91,745 results

  • Management strategies for the riparian zones of the Manganuioteao River

    Rich, John W.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The Manganuioteao River is the last unmodified river in the central North Island, and is protected against development by a National Water Conservation Order. As a result of the Department of Conservation's concern for the apparent deterioration of Manganuioteao River riparian zone vegetation, this thesis presents a basis for riparian zone management. The research is composed of two studies; a riparian zone grazing exclusion study and an examination of the meanings managers ascribe to the Manganuioteao River. The grazing exclusion study has two objectives. The first objective is to illustrate the change to native vegetation once stock is excluded. The second objective is to predict a 10 year scenario for indigenous riparian zone vegetation once stock is excluded. Results illustrate that after 11 months of stock exclusion many new tree seedlings appear in the groundcover, and many existing species increase in number. It is predicted that a longer period of stock exclusion from riparian zones will benefit both mature and re-establishing native riparian zone vegetation. The second study uses a naturalistic research to focus on the managers themselves, exploring the meanings they ascribe to the Manganuioteao River. Meanings are determined by the ways in which managers interact with the river. Results indicate that conservation is a common management theme for both the formal managers (Department of Conservation, Ruapehu District Council) and the informal managers (e.g. adjacent landowners, Rotary Club). Interaction between management groups is also important for the continuing conservation of the Manganuioteao River. The management strategies presented focus on determining a suitable agricultural and recreational carrying capacity for riparian zone vegetation. The grazing exclusion experiment illustrates that agriculture has caused considerable damage to indigenous riparian vegetation. Agricultural activity on riparian zones, therefore, needs to be curtailed, particularly on riparian zones clothed in native forest, unmodified except for the changes caused through domestic stock grazing. It is possible, however, to continue grazing on the more heavily modified riparian zones. More information will be required on the user needs and wants to successfully determine recreational carrying capacity. To allow for an increase in the number of visitors to the river, while at the same time providing a "wilderness experience", management should increase the river's physical carrying capacity. This can be expanded by providing more interpretation and by guiding the visitor to areas where carrying capacity is greater. Visitors' perceptions of crowding should also be evaluated by the managers as an aid to maintaining the wilderness environment.

    View record details
  • Environmental performance indicators for groundwater

    Bright John, C.; Bidwell Vince, J.; Robb Christina; Ward Jonet, C.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The purpose of this report is to strengthen the groundwater section of the proposed set of Environmental Performance Indicators for monitoring air, freshwater, and land. The development of these indicators is described in a discussion document, Environmental Performance Indicators - Proposals for air, fresh water, and land (MfE, 1997), and their purpose is for monitoring progress towards achieving the environmental goals specified in the document, Environment 2010 (MfE, 1995). The review process that followed publication of the proposed indicators concluded that the groundwater section required strengthening.

    View record details
  • Monitoring and indicators of the coastal and estuarine environment : a literature review

    Ward Jonet, C.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This literature review of monitoring and indicators of the coastal and estuarine environment is part of the Ministry for the Environment's National Environmental Indicators Programme. The coastal and estuarine environment is monitored at several levels in most countries, from the local authorities, NGOs and interest groups to state and/or regional government and national government. International agencies such as the IUCN and OECD also undertake monitoring, usually by assessing the data and information provided by individual nations. For this report a literature review was undertaken of monitoring projects and schemes and indicators used by agencies at the national and state or provincial level as this was considered comparable to the national set of environmental indicators that are being developed by the New Zealand Ministry for the Environment.

    View record details
  • Potential coastal and estuarine indicators : a review of current research and data

    Ward Jonet, C.; Snelder Ton, H.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This report presents a review of current research and data relating to potential coast and estuarine indicators as undertaken by two marine scientists Ton Snelder (NIWA Christchurch) and Jonet Ward (Lincoln Environmental). Snelder and Ward were employed by the Ministry for the Environment to hold a series of meetings around New Zealand with some coastal and estuarine researchers from universities and research organisations. This report summaries their findings.

    View record details
  • Draft policy goals for coasts, estuaries

    Robb Christina; Ward Jonet, C.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    As a basis for the development of environmental indicators for coasts and estuaries, the Ministry for the Environment requires performance or policy goals based on key legislation and policy documents. This report suggests a number of draft goals that are considered appropriate for the National Environmental Indicators Programme.

    View record details
  • Groundwater management tools : analytical procedure and case studies

    Bidwell, Vince J.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This report addresses an issue of groundwater management that was identified by regional council staff, as part of a project conducted by Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry and the Ministry for the Environment for encouraging and ensuring effective and efficient water allocation in New Zealand. The issue is how to manage groundwater allocation under conditions of increasing abstraction and imperfect, but developing, knowledge of the resource. The overall objective is to maintain sustainability of the groundwater resource in terms of acceptable environmental effects. The first part of this report is a draft Best Practice Guideline, which sets the context of the nature of the groundwater resource, quality and availability of data, and an appropriate resource management approach. A recommendation from the water allocation project was that an adaptive approach to groundwater management was required, and that there was a need for appropriate analytical tools to support this approach. A companion report addresses the origin and philosophy of adaptive management in water resources. The second part of the report is concerned with the development and demonstration of a suitable analytical method, and guidelines for its implementation, which supports the recommended adaptive management strategy. The "eigenmodel" method is concerned primarily with the amount of water stored in an aquifer, and how this responds to recharge and abstraction. The resulting information about groundwater levels can be related to environmental effects such as low flow in streams, for example. It is a "whole aquifer" approach and does not purport to be suitable for detailed investigation of local effects caused by abstraction stresses. These problems require other well established modelling techniques, and their compatibility with the eigenmodel method is discussed. The issue of sparse data is addressed by the simplicity of the analytical format, which enables identification of fundamental properties of aquifer storage, sometimes from only one observation well record. Implementation of the procedure is ideally suited to spreadsheet software. These simple models can also be expressed in a form that incorporates continual monitoring of groundwater levels for "real-time" forecasting as decision support for adaptive management. Several demonstrations with observed data from two aquifer systems are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the procedure.

    View record details
  • Evaluation of conservation biological control innovation in winegrowing

    Cullen, Ross; Forbes, Sharon L.; Grout, Rachel; Smallman, Clive

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Paper presented at the 2010 New Zealand Agricultural and Resource Economics Society (Inc.) Conference, Tahuna Conference Centre – Nelson, New Zealand. August 26-27, 2010.

    View record details
  • Market response to bank loan announcements in a government-controlled banking system: evidence from China’s banks

    Zhang, Yuan

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Under an enriched notion of “inside debt”, the unique benefits of bank financing from screening and monitoring processes have been well documented in a large number of studies investigating the information content of bank loan announcements. Thus, bank loan announcements convey positive signals to the market, and the market response should be positive. However, previous studies were conducted extensively in the non-government-controlled banking systems, such as the U.S., the U.K., Canada and Australia. It is unclear whether the traditional predictions on the functions of banks for non-government-controlled banking systems also hold for government-controlled banking systems. This study examines the market reaction to bank loan announcements in the Chinese financial market, where the banking system is highly controlled by the Chinese government. The study also investigates the possible characteristics of lending banks, borrowers and loans that may influence share price reaction to bank loan announcements in the Chinese financial market. Standard event study methodology is employed to test the share price returns of the borrowing firms in response to the bank loan announcements. The event window comprises of 21 trading days from the period beginning 10 days before the event date (day 0) and ending 10 days before the event date (day −10 to day 10). Data used in this study are collected from the China Stock Market and Accounting Research Database and China Financial Newspaper Database. This study samples all bank loan announcements from companies listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange (SHSE) and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SZSE) between 1996 and 2009. The share-split reform started in 2005 which affected the stock price of listed Chinese companies considerably. In order to avoid the influence of the share-split reform, this study divides the sample period into two sub-samples, namely, 1996 to 2004 and 2005-2009. A total of 501 bank loan announcements are collected in the final sample for period 1996 to 2004 and 106 bank loan announcements for the period 2005 to 2009. Contrary to what previous studies have found for bank loan announcements in non-government-controlled banking systems, this study finds significant declines in stock values of Chinese borrowing firms during bank loan announcements for the sample period 1996 to 2004. The result implies that both positive and negative bank loan announcement effects are possible, depending on whether the banking system is run on purely commercial goals in non-government-controlled banking systems or is subject to political intervention in government-controlled banking systems. Banks controlled by the government may have to lend to bail out poorly performing firms for political reasons. If these weak borrowing firms are prevalent, the direction of the market response to bank loan announcement should be negative, and vice versa. The results show that the negative effect is particularly significant for loans from Big Four state banks, state owned or controlled banks, banks with lower ranking and banks in provinces with lower marketization in credit allocation. The negative effect is also particularly significant for problematic borrowing firms including firms that are opaque, have a higher possibility of expropriation or tunnelling, have ineffective expropriation-reduction mechanisms, and are controlled by the state. The results also show that the negative effect is particularly significant for loans with greater amount, shorter term, with covenants/collateral, and less syndication. There is a significant difference in the market response to bank loan announcements among different bank loan purposes and among different industries. This study finds no significant market response to bank loan announcements in the Chinese financial market for the sample period 2005 to 2009. However, the result shows that there is a significantly negative market response to bank loan announcements in the Chinese financial market for the sample period 1996 to 2004. This implies that the Chinese stock market does not view bank loan announcements unfavourably any longer after a series of reforms in the Chinese banking system.

    View record details
  • An empirical analysis of New Zealand bank customers’ satisfaction

    Wei, Jing

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    It is important that banks deliver quality services which in turn results in customer satisfaction in today’s competitive banking environment. Within the New Zealand financial service market, competition is deemed to be strong given that there have been new entrants into the market as well as mergers and acquisition and exits over the last ten years (Chan, Schumacher, and Tripe, 2007). In order to retain the customers, customer satisfaction becomes a crux issue to bank management. This research identifies and examines the factors influencing bank customer satisfaction in New Zealand’s banking industry. Specifically, the goal of this study is to identify the dimensions of perceived service quality; and examine the relationships between bank customer satisfaction and service quality, and perceived value and corporate image. The effects of demographic factors on the constructs are also investigated. The data was collected from a convenience sample of individual bank customers who bank with a local commercial bank. The results indicate that service quality has the most influence on bank customers’ satisfaction compare to value and corporate image. The results also provide support for the moderating effect of value on the relationships between service quality and customer satisfaction, and the moderating effect of corporate image on the relationships between service quality dimensions and service quality. In addition, the results also reveal that the perceptions of the constructs are primarily affected by age and ethnicity of customers.

    View record details
  • Designing and implementing a grid application for cumulative agrichemical residue tracking using third-party data sources and software components

    Post, Elizabeth A.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    It is increasingly important to design software for reuse so future changes can be implemented as easily and cheaply as possible. It is also beneficial to use existing resources where they are available. This paper describes an agricultural application for cumulative agrichemical residue tracking designed and implemented to use grid technologies to access external third-party databases and software components. The application incorporates pre-existing software, and accesses meteorological, spatial, agrichemical and operational data, most of which are external databases owned and managed by third parties, and where the application must also be able to handle alternative data sources in each domain area.

    View record details
  • Land-use effects on channel morphology in streams in the Moutere gravels, Nelson, New Zealand

    Baillie, Brenda R.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Land-use can have significant effects on channel morphology, especially in smaller-sized catchments (<5ha). Pasture streams in these small catchments are usually narrower than forested streams. It is hypothesized that the sediment trapping and retention ability of grass sod is responsible for the narrower channels in pasture streams. It is suggested that the coarser root structure in forested streams is less effective in armouring bank material against fluvial erosive processes. This, along with the influence of woody debris obstructions in diverting and channelising stream flow is thought to be the reason behind the wider and more variable stream widths in forested streams. In the Hakarimata Ranges, Waikato New Zealand, it appears that streams in pine plantations that were planted onto pastureland 15 years previously are in the process of widening back to a forested channel morphology, releasing the sediment retained in the banks by the grass sod. As the majority of new plantings in pine plantations are occurring on pastureland or reverting pastureland the possibility of increased sedimentation in streams during the conversion process may be an issue in some areas. The purpose of this thesis was to assess the influence of land-use on channel morphology in another area of New Zealand. The Moutere Gravels in Nelson provided an area of contrasting geology, hydrology and climate to that in the Hakarimata Ranges. The study compared channel morphology characteristics in 15 streams in small-sized catchments 5 streams each in pasture, pine plantation and native forest. Channel morphology measurements were made along a representative 100 m section of stream reach in each catchment. Woody debris was measured in each of the pine plantation and native streams to assess its influence on channel morphology. There was no significant difference in bankfull and channel widths between the three land uses in the Moutere Gravels. Width variability was less in the forested streams compared to the pasture streams. The presence of large woody debris (LWD) in the pine and native streams did not appear to be influencing channel width. There were no significant differences between the three land-uses in channel depth and cross-sectional area. Width-to-depth ratios were significantly higher in the pasture streams in comparison to the forested streams. The higher number of bank undercuts and lower width-to depth ratios in the forested streams indicated that the tree roots were assisting in stabilising and retaining the channel bank material. Bank disturbance was low in all streams regardless of land-use ranging from 1-3%. There were more fines in the streambeds of the pasture sites but higher levels in one site influenced this. The median particle size was significantly lower in the pasture and pine sites in comparison to the native sites. The presence of LWD in the pine and native streams increased the number and variety of pools and influenced sediment storage in the stream channel. The volume of LWD in these streams was low in comparison to streams in similar temperate forests in the Pacific Northwest of the USA. The results of this study differ from similar studies in New Zealand and overseas. It is suggested that low sedimentation rates, low frequency of floods of sufficient magnitude to influence channel morphology and the cohesive structure of the channel bank material in the Moutere Gravels, may provide some explanation for the lack of land-use effects on channel morphology in these small catchments. While the results of land-use effects on small streams in the Moutere Gravels are the exception when compared to other similar studies it does demonstrate that in some circumstances factors other than land-use can exert a dominant influence on channel morphology. When assessing the possible implications of converting pastureland to pine plantations, the influence of local hydrology, geology and climate need to be considered.

    View record details
  • The sustainability and cost-effectiveness of water storage projects on Canterbury rivers: the Opihi River case

    Hearnshaw, Edward J. S.; Cullen, Ross

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    There is an increasing demand for water resources in the Canterbury region. The impact of this demand has lead to unacceptable minimum river flows, which has resulted in adverse affects to river ecology. In an effort to resolve this problem water storage projects have gained considerable attention. However, in order to consider all values of the impact of water storage projects, a systematic way of implementing an ecosystem services approach is developed. This ecosystem services approach coupled with various appropriate analytical methods are developed for the purposes of evaluating the cost-effectiveness of water storage projects and the sustainability of river systems impacted by water storage projects. For the purposes of evaluating the cost-effectiveness of water storage projects it is argued that cost utility analysis should be applied through an ecosystem services index, which is constructed from the aggregation of normalized indicators that represent each ecosystem service and preferential weights for each ecosystem service. The evaluation of sustainability is considered both according to its weak and strong definitions. Weak sustainability is evaluated by a non-declining ecosystem services index over time. Strong sustainability is evaluated by the elicitation of threshold levels or safe minimum standards where an ecosystem service, as represented by an indicator, should not pass below. These analytical methods developed are subsequently applied to the Opihi River, which is a river system located in Canterbury that has been hydrologically modified and impounded by the Opuha Dam scheme. The application of the analytical methods to the Opihi River provides a few preliminary results. Further data collection is required to fully determine the cost-effectiveness of the Opuha Dam and the sustainability of the Opihi River impacted by the dam scheme.

    View record details
  • Priorities for, and preferred approaches to, management of New Zealand fresh waters

    Hughey, Kenneth F. D.; Kerr, Geoffrey N.; Cullen, Ross; Shen, Fujun

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Since 2000 six standardised biennial public surveys of the state of the New Zealand environment have been undertaken. A fresh water case study was included in the 2010 postal survey and in an electronic survey. Desirable futures for New Zealand's fresh water resources, sources of damage to freshwater, preferred management approaches, and views about charges for commercial uses of water are reported. Respondents desire high quality water, are not prepared to trade that off for damaging economic gains, and support charges for commercial uses of water. We report public preferences for tools to manage water use.

    View record details
  • Ranking New Zealand river values – a novel approach to managing the 'chalk and cheese' problem

    Hughey, Kenneth F. D.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    In New Zealand, regional councils have the task of sustainably managing rivers and their flows. In trying to achieve this task they face enormous challenges including the need to allocate flows amongst often highly disparate in (e.g., angling, kayaking, native fish and birds) and out-of-river (e.g., irrigation and hydro energy) values/needs. To aid in this task these councils need to know which rivers or parts of rivers are relatively more or less important on national, regional and local bases, for particular values. This task becomes even more challenging given limited information availability for many values, and no overarching policy or decision framework. In this paper I report on a FRST-funded (and less than 1-year long) project which has addressed these challenges. A multi-criteria and expert panel based methodology has been developed and applied to a wide range of values to produce lists of rivers by value, ranked according to their national, regional and local importance. The methodology is described and example applications given. The need to 'buy-in' multi-and, ultimately, interdisciplinary participation is emphasized as well as a range of ongoing implementation challenges and further needs.

    View record details
  • Women and wine: analysis of this important market segment

    Forbes, Sharon L.; Cohen, David A.; Dean, David L.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    What do women want? This question is being asked by global wine producers and marketers as the significance of the female market segment has been recognised for its contribution to sales and income. In recent years, Berringer Blass has employed an all‐female team to design and market ‘White Lie’, a wine targeted specifically at women wine consumers (Todd, 2005). Bruwer, Li, Bastian and Alant (2005) also noted the emergence of wines positioned primarily for female consumers, such as ‘Bend on the River’ in Germany and ‘Annabella’ in Australia. But does the female wine consumer actually behave substantially differently from her male counterpart? This multi‐national study sought to understand whether significant differences in wine purchasing or consumption behaviour could indeed be explained by gender. Knowledge of gender‐based behavioural differences would be of use to the wine industry in terms of targeting and satisfying specific market segments.

    View record details
  • The existence value of peat swamp forest in Peninsular Malaysia

    Muhammed Idris, Mohd A.; Cullen, Ross; Bigsby, Hugh R.; Awang Noor, A.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Forests form the dominant natural ecosystem in Malaysia. About 55% of Malaysian land area is forested and endows a rich diversity of flora and fauna. Peat swamp forests constitute a significant component of forest and account for about 75% of the country's total wetlands. Many peat swamp forests have already been converted to new land uses including palm oil plantations, agriculture and housing. The south-east Pahang peat swamp forest (SEPPSF), located at Pahang state is the largest peat swamp forest cover in Peninsular Malaysia and is believed to be the mainland Asia's largest and intact peat swamp forest. It harbours unique flora and fauna, provides benefits and services of national interest and supports the livelihood of the aborigines (Orang Asli) communities. Many of the benefits and services from peat swamp forests are unpriced and this can lead to faulty land use decision making. Non market valuation can provide important information on the value of many currently unpriced items and enable decision makers to consider the opportunity costs of proposed land use changes. Total economic value (TEV), which includes use and non-use values, is a complex method to determine the estimated total benefits for a tropical forest. This study reports on a contingent valuation study of existence value (non-use value) of the SEPPSF. The economic value is based on the mean maximum willingness to pay of the households in Kuantan (the capital city of Pahang state) to conserve the forest.

    View record details
  • Why some community forests are performing better than others: a case of forest user groups in Nepal

    Kerr, Geoffrey N.; Bigsby, Hugh R.; Chand, N. B.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Management of many Nepalese forests has been devolved to local communities. Forest products, which are used by the community and which may also be traded, are essential contributors to community well-being. Forests are also important contributors of ecosystem services, such as flood protection and wildlife habitat. Nepalese communities were surveyed to measure flows of forest products from their community forests. A stochastic frontier analysis shows that communities are not producing forest products efficiently and there is potential for improvement. The results shows that forest products benefit and environmental performance are associated products. In addition, analysis reveals that factors such as social capital, support from government and knowledge in management contributes positively to the production efficiency. It is anticipated that these findings will contribute to community forest policy redesign and consequently to the welfare of communities.

    View record details
  • Consumer attitudes towards sustainability attributes on food labels

    Saunders, Caroline M.; Guenther, Meike; Kaye Blake, W.; Tait, Peter R.; Miller, Sini Annukka

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    With current concerns about climate change and the general status of the environment, there is an increasing expectation that products have sustainability credentials, and that these can be verified. Labelling is a common method of communicating certain product attributes to consumers that may influence their choices. There are different types of labels with several functions. The aim of this study is to investigate consumers' purchase decisions towards certain sustainability claims on food products, particularly by displaying the reduction of carbon emissions. Choice outcomes will be evaluated using Discrete Choice Modelling (DCM). Data for the study is obtained by a web-based consumer survey undertaken in the United Kingdom (UK). Results provide information on different attributes effects on consumers' purchase decisions, particularly their willingness to pay. This study provides information on consumers' attitudes that will assist industries and firms to benefit from market opportunities, in particular assessing the methods by which carbon footprinting measures can be incorporated alongside information on other sustainability criteria in product marketing.

    View record details
  • Generation Y as wine tourists: their expectations and experiences at the winery cellar door

    Fountain, Joanna M.; Charters, S.

    Book item
    Lincoln University

    Wine tourism and research surrounding it has developed substantially over the last 15 years. The importance for wineries of visitation to cellar doors is recognised by both the tourism and wine industries (Carlsen and Charters, 2006; Mitchell and Hall, 2006) and the need to understand the expectations and experiences of wine tourists has driven much of the research that has been conducted. Ensuring a match between expectations and experience of the cellar door will affect not only the tourists‟ satisfaction with the experience but their emotional attachments to the brand and, by implication, their future purchase intentions (Dodd and Bigotte, 1997). It is important to note, however, that wine tourists are not a homogeneous grouping (Charters and Ali-Knight, 2002; Mitchell, Hall, and McIntosh, 2000), and the importance of understanding the differences between them is increasingly recognised. Anecdotal evidence suggests that Baby Boomers, particularly males, have been viewed as the typical, and perhaps most desirable, wine tourist in the past (Charters and O'Neill, 2000). This is due to a range of factors, including their role in driving the growth in wine consumption in the Anglophone world, their perceived level of wine knowledge and wine involvement and greater disposable income. However, it is now becoming clear that a younger generation of wine consumers and wine tourists need to be considered if the industry is to have a long-term future (Koerber, 2000). This will require an understanding of the relationship of Generation Y to the winery experience. To this end, this chapter explores the attitudes, expectations and behaviour of Generation Y at the winery cellar door. In particular, the focus is on their preferences regarding the interaction they seek with cellar door staff, their needs with regards to the type of education and/or information sought during a winery visit and their overall attitude to a winery experience. The chapter is based on fieldwork conducted in Swan Valley, Western Australia, Yarra Valley, Victoria, and Waipara Valley, New Zealand. It is worth noting that Generation Y has been defined in this chapter as those born between 1978 and 1994 (Sheahan, 2005).

    View record details
  • OAD milking and employment: a surprise package

    Tipples, Rupert S.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    The dairy industry is New Zealand’s top export earner and has been going through a growth period under the influence of rapidly rising world prices for milk products. Employment conditions in this major sector of the economy have been problematic. Once-a-Day (OAD) milking appeared to provide the key system change which held the possibility of dairy farming becoming socially sustainable rather that lurching from one employment crisis to the next (Tipples and Verwoerd, 2005). However, while the changes brought about by conversion to OAD milking are very positive, they have not affected dairy farm employment in some of the ways which were anticipated. The paper reports some findings of an in-depth qualitative study of the human face of OAD milking and their implications, set in the context of the recently released data from the 2006 Census of Population.

    View record details