86,506 results

  • Trophoblast shedding and deportation: lack of effect of oxygen

    Askelund, Kathryn; Stone, Peter; Chamley, Lawrence (2008)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Effect of litter size and birth weight on naturally occurring myopia in the Labrador retriever

    Phillips, John; Black, Joanna; Browning, Sharon; Collins, Andrew (2008-10-01)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Purpose To evaluate early environmental influences (e.g. litter size, birth weight, birth season) on adult refractive error in dogs. A previous familial aggregation analysis has shown that the distribution of refractive error in a large family of pedigree Labrador Retrievers has a significant genetic component, but that litter size and other residual/environmental factors also have significant effects. Methods Refractive error was measured by cycloplegic retinoscopy in both eyes of 166 dogs, 1-8 years of age and free of ocular pathology, from a large family of pedigree Labrador Retrievers. All dogs originated from the same breeding colony. The early records of these dogs included information on birth weight, maternal litter cohort, litter size and neonatal weight gain, measured daily for the first 6 weeks. These factors were analyzed to investigate their effect on adult refractive error. Results The average adult spherical equivalent refraction (SER) was -0.44D (-5.38D to +1.65D, n = 166): 35% were myopic (SER ≤ -0.50D), 58% emmetropic (SER = -0.49 to +0.99) and 7% hyperopic (SER ≥ +1.00D). Mean birth weight was 421±57g. Higher birth weight was weakly (R=0.3) correlated with more hyperopic adult refractions. Relative to large litters (≥ 7), dogs from small litters (< 7) gained more weight within the first 6 weeks of life and were on average 0.43D more myopic. Conclusion The dog provides a unique model for studying a wide range of environmental influences on the development of naturally occurring, high prevalence, low degree myopia.

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  • Logic in the Community

    Seligman, Jeremy; Liu, F; Girard, Patrick (2011)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Communities consist of individuals bounds together by social relationships and roles. Within communities, individuals reason about each other’s beliefs, knowledge and preferences. Knowledge, belief, preferences and even the social relationships are constantly changing, and yet our ability to keep track of these changes is an important part of what it means to belong to a community.

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  • Effects of complex milk lipid components on neurodevelopment in vitro

    Lim, JH; Hodgkinson, S; Dragunow, M; Norris, C; Vickers, M (2010-11)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Cellular metabolism, murine pharmacokinetics and preclinical antitumor activity of SN29966, a novel hypoxia-activated pan-HER inhibitor

    Patterson, Adam; Jaswail, JK; Syddall, SP; Abbattista, Maria; Van Leeuwen, W; Puryer, MA; Thompson, Aaron; Hsu, A; Mehta, Sunali; Pruijn, A; Lu, Guo-Liang; Donate, F; Denny, William; Wilson, William; Smaill, Jeffrey (2009)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Hypoxia occurs in most human tumors and is associated with diseaseprogression, resistance to conventional therapies and poor patientoutcome. Hypoxia can up-regulate HER1 by several known mechanisms,including increased mRNA translation (Franovic et al., PNAS,2007;104:13092)and delayed receptor endocytosis (Wang et al., Nat Med.,2009;15:319)

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  • A multimedia mobile phone based programme to prevent depression in adolescents.

    Whittaker, Robyn; Merry, S; McDowell, H; Stasiak, K; Shepherd, M; Doherty, I; Dorey, E; Ameratunga, S (2011)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Prevention of the onset of depression in adolescence may prevent social dysfunction, teenage pregnancy, substance abuse, suicide, and mental health conditions in adulthood. New technologies allow delivery of prevention programs scalable to large and disparate populations. Objective: To develop and test the novel mobile phone delivery of a depression prevention intervention for adolescents. We describe the development of the intervention and the results of participants’ self-reported satisfaction with the intervention. Methods: The intervention was developed from 15 key messages derived from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The program was fully automated and delivered in 2 mobile phone messages/day for 9 weeks, with a mixture of text, video, and cartoon messages and a mobile website. Delivery modalities were guided by social cognitive theory and marketing principles. The intervention was compared with an attention control program of the same number and types of messages on different topics. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken in high schools in Auckland, New Zealand, from June 2009 to April 2011. Results: A total of 1348 students (13–17 years of age) volunteered to participate at group sessions in schools, and 855 were eventually randomly assigned to groups. Of these, 835 (97.7%) self-completed follow-up questionnaires at postprogram interviews on satisfaction, perceived usefulness, and adherence to the intervention. Over three-quarters of participants viewed at least half of the messages and 90.7% (379/418) in the intervention group reported they would refer the program to a friend. Intervention group participants said the intervention helped them to be more positive (279/418, 66.7%) and to get rid of negative thoughts (210/418, 50.2%)—significantly higher than proportions in the control group. Conclusions: Key messages from CBT can be delivered by mobile phone, and young people report that these are helpful. Change in clinician-rated depression symptom scores from baseline to 12 months, yet to be completed, will provide evidence on the effectiveness of the intervention. If proven effective, this form of delivery may be useful in many countries lacking widespread mental health services but with extensive mobile phone coverage.

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  • Preclinical characterization of PWT33597, a dual inhibitor of PI3-kinase alpha and mTOR.

    Matthews, DJ; O’Farrell, M; James, J; Giddens, Anna; Rewcastle, Gordon; Denny, William (2011-04-05)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    4485: Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) is an important mediator of tumor cell growth, survival and proliferation. In particular, PI3K alpha is important for signaling downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases and is also frequently amplified or mutationally activated in tumors, suggesting that selective inhibitors of this isoform may have therapeutic utility in the treatment of cancer. Downstream of PI3K, the mTOR kinase also plays a critical role in cellular growth and metabolism, and inhibitors of mTOR have demonstrated clinical benefit in several tumor types. We report here the discovery and characterization of PWT33597, a dual inhibitor of PI3K alpha and mTOR. PWT33597 inhibits PI3K alpha and mTOR in biochemical assays with IC50 values of 19 and 14 nM respectively, and is approximately 10-fold selective with respect to PI3K gamma and PI3K delta. Profiling of PWT33597 against 442 protein kinases (Ambit Kinomescan) revealed little or no cross-reactivity with either serine/threonine or tyrosine kinases, and there was little cross-reactivity with an additional panel of 64 pharmacologically relevant targets. In NCI-H460 and HCT116 tumor cells with mutationally activated PI3K alpha, PWT33597 inhibits phosphorylation of PI3K and mTOR pathway proteins with cellular IC50 values similar to its biochemical IC50 values. PWT33597 has good pharmacokinetic properties in multiple preclinical species, is not extensively metabolized in vivo and shows little potential for interaction with cytochrome P450 enzymes. Following a single oral dose in vivo, PWT33597 shows durable inhibition of PI3K and mTOR pathway signaling in xenograft tumors. High compound distribution into tumors and potent anti-tumor activity has been observed in multiple tumor xenograft models with activated PI3K/mTOR pathways. Also, administration of PWT33597 in mice is associated with transient increases in plasma insulin, consistent with an effect on PI3K/AKT signaling. A robust PK/PD relationship has been defined, which will guide interpretation of the planned phase I clinical study. IND-enabling studies with PWT33597 are currently in progress.

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  • In vivo anti-cancer efficacy of a hypoxia activated prodrug, TH-302.

    Wang, Jingli; Liu, Q; Rosario, G; McReynolds, C; Durnal, A; Evans, J; Ammons, S (2007)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: A new hypoxia activated phosphoramidate prodrug, TH-302, was identified as a selective hypoxia targeted drug by in vitro screens. Using cell proliferation assays, TH-302 showed greater than 100 fold higher toxicity under anoxic conditions as compared to aerobic conditions across a broad range of cancer cell lines. In this study, we have tested the in vivo anti-cancer efficacy of TH-302 in different human cancer xenograft models. Method: H460-NCI human non-small-cell lung cancer cells, and HT29 human colon cancer cells, were implanted subcutaneously into the flanks of homozygous nude mice. Multiple doses of TH-302 with or without combination with chemotherapeutic agents were administrated when the tumor size reached 100 to 150 mm3. Animal body weight and tumor growth were measured for a maximum of 60 days after tumor implantation. TH-302 in vivo cell killing was also tested with an excision clonogenic assay. Results: Significant tumor growth inhibition was achieved in the H460 model by TH-302 monotherapy at different dose regimens when given IP: 50 mg/kg, QDx5/wkx2wk; 100 mg/kg, Q3Dx5; 150 mg/kg, Q7Dx3 or IP infusion for 14 days using Alzet osmotic pumps. The tumor growth inhibitions (TGIs) were 68%, 81%, 86% and 73% respectively. TH-302 also showed significant anti-cancer efficacy as a monotherapy agent in the HT29 model. Combining TH-302 with the chemotherapeutic agent Cisplatin (6 mg/kg, IV, Q7Dx2), resulted in increased anti-cancer efficacy as compared to Cisplatin alone in both models with 20% cure rate. In H460 model, TH-302 combined with Taxol also produced an increased anti-cancer efficacy than Taxol alone. To confirm the in vivo hypoxia targeted mechanism of TH-302, we performed an excision clonogenic assay. Animals were placed in chambers with different levels of oxygen (10%, 21% or 95% O2) for 2.5 hours before and after TH-302 administration. Tumors were excised 24 h later, and a clonogenic assay was performed to measure the in vivo cytoxicity. The results showed that TH-302 induced cell killing was O2 dependent with lower O2 levels associated with greater cytoxicity. Additionally, in the excision assay, greater than 99% of cells were killed in H460 tumors in vivo after a single dose (150mg/kg, IP) of TH-302 when the animals were breathing in air. These results suggest that the activated drug may kill cells outside of the hypoxic region, perhaps via a bystander effect, because hypoxic cells in H460 tumor were less than 99%. Conclusions: The hypoxic targeting agent TH-302 is clearly an effective anti-cancer agent either as a monotherapeutic agent or in combination with common chemotherapeutic agents in human cancer xenograft models. These results demonstrate that TH-302 should be tested in the treatment of solid tumors in human cancer patients.

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  • Surface Characterization of An Extruded 6060 Al alloy

    Zhang, Wei; Metson, James; Nguyen, Chuong; Chen, S (2007)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The surface characteristics of an extruded 6060 aluminium alloy were investigated with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The results revealed that the extruded surface was covered by oxides of aluminium and magnesium. The thickness of aluminium oxide was found to change along the extrusion direction with the thinnest and thickest oxide at the beginning and end of the extrudate, respectively. Magnesium segregation was found on the surface of the extrusion with the highest and lowest Mg concentration at the beginning and end of the extrudate, respectively. This is the inverse result of that expected where increasing Mg content was believed to be associated with film instability and thicker films.

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  • Mechanism of action of the hypoxia-activated irreversible pan-HER inhibitor SN29966

    Smaill, Jeffrey; Jaiswal, Jagdish; Abbattista, M; Lu, GL; Anderson, BF; Ashoorzadeh, Amir; Denny, William; Donate, F; Hsu, HL; Lee, HH; Maroz, A; mehta, S; Pruijn, A; Puryer, M; Syddall, SP; Thompson, A; van Leeuwen, W; Wilson, WR; Jamieson, S; Patterson, AV (2011-11-06)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Hypoxia occurs in most human tumors and is associated with disease progression, treatment resistance and poor patient outcome. We have developed the hypoxia-activated prodrug SN29966, designed to release the irreversible pan-HER inhibitor SN29926, following one-electron reduction by hypoxic cells (Smaill et al, Mol Cancer Ther., 2009; 8(12 Suppl), C46). Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in nude mice bearing A431 tumor xenografts indicated SN29966 has a long tumor half-life (>3 days) and releases SN29926 in tumors. SN29966 demonstrated single agent activity in nude mice bearing A431 and SKOV3 xenografts, inducing striking tumor regressions in both models (Patterson et al, Mol Cancer Ther., 2009; 8(12 Suppl), B76). PR509 and PR610, clinical candidates developed from SN29966, are currently undergoing comparative evaluation with Phase I trials anticipated in early 2012.

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  • Hyperspectral Video for Forensic Applications

    Andrews, Mark; Dunn, RJ (2011-11)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Hyperspectral Imaging is a technique where material properties and quantities are determined using interactions between light and matter. Its non-contact and non-destructive nature ensures it has numerous applications in forensic science. Many of these applications require a video-rate hyperspectral system, although, processing this volume of data is demanding and difficult to perform in real-time. A novel method is presented for reducing the complexity of current hyperspectral imaging techniques in the context of a hyperspectral video crime scene analysis tool. Specifically, the essential but time-consuming phase of dimension reduction is achieved using a new on-line estimate of the principal components and exploits temporal redundancy in sequential hyperspectral volumes. This new algorithm is shown to provide a significant reduction in complexity (> 10× ) in processing hyperspectral video when coupled with Abundance Guided Endmember Selection—a new endmember identification and extraction algorithm developed for hyperspectral video applications. A theoretical frame-rate of over 20fps for a scene with 5×10⁶ pixels and 224 bands can be achieved when implemented on an nVidia Tesla C2070.

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  • Mutations of Cypovirus Polyhedrin and Applications of Polyhedra to Protein Nanocontainers

    Ohtsuka, Y; Nakai, D; Coulibaly, F; Cooper, Yui; Metcalf, Peter; Mori, H (2010)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Cypoviruses, a member of the family Reoviridae, are one group of insect virus that produce micrometer-sized protein crystals called cytoplasmic polyhedra. Many virus particles are occluded in polyhedra to protect them against extracellular environment. Recently we have developed a novel method for protein immobilization into polyhedra. It is possible to use these polyhedra to device ultra-stable protein nanocontainers. However, a weak point of the protein nanocontainers is that polyhedra dissolve only in very high pH condition (pH > 10). It seems important now to carry out structure-based engineering of polyhedrin to derive mutants for multiple purposes, for example, such that the crystals can be dissolved at pH values that are not as drastic. We have identified a cluster of tyrosine at a packing contact, deprotonation of which is likely to cause disruption of the lattice at very alkaline pH. It is perhaps possible to test the effect of substitution of these tyrosine residues by other amino acids. We show that the substitutions of some residues in a cluster of tyrosine lead to modify a solubility of polyhedra. The results suggest that the modified polyhedra can serve as the basis for the development of robust and versatile nanoparticles for biotechnological applications.

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  • Robust image segmentation using learned priors

    El-Baz, A; Gimel'farb, Georgy (2009)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    A novel parametric deformable model of a goal object controlled by shape and appearance priors learned from co-aligned training images is introduced. The shape prior is built in a linear space of vectors of distances to the training boundaries from their common centroid. The appearance prior is modeled with a spatially homogeneous 2 - order Markov-Gibbs random field (MGRF) of gray levels within each training boundary. Geometric structure of the MGRF and Gibbs potentials are analytically estimated from the training data. To accurately separate goal objects from arbitrary background, the deformable model is evolved by solving an Eikonal partial differential equation with a speed function combining the shape and appearance priors and the current appearance model. The latter represents empirical gray level marginals inside and outside an evolving boundary with adaptive linear combinations of discrete Gaussians (LCDG). The analytical shape and appearance priors and a simple Expectation-Maximization procedure for getting the object and background LCDGs, make our segmentation considerably faster than most of the known counterparts. Experiments with various images confirm robustness, accuracy, and speed of our approach.

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  • Brand Portraits: Exploring Textual Representations of the Employee-Brand Relationship within a Large Organisation [Accepted Manuscript Version]

    Buchanan-Oliver, Margo; Smith, Sandra (2009)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    We explore branded identities within an organizational context. More specifically, we explore the notion that people are increasingly encouraged to bring more of ‘themselves’ into the workplace. Our aim is to unpack the brand experience by investigating employee representations of the self, organization and brand, from a social constructionist /interpretive / narrative perspective. Data is in the form of participant-generated visual and spoken texts. Employee portraits of the brand are framed as reflections or mirrors of the self. Our initial findings confirm that which has already been established; namely that employees may either accommodate or resist, to varying degrees, identification with the organizational brand. However, we add to this view by also detecting instances whereby the brand actually constitutes the self beyond the professional realm. Moreover, our findings confirm the contested, paradoxical and complex nature of the internal brand experience.

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  • RAD001 and ZOledronic acid in Renal cell carcinoma patients with bone metastases (RAZOR) – a randomised phase II trial

    Hinder, Victoria; Broom, RJ; Pollard, S; Sharples, K; Fong, P; Hanning, F; Deva, S; Forgeson, G; Jameson, Michael; O'Donnell, A; Harris, D; North, R; Grey, A; Findlay, Michael (2011)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Bone metatases from renal cell carcinoma are common, destructive and have been identified as an adverse prognostic feature, even in the modern targeted therapy era.

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  • Left ventricular segmentation challenge from cardiac MRI: A collation study

    Suinesiaputra, Avan; Cowan, Brett; Finn, JP; Fonseca, CG; Kadish, AH; Lee, DC; Medrano Gracia, Pau; Warfield, SK; Tao, W; Young, Alistair (2011)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper presents collated results from the left ventricular (LV) cardiac MRI segmentation challenge as part of STACOM'11. Clinical cases from patients with myocardial infarction (100 test and 100 validation cases) were randomly selected from the Cardiac Atlas Project (CAP) database. Two independent sets of expert (manual) segmentation from different sources that are available from the CAP database were included in this study. Automated segmentations from five groups were contributed in the challenge. The total number of cases with segmentations from all seven raters was 18. For these cases, a ground truth "consensus" segmentation was estimated based on all raters using an Expectation-Maximization (EM) method (the STAPLE algorithm).

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  • The Legacy of UK Tax law in Hong Kong

    Littlewood, Antony (2008)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Rubric Marking "Out of the Box": Saving Time & Adding Value to Teaching & Learning

    Whitehead, Lesley; Sheridan, Donald; Andreas, Nina (2011)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper describes how Goggle Docs can be used to create a rubric marking system with ‘out-of-the-box’ features a simple form with radio buttons or Likert scale to record the student’s marks for each assessment item, and the total marks. Comments are optional. The data can be exported as a spread sheet that is suitable for uploading to an LMS or sending out by email to the students. In this study our hypothesis that it takes less time using rubrics was supported.. The data recorded within the Google Docs application was a ‘bonus’ and analysed. The paper discusses visualisation of the rubrics using Google Analytics ‘off-the-shelf’ and the possibility of further analysis such as inter-rater reliability and item response theory.

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  • Co-prescribing of medications with anticholinergic properties to those using cholinesterase inhibitors for dementia

    Garrigan, Katherine; John, N; McGrogan, A; Jones, R; de-Vries, C (2010-08)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Medications with anticholinergic (AC) prop- erties have adverse effects on cognition and many guidelines recommend avoiding them in older adults. Theoretically they could negate benefits of cholinesterase inhibitor (CI) treatment in patients dementia patients, although there is inadequate evidence to date.

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  • Breaking borders with the VIP (Visualising Issues in Pharmacy) project

    Martini, Nataly; Bennett, R (2008)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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