90,990 results

  • An integrated national strategy for resource and environmental management in post-apartheid Namibia : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Sikabongo, Frederick Mupoti

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis presents a structure for integrated strategic planning across levels of government in Namibia. The study advocates necessary preconditions for the preparation of An Integrated National Strategy for Resource and Environmental Management in Post-Apartheid Namibia. Because the diagnostic nature of an integrated national strategy requires a condensed assessment of the state of the economy, people, institutions and natural resources, this study commences with a critical examination of the impact of German genocide and South African apartheid policies on the people, and natural and physical resources of Namibia, and illustrates how Namibia has begun to develop out the problems associated with colonial influence. Current underdevelopment and poverty in Namibia is mainly due to unsustainable extraction of resources which has generally benefited South Africa and its provincial satellites. In order to understand Namibia's economic situation, its profile is analysed in comparative study with other SADC member states. Namibia needs to encourage sustained economic growth in order to achieve human development objectives. It is especially important to integrate environmental management at all levels of government to achieve unity of the people and sustainable exploitation of natural and physical resources. Namibia's current state of natural and physical resources is analysed by taking into consideration the immediate actions of the current Government which succeeded colonial oppression. Adverse effects of past exploitation are compiled, and recommendations of various theorists are offered as supportive evidence of the requirements for an integrated national strategy for resource management. The absence of planning at the local level of government is the major cause of inconsistency in both policy-making and plan preparation, and is also identified as major threat to the achievement of sustainable economic development in Namibia. Changes regarding the strengthening of institutional capabilities, application of economic instruments in management of natural resources, methods of plan preparation, strategic policies, including integrated monitoring procedures are proposed. Suggestions are made about means by which these recommendations could be implemented to achieve sustainable development of natural and physical resources in Namibia. The conclusion of this study suggests also that development planning of natural and physical resources need to be nationally diversified by devolving planning authority to sub-national and sub-regional levels of government. The idea is to relieve Namibia's National Planning Commission from the burden of planning at the local level of government and to efficiently spread administrative responsibility across a multinuclear umbrella of private and public sectors involved in strategic planning.

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  • Focal point characteristics and habitat use curves of underyearling brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Kahuterawa Stream : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Zoology at Massey University

    Forlong, Robert Graham

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The physical focal point characteristics of underyearling brown trout (Salmo trutta) were examined by underwater observation in a nursery stream to determine the preferred depths, current speeds and substrates. Each focal point characteristic was analysed with respect to fish activity and age (in months after emergence). Underyearling brown trout in the Kahuterawa stream were found to use focal points with different physical characteristics for different activities. As they aged the Kahuterawa trout moved into swifter, deeper water. The Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM) of the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) was examined by obtaining habitat use curves from the focal point data, which were compared with habitat relative preference curves. Habitat relative preference curves examine habitat use in relation to habitat availability. It is concluded that habitat relative preference curves should be developed for each activity class of each life stage of the target species. In the case of brown trout, emergent fry should be considered a separate life stage from fingerlings. PHABSIM is criticized because it takes little account of cover and current shelter which are shown to be important factors in focal point choice.

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  • A study on some aspects of the pathogenicity, diagnosis and control of gastrointestinal nematodes in deer : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Tapia-Escárate, Daniela Alejandra

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The most important parasites in farmed red deer are Dictyocaulus eckerti and gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). The overall aim of these studies was to develop an understanding about GIN parasites in red deer, including their pathogenicity, diagnosis, control and the risk of cross-infection with cattle/sheep. To understand the pathogenicity of GIN, young deer were trickle infected with a mixed culture of deerorigin infective larvae (L3). The infection comprised 40% Ostertagia-type and 53% Oesophagostomum spp. L3. As a result of the high proportion of Oesophagostomum spp. L3, the animals were clinically affected with large intestinal lesions and it was not possible to investigate the effect of Ostertagia-type parasites. Oesophagostomum sikae was recognised in New Zealand for the first time in this study. A national survey of the prevalence of different GIN in deer utilised PCR-based methodology. From each of 59 deer farms around New Zealand faeces from an average of 19 deer/farm were cultured and 24 infective larvae were randomly selected and identified. The order of prevalence from high to low was Oesophagostomum. venulosum > Spiculopteragia asymmetrica > S. spiculoptera > Ostertagia leptospicularis. This illustrated the importance of abomasal nematodes in the subfamily Ostertaginae. A study was conducted to determine the ability of sheep GIN to establish in deer. The highest establishment rates were Haemonchus contortus (10.5%), Trichostrongylus axei (12.2%) and O. venulosum (5.8%). However, these were all lower than in sheep. The effectiveness of crossgrazing system between deer and sheep (DS) or cattle (DC) compared to deer grazing alone (DD) was undertaken as a replicated study at two locations over two years. The key outcomes were that DC needed fewer anthelmintic treatments and still had higher live-weight than other groups. The DD group received more treatments and still had highest nematode counts for Ostertagia-type nematodes and Dictyocaulus. The DS group received a similar number of treatments to DD and had the highest burdens of T. axei. Cross-grazing offers advantages which varied between DC and DS with regards the level of control of GIN, however, both were effective in controlling lungworm infection. Deer in all groups still required anthelmintic treatment to maintain growth rates.

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  • An exploratory study of the perception of family conflict and its relationship to family structure and birth order : effects on late adolescent male and female self-concepts : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Turitea, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Wealleans, Sasha Jane

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The relationship between self-concept, birth order, family structure and family conflict is an area of potential interest to researchers due to the complexity of factors, which can influence development in adolescence. The purpose of the following study was to explore the relationship between self-concept, gender, birth order, family structure, family conflict, and family relationships for the late adolescent between the ages of 17 and 19. The sample consisted of 204 people, the vast majority of which came from three Palmerston North high schools. The sample also consisted of a few first year Massey university students. Demographic information along with a scale to measure family conflict and relations with family members came from a questionnaire designed by the researcher. Self-concept was measured by the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (2 nd Edition). Results indicated there was a significant difference in the self-concept scores between those from high and low conflict families but no significant difference in self-concept scores between those in intact and non-intact families. Males scored significantly higher than females on the Total Self-Concept Scale, Moral Self Concept Scale, Academic/Work Self-Concept Scale, Social Self-Concept Scale, Physical Self-Concept Scale, Family Self-Concept Scale, and Personal Self-Concept Scale. There was no significant difference on total self-concept scores between birth orders. First borns did perceive significantly higher conflict in their families than last borns but did not perceive significantly higher conflict than middle borns. The total self-concept correlation coefficient was highest for first borns but this only differed from middle borns. Family relationships as a buffering measure did not interact with family conflict and therefore, does not moderate the relationship between total self-concept and conflict.

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  • Floral induction and development in Myosotidium hortensia and Phormium cookianum : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Plant Biology at Massey University, New Zealand

    Harris, John Creighton

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Little is known of the stimuli needed for flowering in two New Zealand endemic plants, Myosotidium hortensia and Phormium cookianum. These plants are widely recognised by the horticulture sector and the concerns of this thesis were to aid understanding of floral induction and development in the two species. Environmental stimuli were investigated by growing plants under factorial combinations of daylength and temperature in controlled growth rooms. The two daylengths used, termed long days (LD) and short days (SD), consisted of night / day periods of 8 / 16 h und 16/8 h respectively. Two night / day temperature regimes of 4 / 7°C and 18 / 24°C referred to as Cold and Warm respectively, were combined with the daylengths to make four treatments. Floral induction in both species was unaffected by temperature or daylength, with approximately 50% of the P. cookianum flowering under all environmental treatments. M. hortensia did not flower. The absence of flowering seen in half of the P. cookianum plants was associated with a small size (fewer nodes at the commencement of the environmental treatments). Floral development in those plants that did flower was accelerated in P. cookianum by eight weeks growth under Cold compared with Warm treatment. Floral development of P. cookianum was further enhanced by four weeks treatment at Cold temperatures followed by transfer for four weeks at Warm temperatures. Vegetative growth was enhanced under Warm temperatures compared with Cold, in both P. cookianum and M. hortensia. Hormonal floral stimuli were investigated by application of the gibberellin A 3 , followed by growth under Cold SD conditions. The proportion of plants flowering was increased by GA 3 in P. cookianum. GA 3 -treaied P. cookianum flowered with fewer nodes as GA 3 concentration increased. In M. hortensia, GA 3 application did not cause flowering although stem elongation was increased. A region of the P. cookianum FLORICAULA / LEAFY (FLO/LFY) homologue (PFL) mRNA was isolated by reverse transcriptase-PCR and sequenced, and shown to share strong sequence identity with other FLO/LFY-like genes. PFL mRNA expression was compared with levels of actin mRNA using Real Time reverse transcriptase-PCR, performed using a LightCycler and the double stranded DNA binding dye SYBR Green 1. Upregulation of PFL mRNA at the meristem occurred over time, and increases coincided with changes in morphology from vegetative to inflorescence development. As predicted, greater PFL expression was observed in fans of larger size, these being the fans with greater likelihood of flowering.

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  • The identification of New Zealand obsidians : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Chemistry at Massey University

    Armitage, Gaye Coila

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Obsidian has proved to be a very valuable aid to archaeological investigations, especially in the area of prehistory. Its geological and archaeological occurrence is worldwide. The aim of this investigation was to establish a satisfactory method of separating the eight known New Zealand sources of flake quality obsidian. Emission spectrography had been used with partial success but the maximum precision of this analytical method is ±5%. A more precise analytical method would enable the sources to be separated more readily. A satisfactory method of sample preparation was developed which gave solutions in which iron, manganese and zinc could be analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and sodium and potassium by flame photometry. Replicates of a representative sample from each source were analysed to establish the variation due to the method. This was found to be less than 2%, except when the zinc concentration was below 60 ppm. Analysis of a number of samples from six of the eight sources (Arid Island and Maraetai excluded), established that for these sources the variation in the concentration of at least one of the five elements, was greater between sources than within a source. All sources, with the possible exception of Taupo and Arid Island, could be distinguished on the basis of the five named elements. Manganese was found to be the most useful element for characterization. Only one Arid Island sample was available. In all properties it was very similar to the Taupo pieces analysed, but it may not have been representative. The Maraetai samples available were not flake quality, therefore only one sample was analysed. The densities of a number of samples from each source were determined by two methods, the hydrostatic weighing method and temperature variation free flotation method. The flotation liquid for the latter was a mixture of bromoform and 1-pentanol. Successful separation by densities was limited because of extensive overlap between sources. Mayor Island and Kaco samples were more dense and could be separated from the other six sources, but not from each other. The density method was useful, however, for pieces too small to be analysed chemically. It also had the advantages of being non-destructive and being more readily adaptable to the field. The two methods of characterization, chemical analysis and density determination, were applied to obsidians from eight archaeological sites located in the following areas, Coromandel, Waikato, Kaipara, Auckland (3), Bluff and Manawatu. More than two hundred and fifty pieces were analysed and more than 95% were positively identified.

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  • Factors affecting the continued use of the mobile flash dryers by farmer co-operatives, Nueva Ecija, Philippines : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Master of Applied Science (Agricultural Systems Management), Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Rodriguez, Amelita C

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Harvest of the Philippines second and larger rice crop occurs during the end of the wet season. For members of the rice industry this wet season harvest poses a problem: grain cannot be dried reliably using traditional sundrying methods. Poor drying results in quality reductions and hence farmers receive lower returns. To address this situation the Philippines Government introduced locally manufactured mechanical dryers. This study was undertaken to examine variables which enhance or limit the continued use of the mobile flash dryers in farmers' co-operatives in Nueva Ecija, the Philippines. Two case studies, each consisting of three farmers' co-operatives were investigated using semi-structured interviews. One case comprised co-operatives that continue to use the dryer while the other comprised those that have stopped using it. Results showed that a combination of factors influenced the adoption decisions of the co-operatives. Economic factors, especially the volume of rice handled by the co-operative appeared to be most important. Furthermore, the way that the dryer fitted with the other postharvest systems in the co-operatives was a determinant of adoption decisions. In particular, the co-operatives with rice milling operations or with inadequate alternative drying options utilised the mechanical dryers. The leadership and management of the co- operative appeared also to be a factor. These results indicate that both organisational factors and the characteristics of a technology need to be considered in the development and extension of innovation. Overall the results of this work support the individual and organisational adoption literature. Further work could explore this issue on a wider basis across more co-operatives within the region and across more regions in the country. Key words: Technology adoption, co-operatives, mechanical grain dryer.

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  • Government, ODA and sustainable development : their linkages and the case of Vietnam : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Phylosophy [i.e. Philosophy] in Development Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Nguyen, Duc Minh

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Sustainable development, the role of government, and ODA are three major concerns in Development Studies. Sustainable development is an interest that has recently emerged but has become quickly and widely accepted in the field as a desirable vision for the future of humankind. It affects the rationale and redefines the responsibilities of both government and ODA. Government has two interrelated roles in development: a sovereign regulator and a powerful developmental actor. ODA is a means through which governments and external agencies interact in the development field. This present thesis articulates an integrated perspective to sustainable development and applies it to discuss major issues of government, ODA, and especially their developmental roles. The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the debate on the role of government in making ODA work for sustainable development. Its arguments and recommendations are confined to the case of Vietnam – an aid recipient country in transition. In general, it is found that the donor and recipient governments play very important roles in making ODA work for sustainable development due to three reasons. First, they are essential for sustainable development as both necessary and irreplaceable regulator and powerful developmental actors. Second, ODA is not automatically, but is potentially, helpful for sustainable development. Last but not least, the governments have decisive roles in affecting the volume, scope, scale, and effectiveness of ODA resources and activities. In the particular case of Vietnam, the role of the government in the ODA - sustainable development link is momentous because it is presently the major force that overwhelmingly influences the direction and controls significant shares of resources and activities of development (in comparison with the private sector) in the country. For ODA to work for sustainable development in Vietnam, the key recommendations are that, firstly, the government needs to improve its administrative ability, especially its ability in ODA management, and maintain its national independence in making development decisions on behalf of the people. At the same time, the government needs to put sustainable development as the goal for all of its development planning and intervention activities in order to establish the foundation for cooperating with the donor community, integrating ODA resources into the country's total resources for sustainable development and facilitating ODA to best supplement the sustainable development process of Vietnam. Last but not least, the government has to act more carefully and effectively in utilizing ODA resources to intervene into the society and the economy in order to ensure all the productive potential is released and all the latent possibilities of all components of the economy and the society are developed in a sustainable manner.

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  • Glycosylation of bovine α-lactalbumin : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Biochemistry, at Massey University, New Zealand

    Chandrika, Udumalagala Gamage

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Bovine α-lactalbumin exists in four different forms. These are the F, M, S1 and S2 forms named after their positions on native gels. F, S1 and S2 are minor components representing 15% of the total α-lactalbumin fraction whereas M is the major component. S1 and S2 have been shown to be glycoforms of a-lactalbumin and although there are potentially three glycosylation sites in the protein, only asparagine 45 appears to be glycosylated. It has been suggested that F differs from M by the replacement of an amide group. The glycoforms of α-lactalbumin (S 1 and S 2 ), and the non-glycosylated proteins (M and F) were isolated and purified using selective precipitation, affinity chromatography, size exclusion chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The potential glycosylation sites were investigated using selective proteolysis in conjunction with Edman sequencing and electrospray mass spectrometry (ES/MS). It was found that although the main fraction (M) or non-glycosylated protein contained no covalently bound carbohydrate, selected ion monitoring experiments showed that there appeared to be a lactosamine sugar associated with the protein. A number of methods were investigated for analysing and separating the glycoforms of α- lactalbumin. These included high pH anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC/PAD), fluorophore assisted gel electrophoresis (FACE) and derivatisation of the oligosaccharides with l-(p-methoxy)phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyralozone (PMPMP) and subsequent separation by RP-HPLC. Electrospray mass spectrometry was used to confirm the results of these various techniques. Although it was not firmly established which of the three possible sites were glycosylated, refinement of the purification protocol resulted in several different glycans being identified on the basis of the ES/MS and FACE results. It would appear that there are up to 15 different glycoforms of α-lactalbumin, some of which are highly sialated. It is difficult to determine whether the simpler structures represent breakdown products of the more complex structures, or whether they are present naturally.

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  • Factors affecting colour and cloud stability in a wildberry herbal drink : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of M. Tech. in Food Science at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Evans, John R

    Thesis
    Massey University

    An investigation was undertaken into the stability of the natural colour, from anthocyanins, and cloud in a Wildberry Herbal fruit drink. The fruit drinks consisted of cloudy apple and berry fruit juice with natural herb extracts and flavours. The objectives of the research were to identify the cause of cloud instability and sediment formation in the drink; determine the effect of ascorbic acid, berryfruit juice volume, storage temperature and light on anthocyanin stability; investigate the use of stabilisers to prevent sediment formation and determine consumer acceptability of a modified drink. The cause of sediment formation was determined by analysing the contribution of the major ingredients to the total amount of sediment formed. To minimise the sediment, a range of commercially available polysaccharide stabilisers were added to the drink and the amount of sediment formed determined. A consumer sensory evaluation was undertaken to determine consumer acceptability of drinks in which stabilisers had been added to improve the cloud stability. The factors affecting the anthocyanin's in the drink were analysed using a fractional factorial experimental design. The effect of the commercial pasteurisation process on the colour was also investigated. The formation of sediment was identified as being the result of complexing between the unstable cloud of the cloudy apple juice and polyphenolics, including anthocyanins, in the berryfruit juice. No sediment formed during eight weeks storage when clarified apple juice was substituted for cloudy apple juice. The sediment was reduced by approximately 45% using stabiliser systems consisting of either xanthan or a xanthan/propylene glycol alginate mixture. Consumer sensory evaluation of the modified drinks found no significant difference in liking from the standard drink. The anthocyanin loss in the drink was found to be significantly affected by increased storage temperature. Elderberry juice was found to have better colour stability over blackcurrant juice. Pasteurisation did not initially affect the colour stability of the drink. It was recommended that the composition of the Wildberry Herbal drink remain unchanged. The product should be stored at as low a temperature as possible. The drinks should be cooled to ambient temperature as quickly as possible after the pasteurisation process.

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  • Heterologous production and characterisation of a yeast peptide:N-glycanase : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry at Massey University, New Zealand

    Hong, Kun

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Peptide:.N-glycanases (PNGases) removes A-linked glycans from glycoproteins. Three distinct families of PNGases have been characterised, although all of them not completely. Some of these PNGases are cytosolic, others are secreted. Cytoplasmic PNGases (Png lp) are implicated in the proteasomal degradation of newly synthesized misfolded or unfolded glycoproteins that are exported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Cytoplasmic PNGases are encoded by the PNG1 gene and have been classified as members of transglutaminase-like superfamily based on the sequence analyses. There has, however, been no report of transglutaminase activity in any PNGase. The three-dimensional structures of recombinant PNGases from yeast (S. cerevisiae) and mouse have been determined in complex with the XPCB domain of Rad23 and mHR23B respectively. These PNGases were both produced as insoluble proteins, and could only be refolded and crystallised in the presence of their physiological binding partners. In this study, the gene encoding for S. pombe PNGase has been cloned and heterologously expressed as a soluble thioredoxin-fused protein. The proteolytic cleaved recombinant protein (rPNGase Sp) remained soluble as a monomer and retained its deglycosylating activity. It did not have, however any transglutaminase activity despite its homology to the transglutaminase family of proteins. The activity of rPNGase Sp in vitro is both reductant and Zn 2+- dependent. rP Gase Sp showed apparent heterogeneity on SDS-PAG E, which was characterised by the appearance of two bands differing in their molecular weights by an - 2.3 kDa. This heterogeneity was eventually shown to be the result of two different local conformations that were dependent on disulfide bond and/or Zn2 +. The enzyme was shown to only deglycosylatc the denatured glycoprotcins, not their native counterparts. Moreover, it preferred to dcglycosylatc glycoprotcins with high mannosc- typc glycan chains, both of which arc consistent with the biological function of cytoplasmic PNGascs. Compared to bacterial PNGasc F, rPNGasc Sp is not very active, at least on the substrate used in this study. A higher Km ( 186 μM) determined for rPNGasc Sp using a FITClabcllcd glycopcptidc which carries a complex-type glycan as the substrate also suggests that complex glycans arc not favoured substrates for these PNGascs. rPNGascSp has similar characteristics to the yeast (S. cerevisiae) and mouse PNGascs; it has a neutral pH optimum and is strongly inhibited by Cu2 +, Cd2 + and N j2+_ EDT A treatment deactivates it, and the addition of Zn2 + could not restore its activity. Interestingly, addition of exogenous Zn2 + was found to strongly inhibit rPNGasc Sp. dependent. rPNGase Sp showed apparent heterogeneity on SDS-PAGE, which was characterised by the appearance of two bands differing in their molecular weights by an ~ 2.3 kDa. This heterogeneity was eventually shown to be the result of two different local conformations that were dependent on disulfide bond and/or Zn 2+ . The enzyme was shown to only deglycosylate the denatured glycoproteins, not their native counterparts. Moreover, it preferred to deglycosylate glycoproteins with high mannose-type glycan chains, both of which are consistent with the biological function of cytoplasmic PNGases. Compared to bacterial PNGase F. rPNGase Sp is not very active, at least on the substrate used in this study. A higher K m (186 µM) determined for rPNGase Sp using a FITC-labelled glycopeptide which carries a complex-type glycan as the substrate also suggests that complex glycans are not favoured substrates for these PNGases. rPNGaseSp has similar characteristics to the yeast (S. cerevisiae) and mouse PNGases; it has a neutral pH optimum and is strongly inhibited by Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ and Ni 2+ EDTA treatment deactivates it, and the addition of Zn 2+ could not restore its activity. Interestingly, addition of exogenous Zn 2+ was found to strongly inhibit rPNGase Sp.

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  • An investigation into the effectiveness of collagenase for the percutaneous discolysis of thoracolumbar intervertebral discs in the dog : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Veterinary Science at Massey University

    Bray, Jonathan Peter

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This investigation compared the effectiveness of chemonucleolysis with 500 units of collagenase, to lateral fenestration of the thoracolumbar intervertebral discs of the non-chondrodystrophoid dog. Effectiveness was based on the amount of nuclear material removed from the disc and the associated modifications to intervertebral disc structure, as determined by histological examination. The object was to determine whether the percutaneous injection of collagenase enzyme could be an alternative to fenestration as a prophylaxis against herniation of a degenerate intervertebral disc. Eight one year old, non-chondrodystrophoid mongrel dogs were used in the experiment. Apart from two dogs which remained untreated, the remaining six dogs were from two litters which had been sired by the same animal. Two of these dogs had six intervertebral discs (T10/11 to L2/3) injected with 500 units of collagnease VIIs delivered percutaneously. Another two dogs had their equivalent discs surgically fenestrated by the lateral approach as described by Flo and Brinker. The remaining two dogs were subjected to a placebo injection of physiological saline. The animals were examined clinically, neurologically and radiologically before treatment and at regular intervals following treatment. Six months following treatment, the dogs were euthanased. The results showed that collagenase caused almost complete removal of normal nuclear material from within the disc. The centre of the disc was replaced by a variable combination of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage, which appeared to develop from the collapsed inner lamellae of the annulus fibrosus. Complications were recorded in only one dog, who suffered a transient hind limb paralysis in the two days immediately following injection. A massive dorsal extrusion of nuclear material was observed in one disc at post-mortem in this dog and was believed to be the cause of the paralysis. The dog recovered without treatment and remained normal on clinical, neurological and radiological examination six months after injection. The annulus fibrosus, dorsal and ventral longitudinal ligaments remained intact in all other dogs. Fenestration was found to cause a variable disruption to the normal architecture of the nucleus pulposus. In most discs, cellular aggregations from the normal nucleus pulposus were undergoing a transformation to fibrocartilage. These cell groups were separated by an increased amount of amorphous matrix material which stained moderately with alcian blue. In the remaining discs (3/12), an increased fibrosus of the nucleus pulposus was seen, but no other disruption to the normal architecture was recorded. No complications occurred in these dogs. The injection of the discs with physiological saline caused remarkably similar histological effects to the disc as did fenestration. The investigators concluded that collagenase appeared to be an attractive alternative to fenestration for the prophylaxis of intervertebral disc herniation, on the basis of its completeness of removal of nuclear tissue, and its simplicity, cheapness, non-invasiveness and the lack of medium and short term complications. Since intervertebral disc protrusions occur more commonly in chondrodystrophoid breeds of dog, the effect of collagenase should be studied in degenerate disc of these breeds before it can be recommended for clinical use.

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  • An integrative approach to online conference review management : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Information System in Massey University

    Meng, He

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Academic conferences play an important role in modern science and technology development. They provide venues for people involved in particular research areas to communicate with each other, share research achievement, and understand the current leading edge of development in that area. They also provide opportunity to periodically summarise the past work and find new directions for future research. The peer reviewed conference papers become reference for other researchers. There are thousands of conferences organised all over the world every year. For each conference there are hundreds of paper submissions. The management of submission, review and selection process is a hard and tedious task for conference committees. This thesis discusses the design and implementation of a web-based application to facilitate an efficient and effective management of paper submission, review and selection process in academic conferences.[FROM INTRODUCTION]

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  • Hanging out with offline friends in an online context : how the experience of "partial anonymity" impacts on identity management : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Krueger, Katherine M

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Instant Messaging has increased in popularity since 1999 and is now often used by adolescents to communicate with friends already known in their offline social networks. Instant Messaging can he thought of as a hybrid between chat rooms and email. Chat rooms are conducted in "real time" but are an open network in that anyone can have access to interacting with one another. Email is asynchronous and yet it is also a more personal, "closed network" where communicators must generally exchange addresses before they can communicate. When email is used for social reasons communicators generally know each other offline already. Instant Messaging is both synchronous like chat rooms, and can be used as a closed social network, like email. One of the distinguishing characteristics of MSN Instant Messenger (IM) when used between friends is the experience of knowing the other communicator both offline and online. This situation offers the anonymity traditionally experienced online while acknowledging that communicators bring offline knowledge of each other to their online interaction. Thus, the overall relationship is not conducted under conditions of anonymity like that experienced with chat rooms, MUD's and newsgroups. Online anonymity, in these forums, has been implicated in negative behaviours such as "flaming" and deception which are largely attributed to deindividuation. This research investigates how offline knowledge, which presumably acknowledges the other communicator as an individual, impacts on the experience of hanging out online. Adolescent girls construct identity through friendships and this research is concerned with identity constructions when friendships are maintained between both online and offline contexts. The research design was based on an ethnographic approach to the study of the Internet. Eight adolescent girls (aged 13-17) were interviewed both online through IM and in a more traditional face-to-face context. Data analysis was informed by positioning theory (Davies & Harré. 1990) to provide a coherent understanding around how identities are continuously constructed and transformed by contextual criterion. Analysis revealed that 1M fulfils adolescent motivations toward social connection and expressing personal autonomy which are both important in the process of identity formation. Instant Messaging is constructed as a space which allows the girls to balance these motivations in a way which helps them to maintain a positive self-image. The anonymity experienced online is tempered by offline knowledge of each other. This produces an environment of "partial anonymity". This study examines the experience of partial anonymity and the distinct advantages arising from the lack of online social cues. Control and protection are integral advantages which allow the girls to balance teenage motivations, thus informing their sense of self in largely positive ways. This becomes evident in how they demonstrate commitment to their friendships and negotiate disclosure, trust and risk. Findings are discussed in relation to contemporary social identity theories which have been applied to computer-mediated communication. Partial anonymity changes how adolescents use technology to construct and preserve a positive self-image. Adolescents understand the flow between contexts and the resulting negotiations around evolving socialisation standards.

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  • Stages of change profiles of offenders : exploring offenders' motivation to work on their offending problems : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Clinical Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Yong, Abigail Dawn

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Research has highlighted the importance of the stages of change (SoC) model (Prochaska, DiClemente, & Norcross, 1992) in assessing offenders’ motivation to work on their offending problems and as a guiding framework for selecting interventions. This thesis investigated the stages of change profiles in a group of general male offenders (N = 481) before and after a Short Motivational Programme (SMP), which is a combination of motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural material. For the first aim, distinct homogenous stage profiles that reflected the stages of change were generated by subjecting offenders’ responses on the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale (URICA; McConnaughy, DiClemente, Prochaska, & Velicer, 1989; McConnaughy, Prochaska, & Velicer, 1983) to hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis. At pre-SMP, the Ambivalent, Non-Reflective Action, Precontemplation, Preparticipation and Participation profiles were generated. At post-SMP, the same profiles were generated with the exception of the Non-Reflective Action profile. These stage profiles were consistent with profiles elicited in previous studies, and mapped well onto the SoC model. The majority of offenders were in the precontemplation stage (represented by the Ambivalent, Non-Reflective Action and Precontemplation profiles), whereas a smaller proportion were in the preparation (represented by the Preparticipation profile) and action stages (represented by the Participation profile). For the second aim, stage profiles obtained at pre- and post-SMP were then used to investigate stage movement following the SMP, by constructing a stage-transition matrix. There was evidence for offenders with different stage profiles showing different responses to the SMP, whereby a comparatively larger proportion of offenders with the Non-Reflective Action, Preparticipation and Participation profiles appeared to continue working on their offending problems or progressed to a more highly-motivated stage, compared to offenders with the Ambivalent and Precontemplation profiles. These findings indicated that there is a need for a more flexible approach to motivational interviewing to more effectively facilitate offenders’ motivation to work on their offending problems. Men with the Ambivalent and Precontemplation profiles may require further help to resolve their ambivalence towards changing, before cognitive behavioural content is introduced. For the third aim, stage profiles at pre- and post-SMP, and stage movements were examined as predictors of recidivism in three separate logistic regression analyses, controlling for salient demographic and risk variables. Men with profiles representing the precontemplation stage were less likely to reoffend compared to men with the Preparticipation profile. This study also found that men who remained in the precontemplation stage were less likely to reoffend than those who remained in the preparation and action stages. These results suggested that men with the Preparticipation profile (which represents the preparation stage) may still be experiencing some ambivalence towards changing their behaviour, thus, impacting on their readiness to change their offending behaviour. It also raised the question on whether men with the Participation profile (which represents the action stage) may be more externally motivated to change their behaviour resulting in less lasting change upon the completion of their sentences. These findings contributed to a more in-depth understanding of offenders’ stages of change, and demonstrated that these stages have important clinical implications in guiding assessment of offenders’ motivation to work on their offending problems, and tailoring rehabilitation programmes to increase treatment responsivity and improve outcomes.

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  • Influence of solar ultraviolet-B radiation in New Zealand on white clover (Trifolium repens L.), ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Agricultural Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Hofmann, Angelika

    Thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand pasture plants have been exposed to increasing levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) as a result of stratospheric ozone depletion during recent years. Thus far, there has been only limited published information on UV-B effects on pasture plants growing under field conditions. This study set out to investigate effects of natural solar UV-B radiation in the field for the pasture species white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and compared those with pea (Pisum sativum L.), another economically important crop. Contrasting UV-B levels were created with two filter systems, using UV-B-absorbing glasshouse polythene film and UV-B-transmitting perspex glass. A further treatment included open plots that were not covered by filters. Ambient UV-B irradiance levels were recorded daily during the experimental period in summer from early December 1995 to late February 1996. The pasture species were investigated in monoculture as well as in their typical association in an established sward that was regularly grazed by sheep. Morphological measurements included leaf expansion, leaf initiation, leaf senescence, stem elongation, above-ground biomass and aspects of plant reproduction. To identify possible responses related to UV-B protection, measurements included specific leaf mass (SLM), accumulation of UV-absoibing compounds and of anthocyanins. The highest UV-B levels occurred during the early- and midsummer period from mid December to late January. Clouding reduced UV-B irradiance by more than 70%. The UV-B-absorbing treatment reduced ambient UV-B levels by about 90%, and the transmitting filters by about 25%. Results from the monoculture trials revealed interspecific differences in UV-B sensitivity between the three plant species tested. Ryegrass and white clover appeared UV-B-sensitive in a number of vegetative morphological aspects, while pea generally displayed UV-B tolerance. Most features of UV-B sensitivity in the two pasture species were recorded during midsummer in January, with young plant pans particularly affected by the UV-B-transmitting treatments. The area of young white clover leaves was reduced by about 20%, and the length of young internodes by more than 25%. Solar UV-B increased the number of senescing ryegrass leaves in January and induced white clover inflorescence formation in February. Inflorescence numbers were also increased in pea under UV-B-transmitting filters. While there was no clear relationship between SLM and UV-B susceptibility, the biochemical studies suggest that the interspecific differences in UV-B sensitivity may be due to differences in the accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds and of anthocyanins. Average levels of UV-absorbing compounds across treatments were about 50% higher in pea than in the two pasture species. Furthermore and in contrast to the pasture species, pea showed the highest levels of anthocyanins under solar UV-B in January. The results from the sward trials were in general agreement with the findings from the monoculture studies, showing that morphological sensitivity under the UV-B-transmitting treatments could also be detected for white clover and ryegrass when grown in association. This was reflected in a reduction of white clover leaf area and of leaf elongation in mature ryegrass tillers by 13%, and by more than 20% in young ryegrass tillers. The effects on the two species under pasture conditions were also reflected in whole sward measurements, showing decreases in sward height of about 15% and in herbage accumulation of about 20% under UV-B-transmitting filters. In conclusion, the findings from this study show that near-ambient solar UV-B levels can affect the morphology of the two most commonly sown pasture plant species in New Zealand. In contrast, pea showed tolerance to UV-B and this may at least be partly due to higher intrinsic levels of UV-absorbing compounds.

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  • Havelock North : a study of population growth and the changing nature of the town since 1952 : a thesis ... for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography

    Bell, David

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Many small towns in New Zealand have undergone a change in role in the twentieth century depending upon their relationship with a nearby larger urban centre. In some instances the relationship has become totally changed as a result of complete absorption of the smaller centre by the larger and the development of Greater Auckland is an example of this. Alternatively, the small town may retain its individuality to a greater extent yet undergo a significant change in function, developing as a residential suburb of the larger town or city to the detriment of its 'all-round' development. Such is the case of Havelock North, a town situated on the lower slopes of a range of hills approximately three miles east of Hastings City. Following its inception in 1860 after a short period of initial growth the township began to decline in importance and for a period of about sixty years from around 1890 to 1950 it was virtually little more than a small 'peaceful village' serving primarily as a retirement centre and a 'high-class' residential suburb of Hastings. Within the last two decades, however, the population of Havelock North has grown considerably from 1,828 in 1951 to 5,472 in 1966. It is this rapid growth in recent years together with the associated changes which have occurred, both directly and indirectly, is the morphology of the borough and the character of the borough's population which provides the basis for this study. [FROM INTRODUCTION]

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  • Information systems planning and management in New Zealand tertiary education institutions : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Computer Science at Massey University

    Greenwood, John

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The strategic use of information systems for competitive advantage is a subject of current information systems research. This thesis examines the application of this view of the organisation on tertiary education institutions in New Zealand, and its impact on their information systems planning process. Recent changes in the legislation governing the tertiary education sector are reviewed, and their effects on New Zealand tertiary institutions are examined. A number of models of information systems development are summarised and used as a framework to position the current state of information systems in tertiary institutions. The results of a survey, which gathered information about the information systems planning in New Zealand's tertiary education institutions, are presented. Several models of information systems planning are examined and their applicability to the organisations involved in tertiary education is determined. A suggested development of information systems planning within tertiary institutions is presented.

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  • Inrteractions [sic] between farm effluent application methods, tillage practices and soil nutrients : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Agricultural Engineering at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Hoang, Son

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Land disposal of liquid effluent has benefits for the environment and is economically viable. Firstly, it can reduce nutrient levels from wastes polluting waterways. Secondly, the land application of effluent has been the most common treatment method because it can provide some necessary nutrients for plant growth. In New Zealand, land application of farm liquid effluent is a common method for disposing agricultural wastes. However, there is little comparative information about nutrient recycling in soils treated with effluent using surface application or subsurface injection. A field trial was conducted to examine the effect of tillage on the transformation of nutrient added through dairyshed effluent. Liquid effluent was either injected at 10 cm depth or broadcast on the surface at the Massey University long-term tillage experiments which include permanent pasture, and crops sown with no-till and conventional tillage as main treatments. In the first experiment, raw dairyshed liquid effluent was applied in August 1997 at the rate of 120 m 3 ha -1 (30 kg N ha -1 equivalent). This was considered as a low rate of application. In the second experiment starting in December 1997, the application was at the rate of 600 m 3 ha -1 (150 kg N ha -1 ). At this rate, although the hydraulic loading was considered as a high rate, the nutrient loading was considered optimum. Soil samples were collected before application, after one week, one month, and two months of application, at two depths: 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm and the samples were analysed for total N, total P, NO 3 - , NH 4 + , exchangeable K, available Olsen-P. Throughout the experiments, interactions between nutrient status, methods of application and different tillage practices were analysed. In the case of injection method, soil samples were taken both in the centre of the injected row and 10cm horizontally away from the centre of row. At the low rate of application (first experiment), soil nitrogen and phosphorus status did not change significantly for up to two months after application. Soil ammonium concentration reduced immediately after one week then reduced slowly. Nitrate concentration reduced slowly during the first month and significantly reduced during the second month after application. Exchangeable K and Olsen-P were not significantly different among treatments. At the high rate of application (second experiment), levels of soil nitrogen and phosphorus reduced slightly after two months of application. Nitrate concentration in the soil increased in the first month, but steadily reduced during the second month. On the other hand, ammonium concentration reduced gradually over a period of two months. Ammonium in injected plots was higher than that in the broadcast plots. Pasture retained more ammonium concentration compared with no-till and conventional tillage plots. Moreover, nitrate content in the injection plots was similar to that in the broadcast. This may be related to low rainfall during the experiment period that may have restricted the denitrification and reduced nitrate losses through leaching. Generally, there was higher content of exchangeable K and available P in soil which resulted from effluent application. Method of effluent application had no effects on K and P concentrations. Overall, there was an increase in nutrients in soil after application of liquid effluent, especially at the topsoil. There was a greater retention of nutrients in no-till soil than the conventionally tilled soil. Subsoil injection of effluent allowed higher level of nutrient retention than the surface broadcast method. This may be due to reduced nitrogen losses caused by volatilization of ammonium.

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  • Issues and Challenges around the fostering of a productive respectful community ethos within an integrated/inclusive class context

    Cheesman, Sue (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    In teaching and facilitating dance in integrated community contexts, building a community among participants seems critically important. In this context, how are the differing needs of a class managed in order to foster a respectful productive learning environment? How is a sense of agency cultivated? What pedagogical issues arise in such a context? In this article, I attempt to interrogate these questions, recognising strategies, identifying and unpacking some of the negotiations, issues and challenges. My approach draws on the work of Chappell (2011), Kuppers (2007, 2014), Shapiro (1998) and Zitomer (2013). Theorising my personal practice from a dance teacher’s ‘self-narrative’ point of view, interwoven with other viewpoints from dance and educational research, it can be argued that much is to be gained from reflection that empowers teachers and learners in integrated community contexts.

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