88,788 results

  • Numerical Bifurcation Theory for High-Dimensional Neural Models.

    Laing, CR

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Numerical bifurcation theory involves finding and then following certain types of solutions of differential equations as parameters are varied, and determining whether they undergo any bifurcations (qualitative changes in behaviour). The primary technique for doing this is numerical continuation, where the solution of interest satisfies a parametrised set of algebraic equations, and branches of solutions are followed as the parameter is varied. An effective way to do this is with pseudo-arclength continuation. We give an introduction to pseudo-arclength continuation and then demonstrate its use in investigating the behaviour of a number of models from the field of computational neuroscience. The models we consider are high dimensional, as they result from the discretisation of neural field models-nonlocal differential equations used to model macroscopic pattern formation in the cortex. We consider both stationary and moving patterns in one spatial dimension, and then translating patterns in two spatial dimensions. A variety of results from the literature are discussed, and a number of extensions of the technique are given.

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  • The effect of dietary cadmium on kidney function in cats : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Animal Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Anderson, Jeanette M J

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Due to the requirement for meat in feline diets, this study aimed to investigate the potential effects on kidney function in cats of cadmium accumulation in meat products due to pasture management practices. Cadmium may be a causal factor in feline Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Twenty-seven domestic short hair cats were randomly selected from the colony population of the Feline Nutrition Unit of Massey University and assigned to three experimental groups (n=9), which were balanced for age and sex. Each group received one of the three experimental diets designed to represent the full range of potential cadmium concentrations that cats may be exposed to on wet diets in New Zealand. Diets were fed ad libitum for a 6-month period. Kidney function was examined at baseline and after 3 and 6 months by measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using iohexol clearance analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Blood and urine analyses were also conducted on a monthly basis. While GFR fluctuated over the study period no significant differences were found either between groups at the end, or within each group when compared at the beginning and end of the study. Although overall no evidence of CKD was observed, an unexplained trend of weight loss was observed in females receiving the two diets containing the highest cadmium levels, which may simply have reflected reduced dietary palatability. The results of the study showed no detectable effects of feeding the three diets for 6 months; however, an extended trial period may be required to fully investigate the longer term effects of cadmium levels and other dietary factors on the development of CKD. In particular, more work is needed to explore the potential for genetic and/or functional differences in mechanisms which are involved in the transport, and/or deposition of cadmium, or are protective against cadmium toxicity in cats and to further define normal parameters and standard approaches in measuring GFR in cats.

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  • Geostatistical Determination of Soil Noise and Soil Phosphorus Spatial Variability

    Kaul, TMC; Grafton, MCE

    Journal article
    Massey University

    This research studies the effect of stratifying soil samples to try and find a suitable depth to establish a geospatial relationship for a practical soil sampling grid in New Zealand hill country. Cores were collected from 200 predetermined sites in grids at two trial sites at “Patitapu” hill country farm in theWairarapa, New Zealand. Trial 1 was a 200 m 100 m grid located in a gently undulating paddock. Trial 2 was a 220 m 80 m grid located on a moderately sloped paddock. Each grid had cores taken at intervals of 5 m, 10 m, or 20 m. Core sites were mapped out prior to going into the field; these points were found using a Leica Geo Systems GS15 (real time kinematic GPS) and marked with pigtail pegs and spray-paint on the ground. Cores were taken using a 50 mm-diameter soil core sampler. Cores were cut into three sections according to depth: A—0–30 mm, B—30–75 mm, and C—75–150 mm. Olsen P lab results were obtained for half of the total 1400 samples due to financial constraints. The results indicate that there was a significant decrease in variability from Section A to Section B for both trials. Section B and C for Trial 1 had similar variability, whereas there was another significant drop in variability from Section B to C in Trial 2. Measuring samples below the top 3 cm appeared to effectively reduce noise when sampled from 3 to 15 cm. However, measuring from 7.5 cm to 15 cm on the slope in Trial 2 reduced variability so much that all results were almost identical, which may mean that there is no measurable representation of plant available P. The reduction in noise by removing the top 3 cm of soil samples is significant for improving current soil nutrient testing methods by allowing better geospatial predictions for whole paddock soil nutrient variability mapping

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  • Chewing behavior and bolus properties as affected by different rice types

    Moongngarm, A; Bronlund, JE; Grigg, N; Sriwai, N

    Journal article
    Massey University

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of rice types on chewing behaviours (chewing time, number of chews, and portion size) and bolus properties (bolus moisture content, solid loss, and particle size distribution (PSD)) in human subjects. Five cooked rice types including brown rice (BR), white rice (WR), parboiled white rice (PR), high amylose white rice (HR) and waxy white rice (WXR) were chewed by six subjects. The chewing behaviours were recorded and the food boluses were collected during mastication. Rice types were found to significantly influence all chewing parameters evaluated. The WXR and BR showed the most pronounced differences compared with other rice types. The initial moisture content of un-chewed WXR was lowest (43.39%) whereas those of other rice types were ranged from 66.86 to 70.33%. The bolus obtained from chewing the WXR contained lowest moisture content (56.43%) whilst its solid loss (22.03%) was not significant different from those of all rice types. In PSD evaluation using Mastersizer S, the diameter of particles measured was ranged between 4 to 3500μm. The particle size of food bolus from BR, HR, and WXR contained much finer particles than those of WR and PR.

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  • Understanding Neoliberalism, Media and the Political: An Interview with Sean Phelan

    Dawes, Simon, SD

    Journal article
    Massey University

    In this interview, Sean Phelan discusses the differences between ‘ideological’ and ‘post-ideological’ or ‘post-political’ neoliberalism, and sets out his own approach to critiquing neoliberalism, which draws on Laclau and Mouffe’s discourse theory and Bourdieu’s field theory. Arguing for the benefits of a comparative cross-national approach, he illustrates examples of ‘actually existing neoliberalism’ in UK, US, Ireland and New Zealand contexts. Phelan concludes the interview by suggesting potential sites of cultural politics and the possibility of a radically different kind of media and political culture.

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  • Accelerating success and promoting equity through the ako (note 1): Critical contexts for change

    Berryman, Mere; Eley, Elizabeth (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Achieving equity and excellence for all young people remains the major challenge of education systems across the world. This paper contends that equity and excellence for students currently underserved by our system needs transformative school reform. In response, we outline the ako: critical contexts for change. This model has been applied across five dimensions for transformative reform within Kia Eke Panuku (Note 2). This paper focuses on how this model can be understood and applied alongside curriculum implementation. We draw evidence from wider research of the impact on improving student achievement when individual aspects of the ako: critical contexts for change have been applied. We have found that when all three contexts are applied simultaneously and spread throughout the school, pedagogical reform can be accelerated, even for those students most underserved.

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  • Native bird abundance after Australian magpie (Gymnorhina tibicen) removal from localised areas of high resource availability

    Morgan, Dai K.J.; Waas, Joseph R.; Innes, John G.; Arnold, Greg (2012)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Many reports exist of Australian magpies (Gymnorhina tibicen) attacking and sometimes killing other birds. One study concluded that magpies had little impact on the abundance of other birds at landscape scales, but another found that birds (mainly exotic species) avoided flying or landing close to them. We assessed whether continuously removing magpies for 6 weeks from localised areas of high resource availability (e.g. bush remnants or private gardens with fruit- or nectar-producing trees) in rural areas increased visitations by native birds compared with similar sites where magpies were not removed. Three count methods were used to estimate bird abundance: five-minute bird counts and ‘slow-walk’ transects in bush remnants, and five-minute bird counts and ‘snapshot’ counts in gardens. Generally, the abundance of native birds did not increase in treatment areas after magpie removal. In bush remnants, transect counts were typically better at detecting the presence of most species compared with five-minute bird counts. In gardens, snapshot counts were better at detecting tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) while five-minute bird counts were better at detecting magpies. Despite these differences, the different bird counting methods were generally in agreement and revealed that magpies had little impact on native birds at the scale we examined.

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  • Urban outdoor water use and response to drought assessed through mobile energy balance and vegetation greenness measurements

    Liang, Liyin; Anderson, R.G.; Shiflett, S.A.; Jenerette, G.D. (2017-08-01)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Urban vegetation provides many highly valued ecosystem services but also requires extensive urban water resources. Increasingly, cities are experiencing water limitations and managing outdoor urban water use is an important concern. Quantifying the water lost via evapotranspiration (ET) is critical for urban water management and conservation, especially in arid or semi-arid regions. In this study, we deployed a mobile energy balance platform to measure evaporative fraction throughout Riverside, California, a warm, semi-arid, city. We observed the relationship between evaporative fraction and satellite derived vegetation index across 29 sites, which was then used to map whole-city ET for a representative mid-summer period. Resulting ET distributions were strongly associated with both neighborhood population density and income. By comparing 2014 and 2015 summer-period water uses, our results show 7.8% reductions in evapotranspiration, which were also correlated with neighborhood demographic characteristics. Our findings suggest a mobile energy balance measurement platform coupled with satellite imagery could serve as an effective tool in assessing the outdoor water use at neighborhood to whole city scales.

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  • Manahi’s red chocolate sunglasses: the impact of a learning experience outside the classroom on a five-year-old student’s technological practice

    Milne, Louise (2015)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Knowledge of expert practice is a key element of Technology Education, and this paper which is part of a larger study, investigates the impact a learning experience outside the classroom has on one student’s technological practice. This student, who is in his first year at school, visits a chocolate factory with his class to find out how to make a chocolate gift for Mothers’ Day. This study uses a qualitative case study methodology (Stake, 2006). Data were collected and analysed from three interviews, before, after, and six months after the visit to the factory. The student’s drawings and stories recorded after the visit were also analysed using themes emerging from the literature of Education Outside the Classroom (Anderson, 2003; Falk, 2004), Technology Education (Compton, 2009; de Vries, 2012; Jones, Buntting, & de Vries, 2013) and the characteristics of young students’ learning (Cohen, 2013; Siegler & Alibali, 2005). The findings from this study identify a significant increase in the student’s context specific oral language, his understanding of the individual phases of technological development, and an ability to transfer these understandings to other contexts including those presented six months after the visit. Whilst these developments showed an encouraging improvement in Manahi’s technological understandings, there existed a lack of continuity and connectedness (Moreland & Cowie, 2011) through the development of his chocolate gift. This impacted negatively on his perceptions of the purpose of the visit and the final goal of his practice.

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  • Coming out of the closet: From single-cell classrooms to innovative learning environments

    Whyte, Barbara; House, Nik House; Keys, Nikki (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The New Zealand Ministry of Education encourages schools to update to flexible learning spaces and activate teaching approaches that augment such physical settings. Many schools have embraced the concept of innovative learning environments (ILE) and team teaching, motivating a trend fast gaining popularity in New Zealand primary schools. However, apart from positive self-reporting documentaries from enthusiastic schools, there is a dearth of New Zealand-based information available to assist prospective schools to consider the complexities of adopting this trend. As they venture ‘out of the single-classroom closet’ into a collaborative ‘community of learners’, the staff of one primary school in the Bay of Plenty has been researching their own ILE practices and processes through inquiry, regular appraisal and self-review monitoring. While the school’s experience is contextual and unique to its own specific situation and community, it provides a representation of some affordances and constraints that other schools might contemplate when they similarly venture into ILEs.

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  • Children learning outside the classroom

    Milne, Louise (2017)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Learning outside the classroom has the potential to extend a child's technological knowledge and promote design solutions to real-world problems. When a visit involves making a chocolate gift to celebrate Mother's Day, there are lots of opportunities for creative and original ideas that consider personal interests and the pupils' aspirations for creating a gift for their mother or relative.

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  • Ethics, relationships and pragmatics in the use of e-technologies in counselling supervision

    Flanagan, Paul; Cottrell, Caroline; Graham, Hilary; Marsden, Victaria; Roberts, Liz; Young, Jean (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    International literature and local anecdotal evidence report increasing use of video and other e-technology in counselling supervision. In this small-scale study, five experienced supervisors were interviewed about their use of e- technology within supervision. The research was part of a postgraduate paper in professional supervision and worked to introduce and engage researcher- students, all of whom were experienced counselling practitioners, in a supervised collaborative project. It also generated new knowledge for the researchers and participants for their supervision practice. This article offers a review of literature, and ideas about safe and ethical practice for the wider professional counselling community engaged in offering supervision using e-technology. While the use of e-technologies is an effective means of providing supervision, this study found that inquiry should be encouraged within supervision conversations to nourish the quality of supervisory relationships, and thereby enhance the effectiveness of supervision.

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  • Robert MacCulloch: Out of control - our red tape tangle

    MacCulloch, Robert (2014-10-29)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

    The regulatory state in New Zealand is on the march. The number of regulations made by governments each year from 1985 onward has shot up. The numbers don't include local government regulations because nobody has counted them. Has the rise of the regulatory state added to the well-being of our country? No-one knows, as there has been no serious attempt to measure their costs and benefits.

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  • When are agreements to accept part-payment of debt in New Zealand enforceable?

    Roberts, Marcus (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In the last 20 years, the law in New Zealand relating to the enforceability of variation agreements has witnessed some notable developments. The traditional rule was that a one-sided variation to an existing contract whereby party A agrees to pay more in return for party B???s agreement to perform its existing obligations was not a binding contract due to a lack of consideration flowing from party B. This traditional rule is no longer good law in New Zealand. Instead, two Court of Appeal decisions have held that such variations will be binding if party A receives a benefit ???in practice???, even if that benefit was already owing to party A under the original contract. Further, both decisions suggested that there was no need for consideration in variation cases and that such agreements would be legally binding as long as there was no duress or illegitimate pressure present. These cases involved agreements where party A agreed to pay more in return for party B???s agreement to perform its original obligations (what I shall call adding variations). What is not clear is what effect these cases have had on variation agreements where party A promises to accept less from party B than B owed under the original agreement (subtracting variations); in particular, cases where party A agrees to accept less money from B in satisfaction of the whole debt that B owes. In light of the recent England and Wales Court of Appeal decision, MWB Business Exchange Centres Ltd v Rock Advertising Ltd, now is a good opportunity to revisit the law relating to part payment cases. When are such agreements binding in law? What role does estoppel have to play?

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  • Myopia control - is it the new standard of care?

    Collins, Andrew (2017-03-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Genetic kinship analyses reveal that Gray's beaked whales strand in unrelated groups

    Patel, S; Thompson, KF; Santure, Anna; Constantine, Rochelle; Millar, Craig (2017-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Some marine mammals are so rarely seen that their life history and social structure remain a mystery. Around New Zealand, Gray's beaked whales (Mesoplodon grayi) are almost never seen alive, yet they are a commonly stranded species. Gray's are unique among the beaked whales in that they frequently strand in groups, providing an opportunity to investigate their social organization. We examined group composition and genetic kinship in 113 Gray's beaked whales with samples collected over a 20-year period. Fifty-six individuals stranded in 19 groups (2 or more individuals), and 57 whales stranded individually. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes and microsatellite genotypes (16 loci) were obtained for 103 whales. We estimated pairwise relatedness between all pairs of individuals and average relatedness within, and between, groups. We identified 6 mother-calf pairs and 2 half-siblings, including 2 whales in different strandings 17 years and 1500 km apart. Surprisingly, none of the adults stranding together were related suggesting that groups are not formed through the retention of kin. These data suggest that both sexes may disperse from their mothers, and groups consisting of unrelated subadults are common. We also found no instances of paternity within the groups. Our results provide the first insights into dispersal, social organization, and the mating system in this rarely sighted species. Why whales strand is still unknown but, in Gray's beaked whales, the dead can tell us much about the living.

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  • Exploring spatial and temporal trends in the soundscape of an ecologically significant embayment

    Putland, RL; Constantine, Rochelle; Radford, Craig (2017)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Hauraki Gulf, a shallow embayment in north-eastern New Zealand, provides an interesting environment for ecological soundscape research. It is situated on a tectonic plate boundary, contains one of the busiest ports in the southern hemisphere and is home to a diverse range of soniferous animals. The underwater soundscape was monitored for spatial and temporal trends at six different listening stations using passive acoustic recorders. The RMS sound pressure level of ambient sound (50???24,000???Hz) at the six listening stations was similar, ranging from 90???110???dB re 1?????Pa throughout the recording period. Biophony had distinct temporal patterns and biological choruses of urchins were significantly correlated to temperature. Geophony and biophony followed the acoustic niche hypothesis, where each sound exhibited both temporal and frequency partitioning. Vessel passage sound were identified in 1.9???35.2% of recordings from the different listening stations. Vessel sound recorded in the Hauraki Gulf has the potential to mask concurrent geophony and biophony, sounds that may be important to marine life. This study provides a baseline of ambient sound, useful for future management strategies in shallow embayments where anthropogenic pressure is likewise increasing.

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  • Optimization of portable electronically-controlled needle-free jet injection systems

    Ruddy, Bryan; Dixon, Alexander; Williams, Rhys; Taberner, Andrew (2017-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Jet injection is a process by which a fluid drug is delivered through the skin in the form of a high-velocity jet. Powering jet injection using a controllable actuator, such as a moving-coil permanent magnet motor, offers many advantages, but to date has required large and heavy injection systems to provide the required power and control bandwidth. In order to minimize the size of the injection system, we developed a scaling model for jet injection systems powered by permanent magnet motors, giving the optimal actuator mass as a function of jet velocity, injection volume, motor efficiency, and energy storage density. We combined this model with an existing electromagnetic model to confirm the predicted scaling relationships and find optimal actuator designs. On this basis, we designed an injection system for 50 ??L volumes, including a compact power amplifier and control system, and verified its performance by performing injections into pig skin. The total mass of the injector system was 578 g, with a 178 g handpiece. This model illustrates fundamental relationships that govern the design of any jet-production device powered by linear electric motors for jet injection or other applications.

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  • Influence of periodic vs continuous daily bright light exposure on development of experimental myopia in the chick

    Backhouse, Simon; Collins, Andrew; Phillips, John (2013-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Purpose: In children, time spent outdoors has a protective effect against myopia development. In animal models, bright light reduces the development of experimental myopia. This study investigates how an increase in daily light exposure, presented either continuously during the day or periodically at different times of day, influences the development of experimental myopia in the chick. Methods: Myopia was induced in Cobb Chicks (Gallus domesticus) by monocular deprivation (MD) of form vision with a translucent diffuser for 3 days (from 4 days of age) under a 12:12 light: dark cycle. MD control chicks were exposed to constant 300 lux (n = 11) during the light period. MD treatment groups received either constant 2000 lux (n = 11) during the light period or 300 lux for 10 h with a 2 h period of bright light (10 000 lux), either in the morning (n = 10), midday (n = 10) or evening (n = 10), giving the same total daily light exposure as the 2000 lux group. After 3 days of MD, refractive status, corneal curvature and axial eye dimensions were measured for all eyes under anaesthesia. Results: Myopia in the constant 2000 lux group (-4.94 ?? 1.21 D) was significantly less than in the 300 lux control group (-9.73 ?? 0.96 D; p = 0.022). However, compared to the 300 lux control group, 2 h periods of 10 000 lux did not produce significant effects on refraction when presented either in the morning (-9.98 ?? 0.85; p = 1.00), midday (-8.00 ?? 1.26; p = 0.80), or evening (-13.14 ?? 1.16 D; p = 0.20), although significantly less myopia was induced in the midday group compared to the evening group (p = 0.018). Orthogonal regression showed that myopia development was matched by changes in vitreous chamber depth (R 2 = 0.69; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: In chicks, an increase in daily light exposure continuously during the day is more effective at inhibiting myopia than adding an equivalent dose within a 2 h period of bright light. A weak time-of-day effect also appears to be present in the response to bright light exposure. Our results suggest that future light-based myopia therapies in humans may be more effective if light levels are increased over the whole day, rather than through short periods of bright light exposure.

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  • Dynamic visual acuity training in cricket players

    Edgar, R; Russell, I; Sluyter, D; Collins, Andrew (2015)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is the ability of an observer to correctly identify details of a moving target and is considered to be important for tasks like driving. Dynamic Visual Acuity is better in athletes involved in sports such as basketball and baseball; however, no previous studies have considered the sport of cricket. We conducted a study to determine whether there was any difference in DVA between cricket and non-cricket players. Method: Dynamic visual acuity was measured by asking subjects to identify the orientation of the gap of a moving Landolt C target as a four-alternative forced-choice task. The Landolt C targets had confusion bars surrounding them. The participants in the study were tested twice with a break of seven weeks. In between the two measurements, participants underwent two training sessions (similar to the testing sessions), each three weeks apart. Results: The initial mean DVA for cricket players was 107.7 deg/sec, and the mean DVA for non-cricket players was 105.5 deg/sec, with a target size of 6/15. The subjects who participated in training (cricketers and non-cricketers) improved in DVA by 41 deg/sec in contrast to the improvement in the non-training subjects of 18 deg/sec (p=0.0032). The cricketers who participated in the training improved in DVA by 44 deg/sec, whereas the cricketers who did not participate in the training improved by 19 deg/sec (p=0.0167). Conclusions: We found no significant difference in initial DVA between the cricket players and the non-cricket players. The training resulted in an extremely significant improvement in DVA performance by both the cricketers and non-cricketers.

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