91,714 results

  • "Gay men, internalised homophobia and therapy": Working with internalised homophobia in gay men using a gay-affirmative model: A systematic literature review

    Colligan, Steven

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This dissertation is a modified systematic literature review exploring internalised homophobia in gay men and how the therapist works with this issue within the therapeutic relationship. Information was gathered from several sources including electronic databases, books and journals. This dissertation found that gay men who enter into therapy present with unmet needs for mirroring and idealising, including an alienation from their authentic feelings and desires. The result is often the construction of an unintegrated false self in order to achieve acceptance and approval in the dominant heterosexual culture. The concepts of homophobia and internalised homophobia within gay men are explored and reviewed with their symptoms, causes, and how they affect identity development. Gay identity development differs from heterosexual identity development and this paper explores those differences and describes how gay identity development can arrest. The dissertation then examines how the personal values, views and concepts of the therapist impact upon the therapeutic work and the importance of the therapist understanding the origin of these values. The function of the therapist and therapy is to create an empathic and affirming environment in which the client is able to reflect on his identity freely. The therapist’s understanding of, and responses to, these needs is crucial to the psychotherapeutic relationship and its success. The paper confirms that there is a need for additional training for therapists relating to sexuality and sexual orientation as inadequate training can result in gay clients receiving poor or even harmful treatment. The therapist’s ease with gay affirmative attitudes, regardless of his/her gender or sexual orientation was perceived to be the most helpful, useful and holding by the gay client. If the therapist can hold the gay client in an affirming, positive and respectful way then gender and sexuality are unimportant. However, a gay therapist can work with a gay client potentially more effectively than a heterosexual therapist because of their personal experience, knowledge and understanding of being gay in a heterosexist society. This dissertation presents a gay affirmative therapy model, discussing the therapeutic process and relationship when using this model to work with gay men. Clinical vignettes from gay male clients are included to highlight the need to identify and work with internalised homophobia and the need for the therapist to hold sexual difference in order for the therapy to be effective.

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  • The impact of resilience on the experience of parents raising a disabled child

    Fitzgibbon, Gabriele

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Historically most research on disability and the family has profiled the child’s disability as a tragedy. This ‘tragic’ view has meant that the family was viewed as damaged and in need of being fixed. Research on families with a child with special needs has focused on stressors and families needing support. This pilot study adopted an interpretivist and participatory stance, giving parents a voice. It was positive in its viewpoint, looking at the resilience within the family, particularly the meaning resilience has for them, not at any deficit. As such it sought to give a different focus then most other research to date has done. Participants were 3 mothers of severely disabled children. The findings showed themes of “making sense”, “being yourself” and “being in control”. Participants believed that resilience helps them make sense of their life, keep a sense of self and gain control over their lives. Ways to improve resilience were also explored. This was a small pilot study for a dissertation requirement. Further research exploring more fully the meaning resilience has for parents of disabled children could yield more information and aid the understanding for practitioners involved in the field of disability and be of help to other parents.

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  • Monitoring and enhancing the performance of competitve cyclists

    Paton, Carl D.

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Sport scientists and researchers often use laboratory-based tests to monitor competitive cyclists and to investigate training strategies and other interventions that might provide a worthwhile enhancement in performance. The series of studies in this thesis ain to: (1) provide an understanding of major issues related to test error when monitoring competitive cyclists using performance tests; (2) determine the magnitude of the smallest worthwhile enhancements in performance that matters to competitive cyclists; (3) evaluate experimentally the efficacy of a novel training intervention with competitive cyclists.

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  • Constraints on interceptive actions in cricket

    Renshaw, Ian

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Movement scientists are continually searching to enhance our understanding of human movement. Recent research has begun to examine representative movement models from sport to demonstrate how individual, environments and task constraints interact to shape movement behaviour. The series of studies in this doctoral thesis aimed to: (1) provide an enhanced theoretical understanding of the constraints on interceptive actions by focussing on movements from cricket; and (2) provide practitioners with applied research findings that can underpin effective pedagogical practice. Initial examination of the discrete interceptive action of cricket batting demonstrated that perception and action is constrained by an interaction of batting skill and bowling action information. Specifically, perceptual discrimination was shown to be more complex than previously thought. Initial findings demonstrated that more expert batters were able to utilise information from within bowler’s actions in order to determine the spin type deliveries of expert wristspin bowlers. Conversely, club level players were not able to use this information. Further analysis revealed that idiosyncrasies within bowlers’ actions also impacted on discrimination ability. The unique delivery actions for specific spin ball types resulted in differences in discrimination ability of the national and club level players. Ability to identify ball type was also constrained by the availability of different information sources; more familiar ball types or those ball types with distinctive flight characteristics could be identified with ball flight only, whereas ball types that were less familiar or had less distinctive flight patterns required access to body action information. Finally, national-level players were able to utilise ball flight information to reach performance levels above those of club players when body action and ball flight information were available. This factor has important implications for the development of perceptual training programmes. Given these findings, the usefulness of bowling machines for developing appropriate information: movement couplings are brought into question. Therefore, movement analysis of four high-intermediate level batters batting against a bowling machine and bowler of the same speed information was undertaken. Results demonstrated that removing information on body action led to changes in the timing and coordination of the forward defensive shot. Specifically, this was caused by changes in the bat swing as batters tried to time their initial movements to ball release in the bowling machine condition. Using the bowling machine did not lead to a catastrophic breakdown in performance, but did lead to poorer technique. The results emphasised the importance of practice organisation which maintains specific information: movement couplings and provided additional support for the prospective control of human movements. Taken together, the findings from these studies suggest that more expert players should avoid the use of bowling machines during practice. Conversely, less skilled player’s movement patterns may be less influenced by their use as they cannot utilise bowler’s action information, although practice use should be restricted after basic coordination patterns have been established. Analysis of locomotor pointing strategies of six professional bowlers was undertaken to elucidate control mechanisms. Results revealed that despite highly inconsistent starting points, bowlers achieved levels of variability (0.08 m-0.16 m) at the bound step consistent with those seen in international long jumpers hitting the take-off board. Inter- and intra-step analyses revealed that bowlers were able to regulate their steps as and when required to throughout the whole approach. This regulation strategy only continued while it was required. Results provide support for prospective control of locomotion, as well as providing further evidence that the nested task constraint at the end of the run-up, in conjunction with the availability of vertical reference information in the vicinity of the take-of area results in different control strategies than previously observed in earlier studies. This thesis has contributed knowledge regarding the theoretical understanding of how interaction of individual, environmental and task constraints underpin both discrete and continuous interceptive actions. For the first time perceptual discrimination capability in cricket batting has been shown to be a function of an interaction between batting skill and bowler movement patterns. Additionally, when batters are not able to use the information sources provided by the bowler, different coordination and timing patterns were observed during performance, supporting a prospective control explanation of movement control in cricket batting. The thesis has provided new evidence to show that task and environmental constraints determine movement strategies in locomotor pointing of cricket bowling. Bowlers’ run-ups were found to be visually regulated from very early steps and that steps were adjusted as and when required throughout the whole of the run-up. The theoretical findings of the thesis have some important practical applications. Application of these findings would fundamentally change the way that both sport science support and coaching is delivered. Future studies need to explore how manipulating constraints can enhance batting and bowling performance.

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  • Grief and the therapist: How the therapist manages personal grief while maintaining safety for both self and the client within the therapeutic relationship: A modified systematic literature review with clinical illustrations

    Hinds, Jane

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The goal of this study is to explore how the therapist manages personal grief while maintaining safety for both self and the client within the therapeutic relationship. This is achieved by using a systematic literature review with vignettes from my clinical practice, my work as a nurse and my personal experience. I have also included illustrations from research. The basis for this study is the salient fact that all humans experience loss at some time in their life. If the loss is not faced, processed or mourned, it becomes unresolved and may affect personal relationships. Therefore, if therapists carry emotional pain or unresolved grief into the therapeutic space, therapy may be compromised. This may hinder the effectiveness of the therapy at one level or cause an alliance rupture at the other, with possible termination of therapy. To promote effective therapy for the client, therapists should endeavour to provide a safe place. A safe place is primarily created when the therapist is a safe person. Therapist safety is achieved and maintained by the therapists’ self-awareness, self-care and regular personal therapy and supervision.

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  • Circling Communities

    Barr, Philippa (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    There are works of architecture that are concerned with the user and others that are heavily concerned with form. Although the best buildings are concerned with both, it is often that one is compromised for the other. The site for this thesis is contested by four diverse communities; a surf club, a recreational park, a holiday park, and the surrounding houses. In developing a proposal for the site, the aim of this thesis is to explore design processes and formal strategies that will create an architecture concerned with both. Throughout this thesis there are a series of design experiments which view the building from different directions according to the design medium. When using diagrams and mass models I have viewed the building from above (plan). When using a refined drawing technique I have viewed the building from the side (section). I have then used both physical and digital models as a way of translating the two-dimensional views into a three-dimensional building. This shift in design media has revealed that the plan and section can have opposing formal qualities. These qualities, simplicity in plan and complexity in section, have allowed me to address both the social and formal concerns of designing on a site like this.

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  • Sedimentology and depositional environments of Murihiku Supergroup sediments exposed in the Southland Syncline, New Zealand: Implications for reservoir potential in the Great South Basin

    Howden, Angus David (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A considerable amount is known about the biostratigraphy and organic geochemistry of the Murihiku Supergroup sediments exposed in coastal outcrops of the Southland Syncline, New Zealand. Much less work has been undertaken on the sedimentology of these strata, or understanding their depositional environments and depositional trends through time. What these implications are for reservoir prospectivity in the adjacent Great South Basin, has also had little study focused on it. This thesis addresses these issues by undertaking outcrop-based sedimentological and facies interpretations of these rocks, thin-section based petrographic composition and provenance analysis, augmented by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), as well as porosity and permeability measurements from outcrop core plugs. Petroleum industry seismic data has additionally enabled seismic facies mapping of Murihiku rocks in the offshore Great South Basin. Outcrop observations point to a progressive change in depositional setting, from shelf / upper slope settings during the Late Triassic, to base of slope turbidite deposition in the Early Jurassic. This transgression is followed by regression into fluvial settings in the youngest outcropping Murihiku rocks in the study of Middle Jurassic age. Petrographically the sandstones are feldspathic and lithic arenites and feldspathic and lithic wackes. Provenance suggests derivation from an evolving, intermediate arc that was becoming more siliceous through Late Triassic and Middle Jurassic time. Diagenesis is characterised by early calcite and chlorite precipitation which have almost completely destroyed any primary porosity. Any secondary micro porosity has subsequently been infilled through dissolution of framework grains and zeolitization. SEM and core plug porosity and permeability measurements corroborate the diagenetic changes observed petrographically, with only fluvial facies of Middle Jurassic (Upper Temaikan) age showing any measureable porosity or permeability. As a result, reservoir potential for the Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic, Murihiku Supergroup rocks analysed in this study is low. Younger Murihiku sandstones which are postulated to occur offshore in the Great South Basin are likely to be less influenced by burial diagenesis. As shown from North Island occurrences, these younger successions hold some potential.The reservoir potential for these youngest portions of the Murihiku succession therefore remains positive, both in the Great South Basin, as well as other frontier areas of Zealandia, and continue to provide an exploration target for the petroleum industry.

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  • The Illicit Scripts; An Architecture that encapsulates the writers of the unwritten chapters.

    Helmy, Nervan (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    With recent political unrest in Egypt and the election of a new president, the Egyptian people came close to having a radical Islam believer, purportedly affiliated to the radicalist group known as ISIS, as the leader of a nation that so far has remained secular. The fear shared by a great part of the Egyptian population is if Radical Islam did become the foremost power of the nation, a non-secular dictatorship becoming the new decree, causing a transformation in class, tradition and culture, and creating segregation within the believers and non-believers. The resistance becomes the outcast, living in poverty and forced into hard labour. In such a hypothetical, but not unimaginable situation, how might the oppressed survive and live comfortably with only the aid of their own community, without support of society and Government? This thesis explores an underworld of ghettos and forced segregation settlements in order to propose a utopian alternative within a dystopian scenario and investigates how Interior Architecture might manipulate space and create comfortable and secure atmosphere within the confines of an abandoned building. Theorist Michel Foucault and his book on “Discipline and Punish” will help guide the design research in relation to authority and actions against the unlawful. Looking at the panopticon also reviewed by Foucault, will provide a better understanding of how Interior Architecture can influence the environment. The selected site, Bibliotheque Alexandria, was chosen for its history and the likely destruction under a non-secular radical regime. In a radical authoritarian regime, it is conceivable that restriction of knowledge would be the first act of power, following so many examples throughout history. With the abolition of the library, the building will become abandoned and provide the space for a segregated community to occupy. The thesis aim is to achieve a micro ecosystem within the architectural shell as to provide for the community and its inhabitants. Using Interior Architecture to develop a design which would enable this new lifestyle of the oppressed people of Alexandria through the use of materiality, modular systems as well as the traditional skill set within Egypt.

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  • "With great power comes great responsibility": Understanding the behavioural determinants of residential energy efficiency in Wellington

    Jenkins, Leanne (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Recognition of the need for a transformation in our global energy systems to combat climate change has brought about an increased drive to curb energy consumption and increase energy efficiency. The residential sector is a prominent energy user and a key focus for this transition to a low carbon future. Psychology has played an increasingly important role in energy policy with an understanding that individuals act on motivators beyond economic explanations. This study provides a psychological evaluation of a residential energy efficiency intervention based in Wellington, New Zealand in order to develop a deeper understanding of how energy interventions engage participants in change and how they can be made more effective. The Wellington intervention uses a tailored information approach through a home energy audit to promote both efficiency and curtailment behaviours in local homes. By measuring before and after energy consumption changes in combination with salient psychological determinants, this quantitative study examines energy changes following the audit programme and the motivations involved in making these changes. The psychological determinants explored are the fundamental values held by programme participants as well as their level of concern for the environment. Analysis showed energy consumption changes following the audit to be variable and inconclusive as to the effectiveness of the overall programme. Values contributed a significant influence with self-transcendent values being a positive predictor of the number of efficiency behaviours implemented after the programme. This suggests that appealing to the altruistic concerns and collective interests salient within the self-transcendence value dimension when designing and implementing an intervention could aid uptake of energy conservation behaviour in future interventions.

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  • Sisyphus and Entropy; Adaptive Architecture in Flood Prone Nanjing

    Leurquin, Arnaud (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis attempts to rationalize two diverging practices in Architectural discourse, that of Western pedagogy and that of the ‘Other’. A disparity in approach to understanding architecture as a permanent object, can be noted in the dialogue between resilient architecture and temporary structure, this manifests itself in transient spaces and adaptive urban fabrics. The increased danger of flooding within China; with a particular emphasis on river infrastructure, posits an interesting position for new urban typologies and innovative floating solutions. Positioned on the expansive Yangtze River Delta, Nanjing encompasses a complex narrative of historical reverence and progressive tendencies, that encourage experimental approaches. The process and methodology within, seeks to provide an adaptable and affordable response to the recurring floodings, through in depth concise historical, cultural and philosophical analysis of the social, spiritual and architectural landscape within China as a whole as well as in specificity. These insights, juxtaposed with traditional western technique intends to produce an intricate and considered response to flood situations, with a particular focus on community generation and maintenance. Although Nanjing remains the central focus of the research, the concepts and practical results are intended to be abstracted and drawn into all cultures within Asia, primarily those with Buddhist and Taoist social structures. The proliferation of Feng Shui and the Metaphysical throughout the region provide a framework from which to expand. This network of social and cultural similarity allows for cross disciplinary and pan Asian approaches, noting the Japanese Metabolist Movement as a practical indication of socio-cultural influence on architectural theory.

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  • East Meets West: Designing an Institute of World Religions in Istanbul

    Browne, Rosemary (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Globally, over 65 million people have become involuntary displaced from their homes, their families and their livelihoods, victims of socio-political and cultural conflicts, manmade and environmental disasters. A global crisis is unfolding on an unprecedented scale. Refugee camps are today’s architecture of displacement, monuments of human suffering. The architectural language of the refugee crisis is one of grids of tents, tarpaulins and containers; a language of lightness and vulnerability. This failed architecture of displacement may be seen as an opportunity to re-evaluate how architecture may respond global crises. This thesis therefore aims to construct an innovative, adaptable infrastructure that responds to the global migration crisis. Slavoj Žižek’s idiosyncratic text ‘Against the Double Blackmail’ is taken as an intellectual provocateur for the research process. Žižek offers a highly speculative and radical response to global mass migration, affirming a utopian reconstruction of society as our only option to resolve this global crisis. Therefore, the architectural construction of ‘utopia’ as a highly poetic and symbolic response to the global migration crisis is examined and developed. The research is set in Istanbul, a geographical and cultural meeting point between Eastern and Western civilisations, and an international hub for refugees. The site itself is located in the ruins of St. Polyeuktos, an ancient, abandoned and dilapidated church in the centre of the city Both analogue and digital drawing are embraced as design methodologies to examine the architectural representation of Žižek’s utopia. The thesis culminates with a dynamic, sculptural formal expression of Žižek’s utopia, through the construct of an Institute of World Religions.

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  • A Future Framework: Virtual Reality as an Architectural Instrument

    Holth, James (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Architects work within the medium of digital space on a day-to-day basis, yet never truly get to experience the spaces they are creating until after they’re built. This creates a disconnect in the design process that can lead to unexpected and unwanted results. Human perception is a powerful instrument and Virtual Reality (VR) technologies, coupled with more complex digital environments, could enable designers to take advantage of this. Through virtually inhabiting the space they are creating while they are creating it, designers can pre-visualise spatial qualities. These digital tools are experiencing a shift from technology still in development to a fully-fledged research instrument. With a growing level of technical literacy within the architectural discipline they could have the same revolutionary impact that the introduction of computers had in the late-twentieth century. This thesis explores the potential of VR technology for processes of architectural design by assessing their combined ability to analyse a user’s perception of spatial qualities; in particular the sensation of people density within the work environment. Starting with a review of current literature in architecture and perception based science. A framework is proposed by which to assess the impacts of spatial characteristics within an Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE). This is followed by a design-led series of iterative framework developments centred on increasing user immersion within digital space. Through this methodology a greater understanding is obtained of users perceptions of spatial characteristics and of the process required to design iteratively within an IVE framework.

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  • Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Secondary Metabolites from New Zealand Marine Sponge Aaptos confertus

    Page, Charlotte (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study reports on the spectroscopy-guided isolation and structural elucidation of secondary metabolites from the New Zealand marine sponge Aaptos confertus. An extraction of the sponge material, followed by several purification steps, led to the isolation of potential new compounds CJP02 20A, CJP02 20C and CJP02 04CB, a known 2,5-diketopiperzine cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro), and a previously reported 3-((13-methylhexadecyl)oxy)propane-1,2-diol. Corrections to the ¹H NMR data reported for 3-((13-methylhexadecyl)oxy)propane-1,2-diol were also recorded. The relationship between the oceanic climate where a marine organism habituates and its production of secondary metabolites is discussed. The isolation of a diverse range of compounds, either novel or new to the genus, suggests that organisms originating in temperate climates are similar in value to those from tropical climates, where higher rates of predation (and therefore, selective pressure) are thought to produce superior diversity in their secondary metabolic distribution. In addition to the new compounds isolated, the diketopiperazine described is the first reported molecule of that class from the genus Aaptos. The significance of the isolated compounds is discussed, in the context of drug discovery and development. The potential of the branched-chain mono-glycerol ether 3-((13-methylhexadecyl)oxy)propane-1,2-diol as a lipid biomarker for the genus Aaptos was examined, as this compound has only been reported from species of that genera. In addition, it’s potential as an immunomodulatory drug is discussed, including the significance of the ether linkage in contrast to the more common ester linkage. The isolation of the 2,5-diketopiperazine cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro) new to the genus was shown to support the potential in diversity of climate and geographical distribution. This class of molecule is generated through the shikimate biosynthetic pathway; a metabolic route used by bacteria, fungi and algae. A proposed symbiotic relationship between the sponge Aaptos confertus and a proximal bacteria, fungi or algae exemplifies the value of New Zealand’s diverse and unique marine organisms.

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  • The relevance of vocational education to the livelihoods of rural youth, Luang Prabang Province, Laos

    Soukkaseum, Phonexay (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Poverty reduction is a top global development priority. Among Least Developed Countries (a United Nations measurement which includes Laos), poverty reduction has been set as the highest development priority for governments, especially since the early 2000s. Scholars and researchers argue that raising national human capital through the provision of equitable access and quality of education could not only reduce poverty, but also increase economic growth, promote democracy, and ensure the sustainability of development. This research examines specifically the role of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in supporting the livelihoods of rural people, especially the Indigenous youth in Luang Prabang province, situated in northern Laos. A sustainable livelihood approach, with an emphasis on human capital and human capabilities, was employed to examine this relationship. Qualitative and ethnographic research methodologies were employed, with interviews, a focus group and transect walks used as methods for data collection and analysis. Results show that the current TVET policy and interventions have concentrated primarily on achieving (income) poverty reduction and economic development objectives, neglecting the importance of other multiple dimensions of human development. This research also reveals that the livelihood aspirations of rural youth are diverse and extend beyond economic prospects. They aspire for general wellbeing, democracy (self-agency and freedom) and social justice. If these dimensions of human development are to be promoted, the government may need to reshape its policy direction by incorporating a human capabilities approach in TVET, or more broadly in the national education system, while still fulfilling the desire for economic development objectives.

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  • Turning a Blind Eye: An Exploration of Non-Visual Game Design

    Mulder, Hunter (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis presents a non-visual game for visually impaired people which uses technology designed for interacting with Virtual Reality (VR) environments to provide a tailored experience that focuses on touch and sound. According to the world health organisation, 0.03% of the world's population is blind. However, according to the world’s largest computer game market, Steam, only 0.0003% of games published in its catalog are designed for visually impaired people. This discrepancy shows that there is a clear issue in regards to the representation of visually impaired people in the design of computer games. By examining existing computer games designed for visually impaired people, a set of design criteria was established in order to improve the experience delivered to a visually impaired player in a computer game. This was accomplished by adopting existing VR input methods such as tracked motion controllers and head tracking technology in order to track a player’s motion and position in space. The experience reacts to the position and placement of the player’s head and hands by using outputs such as spatialized audio combined with haptic feedback. A game was then designed using these inputs and outputs that would allow a visually impaired player to use their sound and proprioceptive senses to navigate and interact with the environment. Visually impaired people were interviewed in regards to their experience and thoughts upon computer games. The game experience was then be tested by the same group of visually impaired players and user feedback was then integrated into an iterative design process. The final outcome of this thesis is a game experience that takes into account the needs and requirements of the underrepresented audience of visually impaired people who wish to enjoy computer games as a medium.

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  • Development of a stochastic based multidimensional matrix for the analysis of pavement performance data

    Van der Walt, Jacobus Daniel (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    As pavement condition becomes an ever-growing problem within the ageing New Zealand road network, a challenge emerges to effectively analyse the ageing pavement databases to improve pavement performance. Establishing how the various factors affect pavement performance is complicated due to the random features of pavement deterioration and the complex relationships between different parameters. To address this, it is proposed that a new tool be developed that will combine critical indicators into one structure for performance comparisons. The tool takes the form of a stochastic multidimensional matrix which can deal with random features and complex relationships. The range of pavement technologies that will be compared is based on data available within the New Zealand Long-Term Pavement Performance database (LTPP). The data is collected by professionals with industry standard or better equipment for New Zealand conditions. This research found a possible weak point in data quality. The location with respect to the wheel path of where the data was collected is estimated to the best of an engineer’s ability and not measured directly. If data was not collected in the wheel paths, allowances must be made. This research presented a new methodology to check and quantify the wheel paths distribution. Deploying this methodology on an LTPP test section showed that the estimation method employed by the NZTA was sufficient and no allowances had to be made to the data. This research also highlighted that the wheel path width is not as wide as originally anticipated for both light vehicles and heavy vehicles. This information was shown to be valuable for contractors in calibrating the variable bitumen spray bar. Once the validity of data was established, the data structure and selection methodologies were investigated. From the literature review and discussion with experts, a multi-dimensional approach was chosen. This approach allowed for multiple levels of research to be conducted. Data could easily be analysed at a site, indicator or network level all within one structure. As the databases were large, the multi-dimensional structures would be filled with stochastic indicators rather than storing the entire population. This allowed for two key advantages; firstly, it allowed the structure to remain small and easily manipulated. Secondly, it allows most computational power to be conducted up front. Therefore, allowing researchers to establish trends much more quickly by simply examining the multi-dimensional structure in different dimensions. The comparison of different indicators to identify sections of pavement that are performing well was the next objective. This involved the featurization of pavement data through the use of fuzzy logic and combining the featurization data with expert weights. This allowed different sections of pavement to be ranked and establish which pavement sections were performing well. This research presented a new method of establishing fuzzy memberships functions based on data and not on expert opinion. This research established a new tool called The Stochastic Based Multi-dimensional Matrix (SBMDM). This research will present two examples of how the SBMDM was demonstrated through case studies. These case studies investigate pavement performance for a specific location and investigate the SBMDM at a network level. After interviewing experts in New Zealand through the implementation of the Delphi method, it became apparent that rutting is the most important pavement performance indicator for New Zealand roads. By adopting this point and utilising the SBMDM, an in-depth study was completed on LTPP sites in the Canterbury region. Results show that there is a significant difference between the LWP(outside) and RWP(inside) rutting. This research reasoned that the camber or cross fall of the roads surface, caused an uneven distribution of load, resulting in the observed results. The second study used the SBMDM to analyse rutting from a network level. The results show that there is a significant difference in the amount of rutting in the inside wheel path compared to the outside wheel path. Using deterioration models developed in New Zealand, it was shown that the models matched the trend seen at the network level. From this result, it can be reasoned that there is a deterioration cost due to camber. The research includes a comprehensive literature review. Each chapter will include further detailed literature as it relates to a specific topic. The scope, objectives, methodology, results, recommendations, and conclusions of the research are also detailed.

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  • Investigating the Climatic and Oceanographic Drivers of Spatial and Temporal Variation in Coastal Turbidity and Sedimentation

    Seers, Blake (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Turbidity and sediment input in the coastal environment are greatly affected by human activities on land. Understanding the climatic, oceanographic and environmental drivers of temporal and spatial variability in coastal turbidity and sediment ux is key to understanding these processes and predicting how they may be affected by climate change. This thesis analysed monitoring data on coastal turbidity and sediment trap rates in the Hauraki Gulf to investigate how these spatio-temporal patterns relate to meteorological and oceanographic variables along an estuarine to open-coast gradient. These relationships were initially explored using a multivariate approach, and then quanti ed using a bayesian hierarchical framework with spline components. This model was developed along with two software packages to provide a predictive framework for analysing environmental monitoring data, with an emphasis on reproducibility and transparency. Turbidity declined along the estuarine to open-coast gradient. The primary driver of turbidity at the exposed open-coast regions was recent wave conditions that resuspend sediment, whereas tidal currents and daily rainfall are the primary drivers of turbidity at the harbour and estuarine sites respectively. The rate of fine sediment (< 63??) accumulation in traps was largely governed by processes that resuspend bottom sediments, primarily wind-generated waves and tides within harbour regions, and ocean swells on the open coast. Surprisingly, there was little to no relationship with rainfall suggesting that sediment traps should not be used to document terrestrial sediment introduction on subtidal reefs. The strong coupling found between meteorological and oceanographic factors, and coastal turbidity and sediment ux highlight a number of mechanisms whereby coastal turbidity will likely change as a result of climate change. Overall, turbidity is likely to decrease based on predictions of increased offshore winds and drier conditions throughout this region. However, more frequent and intense extreme weather events will likely result in unprecedented, transient increases in turbidity, creating a highly variable coastal turbidity environment. These effects on turbidity will likely be exacerbated by sea level rise and increasing coastal erosion, therefore improvements in land management practices and coastal protection are essential to offset the likely impacts of climate change on coastal turbidity.

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  • A Multi-scale Investigation of the Joint Tissue Response to Impact Induced Injury

    Workman, Joshua (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    A bovine patellae model of early osteoarthritis was used to investigate the multiscale response of articular cartilage to impact induced injury, and how this response differed in tissue showing early signs of degeneration. An impact testing rig was designed, constructed and validated. Following this, the mechanical response of articular cartilage with increasing levels of degeneration was investigated. The resultant reaction force from the cartilage decreased as the amount of degeneration present increased. The elasticity of the collision also decreased with level of degeneration, indicating that collisions with more degenerate cartilage lose more energy. It was determined that articular cartilage with only mild degeneration was more vulnerable to high levels of macro-scale damage than healthy tissue. There were no significant changes in mechanical properties during earlystage degeneration, but there are subtle structural changes such a decreased brillar interconnectivity which lead to a large increase in tissue vulnerability. In healthy articular cartilage, the matrix contains a highly interconnected network of collagen brils which are effective in halting the progression of fissures. In mild degeneration, there is a loss of transverse connectivity between brils, leading to a reduced crack arresting ability. These nano-level structural changes have a large influence on the propagation of fissures through the matrix, allowing them to travel through to the sub-chondral bone. In mildly degenerate articular cartilage the peri-cellular matrix is disrupted, reducing its ability to provide a mechanical transition between chondrocyte and surrounding matrix. This lead to ~260% more dead cells in mildly degenerate G1 cartilage after impact injury compared to healthy G0. In a linear regression model, the coeffcient of restitution, percent cell death and macroscopic Outerbridge level of degeneration were able to account for 94.5% of the variation in cartilage tissue vulnerability to impact damage. This research has contributed to a deeper understanding of the link between biologically mediated micro-anatomical and physiological changes, vulnerability to injury and potential initiation of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The earliest stages of disease initiation cause the tissue to have a sharp increase in vulnerability to severe damage with a high possibility to hasten development of full depth osteoarthritis.

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  • Exploratory Three Dimensional Cartographic Visualisation of Geolocated Datasets

    Bannwarth, Alexandre (2018)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    While digital technologies have vastly facilitated the generation and consumption of cartographic visualisations, the majority still conform to traditional two-dimensional map making guidelines. Consequently, design principles for three-dimensional cartographic models are still in their infancy and require further exploratory research to establish a comprehensive design framework. The free availability of high resolution global digital elevation models (GDEM), such as the ASTER GDEM (NASA LP DAAC, METI, 2011), makes it possible to develop accurate three-dimensional landscape visualisations and offer more intuitive and immersive representation of spatial information. Combined with the prevalence of geolocated content in both online data-repository and social-media platforms, there exists a wealth of material to be mined, interpreted and juxtaposed in exploratory cartographic visualisations. This thesis aims to establish a flexible and iterative procedural workflow to acquire, interpret and visualise 3D geolocated datasets, without compromising aesthetic control. Synergic with the procedural approach required for data collection and analysis, a procedural approach is used in the design of the visual output. This workflow aims to maximise automation and allow for the interpretation of a range of different data sources. The creative output of this process explores emergent cartographic principles for optimal three-dimensional spatial visualisation and investigate data presentation techniques beyond traditional two-dimensional geo-visualisation guidelines. Informed by exploratory literature review and research through design theories, this practice-led thesis documents the iterative prototyping leading to the creation of a set of map-based infographics showcasing effective application of cartographic and data visualisation principles in a 3D geospatial context. These design prototypes and critical report of workflow refinement hope to contribute to the development of three-dimensional geographic modelling conventions.

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  • Economics of Disaster Risk and Resilience in Small Island Developing States

    Taupo, Tauisi (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The four essays investigate the impacts and implications of climate change and disasters in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific by examining disaster risk, resilience, response, and recovery in Tuvalu. The first chapter starts with a survey on the conceptual framework of disaster risk which relies on its associated components of hazard, vulnerability and exposure. It is an introductory literature review that sets the scene for the other chapters. It is not intended to make an original contribution nor a critical review of the literature justified to be publishable. How we measure these risks depends on how we define disaster risk and its components. Though there are diverse views on these definitions in different disciplines, we can capitalise on their commonalities to frame disaster risk models. The second chapter investigates the vulnerability of households to climatic disasters in Tuvalu. Small Island Developing States, particularly the atoll islands, are considered to be the most vulnerable to climatic change, and in particular to sea-level rise and its associated risks. From the Tuvalu Statistics Department household survey, we construct poverty and hardship profiles for households on the different islands of Tuvalu, and combine these with geographic and topographic information to assess the exposure differentials among different groups using spatial econometric models. Besides the observation that households in hardship are more vulnerable to negative shocks because they lack the resources to respond, we also find that they are also more likely to reside in highly exposed areas to disasters (closer to the coasts and at lower elevation) and have less ability to migrate (between and within the islands). The third chapter examines cyclones. The intensity of cyclones in the Pacific is predicted to increase and sea levels are predicted to rise, so an atoll nation like Tuvalu can serve as the `canary in the coal mine' pointing to the new risks that are emerging because of climatic change. Based on a household survey we conducted in Tuvalu, we quantify the impacts of Tropical Cyclone Pam (March 2015) on households, and the determinants of these impacts in terms of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and responsiveness. Households experienced significant damage due to the storm surge caused by the cyclone, even though the cyclone itself passed very far away (about a 1,000 km). This risk of distant cyclones has been overlooked in the literature, and ignoring it leads to significant under-estimation of the disaster risk facing low-lying atoll islands. Lastly, we constructed hypothetical policy scenarios, and calculated the estimated loss and damage they would have been associated with { a first step in building careful assessments of the feasibility of various disaster risk reduction policies. The fourth chapter examines the financing of disaster risk management. Future climate and disaster risks are likely to impose increasing financial pressure on the governments of low-lying atoll nations. The aftermath of a disaster such as a cyclone requires financial means for quick response and recovery. Hence, we quantify appropriate levels of financial support for expected disasters in Tuvalu and Kiribati by building on the Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment and Financing Initiative (PCRAFI) calculated likely costs for disasters. To these, we add estimates of the potential effects of distant cyclones, droughts, sea level rise and climate change as they are predicted to affect low-lying atoll islands. There are several potential financial instruments available for disaster risk management in the Pacific Islands. We focus on the potential contribution of the sovereign wealth funds (SWF) of Tuvalu and Kiribati in reducing reliance on foreign aid for both ex-ante and ex-post disaster risk management. We forecast the future size of the SWF using Monte Carlo simulations and an Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average model. We examine the long-term sustainability of the SWF, and the feasibility of extending their mandate to cover and pay for at least some climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction.

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