87,669 results

  • Changing rooms in NICU : a comparative descriptive study of parental perceptions of the physical environment of neonatal intensive care units : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree in Master of Philosophy in Nursing at Massey University

    Wilkinson, Robyn Clare

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The physical environment of a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is unique and can be challenging and stressful for families. As infant survival rates and technology improved, many NICUs became 'busy', overcrowded, noisy environments. New directions in the design of newborn nurseries highlight the potential for the physical environment to support parental needs and optimise the parenting experience. In October 2004 the NICU at National Women's Hospital (NWH) in Auckland (New Zealand), relocated to a new facility at Auckland City Hospital (ACH). A key principle in the design of the new NICU was improvement of family space at the cot side. This non-experimental study sought to describe and compare parental perceptions of the physical environment of a traditional NICU configuration with a new custom built NICU. A sample of parents with infants hospitalised in NICU from NWH (n = 30) and a different group of parents from ACH (n = 30) completed a self report Likert-type questionnaire (with a scale from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree). Qualitative data was sought using open ended questions. Significant differences were found between the old NWH NICU and the newly designed ACH NICU. Parents perception of the space at the cot-side was more adequate (p = 0.001), lighting levels more comfortable (p = 0.002), the cot-side was quieter (p = 0.02) and technology less intrusive (p = 0.03) at ACH NICU when compared to NWH NICU. Impact of these design changes on privacy, sense of belonging, and socialisation of parents did not show significant differences. Lack of cot-side space for NWH parents was the predominate theme from the open-ended questions. Parents viewed the family space and aesthetics of the new ACH rooms positively. Providers of newborn services contemplating redesign need to consider that increasing cot side space and decreasing infant numbers in clinical rooms can significantly improve a parent's view of NICU and therefore provide an environment that is supportive to parent's needs.

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  • Cryopreservation and genetic damage : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Genetics at Massey University

    Major, Ruth Esther

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Blood analysis is time consuming and laboratories may require methods of storing samples until time permits analysis. The effects of storage on the sample are mostly unknown, yet some laboratories commonly store blood samples to allow processing of samples in batches. Cryopreservation is proposed as a convenient means of preserving blood samples, as the associated cold temperatures render cryopreservation an ideal storage method for tests requiring viable cells. In the literature, few studies have explored whether cryopreserved whole blood samples can be utilised effectively for cytogenetic testing. This study extended the work on cryopreservation of blood to observe the cytogenetic effects of storing whole blood samples for an extended period. In this study three cytogenetic tests: Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE), Micronucleus Assay (MN) and Fluorescence in situ Hybridisation (FISH) were conducted on whole blood samples from ten participants to observe whether the results from the cytogenetic tests are statistically consistent over a prolonged period of cryopreservation (fresh, one month, three months and six months). These tests were conducted on a single blood sample cryopreserved from each participant. The results indicated that cryopreservation of whole blood is not a reliable method for storing blood samples prior to cytomolecular tests. The culturing of lymphocytes from cryopreserved blood was found to be inconsistent and the lymphocyte viability after cryopreservation reduced. When lymphocytes were successfully cultured, SCE and MN demonstrated increased genetic damage after a period of cryopreservation (P= <0.050 and P= 0.016 respectively) but FISH was not successfully performed on cryopreserved blood samples. It is unclear from the results obtained whether cryopreservation actually induces genetic damage or if the observed damage was the result of the specific storage technique.

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  • The correspondence bias : a robust phenomenon? : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Russell, Gaye Eileen

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The primary aim of this study was to identify variables which may attenuate or eliminate the effect of the correspondence bias. A secondary aim was to identify aspects of the research paradigm which may encourage subjects to commit the bias. The quiz game paradigm developed by Ross, Amabile & Steinmetz (1977) was employed. The study examined the effect of origin of questions and number of questions correct on observers' ratings of a questioner and contestant's general knowledge ability. The subjects were 100 university students randomly assigned to one of four conditions. The combination of questions supplied and six questions correct condition eliminated the bias. Open ended questions were also employed to identify factors that encouraged subjects to commit the bias. The results of the study indicate that subjects utilised a number of normally appropriate strategies to judge general knowledge ability. Weaknesses of the study are outlined, as are implications of the study and recommendations for future research.

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  • Cyclone Bola : a study of the psychological after-effects : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Eustace, Kerry L

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The present study investigates the long-term post-trauma psychological reactions to Cyclone Bola, which struck the East Coast of the North Island of New Zealand in March, 1988. This study evaluates psychological morbidity in respondents, in particular it estimates prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study identifies factors which could influence the development of PTSD or other psychological problems which may result from a natural disaster. A questionnaire was posted to subjects identified as either having been evacuated from their homes during Cyclone Bola, or who applied for financial aid following the disaster. Four hundred and ninety three questionnaires were sent to the Gisborne area in July. 1993. One hundred and eighteen replies were suitable tor analysis. The study found that, at the time of measurement, 11.8% of respondents could be classified as PTSD cases and 17% scored in the high psychological distress group. Results did not support a direct link between the amount of adversity suffered and the psychological morbidity reported. However, there was an indirect link between the adversity suffered, the emotional distress reported by respondents at the time of the disaster and levels of psychological morbidity. Furthermore, there was support for the mediating influence of how satisfied respondents were with the help they received from relief agencies and with the social support they received at the time of the disaster. There was no support for gender differences in reactions to natural disasters. Some of these findings support previous research. Implications of these findings for future post-disaster psychological intervention are discussed.

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  • A cognitive behavioural intervention for problematic substance use in adolescence : a pilot study : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Morrison, Cara

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Experimentation with substance use in adolescence is common, yet there is often concern when it appears to become more than experimentation. New Zealand youth, in particular, have some of the highest rates of substance abuse in the Western world. The main goal of this study was to determine if a brief manualised integration of cognitive behavioural therapy and motivational interviewing for adolescents was effective in reducing the harm caused by problematic substance use. The aim of the intervention was to reduce current and future difficulties with AOD use for adolescents. Four individual case studies and within subject comparisons were used to measure the effectiveness of this intervention in an educational setting. A battery of psychometric measures were used, including a structured diagnostic interview. Results indicated improvements in motivation and coping skills, and some short term reduction in substance use. Research issues are discussed, including the applicability of the DSM-IV criteria for substance use disorders in adolescence, and our understanding of 'risk'. The current study highlights the need for adolescent substance use interventions to be holistic and systemic in nature to successfully reduce substance related harm. The limitations of the current study are also discussed.

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  • Changes in B inhibitor and cytokinin levels in response to long wilting periods in grain sorghum at different growth stages : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Plant Science at Massey University

    Tay Kee Chong, George

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Irregular pagination.

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  • The demise of the New Zealand Social Work Training Council : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Social Work at Massey University

    Brook, Jane Elizabeth

    Thesis
    Massey University

    THE DEMISE OF THE NEW ZEALAND SOCIAL WORK TRAINING COUNCIL (N.Z.S.W.T.C.) This piece of research focuses upon the multiple reasons for the eventual review of the Social Work Training Council leading to its demise in 1985. Developmental theories of organisational change are used as a tool to analyse the Training Council in a macro-organisational context. Developmental theories suggest that unless certain goals are achieved then organisations will not proceed onto the next stage of development and growth. It is argued that the N.Z.S.W.T.C. never achieved the tastes of the third stage of development, the Stabilisation Stage and hence met its demise. This study also demonstrated that wider external conditions play a major role in the functioning of a body such as the Social Work Training Council. Implications for future such bodies are provided at the conclusion of this thesis.

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  • Changes and continuity in Japanese official development assistance : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Sociology at Massey University

    Carter, Matthew David

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This paper is about Japanese official development assistance (ODA), based on document research and monitoring of media reports in the period between January and October, 2005. It analyses changes in this aspect of Japanese foreign policy since its inception in the 1950's with this analysis then used to predict what further change may be likely to result in the programme in the immediate future. Building on a conflict model of the Japanese state that treats the bureaucracy as a divided but powerful power centre, the paper argues that recent developments in Japanese society have led to a situation where the political wing of government and civil society have come to play a larger part in both the implementation of ODA and, to a lesser extent, the creation of aid policy. It concludes that the individual ministries of the bureaucracy are unlikely to transfer power to these groups without any resistance and that this resistance will hinder efforts to provide more political leadership of, and wider societal input into, the Japanese ODA programme.

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  • A case study of system change and the influence of change agents : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University

    Christie, Donald Andrew

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The education system in Papua New Guinea over a three year period, underwent a massive re-organization that was unique in both its scope and the speed with which it was accomplished. The change from a highly centralized, fragmented system of education to a decentralized system that catered for all agencies involved in education, was proposed, legislated and implemented without being motivated by major social crises or revolutionary demands for change. Studies of change and innovation in education over the past decade, have tended to emphasize quantitative studies with fewer theoretical studies and very few case histories, particularly of developing countries. Much literature on change and innovation is highly technical in language and tends to regard change as an industrial process. There has been a tendency to neglect the historical, political and social framework within which change and innovations operate. The aim of this study was to provide a case study approach to the conditions and factors that motivated the change process of the innovation. Educational innovation as a complex subject, must be studied at several levels. This study examined the innovation at the level of the individuals involved in changing others and interviewed a sample of the identifiable principal change agents, to analyse the techniques or strategies used to implement the change. The interviews were also designed to provide a storehouse of data for future research. The data generally demonstrated that the initiative for change in this instance came from within the educational structure rather than from outside which is a significant departure from previous case study findings. The Chief Administrator of the Papua New Guinea education system, emerged as the decisive figure who significantly directed and influenced the change process. External experts were used as legitimizing agents to make the structural innovation acceptable to resisters within Papua New Guinea and to the Australian Government. Strategies employed by the principal change agents were generally collaborative in style, however, conflict situations were creatively utilized on occasions to reach a change goal. Absence of transactional influence was observed only rarely. The implications of the study for further research were discussed. The transcripts of interviews provide an invaluable base for research into future quantitative studies particularly one critical issue identified by all change agents. This centres around the conflict between the Teaching Service Commission, the Department of Education and to a lesser extent the Minister for Education, which, in having its origins in the initial innovation, will affect the ultimate survival of the Papua New Guinea education system in its planned form.

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  • Catalyst for change or empty exchange? : evaluating the impact of short term home-stays in Manila squatter communities on participating New Zealanders : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Shearer, Murray Brian

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study is a qualitative evaluation of a scheme called Discovery Teams, offered by the Christian agency Servants to Asia's Urban Poor. It examines the experiences of twenty-two New Zealanders who have spent between one and four weeks staying as guests in the home of Filipino squatter families, and evaluates the various ways this experience has generated ongoing changes in their lives. The study concludes that participating in a discovery team has acted as a catalyst for change in most team members' lives. This is especially true for those who have already begun to ask questions about poverty and suffering - and their own response to these issues - before their trip to Manila. Most team members fit this description, thanks to a thorough program of personal and team preparation. The study also reveals that participating in a discovery team during a time of personal transition - such as a change in employment or marital status - increases the probability of team members implementing changes on return to their home country. Being immersed in an urban poor community, building relationships with local people, and reflecting regularly on these experiences all contribute to team members gaining a deeper understanding of the many ways that poverty impacts the lives of real people. Those who come to understand that there are connections between their own abundance and the poverty of others are very likely to develop a deeper sense of personal responsibility toward the poor. They are consequently more likely to continue responding to poverty through different aspects of their lifestyle, vocation and the practice of their faith. However, for most this requires some level of resolve to grow in personal maturity - particularly their ability to look beyond themselves - and a willingness to allow their Christian faith to adapt to a more complex understanding of reality. Responsible leadership, exercised by mature team leaders, also positively influences each of these outcomes in team members' lives.

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  • Displaying real 3-D object images using a computer-generated hologram : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Computer Science at Massey University

    Yuan, Jingzhou

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The magic of an optical hologram that produced by optical system offer us a never ending sense of wonderment. The images reconstructed from an optical hologram exhibit all of the three dimensional properties with full, rich perspective effects, enabling us to catch sight of an object behind another by mere tilt of the head. Computer-generated holograms, synthetic holograms and computer holograms are terms used to refer to a class of holograms that are produced as graphical output from a digital computer. It has been reported that a computer-generated hologram can also yield a three dimensional image. The main advantage of the computer-generated hologram is that it can be used to generate a three dimensional image of an object that may not physically exist. But can a computer-generated hologram be used as a three dimensional display device? This thesis examines the ability of a computer-generated hologram as a three dimensional display device. Many techniques have been used to produce computer-generated holograms. Mathematical descriptions of computer-generated holograms are discussed. The quality of the images reconstructed from these computer-generated holograms are examined. The computation time for producing these computer-generated holograms are compared.

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  • Cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.) seed production : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science at Massey University

    Zahid, Md Iqbal

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Seed yield reduction due to variation in genotype, management, and incidence of diseases is common and well documented in grass seed crops. Two New Zealand cultivars (Grasslands Wana, Grasslands Kara) and two Japanese (Akimidori Makibamidori) cocksfoot cultivars from a three year old stand (sown in September 1991) at Grassland Aorangi Research Farm in the Manawatu were evaluated for their seed yielding capacity. In addition these cultivars were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of bactericide (Streptomycin), nematicide (Vydate/Oxamyl) or a combinations of bactericide and nematicide to determine their effect on seed yield with traditional Fungicide (Folicur) application being used as a control. The unit plot size was 1.2 X 3.0 m2, with each plot containing 4 rows. randomized block design with two factors (cultivar and pesticide) was utilized with 4 replications. In each cultivar pesticide were sprayed in four replicates from each block. The New Zealand cultivar Wana outyielded the other three cultivar and produced about 23%, 32%, and 70% higher pure seed/unit area than that cvs Kara, Makibamidori and Akimidori respectively. The ability of cv Wana to outyield other cultivar was largely due to its ability to produce a greater numbers of fertile tillers and higher number of florets/head. Seed yields in the New Zealand cultivar Kara and the Japanese cultivar Makibamidori were similar but significantly higher than cv Akimidori. The significantly higher seed yield of cv Kara was due largely to its significantly higher seed weight than the other cultivars. Similarly the higher seed yield in cv Makibamidori compared to Akimidori was mainly due to higher seed weight. The lower pure seed yield in cv Akimidori was apparently due to lack of proper photoperiodic effect or cold temperature during anthesis and its earlier seed developing resulted in more empty florets than the New Zealand cultivar and cv Makibamidori. Fertile tiller numbers spikelets/ head and florets/ head were significantly higher in cv Wana compared to the other 3 cultivars. However, the TSW was low. The TSW was highest in cv Kara. Highest recovery of pure seed was obtained from cv Wana in screen and blown fraction. Highest pure seed was obtained from cv Makibamidori in clean seed fractions. Foliar disease intensity in all the four cultivars was found to be similar at all 3 stages of plant growth although disease levels were generally low. Percentage purity in clean seed as well as in different cleaning fractions varied depending on cultivar but cv Akimidori was always ranked lowest. Seed germination percentage in single and in multiple florets was higher in cv Akimidori compared to the other 3 cultivars. Different cultivars reacted differently to the application of pesticide. Cultivar Wana produced the highest yield 103 g pure seed/m2 in the Fungicide (Folicur) treatment compared to 55, 38 and 22 g/m2 in cv. Kara, Makibamidori and Akimidori respectively. However all cultivars produced lower yields following the application of Streptomycin. Seed yield in cv Akimidori was not affected by any pesticide application. The lower yield in Streptomycin treatments was mainly due its phytotoxic effect on leaf tissue. Seed yield in Fungicide, Vydate and in V+S treated plots was similar but significantly better than in Streptomycin treated plots. Fertile tiller numbers were also similar in these treatments but spikelet and total floret numbers were higher in the V+S treatment than in the Fungicide treatment. TSW and florets/ spikelets was not affected by pesticide application. The recovery of pure seed was always lowest in the Streptomycin treatment in all fractions of machine cleaning of seed but was higher in V+S than Fungicide treatment, particularly in the machine clean fraction. However, the recovery of pure seed from the screen fraction did not vary significantly. Over all the foliar disease severity was low in Fungicide and V+S treatment and highest in Vydate treatment at maturity but no difference during vegetative growth or at peak flowering. The percent purity varied only in the air screen fraction but was high in the Vydate treatment. Seed germination was high in all pesticide treatments and being above 90% in term of single florets and 85% in multiple florets with minor improvement in V+S treatment both in single and multiple florets and in Fungicide treatment with multiple florets only. The second trial involved only one cultivar (cv Tekapo) and involved 4 plots from each block with 3 different types of fungicide Alto (cyproconazole), Bavistin (carbendazim), and Bravo (chlorothalonil) applied from flower initiation to harvest maturity at intervals of 14 to 21 day. No effect of fungicide occurred in seed yield or in yield components. Disease severity varied significantly only at harvest maturity and was lowest in Alto treated plots (2.75) compared to the control (4.25). However, no difference occurred in assessment at the vegetative stages or at peak flowering. No significant effect of fungicide was observed in terms of seed cleaning. The percentage purity was found higher in Alto and Bravo treated plots. Germination results were well above accepted levels (90%) in all fungicide treatments with Bavistin treatments being particularly useful.

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  • Diversity, distribution patterns and recruitment of fish in the Lake Kohangatera catchment and the implications of breaching to sea : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Conservation at Massey University

    Nicholson, C. A

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The fish fauna of a relatively unmodified coastal lake, Lake Kohangatera situated 11km south east of Wellington, was investigated as well as the impact of a large scale and prolonged breaching event that occurred in February 2004. A total of ten native species; inanga (Galaxias maculatus), giant kokopu (Galaxias argentus), banded kokopu (Galaxias fasciatus), koaro (Galaxias brevipinnis), longfin eel (Anguilla dieffenbachii) shortfin eel (Anguilla australis), common bully (Gobiomorpus cotidianus), redfin bully, (Gobiomorphus huttoni), smelt (Retropinna retropinna) and lamprey (Geotria australis) and one introduced species; brown trout (Salmo trutta) were found within the catchment. The majority of these fish are diadromous, spending part of their life cycle at sea. Some are able to form land locked populations while others are obligatory migrators. Lake Kohangatera occasionally breaches to sea during high flows. Historical records of the fish assemblage indicate that some of those species which depend on access to the sea periodically disappear from the fauna for periods of time, presumably when breachings do not coincide with their migratory phase. In February 2004 a severe storm caused the lake to breach for a prolonged period of time. Observed changes in the fish fauna following this breaching were the reappearance of redfin bully (Gobiomorphus huttoni) after an absence of several years, smelt (Retropinna retropinna) were recorded for the first time in the catchment, and recruitment of giant kokopu, (Galaxias argentus) banded kokopu (Galaxias fasciatus) and longfin eel (Anguilla dieffenbachii) improved. The diversity of fish species within Gollans Valley, the catchment of Lake Kohangatera. decreased with distance from the sea. Some species exhibited very defined distributions. Eight species were found in the lower catchment and just two or three in the headwaters. Some species were very low in abundance e.g. redfin bully or were restricted to a particular stretch or tributary e.g. koaro and banded kokopu, while others were widespread throughout the catchment e.g. longfin eel.

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  • Cytokinin, jasmonates and postharvest physiology of Asparagus officinalis L. : a thesis submitted for the degree of Master of Science in Plant Biology, Massey University,

    Gapper, Nigel Esteven

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The asparagus spear is a rapidly growing shoot, dependent on the crown and storage roots for substrate . Once harvested, spears have a very short shelf-life. Investigations to date point to a physiological cause of this deterioration rather than a pathogenic one. Since loss of membrane integrity is a notable feature of the postharvest deterioration, spears were treated immediately following harvest with cytokinin (which promotes membrane integrity), and jasmonic acid (produced by deteriorating membranes). Treated plant material was collected and monitored for physiological and compositional changes. Results show a reduction in postharvest elongation of spears treated with cytokinin, and a reduction of shelf-life of spears treated with jasmonic acid, when compared with control spears treated with water. Also an extension of shelf-life was observed for spears treated with cytokinin. We quantified jasmonates using ELISA in spears after harvest, and also in naturally senescing cladophylls. Jasmonate concentration increased in spears rapidly after harvest, which is most likely to be in response to wounding. Results also showed that jasmonates may be involved in desiccation stress and cessation of elongation in asparagus spears. Jasmonate production and metabolism appears to be more ordered during natural foliar senescence than during harvest induced senescence of the spear. Jasmonic acid and dihydrojasmonic acid are metabolised to cucurbic acid during the later stages of natural foliar senescence. The presence of jasmonates in asparagus spears was confirmed by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. This analysis also enabled to identify a novel jasmonate, tryptophan-dihydrojasmonic acid amino acid conjugate.

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  • A direct manipulation object-oriented environment to support methodology-independent CASE tools : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Computer Science at Massey University

    Zhong, Bei

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of the thesis is research into application of direct-manipulable OO graphical environments to the development of methodology-independent CASE tools. In this thesis, a Methodology-Independent Graphical OO CASE Environment (M1GOCE) is proposed. MIGOCE consists of three parts: OO Notation Workshop, OO Notation Repository and Universal OO Diagramming Tool. OO Notation Workshop is an OO graphical editor which is used to design existing and new notations; OO Notation Repository is a notation database that stores different notations designed by the notation workshop; Universal OO Diagramming Tool is an upper-CASE graphical environment, by which a user can draw arbitrary OO diagrams of different methodologies. The MIGOCE database management system provides OO notation sets management, OOA/OOD diagrams management and OO repository management for data integrity and sharing. MIGOCE has three outstanding characteristics: Methodology-independence, Directly-manipulable graphical environment and Easily-expanded program structure MIGOCE is completely methodology-independent. It not only supports existing OO methodologies, but also supports users' own notation designs. It provides support for mixing, updating existing methodologies or defining new ones. It typically allows the user to switch quickly different OO notation sets supported by corresponding methodologies for designing diagrams. Direct manipulation interfaces of MIGOCE enable it more flexible and distinctive. The user can easily add, delete, edit or show notation shapes, and get the system feedback very quick on the screen. The MIGOCE system itself is programmed using object-oriented programming language - C++. Its program structure enable the functions of itself easy to be modified and expanded. Although MIGOCE is a prototype, it provides a new way to develop the real methodology-independent OO CASE environment. So far, the way and style taken by MIGOCE have not been found in OO CASE literatures. This system gives a complete possibility of implementing a methodology-independent OO CASE tool and shows distinct effectiveness of such a tool in practice.

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  • Capitalism, class, care and craft : a discursive journey around the 1900 Act to make Better Provision for Manual Technical and Commercial Education in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    Jolley, Sheila

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This historical education policy development case study covers the years 1877 to 1917. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) of Parliamentary Debates and Reports are primary sources used to address the 'how' and 'why' questions relating to the policy which was formalized in 1900 as An Act to Make Better Provision for Manual, Technical, and Commercial Education. Secondary sources are also used to examine social, political and economic issues, in particular the dominant discourses around Capitalism, Class, Care, and Craft. The thesis argues that the 1900 Act is a model of 'top down policy' development, with a small number of powerful men making moral decisions around educational development that were based on technical rationality and its corollary social Darwinism rather than on egalitarianism and social mobility. It is also argued that the 1900 Act demonstrated a strong link between the state education system and its economic instrumental role in meeting the needs of the capitalist mode of production. The analysis of state rhetoric surrounding policy development continues to be as relevant today as it was in 1900.

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  • Cultural aspects of infant undernutrition among the Lujere people of Papua New Guinea : a nursing perspective : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts (Social Sciences)

    Gillam, Elizabeth Alice

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A field study of five months has been undertaken to determine the causal or predisposing factors related to the prevalence of undernutrition in the Lujere infants and children of Papua New Guinea. Strategies used in the field study include: • visiting eight venues and weighing infants from fifteen villages at regular intervals, variation in the weighing schedule occurred and are discussed • participant observations which incorporated unstructured interviews and ethnographic recordings. • the maintenance of a daily journal, in which all activities and cultural interactions related to the study were noted, has been used as a basis for the descriptive sections of the field study. An anthropological and a nursing perspective has been combined into a "transcultural" nursing approach. The results obtained through these field work strategies show: of 477 infants regularly weighed 27.25% of the infants were seen as well nourished and 72.75% suffered from undernutrition in varying degrees. 19.25% of the undernourished infants were deemed to suffer from severe undernutrition. Causal factors for the high percentage of undernutrition were seen to be related to: • insufficiencies in subsistence patterns mainly due to climatic factors which govern when hunting, gathering, fishing and gardening activities take Place. • the well developed cultural patterns which determined what portion of the available foods were given to infants and children, and when it was culturally acceptable for them to be given • incongruity in relation to health care delivery between the care givers and receivers. The dominant features here were the two different philosophies of causality and treatment of disease. This incongruity generally tended to prolong the duration of undernutrition experienced by Lujere infants and children. These factors need urgent attention and it is recommended that, together with health care givers, the Lujere people need to become aware of and encouraged to use community self care. This self care should amalgamate salient aspects of their own care ideas with prominent aspects of the western health care system.

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  • A case study of the use of closed circuit television in pre-service teacher education : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University

    Chow, Vivian Bee Lian

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Faced with the general problem that there can be 'adoption' of an innovation without its effecting intended changes, the ultimate interest of this study is to make some contributions towards facilitating the implementation of educational innovation. The research involves a case study of the use of closed circuit television in pre-service teacher education as an innovation at the primary division of the Christchurch Teachers' College. It first investigates the severity of problems experienced by regular and non-regular users (or which have led to the non-usage of the innovation). Secondly, it examines the perceived relevance of a list of variables which have been proposed in the literature as influencing the process of change and adoption. Relevance in this study is considered in relation to perceptions of the innovation in an organizational setting. The participants for the study consisted of a defined population of the lecturing staff. This population was selected on the basis that they were full-time, had been on the staff since the introduction of CCTV at the College, and were in regular attendance during the academic terms. Reference to the record of bookings made for use of the equipment revealed data to determine the 28 users as being 13 non-regular and 15 regular users, as distinct from the 15 non-users. These three groups provided the information sought. The information was obtained by means of a semi-structured interview schedule and the use of two separate questionnaires. The first questionnaire was intended to elicit a measure of the extent to which problems were experienced by the regular, non-regular and non-users in relation to CCTV. As a preliminary to this questionnaire, a semi-structured interview was used to identify the difficulties or problems which had been experienced. The list of problems thus obtained formed the context for the questionnaire 1. The second questionnaire contained a list of 25 variables. These represented concepts drawn from the literature where it was suggested that they influenced change and the adoption of an innovation. The participants were required to rate each of the variables on the extent to which they perceived their relevance in relation to the use of CCTV by the staff as a whole. A four-point rating scale (i.e. Great Deal, Much, Not Very Much, and None) was used to obtain the responses in both questionnaires. Descriptive statistical procedures involving means and standard deviations were used to analyze the data, in accordance with the aims of the study. The findings were used to identify the particular problems that could be anticipated so that they might be obviated before they became dominating and hindered adoption. The findings also showed that the problems were on the whole not severe. The variables in Questionnaire 2 generally were seen to be relevant to the case study. Those variables which were relatively outstanding over the others were examined. It appears likely that they have influenced adoption. It was concluded that the problems experienced were of a relatively minor nature. It is suggested that the procedures used in the study do go some way towards identifying both difficulties and facilitating factors. These procedures may be of some use as one aspect of evaluation for change agents, for administrators or for other personnel concerned with change and adoption.

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  • Challenges to religious authority : criticism of the Church of England as expressed in three Victorian novels : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English at Massey University

    Lang, Keith

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The opening chapter of this thesis describes the Church of England as it existed in the first half of the nineteenth-century. The close liason between the Established Church and the State is emphasised as is the involvement of the Church in many areas of Victorian life. Because, to a large extent, the Church is the Clergy the lives of many clerical representatives of the Church are discussed - and are found, on the whole, to be lacking in dedication. The three novels continue the method of examining the Church through depiction of its clergymen. Each novel presents a different challenge to the Established Church. Shirley by Charlotte Brontë, is critical of the Church because it misuses its Authority in its subjugation of women and finds false justification for this in scripture. Elizabeth Gaskell, in a covert way critices the Church by comparing it unfavourably with Unitarianism. George Eliot, in Middlemarch is deeply sceptical of the supernatural grounds for the Authority of the Church. She finds Authority in religious humanism. At the time the Church considered that its many problems were found either within itself due to its polarisation into Low and High Church, or else from without as the Dissenters and Roman Catholics increased in numbers. These three novels, however, consider problems which, although hardly of concern at the time, have since become major issues for the Church and its Authority.

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  • Design and development of a modified spouted bed coater for the micro-encapsulation of powders : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Chemical Technology, Massey University

    Bishop, Peter Andrew

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A modified spouted bed coater was designed and constructed for the micro-encapsulation of solid particles. The coating of small particles with a polymer film can alter physical factors such as taste and release rate. These properties are particularly important in the field of pharmacology as the nature of the coating can be changed to prolong or target drug release based on physiological conditions such as pH and time. The spouted bed coater was modified to induce gas and particle recirculation through a draft tube containing a venturi to increase droplet and particle mixing, while a high velocity gas jet and large diameter draft tube promotes the recirculation of gas and solid within the apparatus. The effectiveness of the design was tested in terms of gas and solid mass flows through the draft tube using a venturi within the draft tube and an induction detector to measure the mass flow. To determine the effectiveness of the coater design in terms of coalescence and the influence of operational variables, a factorial experiment was conducted. The result of this experiment showed that the coalescence of particles was dominated by the relative humidity in the apparatus which was unable to be directly related to the operational variables. The capacity to micro-encapsulate particles was demonstrated by coating fine table salt with an acrylic polymer Eudragit NE 40D in combination with bentonite clay as a free flow agent or glident. The results of this trial showed the distribution of polymer/clay and the reduction in dissolution rate as a function of particle size.

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