96,661 results

  • Regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in Festuca novae-zelandiae (Hack.) Cockayne and in Festuca aruninaceae (Schreb.) in response to a water deficit : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Plant Biology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Sheridan, Rachael Elizabeth

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Changes in ethylene evolution and the associated biosynthetic enzyme ACC oxidase to a water deficit, were examined in intact leaves of Fostuca novae-zelandiae and F. arundinacea cultivar 'Roa' (syn. Schedonorus phoenix). The aim was to establish a role, or otherwise, for ACC oxidase as a regulator of ethylene biosynthesis in response to a water deficit. While ACC synthase has long been recognised as the major rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis, there is mounting evidence to suggest that ACC oxidase may also regulate the ethylene biosynthesic pathway in higher plants. Leaf tissues from the two species were harvested at regular intervals during the experimental dry-down, and dissected into two leaf zones, regions enclosed by the ligule. comprising the meristematic and elongating leaf zone (the enclosed tissue), and exposed regions composing the mature green leaf zones. Leaf proline content and the rate of leaf elongation (LER) were used as internal and external indicators of physiological changes in response to the water-deficit. Ethylene evolution in response to a water-deficit was found to be tissue-specific in F.arundinacea. In the rapidly expanding leaf zones, i.e. enclosed tissue, ethylene was maintained at levels similar to control tissue. In the mature green regions of leaves, ethylene followed changes in the leaf elongation rate (LER) with observed peaks in ethylene evolution occurnng approximately 48 hours after a rapid decline in the LER. This burst of ethylene was found to precede any accumulation of proline. Increases in the proline content in both leaf zones, only became significant after the ethylene evolution had subsided to below base levels. This stage-specific ethylene evolution in leaves suggests preferential protection of the rapidly expanding leaf cells, an observation that has been documented by other authors. ACO specific enzyme activity was greatest at soil water contents of ca. 9% in the enclosed and 10% in the exposed leaf tissues of F.arundinacea. On further purification of the enzyme, two novel proteins were recognised by polyclonal antibodies in water-stressed leaves of F.arundinacea. A 32 kDa protein was identified in the enclosed leaf tissue and a 37 kDa protein was identified in the exposed leaf tissue, by SDS-PAGE. These proteins eluted from a Mono Q column at different points in the separation process, i.e at salt concentrations of 320-340 and 300-320 mM NaCI respectively, indicating that they may represent two distinct isoforms of the ACO enzyme. Both proteins are active at pH 7.5 with saturating substrate (ACC) and co-substrate (Na ascorbate) concentrations of 1 mM and 30 mM respectively, and co-factor concentrations of 0.02 mM Fe² + and 30 mM NaHCO₃. When compared with results from western analyses, maximum specific enzyme activity correlated well with the water-deficit induced protein from partially purified enclosed leaf tissue, but only loosely with the protein identified in the exposed leaf tissue. The presence of high molecular weight proteins in both the crude and the purrfied (Mono Q) leaf extracts of F.arundinacea together with the novel proteins, suggests that the ACO enzyme in this species may exist as a dimer In F.novae-zelandiae, the presence of high molecular weight molecules m the crude and partially purified (Sephadex G-25) extracts also suggests dimensation of the enzyme in this species. From this study however, it is not possible to establish a clear regulatory role for the ACO enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis in either F.arvndinacea or F.novae-zelandiae While two novel water-deficit-induced proteins were associated with increased ACO activity in purified leaf extracts of F. amndinacea, there was no obvious correlation between ethylene evolution and enzyme activity.

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  • Reconstitution characteristics of food powders and granules with emphasis on non fat dried milk : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Food Technology in Food Processing at Massey University, Palmerston North, N.Z.

    Neff, Edward

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Reconstitution characteristics of food powders form a major determinant of consumer acceptance, particularly with the trend to instant foods. A working theory has been proposed to explain the mechanism of dispersion of any soluble food powder. A study was made of methods which may be employed to modify reconstitution characteristics. No significant improvement in the dispersibility of Non Fat Dried Milk (NFDM) could be achieved by a compression/repowdering process even though the particle density and porosity of the powder could be increased by this technique. When applied to spray dried instant coffee such process of compression, up to 150 psi, resulted in a small improvement in dispersibility while at the same time achieving a marked increase in the bulk density of the powder. The significance of this observation with regard to potential saving in packaging volume has been discussed. The most significant improvements in reconstitution characteristics of NFDM were achieved by a rewetting/redrying process. A granulation technique is described which has been successfully employed to simulate commercial instantising of powders. By means of this granulation technique it has been shown that by far the most important factors in agglomeration influencing the properties of the resultant "granules" are : 1. Rewetting moisture content at which granulation is achieved prior to redrying; 2. Particle or granule size of the final product. Optimum conditions for NFDM have been determined to be 11-12% rewetting moisture and a mean particle size of 200/u. This granulation technique has also been employed to study the effect of additives at agglomeration upon reconstitution properties of NFDM. Several commercial processes are in use, and are covered in patents, for the purpose of instantising NFDM and other food powders. Despite this, however, no study has previously demonstrated the critical nature of certain variables in this process as clearly as has been done in this study.

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  • Whāriki : beyond simple : an exhibition report presented as partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Māori Visual Arts, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Henare, Te Hemo Ata

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis/exhibition report is an explication of the significance and relationship of Kai rāranga, rāranga whāriki and their relationship with whānau, hapū and iwi. It explores the impetus behind and relationships important in, and to the production of whāriki. Through the exploration of these relationships the necessity for whāriki wānanga throughout Aotearoa and having wānanga as the preferred medium of imparting knowledge pertaining to rāranga whāriki and for continuity in the production of whāriki is emphasised. It touches on the Māori convention of tono that facilitates interaction between the Kai rārangaresearcher and the Kai tono-researched negating the sometimes invasive convention of ethics approval and formalised contractual obligations. It follows the pathway of author and Kai rāranga, Te Hemo Ata Henare’s, coming to be of her mahi whāriki practice. It is an intimate account that extends from function and technique to foundational connectivity to the wider roopu whāriki and those who have preceded us with templates of excellence that recognise the importance of the whakapapa of Māori whakaaro, our epochs and eons of transcendent time and the interconnectedness of all things in and through these patterned processes (Jackson, 2013; Marsden, 2003; Tamanui, 2013). As Karani Sonny Pāpuni said; “…you take this whāriki home with you and then a piece of us will always be with your whānau” (Mate ki Tātahi [Sonny] Pāpuni, personal communication, May 17 1991). A clear objective emerging out of this research exercise was to produce a body of work in the form of an exhibition of whāriki and to produce a pictorial and written explication of the process and praxis of whāriki wānanga. However, through the research process, I was returned; i hoki atu ki te timatatanga ō oku mahi, so I could come to know and be. The theme that emerges through rāranga whāriki is the inseparability and the multiplicity of whakapapa and/or whanaungatanga that the Kai rāranga embodies essential for the continuation of the praxis of rāranga whāriki that can only be described as extraordinarily ‘Beyond Simple’.

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  • Reconceptualising toddler aggression : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Orange, Christopher Maurice

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study used sorting techniques and Multidimensional Scaling analyses (MDS) to interrogate the comprehensiveness of a toddler aggression construct - Aggressive Behavior (AGG) - as empirically defined by the Child Behavior Checklist for Two and Three-year-olds (CBCL/2-3). MDS provided a way of unravelling the latent dimensional structures of the checklist item set and creating an inter-item semantic-like map. This map acted as a tool in the summary of patterns in sets of archival CBCL toddler data to reveal latent coherence or dimensional consistency across toddlerhood with specific regard to the aggression or aggressive-like behaviour construct – the main research goal of the present study. First New Zealand participants (N=70, x=30 years) completed four independent semantic-like matching tasks by sorting CBCL/2-3 checklist items according to their "face value". MDS algorithms transformed individual data into a map and hierarchical trees (h-trees) showing inter-item proximities. After validation of the map clusters sets of archival CBCL data were represented and interpreted in the 5-dimensional MDS solution (P=5) as vectors using PROFIT analysis. A measure of the stability of the vector components in terms of the amount of common variance captured across 24 to 42 months - of – age. demonstrated better fit than CBCL subscale stability for the first three dimensions. Candidates for dimensional stability across toddlerhood indicated by the MDS analyses and map were suggested. Replication of the toddler map. the second objective, involved creating an expanded item set that included items from the CBCL/4-18. The new Combined item set was then sorted following identical procedures by a different group (N=49, x=30). PROFIT analyses of archival 4-18 data on the rotated Combined configuration was compared with stability of Achenbach's CBCL/4-18 subscales between 60-months- and 72-months-of-age but correlations were no better than chance. Additional analyses were undertaken that revealed the archival CBCL/4-18 items had little variance when interpreted in the MDS solution. This study succeeded in identifying alternative candidates for continuity of aggressive - like behaviour across toddlerhood in patterns in raw CBCL data that may contribute to the reported CBCL/2-3 Aggressive Behavior construct stability. Three alternative constructs are suggested: a construct which features high frustration, anger and resistance to control - believed to interact with punitive or restrictive parenting practices, and central in theories of the development of coercive parent-child relationships; a construct which appears to index insecure attachment styles; and a construct reflecting toddlers' developing ability to control their attention and behaviour.

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  • Sedimentology and paleoenvironmental analysis of Castlecliffian strata in the Dannevirke basin : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Quaternary Science at Massey University

    Krieger, Francis William

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Page 105 is missing from the original copy.

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  • Selected conventional migration correlates and the exploration of internal net migration in New Zealand, 1966-1971 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University.

    Birrell, David Philp

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Migration research in New Zealand with national data sets is limited. It is generally assumed, however, that the most common trends of population redistribution such as the movement north, in particular to Auckland, the movement from rural areas to urban areas and the increasing concentration of the population in cities are responses to economic variation in the national space economy. A number of general hypotheses are selected to examine the age and sex characteristics of migrants. The research hypotheses, which focus on relationships between net migration and the largely untested correlates in New Zealand of income, employment, unemployment and population, examine the validity of the assumption that internal migration in New Zealand is a response to spatial variation. In addition to the testing of the hypotheses an examination is made of spatial variation within the selected parameters. The research hypotheses are tested at three levels of data aggregation - regions, counties and urban areas. The migration data, which are generated by residual estimates using both vital statistics and life survivorship techniques indicate that the majority of migrants are the young adults with females being marginally more migratory than males. It is the examination of the selected conventional migration correlates that the most important, and in many cases unexpected, results emerge. It is found that aggregate migrant behaviour in New Zealand cannot be predicted from the selected migration correlates. At the regional level the Central Auckland data affect the nature of the entire relationship with large values for both dependent and independent variables. With the omission of this data correlations between variables approach zero. A number of data problems are apparent, however, which may be of importance in explaining the lack of relationships. On the other hand, it is shown that there is minimal spatial variation within the parameters so that regional migration may be the result of noneconomic space preferences rather than economic and demographic variation. At the county level and urban area levels some relationships emerge which are good. There are again some doubts about these relationships as they may reflect a degree of autocorrelation; the higher levels of migration to larger centres of population being simply a function of the population size of these areas. It is concluded that net migration in New Zealand cannot be explained by previously accepted although largely untested economic and demographic correlates.

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  • Selected men's linguistic representations of violent relationships in families and their readiness for change : a thesis submitted to Massey University in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Linguistics & Second Language Teaching

    Finch, Lester Fairfax

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The thesis provides an overview of the literature relevant to current practice of those working with violent men. Four men, identified by the court as having been violent in their families, are interviewed and their use of language while giving an account of their experience of family violence is analysed. The results of the linguistic analysis are related to the change process and implications for changing behaviour from violence to non-violence are presented. This research confirms the work done particularly by Adams (1995) in recent years in describing how men can justify, camouflage and maintain positions of dominance in relationships with women, and provides a reference for assisting with increased understanding of the functions of the linguistic forms used by these men. Building on the work done by those in medical and therapeutic fields, a model has been developed which provides a reference for mapping men's readiness for change and their progress through the change process.

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  • Selective mechanisms for general science education : a history of the development of general science education in New Zealand, 1900-1943 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in History at Massey University

    Nikoloff, Lynette L

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Free education has been the right of every New Zealand citizen since 1877 when free secular education was established in all state primary schools.¹ Ian Cumming and Alan Cumming, History of State Education in New Zealand 1840-1975, Wellington: Pitman, 1978, p.103. All children had to be given free education between the ages of five and fifteen, termed 'school age'. ² ibid., p. 102. Compulsory schooling was required for all children between the ages of 7 and 13 years, this was increased to 14 from 1901. Eligible children had to attend primary school for six sessions per week (choosing either a morning or afternoon session).³ ibid., p. 143. Teachers were required to deliver a prescribed curriculum consisting of: reading, writing, arithmetic, English Grammar and composition, geography, history, elementary science and drawing, object lessons, vocal music and for girls there was the additional subjects of: sewing, needlework and domestic economy. ⁴ibid., p. 102. Object Lessons were common in the nineteenth century and were first employed by the Mayos, a Protestant clergy man and his sister. The lessons involved the children looking at some object e.g. The refining of silver ore. The teacher would lead the class through a series of statements about the object such as: the ore is melted and the silver skimmed and the teacher asks the children: 'Now what is it that separates the impure substances for the silver?' to which the children respond in unison: 'The heat of the fire.' Many of these lessons ended up relating to religious education. David Layton, Science for the People: The Origins of the School Science Curriculum in England, New York: Science History Publications, 1973, pp. 23-6. The curriculum was designed to prepare candidates for the proficiency examination, which was the entry examination into post-primary school. Students sat the proficiency examination at the end of standard VI or form 2. Failure in this examination meant students had to stay at primary school until reaching the official leaving age and most primary schools had a standard VII. Within the context of this study, the various types of post-primary schools have very precise definitions which must not be confused with the contemporary use of the term 'secondary school' which denotes universal post-primary education. 'Secondary School' describes a single sex academic school primarily delivering a curriculum prescribed by external examiners, such as the University Senate. Some secondary schools developed alternative programmes for less academic students but the main focus of the school was on preparing students for external examinations. 'Technical High School' describes a co-educational fully funded state school which had to provide technical and manual instruction, and it is interesting to note that teachers were paid less in this type of school. 'Combined High School' describes a secondary school which offered a variety of academic and practical courses and was usually co- educational. 'District High School' describes a co-educational school which was an extension of a primary school, offering a practical curriculum based on the agricultural sciences. Therefore, the term 'post- primary school' encompasses a variety of schools, all of which catered for students beyond primary level and up to the age of 18 years. [From Introduction]

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  • Senior nurse administrators as decision makers in an era of environmental change : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Business Studies at Massey University

    Moulson, Monica Jean

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the activities of senior nurse administrators as decision makers responsible for planning and policy issues in large hospitals. The focus is on the effect environmental change has on these decision makers. Nineteen-seventy-nine marked the end of a decade of considerable change for nurses, nursing and the health services of New Zealand. In 1979 there were 46 nurses in appointed positions as chief, supervising principal or principal nurse of major regional or hospital nursing services in New Zealand. This total population was selected for the research study. There was a 63% response rate to a mailed questionnaire sent in November 1979. The effect of having a very small research population is reflected in the quality of data. However, there is some very interesting material from which inferences can be made in light of the model developed by the researcher. Seventy-nine per cent of the nurses participating in the study have been appointed to their present position from 1970 onwards and so have not had experience as an executive decision maker prior to the transitional era of the 1970's. Fifty-two per cent of these respondents have been nursing for more than 30 years and so have had long term exposure to working within bureaucracies. Fifty-six per cent of respondents have completed or partially completed university degrees and diplomas during the decade of the 1970's. Nursing qualifications do not reflect a move towards acquiring comprehensive registrations which became a possibility in this decade. There is evidence of some changes in organisational structure and decision making strategies. Forty-one per cent of the respondents are no longer responsible to medical administrators for their decision making, 17% are part of executive management teams, and 19% report that they receive important information for decision making by means of group discussion. There is also evidence of these nurses acknowledging formal organisation group structures. If these nurses are active participant members in these groups, then it can be conjectured that not only will the organisation, but maybe these groups will also be buffers to the effects of environmental change. The use of economic aspects of health services as indicators of information, that is considered as important by these decision makers, is a means of ascertaining subjective material. It is clearly demonstrated that finance and manpower have major effects on these nurses' decision making processes when compared with other input economic aspects of health services. Output aspects that are seen to be interlinked with finance and manpower, e.g. effectiveness of services, evaluation of quality of care, etc, are also seen to have considerable or very considerable effects on their decision making processes. The results of this research study demonstrate that these nurses are responding to environmental change with some individual, geographical and organisational differences being evident.

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  • Investigations on the emulsifying properties of egg white protein : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Food Technology at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand. EMBARGOED until 31 December 2019

    Onyemachi, Amarachi Delight

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Egg white proteins (EWP) have excellent foaming and gelling functional properties. However, their emulsifying properties are considered poor when compared to soy proteins or milk proteins. Some studies have attributed the poor emulsifying properties to the hydrophobic amino acid groups buried deeply in the interior of the protein conformational structure which is crucial for emulsification. Several methods, such as heat treatment, acid/acid-heat treatment, Maillard reaction, phosphorylation and enzymatic hydrolysis, have been used by some researchers to improve the emulsifying properties of EWP. Preliminary experiments carried out in this study showed that oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions prepared with egg white liquid (EWL) generated lots of visible large aggregates, which no other study has reported. Therefore, it was important to investigate the factors responsible for the formation of these aggregates. Investigations into improving EWP's emulsifying properties could offer opportunities in developing unique and well-defined egg white-based emulsions. The objective of this research project was to produce egg white emulsions with little or no aggregates. This thesis comprises three main parts. The first part focused on the effects of pH and heat treatment on protein aggregation and partial denaturation of proteins in EWL. The second part investigated the effects of heat treatment, oil concentration and protein concentration on the reduction of large visible aggregates in emulsions prepared with EWL. The third part studied the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the degree of hydrolysis and emulsifying properties of EWP hydrolysates. The emulsifying properties of original EWP and EWP hydrolysates were characterised in terms of size and zeta (ζ)-potential of emulsion droplets and emulsion stability (e.g. turbidity, microscopic examination and phase separation).

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  • Robert Browning, playwright : an analysis of "Strafford" and suggestions for its revaluation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English at Massey University

    Flynn, Peter Harold

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Browning wrote Strafford at an early stage in his career. He was twenty-four. He had not long completed Paracelsus, and was working on the composition of his most difficult poem, Sordello. The play did not outlive its premiere season on the stage, playing only four nights to moderate but by no means completely discouraging acclaim and critical review. Like the remaining plays in the canon – there were seven in all – it has fallen into disregard as a closet drama. The play is thus, definitionally, a failure. A revaluation of the play appears timely. Such a revaluation would not necessarily demand its reinstatement on the boards, or as mandatory reading within the closet, but would certainly seek to establish its place within the Browning canon. The exercise would also be worthwhile because it would go some way towards explaining why Browning continued to write for the stage, and towards illuminating the dramatic elements that are characteristic of his "best" poetry : character – specifically 'Character in Action' devices of characterisation diction imagery the substitution of process for action. In some respects, Strafford was ahead of its time. William Charles Macready at his prime, for instance, might have been better equipped to direct it, and might thus have secured for it more immediate acceptance. Browning's approach might have been more in accord with stage requirements. In the realm of fact, however, the play was mounted in a time at which the theatre was in decline. Too little work has been done in considering Strafford in the context of the contemporary theatre, and some space is devoted here to a brief survey of English theatre in the 1830's and '40's. Again, elements can he isolated that point to problems and attempts at solving them in the development of theatre to our own time. Included here might be those of poetic diction in dialogue, motivation of characters, the isolate character, and departures from the Aristotelian norms. In this area, Browning has had little or no influence, and suffers some measure of undeserved neglect. The present intention is to show, in examining Strafford, how Browning approached the theatre: not only the sort of play he wrote, but, by implication, the sort of writing he considered appropriate for stage presentation. This will lead to some estimate of the strengths and weaknesses of the play in performance. It ought also to open up an area of speculation about modern trends in thought and practice in the theatre. Early Victorian theatre presents a paradox. It is at once in a state of grievous decline and sprawling vigour. Some understanding of its conditions and status is necessary to a balanced view of Browning's plays, and will be attempted under the difficulties imposed by access to a plethora of data and a dearth of authoritative judgment. Finally, the major criticism of Browning's theatrical ventures will be reviewed, and this, with the questions raised above, will point towards a revaluation of Strafford in particular, and the remaining plays that Browning wrote, generally.

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  • Sedimentary lithofacies, petrography and diagenesis of the Kapuni group in the Kapuni Field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science with Honours in Earth Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Cooper, Brent John

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The reservoir architecture and quality of the Kapuni Group sandstones in seven wells (Kapuni−1, −3, −8, −12, Deep−1, 14 and −15) in the Kapuni Field are characterised using available core and digital geophysical log data. The study focused primarily on the Eocene Mangahewa Formation, but where limited core permits the older Kaimiro and Farewell formations are also examined. Eleven lithofacies in the Kapuni Group, identified and defined in core on the basis of colour, lithology, bedding, texture and sedimentary structures, are interpreted to represent tidal sand bar, tidal-inlet channel, fluvial-tidal channel, spit platform, sand flat, shallow marine, tidal channel, meandering tidal channel, mud flat, swamp and marsh environments. Correlation of core lithofacies with geophysical log motifs enabled lithofacies identification where core data are not available. Log motifs representing each of the lithofacies were then extrapolated to uncored sections of the Mangahewa Formation in the Kapuni Field wells. Interpretation of lithofacies in core and geophysical log motifs indicate that the Mangahewa Formation was deposited in an estuarine setting. During initial deposition of the Mangahewa Formation tide-dominated estuarine lithofacies were deposited. A major coal horizon, the K20 coal, in the field represents a period of maximum infilling. Above this coal core and log data indicate a wave-dominated estuary exhibiting a clearly- defined, "tripartite" (coarse-fine-coarse) distribution of lithofacies. Provenance studies suggest that low-grade metamorphic and granitic rocks are the dominant source for the Kapuni Group sandstones. Minor input from sedimentary and acid volcanic source rocks are also identified. A volcanic source, however, is more important in sandstones from the Farewell Formation, than in the younger Kapuni Group formations. Probable sources include the low-grade metamorphic rocks of Lower Cambrian to Permian age, Permian to Carboniferous Karamea Granite, Triassic and Jurassic greywacke-argillite sediments. Upper Cretaceous Pakawau Group sediments and Pre Cambrian to Upper Cretaceous acid volcanics. Reservoir quality variations in the Kapuni Group sandstones are directly related to environmental and diagenetic processes that have controlled porosity reduction and enhancement. Porosity has been reduced mainly by mechanical and chemical compaction, clay formation (predominantly kaolinite and illite in the Mangahewa and Kaimiro formations and smectite in the Farewell Formation), carbonate precipitation (primarily siderite and calcite), quartz and feldspar overgrowths and pyrite precipitation. While, porosity has been enhanced primarily by carbonate dissolution and subordinately by grain and clay dissolution and minor grain fracturing. The Mangahewa Formation sandstone lithofacies of tidal sand bar and tidal channel environments exhibit the best reservoir characteristics. Future reservoir development in the Kapuni Field and exploration in the Kapuni Field should focus on identifying and exploiting these lithofacies.

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  • Responses of Rumex obtusifolius L. to several 'hormone' herbicides : being a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of [Master of] Agricultural Science, University of New Zealand, Massey Agricultural College

    Templeton, John Keith

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Weeds have been a problem to man ever since he began to till the soil. Their presence is a factor lowering yield and increasing the cost of production of almost every economic crop. Weed eradication and control measures therefore, are bound to loom large in the management of crops at various stages throughout their growing period. Following upon such discoveries as those of Slade et al (1) and Mitchell and Hamner (2) that synthetic growth-regulating substances possessed properties capable of causing violent and often fatal disturbances to plant growth, new and effective methods of destroying undesirable species were developed. In fact, it can be said that the whole thought and practice of weed control was revolutionized by the promotion of certain practical aspects proceeding from the rapidly accumulating knowledge of plant-growth substances. [FROM INTRODUCTION]

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  • Risk factors and prevention strategies for mastitis in New Zealand dairy heifers : this thesis is completed as a partial requirement for the Masters of Veterinary Studies (Epidemiology) from Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Parker, Katrina Ivy

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The aims of this thesis were to investigate herd level risk factors for heifer clinical mastitis and to test the efficacy of a pre-calving intervention on prevalence of post-calving IMI, incidence of clinical mastitis and somatic cell count (SCC) in heifers. Materials and methods A prospective survey (chapter 3) was used to collect data concerning farmers' management practices for rearing heifers and mastitis management. A proportion of herd-owners (n=250) subsequently provided data on the clinical mastitis cases in their herd occurring in the first 120 days of the subsequent lactation. A pilot quarter level intervention study (n=1000 quarters; chapter 4) investigated the effect of pre-calving infusion of a teat sealant. Glands were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatment groups (no treatment; mammary gland secretion collection; infusion of a teat sealant; or sample collection with infusion of teat sealant) to identify the risk of each of these treatments on post-calving IMI and clinical mastitis. A heifer level intervention study (n=1000 heifers; chapter 5, 6) investigated the pre-calving use of teat sealant infused into all four quarters and/or treatment with the injectable antibiotic tylosin. Analysis was undertaken at quarter level (chapter 5) and heifer level (including SCC data; chapter 6). Results The survey identified that the cumulative incidence of heifers with clinical mastitis was higher in herds with a higher per cow milk production, with more cows milked per person, in herds with a higher stocking rate, and in herds with a higher cumulative incidence of clinical mastitis in their multiparous cows. The cumulative incidence of heifers in a herd with clinical mastitis was lower in herds that managed the lactating cows in multiple groups. The pilot study found that the presence of an IMI pre-calving increased the risk of an IMI post-calving and the incidence of clinical mastitis, relative to no IMI pre-calving. Infusion of the teat sealant reduced the risk of post-calving IMI due to Streptococcus uberis and the incidence of clinical mastitis. Sampling the glands pre-calving had no effect on post-calving IMI or on incidence of clinical mastitis. The large-scale intervention study found that neither infusion of a teat sealant nor treatment with the injectable antibiotic increased the risk of cure of pre-calving IMI. Infusion of the teat sealant reduced the risk of quarter level new IMI. At both quarter and heifer level teat sealant reduced the risk of the prevalence of post-calving IMI, incidence of clinical mastitis. At heifer level the SCC was decreased throughout lactation following the use of a teat sealant. Tylosin had no effect on prevalence of IMI, incidence neither of clinical mastitis nor on SCC. Conclusions It was concluded that the risk of heifer clinical mastitis was associated with a number of herd level management factors and that further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms behind these associations. Hence, it may be possible to reduce the incidence of clinical mastitis in heifers by modification of herd level management practices. Intervention with an intramammary teat sealant pre-calving decreased the incidence of new infections over this high-risk peripartum period, and may provide a useful tool for reducing the risk of subclinical and clinical mastitis in heifers.

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  • Roads, social severance and elderly pedestrians : a Palmerston North pilot study: a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Resource and Environmental Planning at Massey University

    Halsted, Elizabeth Louise

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Social severance, both physical and psychological, refers to the negative social impacts caused by roads and their traffic. Social severance falls most heavily upon groups of people with limited mobility, including the elderly. This thesis examines the extent to which social severance is experienced by elderly pedestrians. A research framework is developed and its utility for identifying and measuring social severance effects on elderly pedestrians is assessed in relation to a pilot study carried out in Palmerston North. A literature review was undertaken on how the elderly are affected by social severance, as users of both roads and vehicles. Following this, Tate's (1997) framework is adapted for identifying and measuring social severance effects on elderly pedestrians. First, questionnaires were completed by elderly people living in Palmerston North, the majority of whom were from the Palmerston North Senior Citizens Club. Second, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 elderly pedestrians drawn from the questionnaire respondents. Findings of both research methods were then analysed. It was found that social severance is experienced significantly by elderly pedestrians in everyday living in relation to established residential streets. The data suggests psychological severance is experienced more by elderly pedestrians when they and their neighbours have lived and owned their homes for a lengthy period of time. Income, health, disability and lack of choice are identified as factors constraining mobility and access to facilities and social activities. However, this is exacerbated by the lack of knowledge on the part of elderly pedestrians about the facilities and transport services available to them. The mobility and accessibility of elderly pedestrians is also constrained by inadequate public transport, poor road design and, poor crossing facilities. Safety and confidence of elderly pedestrians when walking is decreased at certain times of the day, by people's driving behaviour, lack of lighting and poor road design. These findings point for the need for social severance to be given more weight when improvements to existing road networks as well as new road developments are proposed.

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  • Role consensus and job satisfaction in the educational organization : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University

    Koopman, Peggy G

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A theory of social exchange was used as the framework for investigating role consensus between the Head Teacher and his staff on expectations of teacher and Head Teacher role and relating consensus to teacher job satisfaction. Association between job satisfaction and a number of personal variables was also hypothesised. The sample consisted of 147 intermediate school teachers in the ten intermediate schools in a New Zealand city. Only one of two central hypotheses proved significant. Role consensus between the Head Teacher and his staff on expectations of Head Teacher behaviour was positively related to job satisfaction, in that the greater the role consensus the greater the job satisfaction. No relationship was found between role consensus on expectations of teacher behaviour and job satisfaction. Only one of the personal variables, sex, proved to be related to job satisfaction, in that female teachers expressed greater job satisfaction than male teachers.

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  • School is out, but numeracy is in! : an exploratory case study of the out-of-school numeracy practices of four year 12 New Zealand students : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    Nicholls, Meg

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This exploratory case study investigated the out-of-school and workplace numeracy practices of four Year 12 New Zealand high school students. Student participants were interviewed using a numeracy kit of everyday items as a stimulus for discussion about their use of mathematics out-of-school. The workplace numeracy practices of the student participants were investigated through workshadowing and stimulated recall (Zevenbergen, 2004). Data from the case studies demonstrated that these young people involved in the Gateway programme were competent users of mathematics both in the workplace and in their everyday lives. Significant differences between school mathematics and out-of-school numeracy practices point to possible explanations of why school mathematics may not transfer to out-of-school settings. Inclusion into a community of practice, willingness to take on work for the purpose of learning and an ability on the part of the employer to offer work experiences that involve numeracy are shown to be key factors in the development of these student participants development of competency. Workplace observations of the student participants' suggest that Lave and Wenger's conceptualisation of the "novice" may no longer apply to young people entering contemporary workplaces. A possible framework for the schools to assess the learning opportunities afforded by Gateway employers is given.

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  • Schola caritatis : twelfth century Cistercians and the ideas of monastic caritas and amicitia : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    McIntosh, Gordon

    Thesis
    Massey University

    In the sixth century Saint Benedict recorded that he was composing his rule for monastic communities 'to safeguard love [caritatis]...' The idea of fraternal love, or caritas, had for a number of centuries been developed as the foundational concept and guide for monks living together in communities Ever since Pachomius had brought monks together in the fourth century the centrality of the idea of caritas had never been disputed. For Saint Benedict the practice of caritas within a community led to caritatem perfecta, or 'perfect love' of God – the goal of all who followed the monastic life. The Rule of Saint Benedict became the fundamental observance for most of Western European monasticism and the idea of caritas as Saint Benedict had expressed it was the bond that held these communities together A related idea, the idea of amicitia, or friendship, with its implications of exclusivity and distraction was marginalised, although never really disregarded completely. Amicitia was always possible, according to monastic rules and institutions written by men such as John Cassian and Saint Augustine, and also in the Rule of Saint Benedict, but in practice the idea was discouraged. It was not until the growing affectivity of the eleventh and twelfth centuries that, within some monastic communities, the distance between these related ideas of caritas and amicitia began to narrow. In particular, a redefined idea of amicitia began to be integrated with caritas and to assume a more central position than it had previously held. The late eleventh and early twelfth centuries were a period of challenge and change for the monastic houses of medieval Europe. The appearance of new reforming orders challenged the older Benedictine orders such as Cluny and similar abbeys, refuting and abandoning their splendour and power for a new life centred on prayer and the practice of asceticism within a supportive community. Of these reforming orders, the Cistercians were the greatest and most successful. The Cistercians defined their Order by the Carta Caritatis, or Charter of Love. This document not only instituted a strict observance of the Rule of Saint Benedict, but gave the idea and practice of fraternal caritas a central role in maintaining a uniform observance in all abbeys throughout the rapidly growing Cistercian Order, so that they would 'live by one charity [sed una cantale], one Rule, and like usages'¹Chrysogonus Waddell, (ed.), Narrative and Legislative Texts from Early Cîteaux: Latin Text in Dual Edition with English Translation and Notes, Cîteaux: Commentarii cistercienses, 1999, p. 444. It was within the nurturing reform environment where the practice of fraternal caritas was openly and deliberately encouraged by the cultural framework created by the charter that individual abbots began to redefine the idea of amicitia and relocate its practice within the monastic environment. The work of Bernard of Clairvaux indicates a shift in acceptance of the idea of amicitia in which it became an acceptable, even desirable, part of monastic experience and was linked with the practice of caritas – friends and brothers together. The later work of Aelred of Rievaulx integrated the two ideas further. The idea of amicitia became located within the context of fraternal caritas. For Aelred amicitia was an exclusive form of carifas reserved for one or two close and intimate companions within the abbey environment. These close bonds of amicitia embedded within fraternal caritas could lead to what Aelred called amicitiae perfectionem – the 'perfect friendship' of God.[FROM INTRODUCTION]

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  • Seasonal and year to year variation in the macroinvertebrate communities of New Zealand forest streams : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Ecology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Minchin, Stephen Mark

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The bed movement of 42 streams in the Ruahine Forest Park, Urewera National Park, and Cass-Craigiebum region was predicted from each stream's channel and catchment characteristics. While a stepwise regression was relatively unsuccessful in predicting tracer particle movement, an artificial neural network analysis achieved strong correlations with measured tracer particle data. Forty-three streams in the Ruahine and Tararua Forest Parks were sampled in the summers of 1996 and 2001, and the macroinvertebrate communities compared. Changes in community structure between the two surveys did not correlate with any measured environmental characteristics including stream bed movement and change in periphyton biomass. MCI scores changed by a mean of 12.8 points between the two surveys, and the number of sites attaining an MCI score indicative of a 'pristine' stream dropped from 40 to 29. This appears to be related to a change in stream temperature, with streams that were cooler in 2001 than in 1996 showing an increase in MCI, while those which were warmer showed a decrease. Changes such as these could have a marked effect on biomonitoring programmes that use reference sites similar to these streams. In both 1996 and 2001, a greater number of taxa were collected from sites with more periphyton - taxon richness appears to asymptote at chlorophyll a concentrations greater than 5 μg/cm² Twelve streams within the Ruahine Forest Park were sampled every three months between June 2000 and May 2001. Both periphyton biomass and macroinvertebrate taxon richness tended to decrease with bed movement. While macroinvertebrate community structure showed marked changes over the study period, these changes were not linked to bed movement or variation in periphyton level. The seasonal changes observed in these streams are not significantly different to the changes seen between the summers of 1996 and 2001 - community structure was no more stable between two summers separated by five years than it was between the seasons of a single year. Eight artificial channels were laid on the bed of the Turitea Stream. At the onset of the experiment, half of the channels contained neither invertebrates nor periphyton cover, while the other half had no invertebrates but an initial periphyton layer. Drift samples indicate that approximately one in four drifting invertebrates colonised the channels during the 14 day study period, with benthic taxon richness reaching a peak after only four days. Colonisation was not affected by periphyton biomass. Some of the less common taxa that were present in the water column did not colonise the channels within 14 days.

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  • Retirement expectations and effects : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Social Anthropology at Massey University

    Scotney, Tere

    Thesis
    Massey University

    In New Zealand, as in other Western societies, retirement has become a distinct and lengthy phase of the life-cycle. Some researchers have directed attention towards this topic but at present the potential for in-depth research on people in later life is largely untapped. Such research would progress beyond the statistical facts of the percentage of the population who have retired and the resulting population dependency ratio to explore the phenomenon of retirement in different social and cultural contexts. These accounts of retirement and aging could then be used to form and test theories about the personal and social significance of retirement and could become the basis for policy development. This study explores the effects and experiences of retirement on the lifestyles of a small number of people living in Wellington. The participants were seventeen former teachers and public servants who, when interviewed, were aged from 59 to 84 years and who had been retired from a few weeks to over twenty years. This allowed investigation of the effects of retirement over time. Open-ended interview's and time diaries were the main data sources. Ten men and seven women were interviewed about their expectations of and preparation for retirement, their activities, the way they spent their time in retirement and the composition of their social networks. Some spouses were also interviewed about the changes retirement had caused to their household routines and to the marriage itself. An underlying theme is that many people experienced much continuity between their pre- and post-retirement lifestyle. Retirement gave people more opportunity to select how they used time and this aspect was greatly valued. The degree of personal freedom and independence experienced was in sharp contrast to the obligations and responsibilities people had held when working. The Introduction outlines the general frame of reference for the topic of retirement, the research approach adopted and the main concepts and definitions. The contribution which research from an anthropological perspective can make to the study of aging and later life is identified. Chapter 1 discusses the scope of the project and the research methods. In addition to open-ended semi-structured interviews, participants were asked to complete a time diary which recorded their activities over a seven day period. The diaries supplemented the data obtained in the interviews about people's activities and enabled the data to be cross-checked for consistency. Chapter 2 outlines the procedures for selecting the study participants. Only former teachers and public servants were included to limit the effects of occupational differences on retirement expectations and experiences. The ages, educational qualifications, household composition, accommodation and income of the participants are outlined. The planning and preparation people had made for retirement and their expectations of it are discussed in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 describes the range of activities participants were doing or had done in retirement. Their leisure interests, involvement with different organisations and the kinds of jobs people had taken up after retiring from permanent full-time work are outlined. Chapter 5 discusses the social networks of the participants. Contact with family, friends, neighbours and contact with former colleagues and the actual work-place are described. Chapter 6 presents the conclusions of this study and compares the findings with the results of other research. General suggestions for future research efforts are also made.

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