5,783 results for 2016

  • Predictors of Workplace Bullying and Cyber-Bullying in New Zealand

    Gardner, Dianne; O’Driscoll, Michael P.; Cooper-Thomas, Helena D.; Roche, Maree A.; Bentley, Tim; Catley, Bevan; Teo, Stephen T. T.; Trenberth, Linda (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Background: The negative effects of in-person workplace bullying (WB) are well established. Less is known about cyber-bullying (CB), in which negative behaviours are mediated by technology. Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, the current research examined how individual and organisational factors were related to WB and CB at two time points three months apart. Methods: Data were collected by means of an online self-report survey. Eight hundred and twenty-six respondents (58% female, 42% male) provided data at both time points. Results: One hundred and twenty-three (15%) of participants had been bullied and 23 (2.8%) of participants had been cyber-bullied within the last six months. Women reported more WB, but not more CB, than men. Worse physical health, higher strain, more destructive leadership, more team conflict and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more WB. Managerial employees experienced more CB than non-managerial employees. Poor physical health, less organisational support and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more CB. Conclusion: Rates of CB were lower than those of WB, and very few participants reported experiencing CB without also experiencing WB. Both forms of bullying were associated with poorer work environments, indicating that, where bullying is occurring, the focus should be on organisational systems and processes.

    View record details
  • Acute Respiratory Tract Infections and Vitamin D: Neonatal vitamin D levels and acute respiratory tract infections in the first year of life

    Saraf, Rajneeta (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background There is growing interest in vitamin D as an immune modulator and the role of vitamin D in respiratory illnesses is increasingly being recognised. Respiratory tract infections are a prevalent cause of hospital admission in the preschool-aged population; particularly in the first year of life. In order to try to reduce the ARI disease burden, it is necessary to understand the contribution of different risk factors acting at different phases of a child???s life. One risk factor that is of particular interest for this thesis is vitamin D status at birth. Aim My aim was to investigate the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) status at birth and hospital admission with an acute respiratory tract infection in the first year of life. Two validation studies were also undertaken that allowed us to develop a dried blood spot liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay in a NZ laboratory and determine whether the developed assay was robust enough to measure 25(OH)D concentrations on dried blood spot samples stored for more than 5 years. Methods I performed a case-control study nested within Growing Up in New Zealand; a longitudinal study that is following 6853 children since their birth in 2009-2010. All the Growing Up in New Zealand cohort children hospitalised due to acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) in their first year of life were identified from linkage to the national collection of hospital events (the national minimum dataset (NMDS)). As part of the National Newborn Screening programme, 4 drops of blood were collected onto absorbent cards called dried blood spot cards (DBS). The DBS samples of respiratory cases (children in the cohort admitted with an ARI) and controls (cohort children matched with date of birth ?? 7 days and not hospitalised with an ARI) were tested for 25(OH)D concentration. Data collected during the antenatal period, birth and during infancy (9 months and immunisation register) were used to identify predictors of ARI in the first year of life. The dried blood spot 25(OH)D concentrations were categorised as deficient (3 people/bedroom (OR=1.84 95% CI 1.08 - 3.17) , living in a damp house (OR=1.54 95% CI 0.83 - 2.89), sleeping in rooms with heavy condensation (OR=1.80 95% CI 1.10 - 2.97), did not receive immunisations on time (OR=1.43 95% CI 0.89 - 2.27), and who spent on average <50 nmol/L) are twice as likely as children who are vitamin D sufficient at birth to be hospitalised with an ARI during infancy. Prevention of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and infancy has the potential to reduce the burden of severe ARI during infancy.

    View record details
  • A future-focus for teaching and learning: Technology education in two New Zealand secondary schools

    Reinsfield, Elizabeth (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Technology education has been a part of the New Zealand curriculum in many forms since its inception as a craft subject. With a global push towards technological innovation and an increased awareness of the impact of technology on society, it is reasonable to assume that technology education has an established role in student learning around the local and international social issues that intersect with technology. This article is based on the initial findings of doctoral research, which aims to illustrate how teacher’s perceptions and previous experiences influence their understandings around the nature of technology education in their school.

    View record details
  • Engraved

    McCormick, Alanah (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Rural architecture echoes a fixed pre-determined place and time, and thus permanent symbolic position. As laborious foundations to a community’s identity within their initial construction, the buildings and interiors that remain elude to regional and national identity. Interior spaces are established in co-existence with society’s progressed development relying on social, economic and ethical impact to ensure their existence. They are a documentation of time, where heritage invites contemporary interior interventions to heal and extend their narrative of identity. Layers within the macro scale of communal community, micro in the context of individual trace, heritage is the signifier to memory, connection and homage to a place. As direct dialogues to an element of time, they resist demise through relating to things that is not only associated to the building itself. Place is the binding factor for resolution of interior intervention. This thesis looks into the search for responsible answers to rural interior interventions, to actively encourage participation in securing cultural identity and regeneration. The interior is the main participant in resolving cultural heritage and identity within a built construct. Facades denote an exterior protection but, the interior of an identity resembles its true honesty and integrity. Interiors represent and contain the conflict of growth, the heart of development and the desire to transform.

    View record details
  • The importance of community engagement in learning to teach

    Fickel LH; Abbiss J; Brown L; Astall CM (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    View record details
  • Humanizing secondary school contexts: learnings from Aotearoa New Zealand and Peru Latin America

    Fickel LH; MacFarlane S; Macfarlane AH; Nieto Angel, Maria Carolina (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    View record details
  • Developing initial teacher action competence in working with culturally diverse learners

    Fickel LH; Astall C; Abbiss, J E (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Context of our work: § Teacher Education Reform in Aotearoa New Zealand § New ITE programme-Masters of Teaching and Learning § Action Competence Inquiry Framework: § Theoretical perspectives § Research question § Cultural Tool Critical Lens 1: Preservice Teacher Development of Action Competence Critical Lens 2: Theorizing teacher education practice Conclusion: Contribution to International/European conversation

    View record details
  • PLD Facilitated Support to Engage Teachers in Linking Family & Whānau to Classroom Literacy Pedagogy

    Fickel LH; Henderson C; Price G (2016)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

    In response to the Ministry of Education (MOE) focus on enhancing the provision of Professional Learning and Development (PLD), the Literacy Team Facilitators of the Literacy Language Learning Te Waipounamu team have been engaged in a multiyear process of self-study and inquiry around improving their individual and collective PLD practices. Through this ongoing inquiry, research, and evaluation process the team has identified appreciative inquiry and ‘smart tools’ as “high leverage moves” within their PLD. In this paper, we provide a documentary account of one particular area of the team’s embedded inquiry, namely the use and impact of using the ‘Student Inquiry Protocol’ as a framework for engaging and supporting teachers to make explicit links to family/whānau as part of their literacy pedagogy practices. This protocol is used within the Teacher Inquiry process that underpins the PLD. Through this account we highlight the positive outcomes of this approach for both teachers and students.

    View record details
  • Examining the Roles of Residuals Under an Adaptation Level Theory Model for Tinnitus Perception

    Durai, M (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of sound in the environment (1-4). The precise mechanisms giving rise to tinnitus perception and distress are still not fully known. The Adaptation Level Theory (ALT) model of tinnitus (5, 6) is an ecological framework which takes a holistic approach to understanding tinnitus and its complexity, in which tinnitus magnitude estimates are based on interactions between the focal component (tinnitus), contextual component (any background noise or applied sounds), and residual components (individual cognitive and behavioural characteristics). Aim: To empirically explore the influence and strength of individual residual factors under a novel Adaptation Level Theory (ALT) model of tinnitus perception. Personality traits, emotion and prediction/anticipation of sounds were residuals examined. Methods: Seven studies were undertaken as part of this doctoral thesis: 1) A scoping review investigated key personality traits relevant to tinnitus, and the relationship between affective disorders and tinnitus. 2) A web-based survey was administered to 154 individuals with tinnitus and 61 age, gender and hearing level-matched non-tinnitus controls. The survey measured four key self-reported personality traits (social closeness, stress reaction, alienation and self-control), tinnitus characteristics and hearing handicap. 3) A behavioural experiment (N=22) introduced short-term emotional stimuli, differing along valence and arousal dimensions, and measured tinnitus loudness and annoyance characteristics. Stimuli were presented in two modalities: auditory and visual. 4) A comprehensive narrative synthesis of current research assessed the feasibility of a relationship between auditory memory, predictive coding and tinnitus generation. 5) A short-term adaptation experiment (N=23) and two-week feasibility trial (N=7) compared the effect of predictable and unpredictable amplitude-modulated computer surf sound on tinnitus loudness and annoyance characteristics. 6) An electroencephalography (EEG) study that compared mean ERP amplitudes and oscillatory band activity in response to tone deviants and tone omissions (at the pitch of tinnitus) between individuals with tinnitus (N=16) and hearing-level matched controls (N=14). 7) A randomized tinnitus sound therapy clinical trial (N=18) was conducted comparing the effectiveness of nature sounds with neutral broadband noise. Multiple experimental outcomes relating to tinnitus, emotion, attention and psychological state were measured at three time points: at sound fitting, 4 weeks after administration and 8 weeks after administration. Results: 1) The scoping review concluded personality traits to have a consistent association with the distress experienced by adult tinnitus help-seekers, and help-seekers were also more likely to experience anxiety and depression symptoms and/or disorders. Limitations present in current research were lack of appropriately controlled comparisons when assessing personality trait profiles of tinnitus sufferers and non-tinnitus individuals. 2) Tinnitus sufferers displayed higher levels of stress reaction, lower social closeness, lower self-control and higher alienation than the control group in the web-based survey. 3) In the behavioural emotion experiment, low valence (unpleasant) auditory stimuli led to higher subjective tinnitus loudness ratings in males and females and higher subjective distress ratings in males only. Visual emotional stimuli did not have an effect on tinnitus characteristics. 4) The narrative review provided theoretical support and indirect electrophysiological evidence for continuous prediction errors generated within the auditory system driving tinnitus perception and distress, as well as eliciting global disruptions to attention and working memory. 5) Both short-term Unpredictable and Predictable sound administration led to a decrease in tinnitus loudness in the adaptation experiment, however, only Unpredictable sound lowered tinnitus distress ratings. 6) A larger N1c waveform was elicited in the absence of any tone deviation within the left primary auditory cortex of tinnitus participants for the EEG study. Abnormal N1c waveform growth was present across levels of deviant conditions for the tinnitus group. There was limited evidence to support the Thalamocortical Dysrhythmia hypothesis of greater theta and gamma activity present among individuals with tinnitus. A role for attention and auditory scene analysis in driving tinnitus perception and salience was supported. No differences were present between groups for tone omissions. Different levels of activity between tinnitus and control groups were observed in regions corresponding to attentional as well as limbic networks. 7) The administration of sound therapy led to significant reduction in tinnitus impact over 8 weeks; this effect was largely due to BBN sound therapy which resulted in significantly greater reduction of tinnitus impact compared to nature sounds. The positive effect of sound on tinnitus was supported by secondary tinnitus and psychologicalrelated outcome measures, but not interviews. BBN sound resulted in an increase in loudness level matches needed to match tinnitus; there was minimal change in loudness level matches for nature sounds. There were indications of individual preferences and individual outcome effects observed. The presence of tinnitus subgroups was apparent in terms of which sound was most favoured, which sound had the most benefit, as well as in how sound-tinnitus interactions occurred as time progressed. Conclusions: Personality traits, emotion and prediction all play a significant role as residual factors under the ALT model to shape final tinnitus perception and experience as well as in influencing response of tinnitus to introduction of external sound introduction. Overall, tinnitus magnitude appears to increase with high stress reaction, low social closeness, low self-control and high alienation personality trait levels, as well as by the introduction of unpleasant auditory stimuli. In contrast, the presence of sound therapy stimuli decreases tinnitus magnitude and demonstrates psychological benefit over time. This thesis provides some empirical support for the ALT model of tinnitus. Further research is needed to examine attention as a weighting factor, develop clinically useful indicators of ideal sound therapy levels under the ALT framework, as well as customize therapeutic sound to tailor for individual residual levels, needs and preferences over time. Development of computational models based on the ALT which integrate residual factors, weighting factors and tinnitusexternal sound interactions may be useful for delineating subgroups and predicting how an individual might respond to potential treatments. The findings from this thesis can form a basic computational template to build-on.

    View record details
  • Design and pacific

    Parker Potoi, Meraz (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research explores how Pacific and contemporary cultures cohesively blend through 3D printing to create a new identity for Pacific people. The project seeks to further the development of concerning issues surrounding Identity and diabetes within Pacific communities. Foreign preconceptions about the Pacific are been challenged here to create a new identity about the Pacific from a Pacific perspective. The extraction of these Pacific motifs will be explored through a Design realm, 3D printing, which contribute to the development of a contemporary Pacific. The project seeks to explore the effects of type 1 diabetes on adolescents. In particular, with the managing and storage of their diabetic equipment’s while outside of home care. Pressures of adolescent years is added when diabetes is present, which can cause physiological disadvantages. Bike riding will be the scenario of choice, where storage kits for bikes are 3D printed. Pacific patterning is encouraged to help with the 3D printing process, the familiarity of Pacific patterning is to inspire my Pacific people in becoming active with diabetes. Participants will be used in this research to gain feedback and further the design, giving them a sense of autonomy through unique storage kits, portraying their identity. Inspiration is drawn from my heritage, which is explored through my contemporary environment (Design), to portray my identity as a Pacific designer. This is evident throughout my experimentation whereas the incorporation of Pacific patterning and themes influence the final design.

    View record details
  • Prevalence of Rheumatic Heart Disease and Other Echocardiographic Abnormalities in Polynesian Young Adults in South Auckland, New Zealand

    Webb, Rachel; Culliford-Semmens, N; Mow, AC; Doughty, R; Tilton, E; Peat, B; Stirling, J; Gentles, T; Stewart, J; Wilson, N (2016-06)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Long-Term Outcomes of New Zealand Children and Young Adults Undergoing Surgery for Rheumatic Heart Disease

    Webb, Rachel; Remenyi, B; Finucane, K; Lennon, D; Gentles, T; Sidhu, K; Wilson, N (2016-06)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Sequential Intravenous High Dose Oral Antibiotics in the Treatment of Osteoarticular Infections in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Tsui, K; Crawford, H; Mow, FC; Webb, Rachel; Voss, LM; Stott, NS; Stewart, J; Lennon, DR (2016)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • The Microbiology of Septic Arthritis in Young Auckland Children

    Boom, MVD; Webb, Rachel; Lennon, DR; Crawford, H; Freeman, J; Castle, J; Mistry, R (2016-12-01)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Culturally responsive practice for indigenous contexts: Provenance to potential

    Fickel LH; MacFarlane S; Macfarlane AH (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    View record details
  • Working Memory, What do SLTs need to know?

    Newbury JM; Cook K; Ramsay R (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Aims of workshop: For participants to: understand working memory systems relevant to language processing ; understand the implications of poor working memory for assessment /intervention ; have hands-on experience testing working memory ; understand the evidence base around working memory training programmes ; consider application to clients

    View record details
  • Development of novel nanoparticulate delivery system for oral delivery of gemcitabine to treat breast cancer

    Chen, Guanyu (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background and Aim: In New Zealand women, breast cancer has a highest rate of incidence of any cancer. In 2015, there were approximate 60,300 new cases of breast cancer diagnosed globally, which is second most common cancer overall. To address breast cancer, chemotherapy is typically administered parenterally. However, this is an unpleasant and inconvenient administration route, and often leads to high peak levels of drug in the systemic circulation above the maximum tolerated concentration (MTC) resulting in a multitude of side effects. Oral chemotherapy is attractive with better patient acceptability, good therapeutic efficacy, and low cost. However, there are many obstacles to achieve oral drug delivery including physical and biochemical barriers, such as the epithelial barrier of the small intestine, degradation through the acidic environment of the stomach and digestive enzymes throughout the gastrointestinal tract, as well as efflux pumps which limit oral drug absorption. Gemcitabine is a promising drug candidate with proven activity against breast cancer, however, it has an oral bioavailability of less than 10%, due to its high hydrophilicity and low permeability through intestinal epithelium. Therefore, the aim of this project was to develop a novel nanoparticulate drug delivery system for oral delivery of gemcitabine, to improve its oral bioavailability. Methods: Two different polymeric nanoparticulate delivery systems were designed suitable for the oral delivery of gemcitabine. The first was gemcitabine-loaded TMC modified PLGATPGS nanoparticles (NPs) prepared through a modified solvent evaporation technique. The PLGA-TPGS random copolymer was synthesized prior to the fabrication of NPs. A central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the formulation parameters. The second delivery system of gemcitabine loaded TMC-CSK NP was fabricated via an ionic gelation method. The TMC polymer was synthesized by using a new two-step methylation method prior to preparing the TMC based NPs. The physical and chemical properties of both nanoparticulate delivery systems were determined including particles size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in-vitro drug release and ex-vivo drug permeation over the porcine epithelial membrane, and the optimal formulations were selected. A co-cultured Caco-2 and HT29-MTX-E12 cell model was set up to determine cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and transport studies of the drug solution and optimal drug loaded NPs. Finally, the pharmacokinetic parameters associated with different formulation were determined using a Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. The tumour growth rate associated with the drug solution and the drug loaded NPs were investigated using a BALB/c nude mouse model. Results and discussion: The optimal formulations of drug loaded TMC modified PLGATPGS NPs and drug loaded TMC-CSK NPs showed particle size of 243.21 ?? 21.72 nm, and 173.60 ?? 6.82 nm, zeta potential of +14.70 ?? 1.31 mV, and +18.50 ?? 0.22 mV, entrapment efficiency of 76.43 ?? 0.21%, and 66.43 ?? 0.13%, respectively. Particles of less than 500 nm show significantly higher absorption than larger particles across intestinal epithelium, thus the particle sizes of both NPs are suitable for oral absorption. NPs with zeta potentials more positive than +15 mV or more negative than -15 mV are considered stable, thus the two NPs are considered having good steric stability. In addition, the positive charged NPs promote mucoadhesion with the negatively charged intestinal mucosa, through electrostatic interaction. The high entrapment efficiency results were promising and are higher than most polymeric NPs delivery systems reported. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the TMC modified PLGA-TPGS NPs were spherical with a smooth particle surface, while the TMC-CSK NPs had more irregular shape with a craggy particle surface. They both showed sustain drug release profiles during in vitro drug release studies, and greater drug permeation compared to drug solution over porcine epithelial membrane in the ex-vivo drug permeation studies. Moreover, both optimal drug loaded NPs exhibited good stability in terms of particle size and drug entrapment over 3 months stored at 4??C. The cytotoxicity of gemcitabine solution, gemcitabine loaded TMC modified PLGA-TPGS NPs, and gemcitabine loaded TMC-CSK NPs on Caco-2/HT29-MTX-E12 cells showed dose dependence and with IC50s of 529.4 ?? 67.2 ??g.mL-1, 1881.4 ?? 51.5 ??g.mL-1 and 1682.4 ?? 27.9 ??g.mL-1 respectively, indicating the drug loaded NPs were less toxic to the intestinal epithelial cells compared to the drug solution. The rate of cellular uptake of both optimal drug loaded NPs was time-, temperature-, and concentration- dependant. Cellular uptake for the gemcitabine loaded TMC modified PLGA-TPGS NPs undergo active transport involving adsorptive mediated endocytosis and caveloae mediated endocytosis, while the gemcitabine loaded TMC-CSK NPs was through active transport associate with adsorptive mediated, clathrin and caveolae mediated endocytosis. In cellular transport studies, both drug loaded NPs had greater drug transport capability compared to drug solution over the Caco-2/HT29- MTX-E12 cell membrane. For the transport mechanism studies, both NP formulations showed electrostatic interaction with the intestinal epithelial cells. P glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux affected the cellular transport for both NPs. By blocking the P-gp efflux pump, more drug loaded NPs were transported through the cell membrane. The multiple resistance protein-2 (MRP2) only affected TMC-CSK NPs to some extent. Interestingly, for the TMC modified PLGA-TPGS NPs, the addition of the MRP2 inhibitor resulted in a reduction in the efflux of gemcitabine suggesting that the role of MRP2 in the efflux of gemcitabine loaded TMC modified PLGA-TPGS NPs can be neglected. Moreover, EDTA is able to activate the cellular protein kinase C (PKC) by depletion of extracellular calcium via chelation, resulting in tight junction opening. The addition of EDTA significantly enhanced the cellular transport for both drug loaded NPs, facilitating the transport of the NPs via the paracellular route. In the in vivo pharmacokinetic studies, the half-life (t1/2) and oral bioavailability of gemcitabine were significantly improved in drug loaded NPs compared to drug solution group. The t1/2 of gemcitabine loaded TMC-CSK NPs and gemcitabine loaded TMC modified PLGA-TPGS NPs were of 77.16 ?? 24.20 hr and 69.98 ?? 20.50 hr, respectively, compared with 9.40 ?? 2.13 hr for the gemcitabine solution. The absolute oral bioavailability of gemcitabine loaded TMC-CSK NPs (55.20%), was 1.1-fold and 6.1-fold higher than that of gemcitabine loaded TMC modified PLGA-TPGS NPs (49.92%) and gemcitabine solution (9.86%), respectively. In pharmacodynamics studies, the drug loaded NPs had greater inhibition of tumour growth rate compared with the drug solution (p < 0.01). The gemcitabine loaded TMC-CSK NPs group had the greatest inhibition of tumour growth, with 3.12-fold and 1.78-fold reduction compared to saline control group and gemcitabine solution group, respectively. This result corresponds to the pharmacokinetic studies with greater oral bioavailability and longer plasma half-life of gemcitabine loaded TMC-CSK NPs group compared to all other groups. Conclusion: This project has demonstrated that TMC modified PLGA-TPGS NPs and TMCCSK NPs can be utilised as controlled release drug delivery systems for the oral delivery of gemcitabine. Encapsulated gemcitabine is able to overcome the physical and biochemical barriers in GIT, to enhance the drug absorption over the intestinal epithelial membrane, therefore improving the oral bioavailability of gemcitabine, and promoting the anticancer therapeutic efficacy. The promising results confirmed the two developed NPs are promising platforms for developing future oral chemotherapy products loaded with gemcitabine.

    View record details
  • Mirroring and Indeterminacy : towards indeterminate mind-brain identity.

    Deng, Zhuo-Ran (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this dissertation I offer my objections to three famous arguments concerning the mindbody problem. The first argument is Saul Kripke’s (1980) modal argument against psychophysical identity theory. Kripke argues that if pain is identical to C-fibre firing then this identity must be necessary. However he points out that the identity is, if true, also a posteriori, and he argues that this alleged a posteriori identity cannot be accounted for in the way that scientific a posteriori identities are accounted for. He concludes on this basis that pain cannot be identical to C-fibre firing, and, more generally, that alleged psychophysical identities are false. The second argument is David Chalmers’ (1996) ‘zombie’ argument against materialism. Chalmers argues that zombies are conceivable, that the conceivability of zombies entails the possibility of zombies, and that the possibility of zombies is inconsistent with the truth of materialism. He concludes that materialism is false. I show that these arguments both share the same logical form—a form distinctive of what I call a ‘conceivability argument’. I show that for any such conceivability argument, C, there is a corresponding ‘mirror argument’ that is deductively valid and has a conclusion contradicting C’s conclusion. I show that a proponent of C can challenge the premises of the mirror argument only at the cost of undermining C’s premises. I conclude on this basis that conceivability arguments are fallacious in general, and, more particularly, that both Kripke’s modal argument and Chalmers’ zombie argument are unsound. This critique of these two arguments constitutes the first part of the dissertation. The second part is devoted to Hillary Putnam’s (1967) multiple realisability argument against identity theory. Putnam argues that if human pain is a neural firing pattern in the brain, then octopus pain will likewise be identical to some physical state of the octopus— say, an excitation pattern in the jelly-ish tissue of the octopus brain. But while human pain and octopus pain feel alike, neural firing and jelly excitation are not alike. It follows from standard logic that human pain is not identical to neural firing patterns. In reply, I attempt to reconcile identity theory with multiple realisability by advocating a semantics in which identity statements involving vague terms such as ‘pain’ are indeterminate. I develop a non-classical axiomatic theory of indeterminate identity relations, which implies that indeterminate identities are non-transitive. I also show that the principle of the transitivity of identity is a vital inference rule in Putnam’s argument. If my analysis is correct then Putnam’s argument is invalid.

    View record details
  • The Role of Architects in Post Disaster Reconstruction

    Hulme, Jessica (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In post-disaster reconstruction in underdeveloped countries, architects all too often create design solutions with little appreciation of the environment in which their solutions are expected to work. The disaster context for reconstruction is complex and irregular. Issues vary from lack of available resources; difficulty in transporting resources, inflation of costs for construction materials, corruption in the allocation of aid money and resources, language barriers, and the complexity of architects needing to meet the local socio-economic and cultural norms of each particular community. These are but a few of the complexities that need to be addressed when working in post-disaster reconstruction. This paper draws on grounded theory field research and analysis of reconstruction efforts in Samoa after the tsunami in 2009 and category 2 Tropical Cyclone Evan (TC Evan) in 2012,; and category 5 Tropical Cyclone Winston (TC Winston) that devastated Fiji in 2016. This paper measures this research and analysis against literature and research and analysis of other post-disaster reconstruction case studies to come up with design iterations that are viable for the post-disaster context of Nanokonoko village, Viti Levu, Fiji. This thesis investigates the ways that the architectural process of design can be used so that post-disaster communities have access to adequate, self-sustainable, and affordable housing. It does so by identifying the gaps and potential barriers that are created along the rebuilding work flow, then analyses and recommends an improved process for post-disaster reconstruction in underdeveloped countries for the architect and architecture to follow. By adopting the recommended process of reconstruction, the living situation of communities will significantly improve immediately following the disaster and in the long-term. This thesis also explores the many other value adding roles that the architectural framework can benefit reconstruction through. By ensuring designs are culturally and socio-economically viable to the rural village of Nanokonoko and engages with the affected community in the early stages of recovery.

    View record details
  • Stone as drawing: Drawing stone [Exhibition catalogue entry]

    Jenner, Gordon (2016)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details