88,600 results

  • On our side: A grounded theory of manager support in a prison setting

    McMillan, Brodie John (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This project explores the challenges of managing in times of organisational stress. The New Zealand department of corrections is facing multiple pressures which are only set to increase including: financial strictures as government funding is being highly scrutinised, greater demand as inmate numbers increase, and reduced capabilities as many staff lack experience. A grounded theory in a case study setting (three prisons in Christchurch, New Zealand) was undertaken utilising repertory grid and semi-structured interviews to explore the ways in which managers cope during times of such stress. A total of 11 interviews were conducted. In the case, I considered what differentiates effective managers from those who appear less able to cope. It was found that effective managers are those who are able to build trust and respect with their constituents. When staff trust and respect their managers it is because they feel valued and perceive their manager to be on their side; they are then willing to reciprocate. Positive regard, demonstrations of support, and leading by example were found to be key factors leading to being perceived as being on the staff’s side. The links between trust, respect and performance along with the valuation of staff wellbeing were examined.

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  • The Implications of Pre-Work Safety Expectations for Workplace Accident Prevention.

    Williams, Samuel Thomas (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Young workers are overrepresented in workplace accidents. The aim of this study was to provide the first research exploration of relatively inexperienced neophyte’s pre-work safety expectations, and their associations with expected risk and expected trust. A model of neophyte safety expectations was developed and tested linking accident exposure and work exposure to safety expectations, expectations of trust (in both co-workers and management) and expectations of risk. Results provided partial support for the model, suggesting that neophytes enter work with inflated safety expectations that do not match the reality of the job, and revealed marked gender differences in safety expectations. Implications and future recommendations are discussed.

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  • Mechanism and Inhibition of Hypochlorous Acid-Mediated Cell Death in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    Yang, Ya-ting (Tina) (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a powerful oxidant produced by activated phagocytes at sites of inflammation to kill a wide range of pathogens. Yet, it may also damage and kill the neighbouring host cells. The abundance of dead macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques and their colocalization with HOCl-modified proteins implicate HOCl may play a role in killing macrophages, contributing to disease progression. The first part of this research was to investigate the cytotoxic effect and cell death mechanism(s) of HOCl on macrophages. Macrophages require efficient defense mechanism(s) against HOCl to function properly at inflammatory sites. The second part of the thesis was to examine the antioxidative effects of glutathione (GSH) and 7,8-dihydroneopterin (7,8-NP) on HOCl-induced cellular damage in macrophages. GSH is an efficient scavenger of HOCl and a major intracellular antioxidant against oxidative stress, whereas 7,8-NP is secreted by human macrophages upon interferon-γ (IFN-γ) induction during inflammation and can also scavenge HOCl. HOCl caused concentration-dependent cell viability loss in human monocyte derived macrophage (HMDM) cells above a specific concentration threshold. HOCl reacted with HMDMs to cause viability loss within the first 10 minutes of treatment, and it posed no latent effect on the cells afterwards regardless of the HOCl concentrations. The lack of caspase-3 activation, rapid influx of propidium iodide (PI) dye, rapid loss of intracellular ATP and cell morphological changes (cell swelling, cell membrane integrity loss and rupture) were observed in HMDM cells treated with HOCl. These results indicate that HOCl caused HMDM cells to undergo necrotic cell death. In addition to the loss of intracellular ATP, HOCl also caused rapid loss of GAPDH enzymatic activity and mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating impairment of the metabolic energy production. Loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential was mediated by mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), as blocking MPT pore formation using cyclosporin A (CSA) prevented mitochondrial membrane potential loss. HOCl caused an increase in cytosolic calcium ion (Ca2+) level, which was due to both intra- and extra-cellular sources. However, extracellular sources only contributed significantly above a certain HOCl concentration. Preventing cytosolic Ca2+ increase significantly inhibited HOCl-induced cell viability loss. This suggests that cytosolic Ca2+ increase was associated with HOCl-induced necrotic cell death in HMDM cells, possibly via the activation of Ca2+-dependent calpain cysteine proteases. Calpain inhibitors prevented HOCl-induced lysosomal destabilisation and cell viability loss in HMDM cells. Calpains induced HOCl-induced necrotic cell death possibly by degrading cytoskeletal and other cellular proteins, or causing the release of cathepsin proteases from ruptured lysosomes that also degraded cellular components. The HOCl-induced cytosolic Ca2+ increase also caused mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation and MPT activation-mediated mitochondrial membrane potential loss. MPT activation, like calpain activation, was also associated with the HOCl-induced necrotic cell death, as preventing MPT activation completely inhibited HOCl-induced cell viability loss. The involvement of both calpain activation and MPT activation in HOCl-induced necrotic cell death in HMDM cells implies a cause and effect relationship between these two events. HMDM cells depleted of intracellular GSH using diethyl maleate showed increased susceptibility towards HOCl insult compared to HMDM cells with intact intracellular GSH levels, indicating that intracellular GSH played an important role in protecting HMDM cells against HOCl exposure. Intracellular GSH level in each HMDM cell preparation directly correlated with HOCl concentration required to kill 50% of population for each cell preparation, indicating intracellular GSH concentrations determine the efficiency of GSH in preventing HOCl-induced damage to HMDM cells. Intracellular GSH and cell viability loss induced by 400 μM HOCl were significantly prevented by 300 μM extracellular 7,8-NP, indicating that added 7,8-NP is an efficient scavenger of HOCl and out-competed intracellular GSH for HOCl. The amount of 7,8-NP synthesized by HMDM cells upon IFN-γ induction was too low to efficiently prevent HOCl-mediated intracellular GSH and cell viability loss. HOCl clearly causes HMDM cells to undergo necrosis when the concentration exceeds the intracellular GSH concentrations. Above this concentration HOCl causes oxidative damage to the Ca2+ ion channels on cell and ER membranes, resulting in an influx of Ca2+ ions into the cytosol and possibly the mitochondria. The rise in Ca2+ ions triggers calpain activation, resulting in the MPT-mediated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, lysosomal instability and cellular necrosis.

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  • Submission on draft Tertiary Education Strategy 2010-2015

    Tobias, R.M. (2009)

    Unclassified
    University of Canterbury Library

    This submission reviews the draft Tertiary Education Strategy as it affects adult learners in general and in particular learners and practitioners in adult and community education (ACE). It is written from the perspective of someone who is committed to adult learning and community education in all their forms. The submission identifies a number of positive features of the document. However much of the submission focuses on its limitations. These include the lack of recognition of organisations such as the WEAs, the apparent lack of appreciation of the potential benefits and breadth of scope of ACE, the limited understanding of adult learners and their learning, including their achievements in ACE programmes and in formal tertiary studies, and the apparent failure to recognise that the contributions of tertiary education institutions should go beyond the constraints of credentialing and include ACE programmes which are credential-free. The submission argues that several of these limitations are likely to reduce the probability of achieving the objectives set out in the document and the paper concludes with a summary incuding some key recommendations.

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  • Multi-Criteria Approach For Seismic Risk Mitigation

    Giovinazzi, S.; Pampanin, S. (2009)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Recent developments of viable and low-cost seismic retrofit solutions within a performance-based approach, suggest the possibility to implement “standardized” solutions at a regional scale. However, different and complex criteria should be considered in order to define the most effective retrofit strategy able to minimize the overall risk. First of all, the feasibility of the intervention should be investigated accounting for the actual limits of the available resources, e.g. financial, physical or human, which could represent a critical constraint for a large scale intervention. Secondly, it should be taken into account that the benefits and costs associated with seismic risk mitigation strategies might have different impacts onto the local and regional economy, while affecting a wider variety of stakeholders, if not a substantial portion of the society as a whole. In this contribution, a multicriteria approach is proposed as a valuable tool to select an effective retrofit strategy while accounting for both monetary and non-monetary-based criteria. The effectiveness of alternative retrofit options is assessed on a case study area using a multi-criteria approach and compared with the results from a more standard cost-benefit approach.

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  • Estimating seismic impacts on lifelines: an international review for RiskScape

    Giovinazzi, S.; King, A. (2009)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this paper an international overview is provided about the main methods and computational tools available for the development of seismic damage scenarios and for the assessment of the ensuing loss of functionality of selected geographically distributed lifelines, namely transportation networks, electric power systems and potable water systems. The final objective of the study is to provide the Regional RiskScape programme in New Zealand with an engineering basis upon which the losses incurred by lifeline systems can be assessed under the action of different natural hazards. To this aim reliable and worldwide implemented methods have been investigated in order to understand: 1) the parameters adopted for the representation of the ground shaking; 2) the classification system and the asset attributes considered for the implementation of the exposure analysis; 3) the assumed spatial data representation; 4) the technical basis upon which vulnerability, fragility curves, loss and restoration have been developed. The feasibility of implementing the models presented for the seismic performance assessment of lifelines in New Zealand is finally discussed with reference to a study-case.

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  • Toward the Seismic Performance Assessment of Lifelines within the Regional RiskScape Model in New Zealand

    Giovinazzi, S.; King, A. (2009)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Current scientific and engineering knowledge about natural hazard risk analysis has been combined in New Zealand to develop a multi-hazard risk/loss modeling system, RiskScape, for use within New Zealand. A summary of the main features and of the framework characterizing the RiskScape model is shortly provided as an introductory part of the paper. The results of an international review targeting the analysis of potential methods and tools to be included in the RiskScape platform for the assessment of lifelines systems performance when subjected to earthquake ground shaking are, secondly, discussed. The feasibility of implementing the models under consideration for the seismic performance assessment of lifelines in New Zealand is then discussed with reference to a study-case and three lifelines systems, namely: transportation networks, electric power systems and potable water systems. The study presented in the paper is part of a broaden research promoted to provide the Regional RiskScape program in New Zealand with an engineering basis upon which the losses incurred by selected geographically distributed lifeline systems can be assessed under the action of the different natural hazards and where alternative strategies for enhancing the lifelines resilience to natural hazards can be assedded and compared.

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  • Strumenti per la Valutazione e la Programmazione di Interventi di Mitigazione del Rischio Sismico a Scala Comunale: un Caso Studio

    Giovinazzi, S.; Fiaschi, A.; Matassoni, L. (2009)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    English title: Tools for the assessment of seismic risk mitigation strategies: A case study

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  • Experimental multi-level seismic performance assessment of 3D RC frame designed for damage avoidance

    Bradley, B.A.; Dhakal, R.P.; Mander, J.B.; Li, L. (2008)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper experimentally investigates the application of damage avoidance design (DAD) philosophy to moment-resisting frames with particular emphasis on detailing of rocking interfaces. An 80% scale three-dimensional rocking beam-column joint sub-assembly designed and detailed based on damage avoidance principles is constructed and tested. Incremental dynamic analysis is used for selecting ground motion records to be applied to the sub-assembly for conducting a multi-level seismic performance assessment (MSPA). Analyses are conducted to obtain displacement demands due to the selected near- and medium-field ground motions that represent different levels of seismic hazard. Thus, predicted displacement time histories are applied to the sub-assembly for conducting quasi-earthquake displacement tests. The sub-assembly performed well reaching drifts up to 4.7% with only minor spalling occurring at rocking beam interfaces and minor flexural cracks in beams. Yielding of post-tensioning threaded bars occurred, but the sub-assembly did not collapse. The externally attached energy dissipators provided large hysteretic dissipation during large drift cycles. The sub-assembly satisfied all three seismic performance requirements, thereby verifying the superior performance of the DAD philosophy

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  • Error estimation of closed-form solution for annual rate of structural collapse

    Bradley, B.A.; Dhakal, R.P. (2008)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    With the increasing emphasis of performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) in the engineering community, several investigations have been presented outlining simplified approaches suitable for performance-based seismic design (PBSD). Central to most of these PBSD approaches is the use of closed-form analytical solutions to the probabilistic integral equations representing the rate of exceedance of key performance measures. Situations where such closed-form solutions are not appropriate primarily relate to the problem of extrapolation outside of the region in which parameters of the closed-form solution are fit. This study presents a critical review of the closed form solution for the annual rate of structural collapse. The closed form solution requires the assumptions of lognormality of the collapse fragility and power model form of the ground motion hazard, of which the latter is more significant regarding the error of the closed-form solution. Via a parametric study, the key variables contributing to the error between the closed-form solution and solution via numerical integration are illustrated. As these key variables can not be easily measured it casts doubt on the use of such closed-form solutions in future PBSD, especially considering the simple and efficient nature of using direct numerical integration to obtain the solution.

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  • Efficient evaluation of performance-based earthquake engineering equations

    Bradley, B.A.; Lee, D.S.; Broughton, R.; Price, C. (2009)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this paper attention is given to the efficient numerical evaluation of the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) performance-based earthquake engineering framework equations. In particular, potential problems in determining an adequate yet efficient region of integration are discussed. An algorithm called “Magnitude-oriented Adaptive Quadrature” (MAQ) is developed, which is an integration algorithm with both locally and globally adaptive capabilities. MAQ allows efficient integration over the entire integration domain and requires only an error tolerance and maximum number of function evaluations to be specified. The advantages of utilizing the MAQ algorithm over other conventional integration methods such as Romberg integration and conventional adaptive quadrature are illustrated for the numerical computation of (1) expected annual loss; and (2) annual rate of collapse. It is shown that for determination of the expected annual loss a 4.5- to 8.8-fold reduction in the computational demand is obtained using MAQ compared to conventional integration methods. For annual rate of collapse the computational demand reductions range from 30% to two-fold. The computational reductions are a function of the error tolerance prescribed, with greater computational reductions as stricter tolerances are enforced.

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  • A Minimal C-Peptide Sampling Method to Capture Peak and Total Pre-Hepatic Insulin Secretion in Model-Based Experimental Insulin Sensitivity Studies

    Lotz, T.; Göltenbott, U.; Chase, J.G.; Docherty, P.D.; Hann, C.E. (2009)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Aims and Background: Model-based insulin sensitivity testing via the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) or similar is clinically very intensive due to the need for frequent sampling to accurately capture the dynamics of insulin secretion and clearance. The goal of this study was to significantly reduce the number of samples required in intravenous glucose tolerance test protocols to accurately identify C-peptide and insulin secretion characteristics. Methods: Frequently sampled IVGTT data from 12 subjects [5 normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) and 7 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)] were analyzed to calculate insulin and C-peptide secretion using a well-accepted C-peptide model. Samples were reduced in a series of steps based on the critical IVGTT profile points required for the accurate estimation of C-peptide secretion. The full data set of 23 measurements was reduced to sets with six or four measurements. The peak secretion rate and total secreted C-peptide during 10 and 20 minutes postglucose input and during the total test time were calculated. Results were compared to those from the full data set using the Wilcoxon rank sum to assess any differences. Results: In each case, the calculated secretion metrics were largely unchanged, within expected assay variation, and not significantly different from results obtained using the full 23 measurement data set (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Peak and total C-peptide and insulin secretory characteristics can be estimated accurately in an IVGTT from as few as four systematically chosen samples, providing an opportunity to minimize sampling, cost, and burden.

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  • Accuracy of approximate methods of uncertainty propagation in seismic loss estimation

    Bradley, B.A.; Lee, D.S. (2010)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this paper the efficacy of an approximate method of uncertainty propagation, known as the first-order second-moment (FOSM) method, for use in seismic loss estimation is investigated. The governing probabilistic equations which define the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER)-based loss estimation methodology used are discussed, and the proposed locations to use the FOSM approximations identified. The justification for the use of these approximations is based on a significant reduction in computational time by not requiring direct numerical integration, and the fact that only the first two moments of the distribution are known. Via various examples it is shown that great care should be taken in the use of such approximations, particularly considering the large uncertainties that must be propagated in a seismic loss assessment. Finally, a complete loss assessment of a structure is considered to investigate in detail the location where significant approximation errors are incurred, where caution must be taken in the interpretation of the results, and the computational demand of the various alternatives.

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  • Prediction of spatially distributed seismic demands in specific structures: Structural response to loss estimation

    Bradley, B.A.; Dhakal, R.P.; MacRae, G.A.; Cubrinovski, M. (2010)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    A companion paper has investigated the effects of intensity measure (IM) selection in the prediction of spatially distributed response in a multi-degree-of-freedom structure. This paper extends from structural response prediction to performance assessment metrics such as: probability of structural collapse; probability of exceeding a specified level of demand or direct repair cost; and the distribution of direct repair loss for a given level of ground motion. In addition, a method is proposed to account for the effect of varying seismological properties of ground motions on seismic demand that does not require different ground motion records to be used for each intensity level. Results illustrate that the conventional IM, spectral displacement at the first mode, Sde(T1), produces higher risk estimates than alternative velocity-based IM’s, namely spectrum intensity, SI, and peak ground velocity, PGV, because of its high uncertainty in ground motion prediction and poor efficiency in predicting peak acceleration demands.

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  • Computational and rapid expected annual loss estimation methodologies for structures

    Solberg, K.M.; Dhakal, R.P.; Mander, J.B.; Bradley, B.A. (2008)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Expected annual loss (EAL), which can be expressed in dollars, is an effective way of communicating the seismic vulnerability of constructed facilities to owners and insurers. A simplified method for estimating EAL without conducting time-consuming non-linear dynamic analyses is presented. Relationships between intensity measures and engineering demand parameters resulting from a pushover analysis and a modified capacity-spectrum method are combined with epistemic and aleatory uncertainties to arrive at a probabilistic demand model. Damage measures are established to determine thresholds for damage states from which loss ratios can be defined. Financial implications due to damage can then be quantified in the form of EAL by integrating total losses for all likely earthquake scenarios. This rapid loss estimation method is verified through the computationally intensive incremental dynamic analysis, with the results processed using a distribution-free methodology. To illustrate the application of the proposed method, the seismic vulnerability of two highway bridge piers is compared; one bridge is traditionally designed for ductility while the other is based on an emerging damage avoidance design (DAD) philosophy. The DAD pier is found to have a clear advantage over the conventional pier; the EAL of the DAD pier is less than 20% of its ductile counterpart. This is shown to be primarily due to its inherent damage-free behaviour for small to medium earthquake intensities, whose contribution to EAL is significantly more than that of very rare events.

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  • Seismic hazard epistemic uncertainty in the San Francisco bay area and its role in performance-based assessment

    Bradley, B.A. (2009)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper investigates epistemic uncertainty in the results of seismic hazard analyses for the San Francisco Bay Area and their role in the broader picture of seismic performance assessment. Using the 2002 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities earthquake rupture forecast, epistemic uncertainty in the seismic hazard for several different intensity measures and sites in the San Francisco Bay Area is investigated. Normalization of the epistemic uncertainty for various sites and intensity measures illustrates that the uncertainty magnitude can be approximately estimated as a function of the mean exceedance probability. The distribution of the epistemic uncertainty is found to be dependent on the set of alternative ground-motion prediction equations used but is frequently well approximated by the lognormal distribution. The correlation in the hazard uncertainty is observed to be a function of the separation between the two different intensity levels, and a simple predictive equation is proposed based on the data analyzed. Three methods for the propagation of seismic hazard epistemic uncertainty are compared and contrasted using an example of the 30-year collapse probability of a structure. It is observed that, for this example, epistemic uncertainty in the collapse capacity is more influential than that in the seismic hazard

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  • Component correlations in structure-specific seismic loss estimation

    Bradley, B.A.; Lee, D.S. (2010)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper addresses correlations between multiple components in structure-specific seismic loss estimation. To date, the consideration of such correlations has been limited by methodological tractability, increased computational demand, and a paucity of data for their computation. The effect of component correlations, which arises in various forms, is however a significant factor affecting the results of structurespecific seismic loss estimation and therefore it is prudent that adequate consideration be given to their effect. This paper provides the details of a tractable and computationally efficient seismic loss estimation methodology in which correlations can be considered. Methods to determine the necessary correlations are discussed, particularly those that can be used in the absence of sufficient empirical data, for which values are suggested based on the judgement. The effects of various assumptions regarding correlations are illustrated via application to a case-study office structure. It is observed that certain correlation assumptions can lead to errors in excess of 50% in the lognormal standard deviation in the loss given intensity and loss hazard relationships, while full consideration of partial correlations is 50 times more computationally expensive than other assumptions.

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  • Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy Using Computer Vision and Physiological Markers

    Hann, C.E.; Hewett, D.; Revie, J.A.; Chase, J.G.; Shaw, G.M. (2009)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Background: Hyperglycemia and diabetes result in vascular complications, most notably diabetic retinopathy (DR). The prevalence of DR is growing and is a leading cause of blindness and/or visual impairment in developed countries. Current methods of detecting, screening, and monitoring DR are based on subjective human evaluation, which is also slow and time-consuming. As a result, initiation and progress monitoring of DR is clinically hard. Methods: Computer vision methods are developed to isolate and detect two of the most common DR dysfunctions—dot hemorrhages (DH) and exudates. The algorithms use specific color channels and segmentation methods to separate these DR manifestations from physiological features in digital fundus images. The algorithms are tested on the first 100 images from a published database. The diagnostic outcome and the resulting positive and negative prediction values (PPV and NPV) are reported. The first 50 images are marked with specialist determined ground truth for each individual exudate and/or DH, which are also compared to algorithm identification. Results: Exudate identification had 96.7% sensitivity and 94.9% specificity for diagnosis (PPV = 97%, NPV = 95%). Dot hemorrhage identification had 98.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity (PPV = 100%, NPV = 96%). Greater than 95% of ground truth identified exudates, and DHs were found by the algorithm in the marked first 50 images, with less than 0.5% false positives. Conclusions: A direct computer vision approach enabled high-quality identification of exudates and DHs in an independent data set of fundus images. The methods are readily generalizable to other clinical manifestations of DR. The results justify a blinded clinical trial of the system to prove its capability to detect, diagnose, and, over the long term, monitor the state of DR in individuals with diabetes.

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  • Probabilistic seismic performance and loss assessment of a bridge–foundation–soil system

    Bradley, B.A.; Cubrinovski, M.; Dhakal, R.P.; MacRae, G.A. (2010)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper presents the probabilistic seismic performance and loss assessment of an actual bridge– foundation–soil system, the Fitzgerald Avenue twin bridges in Christchurch, New Zealand. A two-dimensional finite element model of the longitudinal direction of the system is modelled using advanced soil and structural constitutive models. Ground motions at multiple levels of intensity are selected based on the seismic hazard deaggregation at the site. Based on rigorous examination of several deterministic analyses, engineering demand parameters (EDP’s), which capture the global and local demand, and consequent damage to the bridge and foundation are determined. A probabilistic seismic loss assessment of the structure considering both direct repair and loss of functionality consequences was performed to holistically assess the seismi risk of the system. It was found that the non-horizontal stratification of the soils, liquefaction, and soil–structure interaction had pronounced effects on the seismic demand distribution of the bridge components, of which the north abutment piles and central pier were critical in the systems seismic performance. The consequences due to loss of functionality of the bridge during repair were significantly larger than the direct repair costs, with over a 2% in 50 year probability of the total loss exceeding twice the book-value of the structure.

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  • Prediction of spatially distributed seismic demands in specific structures: Ground motion and structural response

    Bradley, B.A.; Dhakal, R.P.; MacRae, G.A.; Cubrinovski, M. (2010)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    The efficacy of various ground motion intensity measures (IM’s) in the prediction of spatially distributed seismic demands (Engineering Demand Parameters, EDP’s) within a structure is investigated. This has direct implications to building-specific seismic loss estimation, where the seismic demand on different components is dependent on the location of the component in the structure. Several common intensity measures are investigated in terms of their ability to predict the spatially distributed demands in a 10-storey office building, which is measured in terms of maximum interstorey drift ratios and maximum floor accelerations. It is found that the ability of an IM to efficiently predict a specific EDP depends on the similarity between the frequency range of the ground motion which controls the IM and that of the EDP. An IM’s predictability has a direct effect on the median response demands for ground motions scaled to a specified probability of exceedance from a ground motion hazard curve. All of the IM’s investigated were found to be insufficient with respect to at least one of magnitude, source-to-site distance, or epsilon when predicting all peak interstorey drifts and peak floor accelerations in a 10-storey RC frame structure. Careful ground motion selection and/or seismic demand modification is therefore required to predict such spatially distributed demands without significant bias.

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