (urban vs rural).The 6-month active InI significantly improved cardiovascular health for participants who completed the intervention. InII (GMCBI) significantly lowered the attrition rate among the participants. The self-management period was challenging for the participants and they did not make further gains; however, most were able to maintain the gains achieved during the active intervention. The location of the intervention, urban or rural, had little impact on outcomes.A community-based programme utilising healthcare professionals other than physicians to treat obese patients was effective based on premeasure and postmeasure. During the self-management phase, the participants were able to maintain the gains. Psychological support is essential to participant retention.

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  • Attitudes and preferences towards screening for dementia: A systematic review of the literature

    Martin, S; Kelly, S; Khan, A; Cullum, Sarah; Dening, T; Rait, G; Fox, C; Katona, C; Cosco, T; Brayne, C; Lafortune, L (2015-06-16)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Population screening might provide a mechanism to enable early detection of dementia. Yet the potential benefits, harms or acceptability of such a large-scale intervention are not well understood. This research aims to examine the attitudes and preferences of the general public, health care professionals, people with dementia and their carers towards population screening for dementia.A systematic review of the international literature was undertaken. A search of fifteen bibliographic databases was conducted (up to 12 July 2012; no language restriction) using terms related to dementia, screening, specific screening tools, case finding, and attitudes and preferences; genetic screening and biomarkers were excluded. All study designs were included except opinion-based papers. Included papers were doubly quality assessed and thematically analysed using NVivo.29,910 papers were identified of which 29 met the inclusion criteria. We identified seventeen themes relating to the 3 phases of the screening process (pre-, in- and post-screen) - none emerged as more of a facilitator than a barrier to the acceptance of dementia screening. Seven themes emerged in relation to the patient, carer and general population: existing health state; lifestyle and life view; awareness of dementia; role of clinician; communication; benefit; and role of the family. Ten themes emerged in relation to the clinician and healthcare professional: patient's existing health and comorbidities; awareness of dementia; confidence; duration of patient contact; suitability of screening tool; cost; disclosure; time; treatment and prognosis; and stigma.As for all screening programmes, screening for dementia raises complex issues around preference and choice for clinicians and the public, and it is unclear what specific factors promote or reduce screening acceptance the most. Overall, the level of evidence is low, few large scale studies have been undertaken and none were conducted in representative samples, all affecting the generalizability of identified themes across healthcare contexts. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that population screening for dementia may not be acceptable to either the general public or health care professionals, and highlight where focused efforts are needed to gain insights into dementia specific issues.

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  • A randomized controlled trial of Triple P Online for parents of hyperactive/ inattentive pre-schoolers

    Franke, Nike; Keown, Louise; Sanders, M (2015-03-20)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • A mixed-method evaluation of an online parenting programme for parents of hyperactive/inattentive preschool children

    Franke, Nike; Keown, Louise; Sanders, M (2015-07-09)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Intermittency, nonlinear dynamics and dissipation in the solar wind and astrophysical plasmas

    Matthaeus, Willam H.; Wan, Minping; Servidio, Sergio; Greco, A.; Osman, Kareem T.; Oughton, Sean; Dmitruk, Pablo (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    An overview is given of important properties of spatial and temporal intermittency, including evidence of its appearance in fluids, magnetofluids and plasmas, and its implications for understanding of heliospheric plasmas. Spatial intermittency is generally associated with formation of sharp gradients and coherent structures. The basic physics of structure generation is ideal, but when dissipation is present it is usually concentrated in regions of strong gradients. This essential feature of spatial intermittency in fluids has been shown recently to carry over to the realm of kinetic plasma, where the dissipation function is not known from first principles. Spatial structures produced in intermittent plasma influence dissipation, heating, and transport and acceleration of charged particles. Temporal intermittency can give rise to very long time correlations or a delayed approach to steady-state conditions, and has been associated with inverse cascade or quasi-inverse cascade systems, with possible implications for heliospheric prediction.

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  • Women's Voices: Solace and social innovation in the aftermath of the 2010 Christchurch earthquakes

    McManus, R. (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Canterbury earthquakes and the rebuild are generation-defining events for twenty-first century Aotearoa/ New Zealand. This article uses an actor network approach to explore 32 women’s narratives of being shaken into dangerous disaster situations and reconstituting themselves to cope in socially innovative ways. The women’s stories articulate on-going collective narratives of experiencing disaster and coping with loss in ‘resilient’ ways. In these women’s experiences, coping in disasters is not achieved by talking through the emotional trauma. Instead, coping comes from seeking solace through engagement with one’s own and others’ personal risk and resourcefulness in ways that feed into the emergence of socially innovative voluntary organisations. These stories offer conceptual insight into the multivalent interconnections between resilience and vulnerabilities and the contested nature of post-disaster recovery in Aotearoa/New Zealand. These women gave voice to living through disasters resiliently in ways that forged new networks of support across collective and personal narratives and broader social goals and aspirations for Aotearoa/New Zealand’s future.

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  • Measuring glucose control: can one metric rule them all?

    Chase, J.G.; Shaw, G.M. (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Three more years ??? of what?

    Thomas, Steven (2015-01-30)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Visualizing psychiatric formulation

    Alyami, H; Sundram, Frederick; Hill, Andrew; Alyami, M; Cheung, G (2015-10-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Despite the importance of psychiatric formulation, it remains one of the most challenging tasks for medical students and trainees. To facilitate teaching and learning this essential skill, we propose a visual metaphor in order to conceptualise psychiatric formulation.It is expected that this paper will assist educators and learners to better conceptualise psychiatric formulation through activating prior knowledge through this visual metaphor. Future educational research will determine the effectiveness of this proposed learning tool.

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  • Medical examiner and coroner reports: Uses and limitations in the epidemiology and prevention of late-life suicide

    Cheung, Gary; Merry, Sally; Sundram, Frederick (2015-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Late-life suicide is a growing public health concern in many parts of the world. Understanding the contributory factors to completed suicide is essential to inform the development of effective suicide risk assessment and management. The aim of this study is to synthesise the findings in studies that used coroner or medical examiner records to determine these contributory factors.The databases of Scopus (from 1960), MEDLINE (from 1946) and PsychINFO (from 1806) were searched in August 2013, to identify studies that used coroner or medical examiner records for investigating the epidemiological, sociodemographic characteristics and clinical aspects of late-life suicide.In total, 25 studies were identified. There was a lack of standardisation of variables assessed between studies leading to incomplete datasets in some work. However, a diagnosis of depression was found in 33%, and depressive mood/symptoms in 47% of cases. About 55% had a physical health problem. Terminal illness was associated with a smaller proportion (7.1%) of the cases. Older people were more likely to have had contact with primary care rather than mental health services prior to suicide.Despite their limitations, coroner and medical examiner records provide an opportunity for examining suicide epidemiology. Targeting primary care providers where late-life depression and physical illness can be detected and treated is a potential strategy to address late-life suicide.

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