91,714 results

  • Science, society, and water resources in New Zealand: Recognizing and overcoming a societal impasse

    Weber, E.; Memon, Pyar A.; Painter, B.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The Canterbury Regional Council, which manages 70% of New Zealand's irrigated land, has struggled to control the burgeoning demand for water resources as more land is converted to highly profitable, water-intensive dairy farms relying on groundwater. At the centre of Canterbury's struggle over water resources and their effective management are two competing groundwater science models. The different approaches and their implications for water management have led to a situation commonly described as a ‘science impasse’, with scientists, policymakers, and stakeholders increasingly focused on ‘how to break the gridlock over science’, particularly in one of the region's major watersheds, the Selwyn. In keeping with the traditional logical positivist, linear approach to science, the expectation is that if the scientists can get the science right, then the ultimate goal of water sustainability will be made more likely, since the ‘facts’ will guide policymakers towards proper decisions. Yet, our research found that while stakeholders do focus tightly on the dominant role of science and scientists when discussing solutions to the impasse, the underlying reality is a societal impasse grounded in the overarching adversarial setting, the logic of the wicked problem set, and the ultimate goal of sustainability. Seeing the ‘impasse problem’ from this new perspective means that getting only the physical science right addresses the symptoms, not the underlying causes of the impasse. This article develops why the traditional instrumental, linear approach to science is unlikely to work in this case, and why an alternative approach to science—civic science—offers promise as a way forward. A final section turns to the kind of steps most likely required for transition of the Selwyn watershed's ‘societal impasse’ dynamic from an adversarial setting to an effective collaborative governance arrangement conducive to the civic science enterprise.

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  • Ecosystem services provided by native New Zealand plants in vineyards

    Tompkins, Jean-Marie

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This thesis investigates the value of native New Zealand plants within the agricultural landscape of the Waipara District, Canterbury Province, New Zealand with regards to their provision of ecosystem services (ES). ES have undergone extensive study with the conclusion that they are vital to maintain and improve the productivity of agricultural systems. Today, as concerns about the continued loss of biodiversity caused by agriculture mount, there is an urgent need to understand further the value of native plants. An appreciation of the ES which native plants provide would give cause for their conservation and restoration; as these services may improve agricultural sustainability. This study assessed several ES that native plants potentially provide. These included conservation biological control (CBC), marketing opportunities, biodiversity conservation, soil health, greenhouse gas sequestration (GHG) and weed suppression. Of these, the first two received greatest attention in this thesis. While the research predominantly focussed on the value native plants may have within vineyards, it also considered agricultural systems in general. Native plant species were assessed in the laboratory to determine their relative ability to enhance the fitness of pest and agriculturally beneficial invertebrates; helping to assess the potential for these species to enhance CBC. A field trial investigated the ability of different native plant species to provide ES when deployed beneath grapevines. Assessments for survival, growth, flowering characteristics and invertebrate visitation, weed suppression, resident arthropod diversity, soil parameters and agronomic practicalities were undertaken to determine which plant species may be recommended to wine growers for their ES provision. Remnants of native vegetation within the Waipara valley of North Canterbury were also assessed for their provision of resources to sustain arthropods which may in turn contribute ES within the agricultural landscape. The potential for native plants in viticultural landscapes to provide marketing opportunities was evaluated by a survey of winery visitors, while another survey of wine growers clarified the factors influencing their adoption of practices incorporating native plants. Results identified several native plant species which may be established to provide particular ecosystem services, either around arable crop borders or within vineyards. For CBC enhancement around crop borders, the shrub Muehlenbeckia astonii Petrie (Polygonaceae) may improve the management of the brassica (Brassica spp.) pest Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) as the floral resources of this plant significantly enhanced the fitness of this pest’s natural enemy. Other plant species which significantly enhanced the fitness of natural enemies included Leptospermum scoparium Cockayne (Myrtaceae), Kunzea ericoides A.Rich, Joy Thomps. (Myrtaceae) and Hebe salicifolia G.Forst., Pennell (Plantaginaceae). Of those plant species deployed beneath grapevines Muehlenbeckia axillaris Hook.f., Endl. (Polygonaceae), Leptinella dioica Hook.f. (Asteraceae) and Acaena inermis Hook.f. (Rosaceae) were identified as the most suitable plants for potential CBC enhancement in vineyards. M. axillaris appeared to be the most suitable species with regards to selective floral resource provisioning for leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) pest management, while L. dioica may be suitable for enhancing the fitness of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a natural enemy of another vineyard pest: mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti)). The floral resources of matagouri (Discaria toumatou Raoul), the dominant native plant species within remnant shrubland of the Waipara valley, enhanced the fitness of Diadegma semiclausum Hellén (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), an important biocontrol agent of brassica pests. Field observations of flowering matagouri suggested that remnants of this habitat support populations of a wide array of arthropod biocontrol agents and pollinators. Although further work is necessary, the findings support conservation of native remnants in agricultural landscapes, on the basis that they are enhancing the ecosystem services of pest control and crop pollination. Assessment of arthropod diversity within the vineyard found diversity was positively affected by native plant establishment. For certain plant species, this increased diversity was maintained during the winter. This may result in cumulative enhancement of biodiversity within the vineyard over time as beneficial invertebrates are retained within the system, rather than arriving seasonally from refuges surrounding the crop. While an increase in diversity may bring with it improved ES, this will rely on the identity of the species and their function. Therefore while this study has found that native plants do indeed preserve biodiversity, the implications of this for the provision of other ES are yet to be resolved. Native plants deployed within the vineyard varied in their effect on tested soil parameters, which included microbial populations and activity, soil moisture, total organic carbon and GHG sequestration. Indirect assessments of microbial activity revealed that it was heightened in soil directly beneath the native plant L. dioica while little evidence was found for the native plants affecting soil moisture levels. No significant effects of the plants on vineyard soil total organic carbon, microbial populations or GHG sequestration were observed. These findings are likely to have been due to the short time over which plants had been established. Weed management was a major concern of vineyard operators in Waipara. This study found that native plant species L. dioica and A. inermis were capable of suppressing weeds in a Waipara vineyard. These species may provide vineyard managers with an alternative form of weed control, capable of reducing the currently prevalent mechanical and chemical methods. Findings suggest wine growers can create marketing opportunities by establishing native plants within their properties. Native plants deployed within biodiversity trails at winery cellar doors provided wine consumers with an experience which may strengthen their brand loyalty to a winery. Additionally, establishing native plants within a regional project which aims to improve the sustainability of agricultural production may also provide marketing opportunities. Waipara winegrowers participating within ‘Greening Waipara’ (http://bioprotection.org.nz/greening-waipara) mostly agreed that this project provided point of difference marketing opportunities and generated greater regional brand recognition. For practices incorporating native plants to be adopted by growers, the practice must meet a demand, be financially viable and logistically feasible. Projects such as Greening Waipara provide a model by which native plants may be established. This project, an example of agro-ecological extension, increased the awareness of ES that native plants may provide; and consequently facilitated grower adoption of practices utilizing these plants. These findings have implications for conservation on private land, sustainable agriculture and the wine industry. Although further research is needed to more fully understand the ES provided by native plants in agricultural landscapes, especially in an economic sense, this study offers strong evidence that native plants may indeed provide ES which contribute towards greater agricultural sustainability. In doing so, they provide tangible incentives for their conservation and restoration on farmland.

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  • The Effect of the timing of leaf removal on berry ripening, flavour and aroma compounds in Pinot Noir wine.

    Kemp, Belinda

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    In the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 growing seasons mechanical leaf removal was performed on Pinot noir grapevines at different stages of berry development. Treatments consisted of: no leaf removal (NLR) (control), leaf removal seven days after flowering (LR7), leaf removal thirty days after flowering (LR30) and leaf removal at veraison (LRV). Partial cane removal was performed on all treatment vines in 2008-2009 to reduce crop load variability. The result was a decrease in leaf layer number and interior clusters while an increase in exterior clusters and canopy gaps occurred compared to 2007-2008. In 2008, LR7 resulted in vegetative re-growth. In 2008-2009 all treatments had lower yields per vine compared to 2007-2008 and cluster weight decreased in all treatments in 2008-2009. No significant difference was observed in °Brix, titratable acidity (TA g/L) or pH at maturity, but a significant difference in °Brix between years is reported. Following the investigation into the reliability and variability of two tannin precipitation assays, the methylcellulose (MCP) assay was performed to determine tannin concentration in the microvinification wines produced from each treatment. Berries from each treatment at harvest were analysed for total tannin concentrations and wines were analysed throughout winemaking including to skins and seeds post fermentation. Tannin concentration in berries at harvest showed no statistical difference between treatments in either year but a statistically significant difference was observed during winemaking and in the bottled wine in both years. LR7 had the highest tannin concentration in the bottled wine in 2007-2008 but LR30 had the highest concentration in 2008-2009 whilst NLR had the lowest in both years. Acid catalysis in the presence of phloroglucinol using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) showed no statistical difference in the mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) between treatment wines but there was a significant statistical difference between years. The 2009 wines had increased tannin concentrations compared to 2008 and a decrease in mDP of all wines in 2009 was found. Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis of flavan-3-ols showed the highest concentration in LR7 wines and a shift from 2,3-cis to 2,3-trans was observed with increased leaf removal. An aroma method for the identification and quantification of specific “fruity” and “green” volatile aroma compounds was developed using Headspace-Solid Phase Microextraction coupled with Gas-Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry Stable Isotope Dilution Analysis (HS-SPME-GC-MS-SIDA). An increase in both “green” and “fruity” volatile aroma compound concentrations in the 2009 wines occurred compared to 2008. However, “fruity” aromas were above their odour threshold in both years but “green” compounds were below. Sensory analysis consisted of a modified version of free choice profiling (FCP) carried out by a panel of Waipara winemakers. Sensory analysis revealed that NLR wines in 2008 were described as “vegetal’ and leaf removal treatments resulted in wines with a higher intensity of “dark fruit aroma and palate” than wines from non-defoliated vines. Results suggest that the timing of mechanical leaf removal increases tannin concentration but has no influence on the mean degree of polymerisation (mDP). Increased severity of defoliation and/or higher alcohol levels in the 2008-2009 season were responsible for the statistically significant differences in total tannin concentration compared to the previous year.

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  • A Hierarchical model of the Chinese mobile communications market: an empirical analysis

    Shu, Xin

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    As one of the most important service markets in China, the Chinese mobile communications market has been neglected by most prior studies (Lai et al., 2007). Despite a few recent studies, several researchers suggest that developing a much deeper insight into the marketing constructs such as service quality, customer perceived value, corporate image, and customer loyalty is of vital importance to the Chinese mobile communications market (Lai et al., 2009; Lai et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2004). This study presents a comprehensive evaluation of customers’ perceptions of service quality in the Chinese mobile communications market through developing and estimating a hierarchical and multidimensional model. The conceptualisation and the measurement of customers’ perceptions of service quality have given rise to much controversy in the domain of the service marketing literature. However, the results of this study support the use of a hierarchical and multidimensional approach for conceptualising and measuring customers’ perceptions of service quality, similar to the models developed by Brady and Cronin (2001), and Dabholkar et al. (1996). In response to the call for more investigations into the complex relationships between important service marketing constructs (Adyin and Ozer, 2005; Wang et al., 2004; Caruana, Money, and Berthon, 2000; Nguyen and LeBlanc, 1998; Cronin and Taylor, 1992), this study examines the relationships between Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction, Customer Perceived Value, Corporate Image, Perceived Switching Costs, and Customer Loyalty in the Chinese mobile communications market. The findings indicate that Service Quality is an important determinant of Customer Perceived Value, Customer Satisfaction, Corporate Image, and Perceived Switching Costs. Customer Perceived Value is an antecedent of Customer Satisfaction. Corporate Image, Customer Satisfaction, and Perceived Switching Costs are three key drivers of Customer Loyalty.

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  • Investigating interactive visualisation in a Cloud computing environment

    Abdullah, Johari

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Scientists working with large datasets without a desktop with advanced capacity may not be able to visualise the simulation output efficiently. This is because visualisation of large datasets is computationally intensive in terms of filtering, mapping, and rendering the datasets. The time taken to visualise an image from a large dataset from an underpowered desktop computer may be prolonged, which would not be an interactive experience for the scientists. The desktop can manage a small dataset efficiently compared to client/server mode; however, larger datasets require more memory and number of processors to visualise. This project investigates if interactive visualisation is feasible in a Cloud computing environment. A virtual machine (VM) was created which was then deployed in a Cloud environment at The University of Auckland to visualise large datasets. Results showed that ParaView server VM could be deployed in a Cloud environment which offers more memory and processors for the VM to be utilised. Thus, the interactive visualisation of large datasets is feasible in a Cloud computing environment. Results from the performance tests showed larger datasets require more memory and numbers of processes to perform the visualisation. However, the increases in number of processes and memory size would not necessarily improve the performance, which depend on the type and size of datasets and the ParaView operations such as filtering, mapping, and rendering. Future work on even larger datasets is warranted.

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  • The Management of the outlying islands of New Zealand with special reference to the Antipodes Islands

    Stewart, Chris J.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    My interest in the outlying islands of New Zealand began with a visit to the Bounties and Antipodes Islands as part of the B.A.A.S. Expedition 1978 . This expedition was organised by the Wildlife Service of the Department of Internal Affairs, and was to cover visits to the Bounty Islands, the Antipodes Islands, the Auckland Islands, and the Snares Islands. The plan included an extended visit to the Antipodes Islands during which time a hut was to be built and the old castaways depot was to be repaired. For this reason, principally, two members of the Lands and Survey Department, John Newton Senior Ranger (Training and Special Projects) and myself, were asked to join the expedition. Our first port of call after leaving Christchurch was at the Bounty Islands where we were to leave three members of the Expedition. While helping with the unloading of gear and the establishment of a camp on the islands I was lucky enough to get ashore for a short period. The Bounty Islands are truly remarkable and unique with massive chunks of rock sticking out of the sea, covered by birds and seals, with no vegetation whatsoever. An inhospitable place at the best of times but islands of raw beauty and unique significance in the conservation of nature. From the Bounty Islands we travelled to the Antipodes Islands. The sea journeys aboard H.M.N.Z.S. Waikato were something in themselves; a chance to become more aware of the power of the sea, its importance as a food storage and its importance in the conservation of the earth's natural system. Also, the separation of the islands becomes more apparent and the uniqueness of the islands because of this separation becomes more comprehensible. Approaching the Antipodes Islands we were amazed by their difference from the Bounty Islands. The Antipodes Islands rose from the sea in sheer cliffs then levelled out to flat plateaux covered with vegetation and then another rise to more plateaux. A dense mist covered the islands, but this soon rose to give a clear but cold day as we moved by helicopter and boat onto the main island. This dissertation is based predominantly on our stay on the Antipodes Islands but looks generally at the importance of all the outlying islands of New Zealand and attempts to give these islands a place in the nature conservation system of our world.

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  • Historical cemeteries and passive recreation

    Morritt, Nigel

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    A study of historical cemeteries throughout New Zealand, their value and significance to our culture and means of future restoration, renovation and maintenance.

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  • The Impact of capital intensive farming in Thailand: a computable general equilibrium approach

    Pue On, A.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Although the structure of Thai economy has been transforming from an agricultural economy to an industrialized country (measured by the share of agriculture to GDP), in 2008 nearly 40 % of overall employment was still engaged in the agricultural sector. In addition, most of the poor (57%) were farm operators and farm workers. Since 1960, the outflow of workers from the agricultural sector to non-agricultural sectors has been increasing. A shortage of agricultural labour has resulted in increased use of farm machinery, a trend that seems to be continuing. Hence, Thai agriculture is expected to become more capital-intensive farming than labour-intensive farming. The aim of this study is to explore whether efforts to encourage producers to use agricultural machinery and equipment will significantly improve agricultural productivity, income distribution amongst social groups and macroeconomic performance in Thailand. A 2000 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) of Thailand was constructed as a data set, and then a 20 production-sector Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model was developed for the Thai economy. The CGE model is employed to simulate the impact of capital-intensive farming on the Thai economy under two different forces: technological change and free trade. Four simulations were conducted. Simulation 1 increased the in share parameter capital in the agricultural sector by 5%. Simulation 2 is a 5% increase in agricultural capital stock. A removal in import tariffs for agricultural machinery sector forms the basis for Simulation 3. The last simulation (Simulation 4) is the combination of the above three simulations. The results for each simulation are divided into five effects: input, output, price, income and macroeconomic effects. The results of the first two simulations were opposite in terms of the five effects. Simulation 2 accelerated the capital intensification of all agricultural sectors, whereas Simulation 1 led to more capital intensity in some agricultural sectors. The effects of the input reallocation had a simultaneous impact on output in every sector. Simulation 1 led to a fall of almost all outputs in the agricultural sector, whereas there was an increase in agricultural output in Simulation 2. Overall, almost all prices in Simulation 1 increased whereas Simulation 2 resulted in a decrease in agricultural prices but an increase in non-agricultural prices. In terms of domestic income effects, as a result of the decline of the average price of factors in Simulation 1, there was a decrease in factor incomes belonging to households and enterprises. Consequently, government revenue decreased by 0.7%. In contrast, Simulation 2 resulted in an increase in all incomes above. Finally, regarding macroeconomic variables, Simulation 1 had a negative impact on private consumption, government consumption, investment, exports and imports, resulting in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) decreasing by 0.8%. On the other hand, Simulation 2 had a positive impact on those same variables, affecting a 0.4% rise of GDP. The effects of Simulation 3 were very small in everything compared with the first two simulations. The effect of Simulation 4 was mostly dominated by Simulations 1 and 2; the negative results of Simulation 1 were compensated by the positive effects of Simulation 2.

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  • Discursive design in policy analysis : epistemology, hermeneutics, and communicative rationality in an applied case study

    Kerr, Simon

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Abstract of a thesis examining a role for discursive design within public policy analysis. There is growing concern regarding the inability of contemporary societies to adequately deal with social and environmental problems. This thesis identifies the epistemological assumptions of much contemporary policy analysis as a significant component of this problem solving debility. Specifically, the assumptions of objectivism, positivist methodologies and instrumental rationalities are charged with having flawed epistemologies, resulting in partial and parochial knowledge. Feminist standpoint theory, Gadamerian hermeneutics and Habermas's theory of communicative rationality are used to produce an epistemology more appropriate for policy analysis. Knowledge is conceptualised as socially situated, and a case for strong objectivity is argued. This results in increased inclusion of marginalized voices into policy processes. Habermas's 'ideal speech situation' is discussed, and identification and mitigation of systemic communicative distortion in policy processes is proposed as a critical requirement for producing improved policy relevant knowledge. Discursive design is examined and proposed as a practical link between epistemology and real world policy processes. Finally, four criteria are developed for identifying locations of communicative distortion in policy processes. A case study is carried out on the Christchurch Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Strategy. Using both structural and phenomenological analyses, the case study addresses three questions: To what extent does this particular policy process fulfil the requirements of the four criteria?; How useful are these criteria in identifying communicative distortion in this policy process?; and What can be learnt about discursive design from this case study? The analysis reveals there was significant communicative distortion produced by some aspects of context and the structure of the process. Critical issues were exclusion or potential exclusion of marginalised or unidentified stakeholders, and the difficulty in producing communicatively rational policy when discursive task groups do not have decision making authority. The discursive deliberation of task group members within the process was relatively free from communicative distortion. Reasons for these conclusions are examined and critical reflections on discursive design takes place.

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  • Sustainable water management : an approach based on the Gaia hypothesis and the traditional Maori worldview

    Pyle Eric

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This thesis seeks to develop an approach to water resource management that is compatible with the concept of sustainability. Water resource management implies management of the whole ecosystem, including people. The current approach to management tends to be based on western scientific rationality. This 'rationalistic' approach is found to be incompatible with the sustainability concept, at both conceptual and practical levels. New approaches to management are required. Western (reductionist) science represents a particular view of the world. Other views are possible and may be more relevant to the sustainability concept. The Gaia hypothesis, for which there is now widespread scientific acceptance, and the traditional Maori worldview are chosen to provide a new approach to understanding how nature functions and a new approach to management. The Gaia hypothesis implies that ecosystems, integral parts of The Biosphere, can be viewed as 'open-systems'. The concepts developed in non-linear thermodynamics to explain how open-systems function are used to provide insight into how ecosystems function. These insights lead to the belief that nature is an unfolding, learning, creative process. Communities must 'learn' as ecosystems 'learn'. A Gaia-based approach to management involves community at a 'grass-roots' level in the decision-making process. Approaches to community-based management currently being developed in the Great Lakes are used as a model for management in New Zealand. The traditional Maori approach to management evolved from a need to develop sustainable management practices, because earlier Maori management approaches had resulted in resource depletion. The Maori approach is investigated for its sustainability, and is found to have resulted in sustainability at both a practical and conceptual level. The Gaia-based and traditional Maori approach are similar at the conceptual level, but their practical application varies as a consequence of different cultural and historical factors. Obstacles to implementing a joint Maori and Gaia-based approach arise, but are mainly a consequence of attempting to initiate 'new' style of management. Researchers in many parts of the world are discovering methods for overcoming the obstacles that are raised. The joint or 'unified' approach is used to develop sustainable management strategies for Lake Forsyth in Canterbury. The approach is found to provide a way of simultaneously considering many issues in the same framework and the approach has many advantages over the current management approach. However, it is not possible to say whether the approach will definitely work in the Lake Forsyth ecosystem; this can only be determined in reality, by trying it.

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  • Impacts of livestock grazing on soil physical quality and phosphorus and suspended sediment losses in surface runoff

    Curran Cournane, Fiona

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Livestock grazing is considered a major contributor in the loss of phosphorus (P) and suspended sediment (SS) from soil in surface runoff, which in turn can have adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Recent and ongoing increases in the intensity of pastoral farming in New Zealand represent an enhanced risk of P and SS loss. The objective of this research was to assess and quantify the impacts of livestock grazing on soil physical quality (measured by macroporosity, soil bulk density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity Ksat) and associated losses of P and SS in surface runoff. The hypothesis was that livestock grazing would have detrimental impacts of soil physical quality which would increase P and SS loss. A mechanical cattle hoof and rainfall simulator were used to examine the influence of cattle treading and soil type on short-term P and SS losses. Field experiments were also carried out to determine if stock type (sheep, beef cattle and deer) influenced P and SS losses in runoff and the last experiment examined the potential to mitigate losses in runoff via sub-soiling in cattle-grazed pasture. Results revealed that soil type, soil moisture, and land management practices have a major influence on soil physical quality and losses of P and SS in runoff under livestock grazing. Losses of P and SS in runoff were greater from the more compacted Pallic and Recent Gley soils with mean macroporosity values of 12 and 17% v/v, respectively, compared with Brown (23% v/v) and Melanic (37% v/v) soils. Data from field trials at Invermay and Windsor showed that soil physical quality differed between the Brown-Pallic soil at Invermay and the Pallic soil at Windsor. For example, mean macroporosities for cattle grazed plots were 16 and 8% v/v, respectively. At Invermay, significant relationships were found between loads and concentrations of P and SS with changes in macroporosity and Ksat; an increase in compaction increased surface runoff losses. These findings are comparable to results obtained from the rainfall simulation studies with greater P and SS losses occurring from the heavier compacted Pallic and Recent Gley soils than the better-structured Melanic and Brown soils. Soil moisture had a major influence on P fractions lost and runoff processes. Increasing soil moisture from 10% to 90% available water holding capacity increased particulate P concentration from 0.028 mg/L to 0.161 mg/L, while SS concentrations increased from 0.009 g/L to 0.169 g/L. These changes were mainly attributed to deeper hoof penetration and soil disturbance with increased soil moisture. On the other hand, dissolved reactive P concentrations decreased with increased soil moisture from 0.423 mg/L to 0.127 mg/L, respectively, which was mainly attributed to a combination of P release from soil microbial biomass and lack of dilution. Results from the field study carried out at Invermay demonstrated how soil moisture can influence seasonal P dynamics and runoff processes. Winter runoff occurred as a consequence of saturation-excess conditions that accounted for most P and SS loss (mean 0.015 kg TP/ha and 17.61 kg SS/ha). In summer, infiltration-excess runoff dominated and although loads (mean 0.007 kg TP/ha and 1.23 kg SS/ha) were not as great as those occurring in winter, concentrations were greater (summer mean 1.585 mg TP/L versus winter mean 0.015 mg TP/L). The enrichment of P concentrations in summer could pose a significant algal growth risk to surface water quality due to increased light and warmth. Management practices were confirmed as having a major influence on soil physical quality and losses of P and SS in runoff. Results from the rainfall simulator study showed that cattle dung was the main source of TP and SS in runoff (0.511 mg/L and 0.092 g/L, respectively). Field results revealed that P and SS losses in runoff decreased with time since grazing. Treading by cattle had greater negative impacts on all soil physical properties (macroporosity, soil bulk density and Ksat) than sheep or deer treading. For example, mean macroporosity for cattle grazed plots was 16% v/v followed by 22 and 23% v/v for deer and sheep grazed plots, respectively. However, stock type did not affect P and SS losses in runoff. To mitigate runoff losses of P and SS from a Pallic soil at Windsor, the site was sub-soiled (aerated) to 20 cm soil depth. Results revealed an increase in dissolved reactive P (2.24 kg P/ha/yr) for aerated soil compared with non-aerated (control) soil (1.20 kg P/ha/yr), which was attributed to mechanical soil disturbance causing the desorption of P from soil during the last storm event, which had a return period of 40 years. Six months after soil aeration soil physical quality was similar between aerated and control treatments. The collective findings of this research demonstrated how livestock grazing negatively impact soil physical quality and P and SS losses in runoff. It was clear that the best management practice to effectively decrease these losses is to restrict or avoid grazing when soil moisture has reached field capacity, particularly for vulnerable soil types, regardless of stock type.

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  • Does denial drive distrust? --an analysis of responses to product-harm crises in New Zealand

    Shang, Zhou

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Product-harm crises are well-publicized events wherein products are found to be defective or even dangerous. These crises can strike any company at any time, regardless of company size, where in the world they operate, or even how careful the company is in trying to manage risk. Therefore, it is important for organizations to understand how to withstand such crises. Effective crisis management can control negative publicity and protect the company’s image. The main aim of this study is to investigate whether and how different response strategies work on the recovery of consumers’ brand trust after a product harm crisis. More precisely, the central goal of the study is to test how a response of initially denying responsibility in a crisis affects how effective other strategies (such as recalls) are in aiding organizational success in handling a product-harm crisis. A mailed questionnaire was designed to test consumers’ response to different crisis management strategies. Results indicate that, after the product-harm crisis happens, troubled companies should avoid denying their responsibility for the incident. When the denial strategy is adopted as the troubled company’s first reaction, the effect of other strategies (involuntary recall, voluntary recall and super effort) would likely be sharply devalued.

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  • Christchurch Central City Revitalisation Plan: accommodating 30,000 residents into Christchurch's four avenues

    Anderson Susan

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Over the past few years Christchurch’s Central City has fallen into a decaying state. Many key retailers, commercial, industry and residential dwellers have moved to the outer suburbs. Creating multiple sub-centres and leaving Christchurch with a broken heart. The Christchurch City Council is committed to revitalising the Central City in order to create a world class city with a vibrant heart (Christchurch City Council, 2006). One of the key goals of the Central City revitalisation is to increase the residential population to 30,000 by 2026. This dissertation takes a critical look at this goal and investigates whether this goal is achievable and if so, what the limitations or tradeoffs that need to be made to achieve it and demonstrates what the city may look like. The method of research through design has been used to investigate this research question and to test the 30,000 residents’ goal. This has been done though modelling, density testing and establishing three landscape focused scenarios to test this goal within the current Central City infrastructure. Through testing the current and predicted densities of the Central City, it is apparent that the current density of the Central City is exceptionally low by international standards. It has also been established that the current zonings and development patterns are not suitable to encourage development and the residential population increase like that the City Council is aiming for. The target goal of 30,000 is achievable. The challenge is, how this residential development is is going to be implemented, in order to create a central city that is an appealing and desirable place to visit and live. As well as keeping the current character and creating an identity that is unique to Christchurch. This dissertation is not intended to be a final solution to the Central City revitalisation but more a stepping stone in the process of regenerating and establishing a vibrant city centre. The creation of a successful city centre is not solely through the introduction of more residential population but through may parallel projects and initiatives working towards the same goal.

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  • Financial reporting on corporate real estate: a study of the annual reports of non-investment companies listed on the New Zealand Stock Exchange (NZSE)

    Simpson, Jane H.; McDonagh, John

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Corporate Real Estate (CRE) is a significant asset, which has been shown to add value to businesses if it is efficiently and effectively managed. Globalisation of capital markets, advancements in technology and the current economic condition have again increased the awareness of the importance of CRE’s contribution. In order to be successful businesses need CRE to create and maintain their competitive edge in the marketplace. Advancement in terms of Corporate Real Estate Asset Management (CREAM) and the positive attitude shift of executives towards corporate real estate (CRE) have been made possible through research into the contribution CRE makes to a business’s bottom line. The objective of this study is to describe the financial reporting practices of companies (excluding investment companies) listed on the New Zealand Stock Exchange (NZSE) in order to reveal the current attitudes of management towards CRE. The results showed that information chaos exists behind the façade of the Balance Sheet, revealing that management have a surface level attitude and lack a real focus towards CRE assets. In New Zealand and overseas there is minimal literature that this study could build upon. The methodology involved an exploratory study of the 2008 annual reports; the results formed a snap shot of the current reporting practices of CRE and revealed the current attitudes of management in entities towards CRE.

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  • Fatty acid, tocopherol and phytosterol composition of cucurbit seeds grown in Marlborough, New Zealand.

    Vanhanen, Leo P.; Savage, Geoffrey P.; Dutta, P.; Vile, G.

    Conference Contribution - Unpublished
    Lincoln University

    Cucurbits are a group of plants that can grow well with irrigation in hot dry conditions. In New Zealand cucurbits are grown mostly for their edible flesh, however in other countries they are prized for their tasty oil containing seeds. Edible seeds harvested from cucurbits have a large range of uses, from either being consumed directly or as a filler in soups. The extracted seed oil can be used as a cooking or salad oil or as a condiment in foods. Recent research has shown that the composition of the oil extracted from cucurbit seeds contains a wide range of nutrients and fatty acids. It has been reported that the seed oil contains high but variable phytosterol and antioxident contents. It is possible that the nutritional content of these interesting seed oils is affected by cultivar type and its interaction with environmental effects. It is also possible that the post harvesting processing of the seeds and the oils may affect the nutrient composition.

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  • An evolution of waterfront development in Malaysia

    Md Yassin, Azlina B.; Eves, Alfred C.; McDonagh, John

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Rivers have long been recognized as one of humanity’s most important natural resources. They are one of the most important of all the natural resources necessary to ensure human health and civilization. A close association between cities and water is inherent over the history of civilization and in fact, many urban cities in Malaysia are located close to river areas. The last two decades have shown Malaysia has shifted development strategy from an agricultural base to industrialization, and manufacturing industries have now become the main component of the economy for the country. This transformation since the 18th century has clearly shown that rapid urbanization, industrial and intensive agricultural activities, as well as wide-spread land development, have contributed to extensive changing of river functions for the economy, national development and the environment. In particular, river roles have become less significant for human life and river functions limited to transportation purposes only. Viewed historically, waterfront development in Malaysia has undergone cycles of change over the decades and the latest in this pattern is to more public purposes, such as recreational and mixed used development. By using data from interviewing various groups of respondent, this paper aims to identify the transition in waterfront development in Malaysia from historic times to the modern era and is a significance background contribution to research that is currently on going.

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  • Ranking NZ river values: application of the River Values Assessment System (RiVAS)

    Baker, M.-A.; Hughey, Kenneth F. D.

    Conference item
    Lincoln University

    Many attempts over several decades have been made to develop priority lists of important rivers for different values (e.g., angling, kayaking, irrigation, native birds) in New Zealand. Apart from one or two of these most have lacked clear methods, have been data poor, have been ad hoc, and perhaps worst of all, have not been standardised to provide a method that could be applied to all values. The River Values Assessment System (RiVAS) is a multi criteria analysis based tool that enables any set of rivers to be prioritised for any specified value.

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  • The eigenstructure representation of groundwater dynamics, as a precursor for aquifer management

    Bidwell, Vincent

    Conference item
    Lincoln University

    Increasing abstraction of groundwater for irrigated agriculture on the Central Canterbury Plains of New Zealand has environmental effects on surface waters connected to the aquifers. There is a requirement by the regulatory authorities for design of robust rules, acceptable to the agricultural industry, for management of the groundwater resource. The aquifers constitute a 2300 km2 distributed system of stored water that responds dynamically to climatically-driven recharge and pumped abstraction. This system can be mathematically described by the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the groundwater flow equation. The equivalent continuous-time, discrete-space numerical groundwater models can also be represented in modal (eigenstructure) state-space format. This format forms the basis for design of system control. A simplification for practical control design is achieved by application of analytical solutions for the eigenstructure of groundwater dynamics for simple aquifers. These solutions enable spreadsheet-based computation and presentation of control options for public debate.

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  • Introducing Wagner rubber wheeled chip dozers: a comparative analysis of wood chip damage utilising a Wagner rubber wheeled chip dozer versus a tracked machine

    Jenkins, Shayne M.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The research undertaken met the expectations of the author by demonstrating that use of tracked machines increased the damage of wood chip quality distribution specification. It was clearly evident through field trials with both the Wagner CHD 24S and the CAT D8R that the rubber wheeled machine (Wagner) has less impact on wood chip damage than a tracked dozer. The key findings are as follows: The average difference between a wheel dozer and tracked machine was a 1.75% increase in defects using a tracked machine There is less than a 1% chance of being no difference between wheeled and tracked machines. The data concluded that it was therefore highly likely to be some machine damage from tracked machines The over thick wood chips decreased with the wheeled machine, this is an unexpected outcome, but shows the effect of rubber wheels on large chip that breaks the chip and increasing the "accepts" Compaction versus "fluffing" were very notable during the field trials, one would suspect that more compaction would improve not only the storage utilization of a wood chip pile but also easy chip management when pushing and carrying with machine Formation of a commercial view, per actual cost benefit of rubber wheeled versus tracked machine, has not been achieved. The reason is that the author has not been able to obtain accurate information on the cost or impact of wood chip quality on the pulping process. Pins and fines are either used for fuel or taken off site, or in the Kraft pulp production process, they will increase the amount of chemicals used to compensate. There is scope to advance this current research to expand it over an entire wood chip pile as the expectation is that the damage by tracked dozers is actually understated. This statement is made based on the visual observations of the field trials conducted within this research paper. The key point is that there is an increase in wood chip distribution specifications outside minimum and maximum parameters (damage) using tracked machines on wood chip piles.

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  • Fishing for understanding: a mixed logit model of freshwater angler preferences

    Beville, Stephen; Kerr, Geoffrey N.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Freshwater fisheries management requires knowledge of not only the resource but angler preferences and the extent to which preferences vary. This paper reports results from an internet-based stated preference survey of anglers in the North Canterbury region. Discrete choice models are used to investigate how the quality of fishery attributes impact anglers’ selection of fishing sites. The models reveal significant preference heterogeneity between anglers for particular fishing site attributes. Furthermore, anglers’ preference intensities for identical attributes vary between sites. Consequently, efficient allocation of resources entails spatial and social components.

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