96,071 results

  • Defending the high ground : the transformation of the discipline of history into a senior secondary school subject in the late 20th century : a New Zealand curriculum debate : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Education, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Sheehan, William Mark

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines the development of the New Zealand secondary school history curriculum in the late 20th century and is a case study of the transformation of an academic discipline into a senior secondary school subject. It is concerned with the nature of state control in the development of the history curriculum at this level as well as the extent to which dominant elites within the history teaching community influenced the process. This thesis provides a historical perspective on recent developments in the history curriculum (2005-2008) and argues New Zealand stands apart from international trends in regards to history education. Internationally, curriculum developers have typically prioritised a narrative of the nation-state but in New Zealand the history teaching community has, by and large, been reluctant to engage with a national past and chosen to prioritise English history. Also in the international arena the history curriculum is shaped by government agencies but in New Zealand in the late 20th century, a minority of historians and teachers had a disproportionate influence over the process. They eschewed attempts to liberalise the subject by the Department of Education (and thereby reflect contemporary developments in the parent discipline) and shaped the curriculum to reflect their own professional interests. This thesis puts forward a hypothesis that seeks to explain the nature of continuity and change in the senior history curriculum in the late 20th century with a view to illuminating the origins of recent debates in the history teaching community. It argues that it is the examination prescriptions that dictate what is taught at this level and that there are three key criteria that must be met if a senior curriculum initiative is to be successfully introduced, or an existing area of historical knowledge is to be retained. Firstly, it is necessary that the decision-making elite share a consensus that a particular body of historical knowledge is of higher status than any alternative. Secondly, a successful initiative must reflect the existing scholarly constraints and boundaries of the parent discipline. Finally, advocates of a particular area of knowledge must be able to establish alliances with major stakeholders in a subject community who are sympathetic to their cause. The role of dominant individuals in this process was paramount in the 1980s as Department of Education curriculum committees at this time operated on the ethos of ‘consultation’, with little explicit philosophical direction and no authentic evaluation. This model is examined by considering the examples of women’s history (that was successfully embedded in the 1989 curriculum), Maori history (that was not) and 16th and 17th century English history (that has dominated the history curriculum in New Zealand for over 30 years).

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  • Quantifying variation in estimated methane emission from ruminants using the SF6 tracer technique : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Vlaming, Johannes Bernardus

    Thesis
    Massey University

    With the signing of the Kyoto Protocol, New Zealand must reduce its national greenhouse gas emissions. As New Zealand has a large proportion of its national emissions as methane (~31%), and methane (CH4) has a short atmospheric lifetime, it provides a good target for mitigation strategies. The initial aim of this research was to identify high and low CH4-emitting cattle to assess factors that contribute to low CH4 production. Initial studies using the SF6 tracer technique to estimate CH4 production could not identify consistently high and low CH4 emitters. Research was therefore undertaken to confirm whether this was due to high variation in estimated CH4 yields, and to quantify the within- and between-animal variation in CH4 production when using the SF6 technique. This research showed considerable within- (coefficient of variation, CV = 7-10%) and between-animal (CV = 7-18%) variation in CH4 yield (g CH4/kg DMI) over time when using the SF6 technique. This is larger than the within- (CV = 3%) and between-animal (CV = 10%) variation reported for calorimetry. This led to the recommendation that the SF6 technique not be used in identifying animals for high or low CH4 yield. A power analysis was developed based on the measured variances for the SF6 technique. Results from this analysis provide researchers with important information on the number of animals and measurements per animal required when undertaking CH4 experiments. One of the sources of variation with the SF6 technique is the SF6 release from permeation tubes. Estimated CH4 yield increases by approximately 8.5% when going from a release rate of 3 mg SF6/day to a rate of 5 mg SF6/day. Further, an in vitro study indicated that SF6 release from permeation tubes is approximately 8% lower in rumen fluid than in air. While further research is required to confirm these results, they emphasise the need to allow time for the release rate to stabilise in the rumen for 4-5 days prior to undertaking measurements. It also led to the recommendation that release rates used in experiments should be within a narrow range, and balanced across experimental treatments.

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  • Decision-making in conservation : a model to improve the allocation of resources amongst national parks : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Natural Resource Management at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Allan, Abigail Jane Margaret

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Protected areas are of prime importance to conservation efforts worldwide because they provide society with a range of important environmental, economic, and social benefits. The ability of government agencies to manage threats to their national parks is often compromised by limited resources. There is a growing need to improve decisions about how resources are allocated amongst conservation responsibilities. Multiple Criteria Analysis (MCA) techniques are integrated decision systems that have the potential to reduce the complexity normally associated with decisions about public and quasi-public goods. The explicit expression of a decision-maker’s preferences for certain decision attributes is a key stage in the MCA process. The ability of MCA to increase the understanding, transparency, and robustness of decisions has been demonstrated in many disciplines. This research describes the development of a MCA model to assist decisionmakers with the allocation of resources amongst national parks. After a thorough review of the conservation and protected area literature, a MCA model is developed to determine the utility of a group of national parks based upon environmental, economic, and social significance. The model is tested and applied to the national parks managed by the Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory of Australia and to selected parks managed by the Department of Conservation of New Zealand. The research highlights the need for protected area management agencies to take lessons from the commercial sector and incorporate elements of business practices, particularly comprehensive inventory and data management, into conservation decision-making. It is shown that the integrated decision-making approach taken in this research aggregates complex data in a way that improves managers’ ability to make better informed decisions concerning the allocation and distribution of resources.

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  • Drop out from state secondary girls' schools in New Zealand : an ecological perspective : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Coutts, Christine Elizabeth

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Economic change requiring a more highly skilled workforce prompted worldwide concern over high school drop out. Dropouts are young people who leave school early, often without attaining formal educational qualifications. Much previous research centred on at-risk students and a range of individual, social, family and school factors associated with drop out were identified. This case study of student drop out and retention at three girls’ state secondary schools over 2003 suggests that early leaving behaviour cannot be understood outside of the settings in which it occurs. Adopting an ecological perspective facilitated a deeper understanding of the complex interactions between the dropouts and their environment. From a narratives and numbers approach rich stories of early leaving emerged. Patterns of leaving were consistent with national trends: The lower decile school had the highest drop out rate, and dropouts were more likely to be Maori and Pasifika than European. Dropping out was shown to be a complicated and iterative process in which the influence of the environment is very important. Family and school relationships had a major impact but which had the greatest influence was inconclusive because there was a high level of interconnectedness between these proximal settings within the mesosystem and the bigger picture education and welfare systems. The extent of the contribution each level made to early leaving varied across individual stories, between schools and over time. Leaving school is an ecological transition that involves changing roles from high school pupil to that of tertiary student, mother, worker or benefit recipient. The students’ stories show drop out to be both an outcome, and an initiator, of developmental change. An important challenge for schools is not necessarily to reduce the number of early leavers but to establish effective transition programmes that assist students to become proactive in navigating the many transitions anticipated over their life course. The implementation of such school programmes needs to be supported by parallel changes in government policy.

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  • "Repetition to the life" : liminality, subjectivity, and speech acts in Shakespearean late romance : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Hall, Mark Webster

    Thesis
    Massey University

    One key debate in the critical reception of Shakespearean late romance concerns how best to approach the functionality of the dramatised worlds that constitute it. What I call ‘containment’ readings of late romance argue that the alternative realities explored in the plays – realities of miraculous revivals, pastoral escapes and divine interventions, – serve to affirm the inevitable return of extant power structures. Utopian readings dispute this, making the case that the political and existential destructurations exposed in these plays point toward a new orientation for the dramatic subjects they produce. With the aim of contributing to the debate between containment and utopian readings, I explore in this thesis how late romance produces its subjects. I interrogate the plays’ structures with the help of the anthropological model of the limen, which is shown to be a useful category through which to educe the meaningfulness of certain ritual sequences. The limen’s three phases – separation; limen; aggregation – are employed to make sense of the transitions that subjects undergo in the four plays studied: Pericles, Cymbeline, The Winter’s Tale, and The Tempest. To study the liminality of these plays is, I argue, to study how dramatic subjects are produced therein, guided by the fact that their language shares properties with ritual discourse. When studying this discourse the focus falls on that class of language which impinges most lastingly on subjects: performatives. How performatives function in late romance will show us how real the changes induced in liminal subjects are. I examine the four plays in turn and find that their performative language produces subjects in a limen-consistent fashion. Aristocratic subjects are first of all estranged from those discursive practices that nourish their identity; their subjectivities are then glued back together in the ritualised, emblematising language of the limen. The conclusion I draw from my interrogation of the liminal patterns uncovered is that the functionality of late romance is broadly consistent with containment readings; I claim to have extended such readings, however, in showing that Shakespeare’s dramatisation of the state’s return to power usefully exposes its logic and symbolic grammar.

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  • A search for genetic factors influencing immune responses to a killed Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis vaccine in Australian fine-wool merino sheep : thesis in fulfilment of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science, Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, College of Sciences, Massey University

    Dukkipati, Venkata Sayoji Rao

    Thesis
    Massey University

    VSR Dukkipati (2007). A search for genetic factors influencing immune responses to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Doctoral thesis, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. A study was conducted to identify associations between genetic markers and immune responses in Australian fine-wool Merino sheep to a killed Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) vaccine (GudairTM). Blood samples and immune response data (antibody and interferon gamma, IFN-gamma results) were obtained from 934 sheep from a longterm Map vaccination trial undertaken on three independent properties in New South Wales, Australia. Blood samples were genotyped for eight microsatellite markers that included four (DYMS1, OLADRW, OLADRB and SMHCC1) from the Ovar-Mhc region, two each from the SLC11A1 (OVINRA1 and OVINRA2) and IFN-gamma (o(IFN)gamma and OarKP6) gene regions. Vaccination with GudairTM induced strong antibody and IFN-gamma responses as early as two weeks post-vaccination. Between-property differences in magnitude and trend of immune responses, concomitant with season of vaccination and magnitude of natural infection prevalent in individual flocks, were evident. Immune responses in controls on all the three properties remained consistently low, except for slightly elevated IFN-gamma levels at a few time points in controls of properties 2 and 3, concomitant with exposure to natural infection. There were only 2 alleles and 3 genotypes for marker o(IFN)gamma but other loci exhibited extensive polymorphisms, the most occurring at OLADRW which had 42 alleles and 137 genotypes. Heterozygosities varied between 33% (OVINRA2) and 87% (SMHCC1), while polymorphic information contents ranged from 0.31 (o(IFN)gamma) to 0.88 (OLADRW). Genotypes at loci DYMS1, OLADRB, SMHCC1, OVINRA1 and o(IFN)gamma were in Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), while those at OarKP6 were in HWE only when rare alleles (<1.0% frequency) were pooled with the closest size class. Departure from HWE, resulting from possible preferential amplification of alleles in heterozygotes, was evident at OLADRW and OVINRA2. Associations between immune responses and genetic polymorphisms at the marker loci were examined by analysing both genotypic and allelic affects. The study revealed several genotypes/alleles at different marker loci to be significantly associated with antibody and IFN-gamma responses to vaccination with GudairTM. However, the majority of those effects were inconsistent across the three properties. Based on significance and consistency in effects across the three properties, five genotypes (two at DYMS1 and one each at OLADRB, SMHCC1 and OVINRA1) and three alleles (one each at DYMS1, OLADRB and o(IFN)gamma) were considered either ‘probable’ or ‘most likely’ to be associated with low IFN-gamma responses, while a genotype at o(IFN)gamma was considered ‘most likely’ to influence high IFN-gamma responses. An allele at OarKP6 was considered ‘probable’ to be associated with low antibody responses to vaccination. Considering the significance of IFN-gamma responses in protection against Map, it is likely that the identified genotype/alleles influencing IFN-gamma responses to vaccination would also influence immune responses to natural Map infections. However, further studies need to be conducted to determine the role of these marker genotypes/alleles in protection against paratuberculosis under natural infection conditions. Key words: paratuberculosis, OJD, Johne’s disease, sheep, immune response, genetic markers, gene polymorphisms, MHC, SLC11A1, IFN-gamma

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  • Professional supervision practice under new public management : a study of the perspectives of probation officers and service managers in the community probation service : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Social Policy and Social Work, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    O'Donoghue, Kieran Barry

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines professional supervision practice under new public management from the perspectives of probation officers and service managers in the Community Probation Service. In particular, the research explores the participants’ philosophy of professional supervision, their recent supervision experiences, and their aspirations and expectations with regard to professional supervision. In order to provide a background for an informed analysis and discussion of the research findings, the thesis discusses the key themes in the social service supervision and new public management literature. It also examines the Community Probation Service’s context and the history of new public management and professional supervision in this organisation. The thesis is a qualitative study that is informed by social work practice theory and utilises the phenomenological and hermeneutic approaches. The research findings show that amongst the participants there was: (a) an unclear philosophy of supervision; (b) minimal recent experience of supervision and little ownership or support for the agency supervision project; (c) a belief that the context increased their need for supervision, but at the same time reduced their ability to receive or participate in it; (d) an expectation that professional supervision would assist them to work more effectively with clients and staff; (e) an expectation of good committed supervisors who would support and help them develop; and (f) an expectation that the agency would support professional supervision through resourcing, guidelines, accredited supervisors and the establishment of a learning culture. The major implications of these findings are that: (1) there is a need for staff to be socialised into professional social service supervision; (2) that the professional supervision programme within the Community Probation Service, as currently implemented, is unlikely to be successful; and (3) that professional social service supervision needs to be focused upon persons and their environments, rather than upon the agency.

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  • Climate calculus : does realist theory explain the Howard Government's decision not to ratify the Kyoto Protocol? : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Social Policy at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Dempster, Benjamin Paul

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions has the potential to cause widespread damage to the environment. As scientific and political consensus converged on the necessity to take action, a large number of countries negotiated the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1997, with the goal of limiting these emissions. Australia under the Howard Government initially played an important part in these negotiations, but refused to ratify the Protocol. The government cited the lack of binding targets on developing countries and the potential for harm to the Australian economy as the reasons it rejected the agreement. International relations theory studies large-scale political forces and analyses their interplay in the global political system. Realism is a model of international relations that views countries as self-interested, security-driven bodies that exist in a state of international anarchy. This study examines whether realist theory offers a satisfactory explanation for the Howard Government’s decision not to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. The study focuses on six realist ideas and examines the evidence for each. Based on thematic analysis of textual data taken from official political archives and newspapers from 1998–2004, it suggests that realist theory does provide an adequate explanation of the Howard Government’s rejection of the Kyoto Protocol.

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  • A social and cultural history of the New Zealand horse : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in History, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Mincham, Carolyn Jean

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Both in the present and the past, horses have a strong presence in New Zealand society and culture. The country’s temperate climate and colonial environment allowed horses to flourish and accordingly became accessible to a wide range of people. Horses acted as an agent of colonisation for their role in shaping the landscape and fostering relationships between coloniser and colonised. Imported horses and the traditions associated with them, served to maintain a cultural link between Great Britain and her colony, a characteristic that continued well into the twentieth century. Not all of these transplanted readily to the colonial frontier and so they were modified to suit the land and its people. There are a number of horses that have meaning to this country. The journey horse, sport horse, work horse, warhorse, wild horse, pony and Maori horse have all contributed to the creation of ideas about community and nationhood. How these horses are represented in history, literature and imagery reveal much of the attitudes, values, aspirations and anxieties of the times. Yet despite the clear significance of horses to this country, no one breed of horse has emerged to represent the country as a whole. Unlike many other modern nations, New Zealand has not identified a national horse. Close allegiance to the British heritage as well as a strong sense of local and regional identity has meant that there is no New Zealand Horse to take its place beside the Australian Stockhorse, the Canadian Horse or any of the other national horses.

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  • Neoliberalism and social patterns : constructions of home and community in contemporary New Zealand fiction : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in English at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Shaw, Kirsten Elizabeth

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Constructions of home, family and community as ways of belonging have been ongoing discourses in New Zealand. This thesis examines constructions of home and family in works of fiction by four contemporary New Zealand authors: Alice Tawhai, Charlotte Grimshaw, Witi Ihimaera and Damien Wilkins. It asks how the main sociological characteristics of the period are presented and performed through fiction. Through these characters and their situations these authors expose the social fantasy of contemporary New Zealand society: that of individual reflexive opportunity. The twentieth century has seen a changing social fabric with loosening of bonds and the increase of individualism. The New Zealand way of life is changing, with increasing interconnectedness of the world through globalisation. Neo-liberal ideology, itself a response to globalising effects, has exacerbated social fragmentation and income disparity. Neoliberalism, a retreat of the state from both financial control and support of individuals, presumes a logic of market-forces and rational choice based on the maximisation of opportunity. This has implications for the individual’s sense of self and ways of belonging as the New Zealand subject is increasingly premised on personal responsibility. This thesis looks at the economic and sociological analyses of neoliberalism and asks if they are confirmed in the fiction.

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  • Indo-Malaysians within the Malaysian education system : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Prabakaran, Gaayathri

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis seeks to explore the factors that limit the freedom of choice and access of the Indian community to tertiary level education in Malaysia. Issues of ethnic minorities are of concern for all multi-cultural societies. In Malaysia, it was the indentured labour system, introduced by the British colonial rulers who brought non-Malays into this previously mono-ethnic society. British colonisation has influenced the position of the Indian community in Malaysia in a number of ways, which are explored in this thesis. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the complexity of this plural society and its implications for one of its ethnic minority groups, particularly in terms of education. This sector has been examined as education is a fundamental component for socio-economic development and upward social mobility. Malaysia, a classic modern day plural society, has its own complexity in terms of issues of ethnic minorities. The findings of this thesis indicate four main factors limiting the freedom of choice and access to tertiary level education for the Indian community. These factors are the country’s education policies, the financial situation of Indo-Malaysians, the attitude and awareness of the students, and the community’s values. The findings are significant as it is believed that the advancement of the Indian community in Malaysia is currently obstructed through lack of access to tertiary level education. Before this situation can be improved it needs to be understood.

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  • Developing and evaluating incremental evolution using high quality performance measures for genetic programming : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosphy in Computer Science at Massey University, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand

    Walker, Matthew Garry William

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is divided into two parts. The first part considers and develops some of the statistics used in genetic programming (GP) while the second uses those statistics to study and develop a form of incremental evolution and an early termination heuristic for GP. The first part looks in detail at success proportion, Koza's minimum computational effort, and a measure we rename "success effort". We describe and develop methods to produce confidence intervals for these measures as well as confidence intervals for the difference and ratio of these measures. The second part studies Jackson's fitness-based incremental evolution. If the number of fitness evaluations are considered (rather than the number of generations) then we find some potential benefit through reduction in the effort required to find a solution. We then automate the incremental evolution method and show a statistically significant improvement compared to GP with automatically defined functions (ADFs). The success effort measure is shown to have the critical advantage over Koza's measure as it has the ability to include a decreasing cost of failure. We capitalise on this advantage by demonstrating an early termination heuristic that again offers a statistically significant advantage.

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  • The binding of small volatile molecules by bovine [beta]-lactoglobulin : a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Chemistry at Massey University

    Hsu, Yu-Ting

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Bovine ß-lactoglobulin (ß-Lg) has been studied extensively but there is no clear identification of its biological function. Hydrophobic molecules have been observed binding into the hydrophobic calyx of ß-Lg. By comparison with other members of lipocalin family, it is probable that ß-Lg plays a role of transport of ligands, as ligands also bind into the central cavity of lipocalins. The structurally similar MUP is a pheromone-binding protein; therefore, it is possible that ß-Lg may also fulfil a similar role. This study has begun to test this hypothesis by investigating the interactions between bovine ß-Lg and several small volatile molecules (2-sec-4,5-dihydrothiazole, 3-methyl-2-butenal, 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol and phenylacetic acid). The interactions between the volatile molecules and ß-Lg were studied by both two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallographic methods. TOCSY spectra were recorded for ß-Lg and the complex between ß-Lg and the ligands. The observed chemical shifts in the HN-Ha region are sensitive to the proximity of ligands, and hence chemical shift changes on ligand binding provide information on possible binding sites. It appears that several amino acids with hydrophobic sidechains are affected by interaction with volatile molecules at pH 2.0. The X-ray crystallographic study at pH 8.5 showed that the potential ligand, 2-sec-4,5-dihydrothiazole, may have decomposed into a linear 2-methyl-butanol. The refined structure (R=0.281, Rfree=0.354 for reflections to 2.6 Å resolution) reveals that the potential ligand may bind to the central cavity in a manner similar to the binding of 12-bromodecanoic acid to ß-Lg.

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  • Non-protein-coding-RNA processing in the deep-branching protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of PhD in Molecular Genetics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Chen, Xiaowei

    Thesis
    Massey University

    [Abstract not supplied]

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  • Feature-based rapid object detection : from feature extraction to parallelisation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Computer Sciences at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

    Barczak, Andre Luis Chautard

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis studies rapid object detection, focusing on feature-based methods. Firstly, modifications of training and detection of the Viola-Jones method are made to improve performance and overcome some of the current limitations such as rotation, occlusion and articulation. New classifiers produced by training and by converting existing classifiers are tested in face detection and hand detection. Secondly, the nature of invariant features in terms of the computational complexity, discrimination power and invariance to rotation and scaling are discussed. A new feature extraction method called Concentric Discs Moment Invariants (CDMI) is developed based on moment invariants and summed-area tables. The dimensionality of this set of features can be increased by using additional concentric discs, rather than using higher order moments. The CDMI set has useful properties, such as speed, rotation invariance, scaling invariance, and rapid contrast stretching can be easily implemented. The results of experiments with face detection shows a clear improvement in accuracy and performance of the CDMI method compared to the standard moment invariants method. Both the CDMI and its variant, using central moments from concentric squares, are used to assess the strength of the method applied to hand-written digits recognition. Finally, the parallelisation of the detection algorithm is discussed. A new model for the specific case of the Viola-Jones method is proposed and tested experimentally. This model takes advantage of the structure of classifiers and of the multi-resolution approach associated with the detection method. The model shows that high speedups can be achieved by broadcasting frames and carrying out the computation of one or more cascades in each node.

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  • A LEEP forward : biodiversity futures for New Zealand : a thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Planning at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Calder, Keith Wallace

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Loss of indigenous biodiversity continues in New Zealand. Despite admirable goals in the NZBS 2000 to the contrary, efforts at improved biodiversity conservation have been insufficient to halt loss of significant amounts of indigenous forest and wildlife habitat. Increasing numbers of native species are moving towards critically endangered and extinction. Whatever we are doing in New Zealand, it is not effective enough. The aim of this study is to firstly identify factors contributing to the failure, “to halt the decline of indigenous biodiversity” in New Zealand and to then consider opportunities to overcome these barriers. In considering opportunities, this study then reviews the emerging discipline of landscape ecology as an answer to, at least, some of those factors and the recurring calls from New Zealand ecologists for a more integrated and holistic approach to biodiversity conservation. Recent advances in the planning framework and particularly provisions for biodiversity conservation in England are explored as a model of practical application of landscape ecological principles to land-use planning. From this review, the study proposes a new ‘LEEP’ model for strategic biodiversity conservation that produces a regional-scale spatial conservation map and accompanying policy and implementation guide. Together they provide an integrated and holistic approach to restoring or creating functional landscapes that also recognises and provides for human activities and development. Application of the LEEP model is demonstrated through a case study of the Wellington region. Benefits and potential uses of the map and policy outputs are canvassed. Interviews with leading New Zealand and international ecologists provide an assessment of the current status of landscape ecology and interviewees also act as an expert ‘test panel’ against which the Wellington maps and guides produced from the ‘LEEP’ model are assessed. Finally, suggestions are provided for development of the new model and future research needs towards fuller and more effective implementation of this approach to biodiversity conservation in the New Zealand context.

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  • Lives unremembered : the Holocaust and strategies of its representation : an exegesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Fine Arts at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Rajala, Tero Markus

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The Holocaust is a subject that seems to defy artistic representation by way of its sheer scale of tragedy and subsequent trauma. As I will demonstrate in this paper, it is hard to restore visibility – pictorial links between past and present realities – to crimes that have been deliberately submerged by its perpetrators. I will examine some of the common strategies used in representation of the victims of the Holocaust since the end of the Second World War, in the mediums of film and photography. As my main method of enquiry, I will examine three films from different eras, and of very different approaches in terms of their processing of the proposed original evidence, as examples to illustrate my arguments. In the second chapter Alain Resnais's documentary film Nuit et Brouillard (Night and Fog) is analyzed as a birthplace of the so-called iconography of the Holocaust. Chapter three examines workings of memory through the aesthetic form that was soon to follow; the role and testimony of the survivors is considered through Claude Lanzmann's Shoah. In the fourth chapter a new player is introduced: the second generation witness of postmemory, works of transmitted but unexperienced realities. In this chapter I will closer examine the workings of art in the game of reprocessing the evidence of the Holocaust, and through Dariusz Jablonski's film Fotoamator I aim to critique how the previously discussed approaches serve to further lock the Holocaust in an inaccessible canon. Moreover, the generalization implied – a drive toward universalization of the Holocaust as an idiom or even a metaphor for the dark sides of human history/character – derives from problems of representation; mainly that of anonymity in face of the proposed beauty of the spectacle, of tragedy and suffering in mass-media. A key problem is that any historical document, however we define one, is considered transparent and unmediated, whereas art is clearly something where a degree of mediation is necessarily recognized. In the face of this dichotomy it seems that all the collected "proof" of the Holocaust – witness accounts" photographs" films" material remains – achieves, is to stregthen the prevailing version of history.

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  • New Zealand's forgotten warriors : 3NZ division in the South Pacific in World War II : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in History at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Newell, Reginald Hedley

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines the origins, deployment, operations and demise of 3NZ Division. It argues that the forces that became the Division were sent to Fiji because of a perceived strategic threat, particularly from airpower, if the islands were seized by the Japanese. The Division was relieved in Fiji by the Americans but returned to the Pacific in 1943 because New Zealand wanted to earn a place at the peace table and the Americans lacked troops in the theatre. Whether the Division was primarily an offensive or garrison unit remained unclear throughout its existence and influenced its constitution. Major General Harold Barrowclough, its commander from 1942 to 1944, had somewhat different strengths from his fellow divisional commander Major General Bernard Freyberg, and operated in a very different environment, with amphibious operations at brigade level. Furthermore, his division operated in an area dominated by the United States Navy rather than the more familiar culture of the British Army. More generally, the relationship between the New Zealanders and the Americans in the South Pacific was complex, generally symbiotic but occasionally unfriendly and even lethal. The perception in New Zealand that service in the South Pacific was less onerous than service in the Mediterranean ignores the often unpleasant and even deadly conditions faced by the soldiers of 3NZ Division. The Division’s combat operations contributed significantly to the neutralisation of the Japanese stronghold of Rabaul. Except for a brief period in 1942, 3NZ Division took second place in New Zealand’s war effort to 2NZ Division. This reflected Wellington’s general inclination to favour Commonwealth over local defence, and, despite some wavering, New Zealand declined to follow Australia and focus its efforts in the Pacific. Lack of manpower to field two divisions resulted in 3NZ Division having only two brigades and growing demands from the Air Force, industry and agriculture ultimately led to its disbandment. Thereafter it faded from the public consciousness and its contribution disregarded. The men and women of 3NZ Division have undeservedly become New Zealand's forgotten warriors.

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  • Reproductive behaviour of Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae : a thesis presented in partial fulfi[l]ment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Plant Science (Entomology) at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    He, Xiong Zhao

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Aphidius ervi Haliday is a cosmopolitan parasitoid species of several major aphid pests on economically important crops. Prior to this research, little information was available on its reproductive behaviour. Emergence of A. ervi peaks during the first few hours of the photophase with males being protandrous. Females become sexually mature earlier than males and oviposit primarily in the photophase. Aphids parasitised in their early instars die before reproduction but those parasitised in later instars produce a limited number of progeny. Females prefer aphids of 3- to 5-d-old over the younger and older aphids for oviposition. Females ovipositing in 4- to 7-d-old aphids have more fitness gains in terms of progeny body size and egg load at emergence. Fertilised eggs are more likely deposited in large hosts and unfertilised eggs in small ones. Large individuals have greater longevity, large males father more progeny, and large females have higher fecundity, parasitism and greater ability in host searching. However, with increasing body size females gain more than males in longevity and fecundity but males gain more than females in the number of female progeny. Males can inseminate up to nine females and they carry about 82% effective sperm at emergence and replenish about 18% sperm during their adult life. Females adjust the oviposition and sex allocation strategies in response to increasing host density with higher number of aphids parasitised at higher host densities and lower proportion of female progeny produced at lower host densities. Males play an active role in mating behaviour. Males having mating experience, and being large or younger, respond to females more quickly and perform better courtships resulting in higher mating success. Males prefer larger and younger females for mating probably because the latter have greater reproductive potential. Males optimize the use of their sperm based on the availability of their sperm and the reproductive status (age) of females. The switchingoff of female receptivity of male mating attempt after the mating is a gradual process. Some females accept the second males within 1 minute since the termination of the first mating. The shorter mating period in the second mating suggests that females remate probably due to the gradual process of switching-off of female receptivity rather than the insufficient sperm transformation during the first mating. Males prolong their mating duration in male-biased operational sex ratio to reduce the probability of female remating.

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  • Non-invasive measurement of stress and pain in cattle using infrared thermography : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Stewart, Mairi

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of this thesis was to validate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively measure stress and/or pain in cattle. The main approach was to measure changes in heat emitted from superficial capillaries around the eye (referred to as eye temperature) in response to various aversive husbandry procedures used routinely on farms. In addition, various exogenous challenges were given to investigate the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in regulating the eye temperature response. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that an increase in eye temperature was due to HPA activity in cattle. A rapid drop in eye temperature occurred immediately after disbudding, an electric prod, startling and shouting. It is suggested that this was caused by the redirection of blood from the capillary beds via sympathetically-mediated vasoconstriction. Therefore, the role of the ANS was tested by measuring eye temperature, heart rate variability (HRV) and plasma catecholamine responses simultaneously. Somatic pain from disbudding and initial responses to surgical castration included a synchronised drop in eye temperature, increases in catecholamines and changes in HRV indicative of increased sympathetic activity. The role of the sympathetic nervous system was further confirmed by a drop in eye temperature that occurred following an epinephrine challenge. In contrast, deeper visceral pain from castration caused a more marked increase in eye temperature and changes in HRV indicative of increased parasympathetic tone. The underlying mechanism driving the increase in eye temperature is unknown; however, it is possible that it may be caused by vasodilation due to increased parasympathetic activity. These differences in ANS responses to different procedures, detected by IRT and HRV, may be due to the nature of the pain and the relative fear associated with the procedure. In summary, this research showed that during stress or pain, the heat emitted from superficial capillaries around the eye changes as blood flow is regulated under ANS control and these changes can be quantified using IRT. A combination of IRT and HRV is a non-invasive way to measure ANS activity and assess acute welfare impacts of husbandry practices in cattle. Further research using pharmacological inhibition and stimulation of the ANS activity would be beneficial to fully understand the underlying regulatory mechanisms of the eye temperature and HRV responses in cattle and other species during stress and/or pain. The full capability of IRT and HRV for detection of disease and emotional states and the effects of different intensities of pain, individual traits and previous experience also deserve attention.

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