5,911 results for 2016

  • Practical Joule Heating for Phytosanitary Log Treatment

    Heffernan WJB; van Herel M; Nursultanov N; Smart T (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    A team at the University of Canterbury’s Electric Power Engineering Centre (EPECentre) has developed a laboratory machine and process that can rapidly and reliably Joule heat the sapwood of softwood timber. This treatment, initially intended for phytosanitary purposes, has been demonstrated on multiple full-sized, New Zealand (NZ) grown, Pinus radiata logs. The team has been working with Scion (NZ’s Forest Research Institute) and Canterbury University’s Departments of Forestry, Chemical & Process Engineering and Electrical & Computer Engineering, with funding from NZ’s Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) and industry organization Stakeholders in Methyl-bromide Reduction (STIMBR). A publications search shows that the Joule heating idea was trialled as a veneer log pre-treatment by the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Madison, Wisconsin in 1953. More recently some computer modelling work has been done in France for the same purpose, but the idea has not been commercialized, seemingly due to insufficient understanding of the process to overcome the problems of uneven heating profile. The EPECentre team has studied the electrical and thermal behaviour of freshly harvested P. radiata in sufficient depth to create both a full Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model and a simplified computer model. The simplified model is sufficiently robust to generate control parameters enabling the machine to successfully heat all sapwood parts of every log tested to above 60o C, for ISPM-15 type compliance over a half hour period.

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  • Here to stay: Reshaping the regions through mana Māori

    Simmonds, Naomi Beth; Kukutai, Tahu; Ryks, John (2016)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Situated 65 kilometres south-east of Hamilton, Putāruru (population 3747 in the 2013 Census) is typical of the many farming service towns scattered across rural Aotearoa New Zealand. Bakeries, op shops, a sports bar and a farm equipment supplier occupy the main street. Unlike nearby Tirau, which transformed from a one-stop shop into a vibrant boutique village in the late 1990s, Putāruru township remains largely indistinguishable from other rural centres. There are few clues to the substantial farming-based and water-generated wealth that lies beyond the town.

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  • Chief’s Mana in action; a study investigating the team’s perspective.

    Howarth, Joelene; Smith, Tiaki Brett; Galbraith, David (2016)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    Team culture, and its relevance to performance behaviour and attitudes, has recently gained increased focus in sport psychology research and practice (Schroeder, 2010; Cruickshank & Collins 2012; Morgan, Fletcher & Sarkar, 2014). Cruickshank and Collins (2012) state that“high performing cultures prevail when the shared perception and action of the elite team environment members; (a) supports sustained optimal performance; (b) persists across time in the face of variable results(i.e. wins, losses, ties); and most importantly, (c) leads to consistently high performance” (p.340). Spink et al. (2013) found preliminary evidence that a positive psychological climate, as defined by the significance and meaning of the work environment to the individual, is also linked to increased athlete effort. Various researchers suggests that it is a difficult task to change, cultivate and maintain a team culture, that is the social and psychological environment, which promotes best performance (Cruickshank & Collins 2012; Schroeder, 2010).

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  • Quantum Transport Experiments with Ultracold Atoms

    White, Donald (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Quantum simulation is a burgeoning field of research, in which quantum systems are engineered to behave similarly to external, complex systems of interest. These quantum simulators are an alternative to the elusive all-purpose ???quantum computer??? and instead function as analogue computers, allowing an external system of choice to be understood via measurements on a controllable engineered system. An important practical aspect of quantum mechanics concerns its effects on transport. This thesis describes a series of experiments with ultracold atoms in custom optical potentials, detailing quantum simulators developed for analysing the quantum transport properties of specific systems of interest. Two environments in particular are investigated: the quantum chaotic system of the deltakicked rotor, and a spatially disordered potential. The delta-kicked rotor investigations focus on the effects of phase modulation. By applying a periodic phase modulation of f0; 2 =3; 0g, the phase space is modified to generate a Hamiltonian ratchet, manifesting as directed transport within the chaotic sea without any biased force. We characterise the phase space by applying -classical theory, and capitalise on the narrow momentum distribution of a Bose???Einstein condensate by experimentally exploring the phase space. A sinusoidal phase modulation reveals two different transport regimes, dependent on the commensurability of the kicking frequency and phase modulation frequencies. We characterise the resonances found in the commensurate case, and study the effective phase noise induced in the incommensurate case. A particular finding of this investigation is that the quantum resonance is relatively robust to phase noise, while dynamical localisation is inhibited by small levels of phase noise. Finally, we implement a truly custom potential with high resolution imaging of a spatial light modulator, and develop a unique high aspect ratio 2D trap for quantum transport studies over long distances. We create custom spatially disordered channels as part of ???atomtronic??? circuits to study the effect of disorder in a manner directly analogous to electronic systems. Through measurements of the effective channel resistances, we observe the first signatures of Anderson localisation in a 2D ultracold atom system.

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  • Young People and Staff Perspectives on Offender Rehabilitation

    Mati, Elizabeth (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    It is important that evidence-based interventions that address the dynamic risk factors of offending are implemented to reduce youth offending. Equally important, is the ability of service providers to engage young people to attend and participate in interventions that elicit positive change. The current study used qualitative methods to explore treatment and facilitator factors that increase engagement, improve the therapeutic relationship and facilitate pro-social change. The Genesis Youth Programme (GYP) in South Auckland provides multiple coordinated services for young people who offend. Fifteen M??ori and Pacific young people who have been involved in the GYP were interviewed. A focus group with five of the GYP facilitators was also completed. Realist, M??ori and Pacific epistemologies informed the separate thematic analyses performed on the two sets of data. The two sets of data were categorised under the three main topics of facilitator characteristics, intervention characteristics and youth characteristics. Overall the young people evaluated the GYP favourably and described the facilitators as being non-directive, available and honest. Most of the young people reported ethnic matching was not essential and instead reported the qualities of being non-judgmental and respectful as more important. The young people made reference to personal reasons for change and reported a strong sense of ethnic pride. GYP was described favourably as a place that promotes change, where they received services that were helpful. The facilitators reported being available and honest with the young people was necessary for engagement. In addition, expressing unconditional positive regard and humour helped to build a positive relationship. The facilitators reported the intervention characteristics contributing to intervention success were the GYP???s values, their tendency to respond to need, and their shared approach to caring for the young people. In contrast, resource and system restraints were seen as negatively impacting on the services offered. Social issues and teenage parenting were also extracted from the focus group data. These findings are discussed in relation to existing literature and implications for service improvements are presented.

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  • Power Ultrasound and High Pressure Processing Inactivation of Specific Microbial Spores in Foods

    Evelyn, Evelyn (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Bacterial and fungal spores are a great concern in food industries due to their extreme resistance to physical and chemical treatments. Thermal processing at high temperatures often diminishes food quality. Therefore in this study, high pressure processing (HPP) and power ultrasound alone and in combination with heat (HPP-thermal) and thermosonication (TS) were investigated for their abilities to inactivate the spores of Clostridium perfringens and psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus in low-acid (pH>4.6) foods, and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Neosartorya fischeri, and Byssochlamys nivea spores in high-acid (pH<4.6) foods. The spore inactivation was compared with thermal processing alone and the inactivation kinetics was modeled. The 600 MPa HPP-thermal and TS treatments were better than thermal processing alone for the microbial spore inactivation, requiring between 8???30??C lower temperatures to obtain the same lethality. The 600 MPa HPP-75??C was the best technique to inactivate C. perfringens in beef slurry, and N. fischeri, and B. nivea moulds in juice/puree. With respect to C. perfringens, spore reductions of ???2 log after 20 min were obtained for HPP-thermal vs. almost no inactivation for TS and thermal processes. Regarding the moulds, the 600 MPa HPP-75??C inactivated ???4 log after 20 min, while the TS and thermal treatments increased the spore numbers by up to 2.5 log. Regarding B. cereus spores, TS was the most effective method to inactivate them in skim milk and beef slurry. Over 15 min, TS caused ???5 log in milk vs 3 log after HPP-thermal and 2 log with thermal process. In beef slurry, TS was actually able to increase the thermal spore inactivation in beef slurry by more than 6 fold. TS and thermal processing alone at 78??C had no effect on A. acidoterrestris spores. However, TS treatment (78??C) of HPP pretreated spores suspended in orange juice increased the spore inactivation by ???1.6 fold. Lower D-values were obtained at higher acoustic power densities. In addition, heat shock (HS) and ultrasonication pretreatment of the spores doubled the spore thermal inactivation of C. perfringens and A. acidoterrestris: pretreated C. perfringens spores D95??C = 9.8 min vs 22 min in beef slurry; pretreated A. acidoterrestris spores D95??C = 0.8 min vs 1.5 min in orange juice. With respect to overall spore resistance to different technologies at 70-75??C, psychrotrophic B. cereus spores were the least resistant. The spores of B. nivea and N. fischeri showed the highest resistance to thermal treatment over 30 min. A. acidoterrestris and C. perfringens were more difficult to inactivate with TS processing and C. perfringens was more difficult to inactivate with HPP-thermal treatment. The mould ascospore resistance to HPP-thermal and TS processes increased with increasing spore age. Regarding 4 week old N. fischeri spores at 75??C TS or HPP-thermal, 27 min were required for 1 log reduction, whereas 74 min was required to obtain the same spore inactivation for 12 week old spores. With respect to 4 week old B. nivea spores, the results were closer. While 13 min were required for 1 log reduction, 29 min were required to obtain the same spore inactivation for 12 week old spores. The HPP-thermal inactivation for all the microbial spores was well described with the Weibull model, whereas the inactivation kinetics for TS treatment was species/strain/food dependent. The TS inactivation of psychrotrophic B. cereus spores in skim milk and A. acidoterrestris spores in orange juice followed simple first order kinetics, whereas log logistic and Weibull models described the TS inactivation of B. cereus and C. perfringens spores in beef slurry, respectively. Lorentzian distribution modeled the 4-10 week old mould spore inactivation with TS treatment. With the exception of thermal inactivation of mould spores at T ??? 85??C, all the spore thermal inactivations followed the simple first order kinetic model.

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  • Electrodeposition Coatings by Ionic Co- discharge Technique

    Tay, See (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Electrochemical co-deposition of metal with a second phase material has been widely applied in industry to improve the properties of composite coatings. Traditional composite coatings were generally prepared by suspending the second phase particles in a plating bath solution with vigorous agitation to achieve good dispersion of particles. Most research has focused on the co-deposition of metal matrix with hard oxides, carbides, nitrides, diamond, etc. However, little research has investigated the two insoluble metals coatings. The overall aim of this thesis is to study and develop two insoluble metals (or two phases) coatings using ionic co-discharge method. Bi was co-deposited with different coating metal matrices (Ni, Ag, Zn and Cu). A number of plating parameters including current density, deposition time, direct or pulse current supply and concentration of Bi ions in the electrolyte have been investigated to evaluate their effect on the coating preparation and quality. Experimental results indicated that the microstructure and properties of Bi doped coatings can be very varied on different metal matrices even the co-deposition processes were similar. In-situ formation of NiBi intermetallic compound was observed when Bi is co-deposited with Ni using the ionic codischarge process. Ag-Bi alloy was produced with Bi acting as the alloying element in Ag-Bi coating. Bi is insoluble in the Zn or Cu matrix at a relatively small proportion of Bi content. The mechanical properties of the co-deposited coatings were generally enhanced by the refined microstructure and dispersion strengthening effect due to the incorporation of Bi. The content of Bi in the coating matrix, except for Cu-Bi, was dependent on the plating parameters, which was increased with the applied current density, the employment of pulse current and the higher content of Bi in the electrolyte. All coatings developed in this work presented better mechanical properties with the incorporation of a small quantity of Bi without losing other desired properties such as corrosion resistance, conductivity and antimicrobial properties.

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  • Shifting personal brandscapes: young sojourners??? consumer acculturation

    Brosius, Nina (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis explores additional acculturation agents and forces for young sojourners. In particular, this research focuses on how individual sojourners??? consumer-brand relationships and personal brandscapes shift as result of temporary mobility. In addition, the impacts of the individual???s sojourn on home and host others through gifting and the shared production and consumption of foods is investigated. Although consumer researchers have explored consumer socialisation and consumer-brand relationships intensively, the potential of these findings to inform consumer acculturation research has not been fully explored. A review of the literature reveals a gap with regard to how individuals??? brand consumption and personal brandscapes are affected in temporary global mobility. To address this gap, this thesis has adopted a qualitative approach in the form of longitudinal research. In-depth interviews were conducted over a period of twenty months prior to, during and post-return of young consumers??? temporary sojourns. Participant observation in the form of shopping with consumers and a netnography permitted the triangulation of data which was hermeneutically analysed. This analysis revealed that despite globalisation, differences do exist between home and host brandscapes, which can trigger the reliance on familiar home brands for pragmatic as well as emotional reasons. However, varying degrees of temporary relationships with locally available brands or local instantiations of global brands are also evident. The gifting of foods and other mundane products between sojourners and home and host others allows for the representation of different selves and for the creation, establishment, maintenance and modification of social bonds during and post sojourn. The exchange of branded products thereby lets those mundane items act as material acculturation agents. The findings further show that shared production and consumption of foods (mundane and extraordinary, home and host) acts as acculturation force which aids intercultural exchange and multicultural adaptation between sojourner, home and host others and other sojourners. This thesis concludes that brands can act as acculturation agents and the sharing of mundane consumption and production as an acculturation force in temporary sojourns.

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  • A Narrative Ethnography of Primary School Teachers??? Language Perceptions, Preferences and Practices in Rural Pakistan

    Khan, Aziz (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study focuses on teachers, one of the most vital stakeholders in the education system, to explore how they view and put into practice language-in-education (LiE) policy in rural primary schools in the northwest of Pakistan. The narrative ethnographic research was carried out in three schools, all located in the same area but each following a different language as medium of instruction (MoI): English ??? the official and the most sought after language; Urdu ??? the national language and the local lingua franca; and Pashto ??? the indigenous language of the area where the study is based. The central aim of the study was to investigate what language perceptions teachers have, which languages they prefer as subjects and MoI at primary-level education, which ones they actually use for teaching in the three schools with different MoI, why they make these choices, and what implications their language perception, preferences and practices hold for macro-level LiE policy. In order to find answers to these and related questions, extensive narrative interviews with and classroom observations of six participants (two teachers from each school) were carried out over a three-month period. Participant journals and review of official documents also constituted methods of data collection. Findings reveal that the teachers perceive English as a gatekeeper to success, opportunity and prosperity, and therefore the most important language for the rural students to learn to be able to reach the communities they imagine for them. Their perceptions of Urdu revolve around its role in the students??? future education, awareness about Islam, and communication across provinces; they therefore favour it as a necessary component of the primary school curriculum. As for their (and all the students???) mother tongue, Pashto, they express immense love for the language but oppose its inclusion as a taught subject since they do not perceive it to have any pragmatic value in the linguistic marketplace. The teachers, nevertheless, emphasise the use of Pashto for explaining lesson content. Their observed language practices reveal a predominant employment of Urdu and subsidiary use of Pashto, with the use of English merely limited to reading from textbooks and mechanical translation into Urdu, regardless of the MoI followed by the school. The findings indicate the ineffectiveness of using different MoIs in the rural schools where the teachers??? language perceptions and practices are largely identical irrespective of where they teach. In particular, it points towards the inadequacies of top-down mother-tongue education policy in achieving the intended objectives because of implementational spaces at the local level. In general, the study contributes to our understanding of the complex LiE policy processes at play on the ground in rural Pakistan.

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  • An investigation into the current environment for technical vocational education and training leadership development in New Zealand polytechnics

    Baglow, Lee (2016)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    This thesis examines the professional development needs and leadership development opportunities for New Zealand technical vocational education and training (TVET) leaders. It also considers the significant responsibilities placed on the shoulders of vocational trades leaders as they respond to the demands of their institutions, the external funding agency, industry training organisations and government policy makers. Whether in the public or private sector, it is assumed that the current state of technical vocational education and training (TVET) leadership development in New Zealand polytechnic institutions has been found to be wanting. The drive for efficiency has contributed to the development of a business focused middle management infrastructure. The gap between senior management and technical vocational education and training (TVET) leaders has widened. This gap effectively limits those leaders with potential to gain the experience of on the job training and career advancement into full management positions. This qualitative study investigated the perceptions of TVET leaders in relation to their professional development needs and leadership development opportunities in two New Zealand polytechnic institutions. Two focus groups of TVET lecturers were conducted to identity their perceptions with regards to their role, opportunities, challenges and barriers. Both groups were questioned for their professional development needs in relation to leadership progression in the future. Two data gathering methods were employed as six middle leaders and one senior leader were interviewed and two groups of TVET lectures were interviewed in focus groups. The findings of this research showed a number of difficulties faced by TVET leaders as they struggle to come to terms with the complexities of their roles. The research also indicated a number of inconsistencies in the vocational trades leader’s role, even though their contributions are becoming increasingly important. The study highlighted that vocational trades leaders were generally ill prepared and require support in order to fulfil their roles as managers, leaders and in many cases, educators. Hence, there is a need for institutions to organise leadership and prepare TVET leaders with the provision of opportunities for leadership development. Research Aims and Questions The overall objective of this research is to investigate the vocational trades professional development needs and leadership development opportunities for TVET leaders in two in New Zealand polytechnic institutions. This study aims to identify challenges faced by New Zealand TVET leaders and their professional development needs. This research should provide an insight into the work of vocational trades leaders and contribute to gaining a better understanding of their role,institutional requirements and development opportunities.

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  • Multi-Hazard Flooding Interactions in the Ōpāwaho Heathcote Catchment,Christchurch, New Zealand

    Hart DE; Hawke KA (2016)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report provides an initial overview and gap analysis of the multi-hazards interactions that might affect fluvial and pluvial flooding (FPF) hazard in the Ōpāwaho Heathcote catchment. As per the terms of reference, this report focuses on a one-way analysis of the potential effects of multi-hazards on FPF hazard, as opposed to a more complex multi-way analysis of interactions between all hazards. We examined the relationship between FPF hazard and hazards associated with the phenomena of tsunamis; coastal erosion; coastal inundation; groundwater; earthquakes; and mass movements. Tsunamis: Modelling research indicates the worst-case tsunami scenarios potentially affecting the Ōpāwaho Heathcote catchment are far field. Under low probability, high impact tsunami scenarios waves could travel into Pegasus Bay and the Avon-Heathcote Estuary Ihutai, reaching the mouth and lower reaches of the Heathcote catchment and river, potentially inundating and eroding shorelines in sub-catchments 1 to 5, and temporarily blocking fluvial drainage more extensively. Any flooding infrastructure or management actions implemented in the area of tsunami inundation would ideally be resilient to tsunami-induced inundation and erosion. Model results currently available are a first estimate of potential tsunami inundation under contemporary sea and land level conditions. In terms of future large tsunami events, these models likely underestimate effects in riverside sub-catchments, as well as effects under future sea level, shoreline and other conditions. Also of significance when considering different FPF management structures, it is important to be mindful that certain types of flood structures can ‘trap’ inundating water coming from ocean directions, leading to longer flood durations and salinization issues. Coastal erosion: Model predictions indicate that sub-catchments 1 to 3 could potentially be affected by coastal erosion by the timescale of 2065, with sub-catchments 1-6 predicted to be potentially affected by coastal erosion by the time scale of 2115. In addition, the predicted open coast effects of this hazard should not be ignored since any significant changes in the New Brighton Spit open coast would affect erosion rates and exposure of the landward estuary margins, including the shorelines of the Ōpāwaho Heathcote catchment. Any FPF flooding infrastructure or management activities planned for the potentially affected sub-catchments needs to recognise the possibility of coastal erosion, and to have a planned response to the predicted potential shoreline translation. Coastal inundation: Model predictions indicate coastal inundation hazards could potentially affect sub-catchments 1 to 8 by 2065, with a greater area and depth of inundation possible for these same sub-catchments by 2115. Low-lying areas of the Ōpāwaho Heathcote catchment and river channel that discharge into the estuary are highly vulnerable to coastal inundation since elevated ocean and estuary water levels can block the drainage of inland systems, compounding FPF hazards. Coastal inundation can overwhelm stormwater and other drainage network components, and render river dredging options ineffective at best, flood enhancing at worst. A distinction can be made between coastal inundation and coastal erosion in terms of the potential impacts on affected land and assets, including flood infrastructure, and the implications for acceptance, adaptation, mitigation, and/or modification options. That is, responding to inundation could include structural and/or building elevation solutions, since unlike erosion, inundation does not necessarily mean the loss of land. Groundwater: Groundwater levels are of significant but variable concern when examining flooding hazards and management options in the Ōpāwaho Heathcote catchment due to variability in soils, topographies, elevations and proximities to riverine and estuarine surface waterbodies. Much of the Canterbury Plains part of the Ōpāwaho Heathcote catchment has a water table that is at a median depth of 6m below the surface in the upper Plains part of the catchment (sub-catchments 13 to 15). Parts of Waltham/Linwood (sub-catchments 5 & 6) and Spreydon (sub-catchment 10) have extensive areas with a particularly high water table, as do sub-catchments 18, 19 and 20 south of the river. In all of the sub-catchments where groundwater depth below surface is shallow, it is necessary to be mindful of cascading effects on liquefaction hazard during earthquake events, including earthquake-induced drainage network and stormwater infrastructure damage. In turn, subsidence induced by liquefaction and other earthquake processes during the CES directly affected groundwater depth below surface across large parts of the central Ōpāwaho Heathcote catchment. The estuary margin of the catchment also faces increasing future challenges with sea level rise, which has the potential to elevate groundwater levels in these areas, compounding existing liquefaction and other earthquake associated multi-hazards. Any increases in subsurface runoff due to drainage system, development or climate changes are also of concern for the loess covered hill slopes due to the potential to enhance mass movement hazards. Earthquakes: Earthquake associated vertical ground displacement and liquefaction have historically affected, or are in future predicted to affect, all Ōpāwaho Heathcote sub-catchments. During the CES, these phenomena induced a significant cascades of changes in the city’s drainage systems, including: extensive vertical displacement and liquefaction induced damage to stormwater ‘greyware’, reducing functionality of the stormwater system; damage to the wastewater system which temporarily lowered groundwater levels and increased stormwater drainage via the wastewater network on the one hand, creating a pollution multi-hazard for FPF on the other hand; liquefaction and vertical displacement induced river channel changes affected drainage capacities; subsidence induced losses in soakage and infiltration capacities; changes occurred in topographic drainage conductivity; estuary subsidence (mainly around the Ōtākaro Avon rivermouth) increased both FPF and coastal inundation hazards; estuary bed uplift (severe around the Ōpāwaho Heathcote margins), reduced tidal prisms and increased bed friction, producing an overall reduction the waterbody’s capacity to efficiently flush catchment floodwaters to sea; and changes in estuarine and riverine ecosystems. All such possible effects need to be considered when evaluating present and future capacities of the Ōpāwaho Heathcote catchment FPF management systems. These phenomena are particularly of concern in the Ōpāwaho Heathcote catchment since stormwater networks must deal with constraints imposed by stream and river channels (past and present), estuarine shorelines and complex hill topography. Mass movements: Mass movements are primarily a risk in the Port Hills areas of the Ōpāwaho Heathcote catchment (sub-catchments 1, 2, 7, 9, 11, 16, 21), though there are one or two small but susceptible areas on the banks of the Ōpāwaho Heathcote River. Mass movements in the form of rockfalls and debris flows occurred on the Port Hills during the CES, resulting in building damage, fatalities and evacuations. Evidence has also been found of earthquake-triggered tunnel gully collapsesin all Port Hill Valleys. Follow-on effects of these mass movements are likely to occur in major future FPF and other hazard events. Of note, elevated groundwater levels, coastal inundation, earthquakes (including liquefaction and other effects), and mass movement exhibit the most extensive levels of multi-hazard interaction with FPF hazard. Further, all of the analysed multi-hazard interactions except earthquakes were found to consistently produce increases in the FPF hazard. The implications of these analyses are that multihazard interactions generally enhance the FPF hazard in the Ōpāwaho Heathcote catchment. Hence, management plans which exclude adjustments for multi-hazard interactions are likely to underestimate the FPF hazard in numerous different ways. In conclusion, although only a one-way analysis of the potential effects of selected multi-hazards on FPF hazard, this review highlights that the Ōpāwaho Heathcote catchment is an inherently multi- hazard prone environment. The implications of the interactions and process linkages revealed in this report are that several significant multi-hazard influences and process interactions must be taken into account in order to design a resilient FPF hazard management strategy.

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  • The Real Exchange Rate in Taylor Rules: A Re-Assessment

    Guender A; Froyen RT (2016)

    Discussion / Working Papers
    University of Canterbury Library

    Examining three flexible inflation targeting strategies, we find that a small concern for real exchange rate stability as a policy goal matters. First, it warrants the inclusion of the real exchange rate in Taylor rules and, second, it is sufficient to improve the performance of Taylor rules relative to optimal policy. Gains are substantial for domestic and REX inflation targets because a small weight on real exchange rate fluctuations makes optimal policy less aggressive. The gains under CPI inflation targeting are considerably lower.

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  • A Surgical implant conductor with increased radio frequency alternating current resistance

    Scott, Jonathan B.; McCabe, Steven Owen (2016)

    Unclassified
    University of Waikato

    In one aspect the invention provides a surgical implant conductor formed from a length of conductive material which exhibits increased radio frequency alternating current resistance. This conductive material defines an exterior surface where at least a portion of the exterior surface of the conductor defines a region with a roughened surface. Preferably the roughening of the exterior surface increases the area of the exterior surface when compared to a non-roughened surface, resulting in a reduction in the effective cross-section area of the conductor used to transport alternating currents.

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  • Direct generation of region-specific induced neural Precursors from adult human fibroblasts using non-viral and viral methods

    Liu, Rui (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    We previously demonstrated that adult human dermal fibroblasts (aHDFs) can be directly converted to neural precursor cells, and subsequently mature neurons and glia, by the introduction of the defined neural transcriptional factors SOX2 and PAX6. However, the understanding of the underlying gene changes that occur during reprogramming was limited, as gene characterisation in direct reprogramming of induced neural precursors (iNPs) often relies on the expression profile at the endpoint of reprogramming. This study will advance the understanding of underlying mechanisms during direct reprogramming. This thesis first aimed to characterise the temporal profile of proneural and region-specific markers during the generation of induced neural precursors (iNPs) using non-viral and viral methods to determine whether reprogrammed iNPs express the same sequential gene profile as that observed in human neural development. The expression of genes controlling neural induction and forebrain specification was examined by qPCR during iNP reprogramming. The plasmid-derived iNPs initially exhibited a gene profile representative of the anterior neuroectoderm, and then of a telencephalic glutamatergic and GABAergic phenotype. The lentiviral-derived iNPs appeared to bypass an anterior neuroectoderm fate and exhibited a gene profile representative of a telencephalic glutamatergic and GABAergic phenotype throughout the entire reprogramming. Hence, the gene profiles of plasmid- and lentiviral-derived iNPs are different and do not resemble the sequential gene profile observed in human neural development. Secondly, this thesis aimed to investigate the requirement of SOX2 and/or PAX6 for the direct reprogramming of iNPs. Induced NPs were generated with plasmid or lentiviral delivery of both SOX2 and PAX6, either SOX2 or PAX6, or reprogramming media alone. The neuronal differentiation ability of cells was assessed using neuronal markers NSE, VGLUT1, and GAD65/67 after differentiating in the neuronal media. Lentiviral-derived populations were further enriched by FACS, and NSE-positive neurons comprising either glutamatergic or GABAergic phenotypes were efficiently generated from SOX2/PAX6 and SOX2 only populations, while SOX2/PAX6 was the most effective condition for generating glutamatergic neurons. Moreover, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons can both be effectively generated from the plasmidderived SOX2/PAX6 population. Together, these findings suggested that SOX2/PAX6 was the most effective condition for generating iNPs that can generate glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons representative of the telencephalic region of the developing human brain. The generation of feederfree region-specific neural precursors that retain the competence to generate mature neurons representative of a specific brain region provides a desirable approach for the study and the treatment of neurological diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders.

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  • Determinants of Chinese Government Size: An Extreme Bounds Analysis

    Gunby PP; Jin Y (2016)

    Discussion / Working Papers
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper studies the factors associated with the size of the public sector as measured by government spending at the level of Chinese provinces using the method of extreme bounds analysis to identify robust correlates with public sector size. We find that almost all traditional “economic” and “social stability” factors are insignificant and not robust to model specification changes. In contrast, “political” factors such as the degree of fiscal decentralization and national transfers to provincial governments tend to be significant and robust. Our findings suggest that repeated government attempts to reduce the relative size of the Chinese government sector have failed because the political factors determining government spending haven’t changed.

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  • Multiple P-TEFbs cooperatively regulate the release of promoter-proximally paused RNA polymerase II

    Lu X; Zhu X; Li Y; Liu M; Yu B; Wang Y; Rao M; Yang H; Zhou K; Chen Y; Chen M; Zhuang S; Chen L-F; Liu R; Chen R (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    The association of DSIF and NELF with initiated RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) is the general mechanism for inducing promoter-proximal pausing of Pol II. However, it remains largely unclear how the paused Pol II is released in response to stimulation. Here, we show that the release of the paused Pol II is cooperatively regulated by multiple P-TEFbs which are recruited by bromodomain-containing protein Brd4 and super elongation complex (SEC) via different recruitment mechanisms. Upon stimulation, Brd4 recruits P-TEFb to Spt5/DSIF via a recruitment pathway consisting of Med1, Med23 and Tat-SF1, whereas SEC recruits P-TEFb to NELF-A and NELF-E via Paf1c and Med26, respectively. P-TEFb-mediated phosphorylation of Spt5, NELF-A and NELF-E results in the dissociation of NELF from Pol II, thereby transiting transcription from pausing to elongation. Additionally, we demonstrate that P-TEFb-mediated Ser2 phosphorylation of Pol II is dispensable for pause release. Therefore, our studies reveal a co-regulatory mechanism of Brd4 and SEC in modulating the transcriptional pause release by recruiting multiple P-TEFbs via a Mediator- and Paf1c-coordinated recruitment network.

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  • Revitalization and gentrification in Newtown: Can urban regeneration strengthen an existing community?

    Wilson, Jennifer Bernice (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines gentrification and the process of urban regeneration through proposing an adaption of a modernist heritage building in Newtown, Wellington, New Zealand to prevent the displacement of an existing community. Council policies for urban regeneration support future residential development in Newtown (eg. Adelaide Road – Planning for the Future, Wellington Urban Growth Plan 2014-2043, NZ Transport Agency (Let’s Get Wellington Moving Project)) and, as funding is geared towards upgrading the city to become more liveable, private investment will potentially occur. These initiatives may attract affluent user groups, increasing the likelihood of lower income residents becoming displaced. Newtown therefore is a suburb where existing residents may be displaced as gentrification occurs. Although there have been studies on urban regeneration and the effects of gentrification in Wellington, none have attempted to offer a built environment design solution to mitigate the adverse effects of gentrification on an existing community in Wellington. The Riddiford Building, which is part of an Institutional Precinct - a hospital site, and may be demolished. This thesis argues that building adaption to accommodate a new user group for this building is feasible and could save a building with cultural significance from demolition. Further, the building could accommodate students and lower socio-economic occupants in order to prevent the displacement of existing Newtown residents.

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  • Making the games lessen the 'laboratory of the possible' through Game Sense

    Light RL; Light AL (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • On kleinewillingh¨ofer types of finite laguerre planes with respect to homotheties

    Steinke GF (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    © 2016, University of Queensland. All rights reserved. Kleinewillinghöfer classified Laguerre planes with respect to central automorphisms and obtained a multitude of types. In this paper we investigate the Kleinewillinghöfer types of finite Laguerre planes with respect to homotheties and deal with some of the larger types

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  • Why do you cycle on that route?

    Dunn R; Kusumastuti D (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Safe cycling has become a priority in many New Zealand cities and a large investment in cycleways is underway. To maximize the benefit, it is important to have insight into cyclists’ preferences and factors influencing cyclist route choice. Previous, studies about preferences were typically done by asking respondents to rank/rate factors important to them, without linking those ranked/rated factors with respondents’ choices. Thus, such an approach cannot assess the changes in preferences and choices when there is interaction between factors. For example, cyclists’ route choices may change depending upon combinations of ‘levels/states’ of the ‘bicycle lane’ and ‘road hierarchy’ factors. Furthermore, when designing cycle networks/routes, it is not always possible to optimise them with respect to all factors. The stated preference method, used in this study, presented respondents with pairs of scenarios, involving different combinations of factor ‘levels’, and asked which were preferred, highlighting ‘trade-off’ between factors. In this study, the factors of travel time, road hierarchy, on-street car parking and bicycle lanes were investigated. The responses were used to estimate choice models, indicating the relative importance of those factors. Ultimately, these results can be used to assist in the design of better cycle routes, hence, increasing cycle route use.

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