96,728 results

  • Anaerobic co-digestion of municipal primary sludge and whey : a dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Masters degree in Environmental Engineering at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Zhang, Xinyuan

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of this research was to investigate the feasibility of co-digestion of municipal primary sludge and whey by anaerobic CSTR (Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor), as well as the factors that affect the performance of the co-digestion reactors. Before studying the co-digestion process, a semi-continuous whey digestion experiment was conducted to analyze the feasibility of anaerobic digestion of whey along with pH control. The results obtained from the study indicated that supplement of nutrients, trace elements as well as heavy metals was necessary to maintain the anaerobic whey digestion system. To investigate the co-digestion of primary sludge and whey process, the effects of pH, OLR (Organic Loading Rate), HRT (Hydraulic retention time) as well as the COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) loading ratio of primary sludge to whey on the performance of the reactors were studied. The results of the co-digestion experiments demonstrated that it was feasible to co-digest primary sludge and whey without nutrient, trace element and heavy metal supplement. The TCOD (Total Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal efficiency and the biogas production of the co-digestion system increased with the increase of OLR. At same OLR, digestion of the mixture of primary sludge and whey with higher whey content achieved higher biogas production and TCOD removal efficiency. The anaerobic co-digestion of primary sludge and whey process performed successfully at OLR of 5.8 ± 0.1g COD/l.d without pH control when the COD loading ratio of primary sludge to whey was approximately 70:30, due to the fact that the primary sludge may serve as buffering reagent. By adding sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) to maintain the pH at 6.9 ± 0.1, the OLR of the co-digestion reactor could reach 8.1 ± 0.1 g COD/l.d at HRT of 20 days. Moreover, by co-digestion of primary sludge and whey solution, the reactor could be operated successfully at HRT of 10 days and at OLR of 7.6 ± 0.1 g COD/l.d with COD loading ratio of primary sludge to whey of 53 : 47. The biogas production (3.2 ± 0.1 l/d) was 1.5 l/d higher than digestion of the same amount of primary sludge alone (1.7 ± 0.1 l/d).

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  • Investigation into the acidic protein fraction of bovine whey and its effect on bone cells : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Chemistry at Massey University, New Zealand

    Mullan, Bernadette Jane

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Milk is provided to new borns as their first food source and it contains essential nutrients, vitamins and other beneficial components, such as enzymes and antibodies that are required for rapid growth and development of the new born and for sustained growth over time. Milk contains two main types of proteins; casein proteins and whey proteins. Although casein proteins account for up to 80% of the proteins found in bovine milk, it is the whey protein that has become of high interest because of its bioactive content. Whey, a very watery mixture of lactose, proteins, minerals and trace amounts of fat, is formed from milk when the milk is coagulated and/or the casein proteins are removed from the milk. Bovine whey protein, including both the acidic and basic fractions (low and high isoelectric point, respectively), has previously been studied in vitro (cell based) and in vivo (using rats) for its impact on bone to determine if it can help improve bone mineral density and help reduce the risk of developing bone diseases, such as osteoporosis. Bone is constantly undergoing a remodelling process of being dissolved and reformed and the two main cell types responsible for this bone remodelling process are mature osteoclasts, which dissolve (resorb) bone, and osteoblasts, which reform the bone. Prior work has shown that acidic protein fractions derived from different sources of whey protein concentrate (WPC) have both in vivo and in vitro activity on bone, particularly anti-resorptive properties. However, the component(s) which confer activity have not yet been identified. In this thesis, work was undertaken to better understand the analytical composition of three types of WPC (cheese, mineral acid and lactic acid) and their associated acidic protein fractions and relate this to bone activity in the hope of identifying where the activity lies. Bone activity was assessed using in vitro screening with osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) and osteoclast cells (RAW 264.7). Comparison of the cell-based bone activity of the parent WPCs and corresponding acidic fractions indicated that the acidic fractions derived from both mineral acid and lactic WPC were superior in their ability to inhibit osteoclast development. Although compositional data was complex and definitive correlations with both bone bioactivities could not be made, it appeared that elements common to both the acidic fractions were a higher proportion of GLYCAM-1 and bone sialoprotein-1 (osteopontin). Further studies to more closely investigate the bone bioactivity of the acidic fractions are warranted.

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  • Irish music in Wellington : a study of a local music community : a thesis submitted for the Victoria University of Wellington in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Musicology, New Zealand School of Music, Wellington, New Zealand

    Thurston, Donna

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The Irish session is a musical, social and cultural experience that has emerged from international popularisation and globalisation. In New Zealand today, communities of Irish music enthusiasts maintain links to an international arena, and the session is valued as a context for musical enjoyment and the affirmation of Irish identity. Throughout my research I immersed myself in Wellington’s vibrant Irish music scene with fieldwork techniques that included participant observation, sound recordings, and performance. The major part of this study took place in two local Wellington pubs - Molly Malone’s and Kitty O’Shea’s – but I also observed sessions in other New Zealand cities and in Ireland. The similarities and differences between the two Wellington sessions were examined in detail and my research included extensive interviews with the participants. In addition to exploring Irish sessions in the context of two Wellington pubs, this thesis explores session instrumentation and repertoire, and aspects of cultural identity that include the participant’s experiences with Irish music. This thesis also examines how individual session members actively contribute and link their musical training and background to a transnational Irish music community. By studying the individual and musical identities of those actively involved in the community, this thesis reveals that Irish music in Wellington is an active and dynamic scene made up of enthusiasts with a variety of musical and cultural backgrounds. With music as its heart, the Wellington session community, is simultaneously localised in New Zealand but extends outward and connects with Irish communities globally.

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  • The improvisation of Tubby Hayes in 'The New York Sessions' : exegesis submitted in partial fulfilment of a Masters in Musicology, New Zealand School of Music

    Alton-Lee, Amity Rose

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Audio files not uploaded onto institutional repository due to copyright restrictions: Hayes, T. & Clark, T. The New York sessions.

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  • "Psychological fallout" : the effects of nuclear radiation exposure : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Clinical Psychology at Massey University

    Jourdain, Rebekah Leigh

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Appendices were not supplied with the digital version of the thesis but are available in the print version.

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  • Jesus in New Zealand, 1900-1940 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in History at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Troughton, Geoffrey M.

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis addresses pervasive ways in which New Zealanders thought about Jesus during the years from approximately 1900 to 1940. In particular, it considers ways that he appeared within discourse, contexts in which he was especially invoked, and ends for which he was employed. It examines Jesus as a religious icon, but also as a reflexive tool for examining the place of religion in New Zealand culture and society. In this sense, it addresses Jesus as a phenomenon of social and cultural history. The thesis draws on a wide range of sources and methodologies, and is organised thematically into chapters that highlight predominant images of Jesus and important contexts that helped shape them. It considers Jesus in the languages of doctrine and devotion, social reform, and for children. It further assesses images of Jesus' masculinity, and representations of him as an 'anti-Church' prophet. The overarching argument is that Jesus constituted an increasingly important focal point in New Zealand religiosity during the period under investigation. Especially within Protestant Christianity, Jesus became a more important discursive focus and acquired new status as a source of authority. This movement reflected wider social and cultural shifts, particularly related to understandings of the nature of society and notions of personality. The increasingly Jesus-centred orientation of Protestant religiosity was fundamentally an attempt to modernise Christianity and extend its reach into the community. In particular, Jesus was invoked as the simple core of Christianity - the attractive essence of 'true religion'. Jesus-centred religiosity provided evidence of a changing social and cultural situation, demonstrating that religious language and ideals could be sensitive indicators of such shifts. The rise of Jesus as a focal point in religion was a response to change that reoriented Protestant Christianity in the process.

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  • Maori at work : the shaping of a Maori workforce within the New Zealand state 1935 - 1975 : a thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Social and Cultural Studies, Massey University

    Nightingale, Richard Beresford

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines the dynamics of the shaping of a Maori workforce within the New Zealand nation 1935 - 1975 as a significant outcome of colonial and postcolonial engagements under the introduced capitalist system. It is argued that this was part of a larger process of acculturation and assimilation of Maori. That Maori labour formed a second stage in the incorporation of three indigenous components into the New Zealand domain of a global capitalist market system is accepted conditionally with some modification. Essentially, the first stage (from about 1840) was the need for land for the production of farm commodities; the second stage (from about 1935) was the need for industrial labour power for manufacturing production; and the third stage (from about 1975) was the appropriation of socio-cultural values as instruments to be utilized in social and economic administration by the State. The focus is on the second stage of this process. The central objective is to assess the outcomes of this process on Maori, socially, economically and culturally. Two broad assumptions are interrogated: first, that pools of surplus Maori labour were created as an outcome of the expansion of capitalism on pre-capitalist economies; second, that the incorporation of this surplus labour via migration from about 1935 arose from patterns of capital accumulation that created excess labour demand in urban secondary industries. Successive government policies of racial amalgamation, assimilation, adaptation and integration from 1840 through to the early 1970s, assumed that civilisation and integration were one-way processes. Government policies were predicated on concepts of assimilation and individualisation in a plethora of government initiatives in health, education, housing and social welfare, most of which were unilaterally justified on the grounds of progress and modernisation. These policies, which came to be called 'integration' in the decade of the 1960s, were perceived by government to be for the benefit of Maori and the whole nation, Pakeha and Maori. Arguably, the Hunn Report of 1960/61 marked the high point of this postcolonial ideology. The narrative of the key developments in government policies is inter-woven with an account of race relations and Maori affairs. It is emphasised that these policies were instituted during a period of enormous change· in Maori society and in the configuration of relationships between Maori and Pakeha. The focus is shifted in the last section of the thesis to the response by Maori to government policies. The retreat by Maori from issues of class deprivation to the promotion of issues that centred on loss of land, language and culture is traced. It is noted that the concern with class that marked the rhetoric of many similar global protest movements was remarkably mild in the Maori protest litany. This thesis marks a first attempt to discuss the shaping of a Maori workforce by taking an approach which recognises that the separation between culture and political economy is itself culturally constructed by the dominant actor in the nation-state.

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  • Studies on interactions of milk proteins with flavour compounds : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Food Technology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Kühn, Janina

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Milk proteins are known to bind volatile flavour compounds to varying extents, depending on the nature of the protein and flavour compound. Processing conditions, such as temperature and pH, are also known to have an influence on the interactions between milk proteins and flavour compounds. These interactions cause a great challenge for flavour scientists because they influence the perceived aroma profile of food products significantly, in particular in low-fat food products. The objectives of this research were to develop a headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method followed by gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) for the investigation of protein-flavour interactions, and to determine binding parameters of the hydrophobic flavour compound, 2-nonanone, to individual milk proteins - namely, β-lactoglobulin (β-lg), α-lactalbumin (α-la), bovine serum albumin (BSA), αs1-casein, and β-casein -, whey protein isolate (WPI), and sodium caseinate. Secondly, it was the aim to compare the binding of the structurally similar flavour compounds - 2-nonanone, 1-nonanal, and trans-2-nonenal – to WPI in aqueous solution, and to investigate the effect of heat and high pressure treatment, and pH on the extent of protein-flavour binding. The final objective was to investigate the in vivo release of the reversibly bound flavour compound, 2-nonanone, from WPI and sodium caseinate using proton transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), and to understand the effect of viscosity on flavour release in vivo. The binding of the model flavour compound 2-nonanone to individual milk proteins, WPI, and sodium caseinate in aqueous solutions was investigated, using headspace SPME followed by GC-FID. The 2-nonanone binding capacities decreased in the order: BSA > β-lg > α-la > αs1-casein > β-casein, and the binding to WPI was stronger than the binding to sodium caseinate. All proteins appeared to have one binding site for 2-nonanone, except for BSA which possessed two classes of binding sites. The influence of heat treatment, high pressure processing and pH of the protein solutions on the binding of 2-nonanone, 1-nonanal, and trans-2-nonenal to WPI was determined. The binding of these compounds to WPI decreased in the order: trans-2-nonenal > 1-nonanal > 2-nonanone. The binding of 2-nonanone appears to involve hydrophobic interactions only, whereas the aldehydes, in particular trans-2-nonenal, also react through covalent binding. Upon both heat and high pressure denaturation, the binding of 2-nonanone to WPI decreased, the binding of 1-nonanal remained unchanged, while the binding of trans-2-nonenal increased. The binding affinity of the flavour compounds and WPI increased with increasing pH, which is likely to result from pH dependent conformational changes of whey proteins. The in vivo flavour (2-nonanone) release from solutions of WPI and sodium caseinate was investigated using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. During consumption, 2-nonanone was partly released from WPI, whereas there was no significant release from sodium caseinate. Even after swallowing of the samples, a substantial amount of flavour was detected in the breath, suggesting that the milk proteins interact with the mucosa in the mouth and throat, resulting in a further release of flavour from mucosa-bound proteins. An increase in viscosity of the protein solutions by the addition of carboxymethylcellulose enhanced the release of 2-nonanone from WPI, and resulted in 2-nonanone release from sodium caseinate. This may be due to a thicker coating of the mucosa with the sample solution after swallowing due to the higher viscosity, resulting in additional release of protein-bound flavour. These findings contribute to the knowledge of the interactions that occur between flavour compounds and proteins, which is required to improve food flavouring and to make protein based foods, e.g., low-fat dairy products, sensorily more acceptable to the consumer. The results also emphasize a careful choice of food processing conditions, such as temperature, high pressure or pH to obtain a desirable flavour profile.

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  • Testing and extending self-control theory of crime : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology at Massey University

    Williams, Mei Wah

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Self-control theory of crime has had considerable impact on mainstream criminology since it was first published in 1990 by Gottfredson and Hirschi. It is regarded as the most parsimonious criminological theory currently available and has been empirically tested across diverse populations and behaviours. Considerable empirical evidence supports the generality of self-control in predicting crime and analogous behaviours, with low self-control ranked as one of the strongest risk factors for crime. Of substantive concern however is a lack of explanatory power in the theory, a problem that besets criminological theorising in general. This study attempted to integrate self-control theory with theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Whilst self-control provides a stable-dispositional explanation for propensity to crime, TPB is interested in the decision-making processes related to involvement in crime. As such, the study examined the relationship between time-stable self-control and the mediating role of situational-specific factors in the causation of crime. The purpose of the study is twofold. Firstly to investigate the underlying mechanism by which a person with low self-control may have greater propensity to crime and secondly to increase the explanatory value of self-control theory. Three disparate groups were used to explore the single theories and the integrated theory; female students, male students, and prison inmates. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling were conducted to examine the sufficiency of the theories to explain intention to commit crime across three groups. Low self-control was unable to explain behavioural intentions for students but was successful in explaining intentions to do crime in a prison population. The motivational elements of TPB, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control, were shown to exert considerable influence on intention to do crime across the three samples but not attitude. The integrated theory increased the explanatory value of self-control theory for prison inmates over and above its constituent theories. These findings were not replicated with male and female students, raising questions about the generality of self-control theory. Implications for self-control theory are discussed, especially the need to include significant others and behavioural control variables in understanding the causes of crime

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  • Adoption of precision agriculture technologies for fertiliser placement in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Agricultural Engineering at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Lawrence, Hayden George

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Major agronomic and economic losses are caused by inaccurate application of nutrients from ground based spreading vehicles. These losses come from both over and under application of fertiliser resulting from such practices as driving at inappropriate bout widths. This work reviewed current spreader testing procedures; compared the performance of international test methodologies and evaluated the use of a digital image processing program to perform spreader testing. Methods to evaluate field performance were developed; this analysis of field application was used to calculate the economic effect of using precision agricultural technologies in New Zealand dairy farming systems. A matrix of fourteen hundred 0.5 x 0.5 m fertiliser collection trays was used to evaluate individual test methodologies. Results indicated that there were major variations in calculated certifiable bout width between different methods and direct comparison should be avoided. Tray layout within ± 5 m of the centre spread line had the largest effect on calculated bout width whilst methods that incorporated rows of trays in the longitudinal direction were less variable compared to those using a single transverse test. The probability too accurately assign bout widths using different international test methods was analysed, the ACCU Spread (Australia) test method had the highest level of confidence in its bout width calculation followed by the ES (Europe) test method. The ISO(i) (World), ISO(ii) (World) and Spreadmark (NZ) tests were all found to be comparable to one another whilst the ASAE (USA) method had the lowest level of confidence in its bout width calculation because of wide collector tray spacing. A method to extract a wider range of data from spreader tests using a hybrid image processing system was developed. Results indicated that there was a strong relationship between two dimensional particle area and particle mass under laboratory (R2 = 0.991) and field (R2 = 0.988) conditions. Although transverse spreader tests provided a good indication of machine performance, they did not account for the interaction of the spreader and its operational environment. A method was developed that used the vehicle location during field application and the transverse spread pattern represented as polygons to create field application maps. Initial results showed large variations compared to the measured transverse spread pattern. A wider study over 102 paddocks on four dairy farms showed that average variation was 37.9%. An improvement to the field application method discussed is given; this tool used the geographical position, heading angle and a series of static spread pattern tests from the spreading vehicle to achieve greater accuracy in field measurements. The described field application methods were used to assess the ability to execute a nutrient plan using both actual and optimised spreading data collected during field application. A loss of $66.18 ha-1 was calculated when comparing the efficiency of using current spreading methods to those assumed in nutrient budgeting practice. If a guidance and control system were used correctly to provide optimised field application the loss could be reduced to $46.41 ha-1. This work highlighted the difficulties in achieving accurate field nutrient application; however, by developing the ability to quantify field performance, economic opportunities could be evaluated. Overall, this work found that there was a strong agronomic and economic case for the implementation of precision agricultural technologies in the New Zealand fertiliser industry. However, the current range of equipment used by the spreading industry would have difficulty in delivering these benefits.

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  • Development of durable textile-conductive polymer composites : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Ph. D. in Chemistry at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Collie, Stewart Roger

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The research described in this thesis investigated a range of techniques for the in situ polymerisation of thiophene-based intrinsically conductive polymers (ICPs) on textile substrates. Following a review of the literature, three potentially useful techniques were identified; a simple aqueous technique; a vapour phase technique; and a two-stage impregnation technique. The literature also indicated that thiophene-based ICPs were likely to be more durable than those prepared from other precursors. The aqueous technique proved unsuccessful, but both the vapour and two-stage impregnation techniques were used to prepare textile-ICP composites using 2,2'-bithiophene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT). Polymerisation was effected by chemical oxidation of the precursor, with iron (III) salts being the best oxidants. The main drawbacks of the vapour system were the long vapour exposure times (e.g. several days) and/or elevated temperatures required to polymerise these relatively unreactive precursors. Two-stage impregnation was somewhat messy and inefficient, so a novel refinement of the technique (referred to as 'single dip') was developed. With this system, the specimen was impregnated with both precursor and oxidant from a single solution, then removed from the solution and the solvent allowed to evaporate. It was only at this stage that polymerisation occurred, and when more reactive ICP precursors (such as pyrrole) were used, polymerisation tended to occur in solution, and was less effective. The influence of various treatment parameters was established, while tests confirmed that the deposited ICP layer had no detrimental effect on the desirable fabric properties of flexibility and strength. Composites with surface resistance as low as 65 Ω/square were prepared with less than 6% ICP load on the textile (perchlorate-doped poly(EDOT)). The durability of poly(EDOT) composites was far better than polypyrrole under ageing in ambient conditions, accelerated ageing at elevated temperatures, and when given a treatment that simulated laundering. Finally, a scheme for continuously depositing ICPs onto textiles by this approach was designed, as a way of demonstrating the potential for scale-up of the system.

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  • Curriculum integration for early adolescent schooling in Aotearoa New Zealand : worthy of a serious trial : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Dowden, Richard Anthony

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The concept of curriculum integration has long held seductive appeal as a way to unite knowledge and meet the educational needs of young people. However, researchers have largely dismissed the concept as a romantic but unworkable idea. Nonetheless in the short history of education in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ), notions of integration have persistently reappeared in the national curriculum. In the 1930s, innovative teachers implemented world-class examples of curriculum integration in rural schools. Later, the Freyberg Project (1986-1991) demonstrated that curriculum integration admirably meets the needs of young people. Recently, the Ministry of Education trialled curriculum integration in several schools but, since the literature indicates that curriculum integration is represented by a plethora of models, this raised an important question: which model is preferable? This thesis combines historical and theoretical methodology to conduct an investigation of the concept of curriculum integration with respect to the needs of early adolescents in NZ. The historical investigation demonstrates that curriculum integration is best described by two broad traditions which stem from nineteenth century USA: the 'student-centred' approach based on Dewey's 'organic' education and the 'subject-centred' approach based on the Herbartian notion of 'correlation'. These two approaches are represented in current practice by the student-centred integrative model (Beane, 1990/1993) and the subject-centred multidisciplinary model (Jacobs, 1989). The theoretical investigation draws from American experience to examine the respective claims of the integrative and multidisciplinary models as the preferred model of curriculum integration for middle schooling. It finds that the 'thick' ethics associated with the politics of the integrative model ensures that it meets the needs of all early adolescents whereas the 'thin' ethics of the multidisciplinary model is indifferent to the needs of young people. The thesis concludes that the integrative model should be seriously considered in the middle years in NZ. It also concludes that historical understandings of curriculum integration are vital to further research, policy-making and teacher education. Moreover, attention to political and ethical issues would enhance implementation of the integrative model in NZ and would help avoid a set of problems which have impeded implementation of the model in the USA.

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  • Does mutual fund investment style consistency affect the performance of mutual funds? : evidence from Chinese mutual funds

    Zhao, Yi

    Thesis
    Massey University

    While much of the previous research on mutual funds has concentrated on finding the relationship between the investment style, the past performance and the future performance of funds, very few of the studies have paid attention to the effect of a mutual fund manager’s execution of investment style on fund returns. Using return-based analysis methodologies for measuring the style consistency of Chinese mutual funds, this thesis demonstrates that the less style-consistent funds tend to produce higher future risk-adjusted returns than more consistent mutual funds, even after controlling for past performance and net asset value (NAV). Further, these findings are robust across mutual fund investment style classifications, test period intervals (one-year or one-quarter interval), and the model used to calculate the expected returns (four-factor model and Sharpe’s style analysis model). This thesis also documents the performance-persistency effects that exist in Chinese mutual funds, which remain persistent even under the condition of style consistency. More importantly, the research discovered that at a time of change in the Chinese stock market, the negative correlation between style consistency and future performance becomes weaker. The study concludes that style consistency does matter for mutual funds’ future risk-adjusted returns and that there is a significant negative correlation with mutual funds’ future risk-adjusted performance in the longer term (i.e., over the entire test period). Moreover, this connection is distinct from those related to the past risk-adjusted performance and NAV of mutual funds. It is also clear that a significant negative correlation between style consistency and the future risk-adjusted return does exist in Chinese stock and asset allocation mutual funds, even after adjusting for the investment style of the fund. Finally, this thesis provide a mutual funds picking strategy for investors base on the main findings of this study, which can provide significant positive alpha at each year during the test period.

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  • Franchising in the real estate agency sector : multiple perspectives and converging angles of inquiry : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Massey University

    Flint-Hartle, Susan

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis investigates the widespread phenomenon of franchising in the real estate agency sector. To date, franchising research has been largely multi disciplinary, explanatory theory relatively undeveloped and there has been heavy reliance on the point of view of the franchisor. This thesis broadens investigation to include multiple perspectives of both the franchisor and franchisee. It examines the important contribution made to the relationship by both parties and the nature of their parallel business venturing. Drawing on data collected from the main real estate franchisors operating in New Zealand and from samples of franchisee business owners in the Asia-Pacific region, the study uses a pragmatic mixed methodological approach. It is believed by breaking the quantitative tradition the complex nature and sector specific characteristics of franchising can be better understood. Two interlinked studies are undertaken. First, the franchisor's perspective of franchising is examined and a window study is used to illustrate the notion of resource competency. Second, franchising as an entrepreneurial activity mainly from the franchisee point of view expands existing debate linking franchising with the entrepreneurship domain. It is argued that the strategic decision to franchise taken by real estate agency franchisors requires a wider explanation than offered by current agency and resource scarcity theory. The success of franchising in this sector is based on the development of a sophisticated resource competency that ensures a highly evolved, sustaining relationship with the franchisee and perpetuation into the mature growth phase. Franchising systems are defined as entrepreneurial organisations in which cooperation between two different types of entrepreneur takes place. The franchisor initiates the system and builds the brand while the franchisee develops the local market. Thus value is created as entrepreneurial ventures are established and flourish. Franchisors and franchisees amalgamate innovations and franchisees develop their own resource competencies complimentary to the parent organisation. Together with the people involved, wealth creation and innovative processes and activities undertaken by both parties in the relationship, franchising in real estate agency is shown to be fully compatible with entrepreneurship constructs.

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  • Evaluation of multipurpose fodder trees in Nepal : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D.) in Forestry, Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Kshatri, Bhoj Bahadur

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This PhD thesis consists of nine chapters describing aspects of the subsistence farms of western Nepal in general, and a need-based evaluation of multipurpose fodder trees (MFT) as a source of dry-season forage for ruminants in particular, as a basis for mitigating the current high rate of land degradation and loss of productivity in livestock production systems in the region. Understanding the complex farming systems that provide a living for 65% of the 27.1 million people in Nepal is the key to designing effective programmes of research and development. Evaluation methods include review of past work, farmers group workshops to identify current practice in the use of MFT in Nepal, studies on biomass production of Artocarpus lakoocha and Ficus glaberrima trees older than 50 years in Nepal and the propagation of F. benjamina, comparison of the feeding preferences of sheep for alternative browse species, and study of the nutritive value of alternative forage diets for lactating buffalo. Reviews showed 2.2 million cattle and 1 million buffalo are an extra burden to steep land where productivity is declining at the rate of 1.25% per year. Indigenous knowledge identified Ficus glaberrima with its three varieties (Maghe, Chaite and Jethe), A. lakoocha, F. benjamina and Bassia butyracea as the best four MFT for renovating degraded lands. A survey study showed significantly higher dry matter (DM) production by F. glaberrima than A. lakoocha (154 vs 91 kg DM /tree/year) during dry periods at low altitude (800 - 1000m). There was no significant difference in production of fat - corrected milk (FCM ) between buffalos eating A. lakoocha, F.glaberrima or a diet of 53% straw and 47% F. glaberrima (DM basis). Metabolisable energy balance (MJME/day) was greater in Artocarpus than Ficus, with the mixed diet intermediate (+1.60, -0.34 and -12.94 MJ ME/buffalo/day respectively, relative to requirements, P=0.0318). When fed together in an indoor trial, poplar (48% = 106 g DM/sheep/day) and willow (43% = 95 g DM/sheep/day) were preferred to Ficus benjamina (8% = 18 g DM/sheep/day) by sheep, reflecting the greater maturity and structural strength of leaves of Ficus. These results are used to develop recommendations for choice of MFT species and management strategies to improve the sustainability and productivity of livestock systems incorporating fodder trees

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  • Milk composition of the New Zealand sea lion and factors that influence it : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Zoology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Riet Sapriza, Federico Germán

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The objectives of the present study were to: 1) describe the gross chemical milk composition of the New Zealand sea lion (NZSLs), Phocarctos hookeri, in early lactation; 2) validate an analytical method for sea lion milk composition; 3) investigate a series of temporal, individual and dietary factors that influence the milk composition of the NZSL and; 4) investigate the temporal and spatial differences in the fatty acids signatures of sea lion milk. A comprehensive literature review revealed that data on milk composition in otariid species is either missing or limited, that to be able to fully describe their milk composition extensive sampling was required and that the temporal, maternal and offspring factors that influence milk composition in pinnipeds are poorly understood. The review identified that considerable work has been conducted to infer diet via the application of fatty acids signature analysis of milk and blubber. There are many factors (i.e. metabolism, de novo synthesis and endogenous sources) that contribute to the differences in fatty acid composition between the diet and milk or blubber. Milk samples from NZSL were used to test whether a new method would give similar results as the standard methods of milk analysis. Agreement between analytical methods for milk components was assessed using different measures of statistical fitness and the results indicated that the new method was comparable to the standard methods and applicable to the milk of sea lions, pinnipeds and to ecological studies of lactation. Milk from NZSLs was collected over a period of seven years (1997, 1999 to 2003, and 2005) in early lactation to describe the composition of milk of NZSL and to test for differences between years. The results indicated that: i) the milk protein concentration was comparable to other species of pinnipeds; ii) the milk fat concentration and the milk energy content of NZSL is the lowest reported for otariids in early lactation; however iii) the milk fat concentration was significantly different between years. These results suggested that the milk composition of NZSLs was influenced by annual changes in the environment; however, there may be other unidentified factors. Month, maternal body condition, age, body weight and length, offspring sex and age, and attendance pattern were compared with milk components. The results identified that month, maternal body condition and age significantly affected milk fat concentration. These results and the fact that maternal body condition varied significantly between years and mothers nursing male pups had lower body condition and produced milk lower in energy content suggested that local food resources along with other unidentified factors have an effect on the reproductive success of NZSLs. To test whether the fatty acid signature analysis (FASA) of lipid rich tissues (milk, blubber and serum) of otariids could be used to infer diet a mixture of vegetable oil (with distinctive fatty acid signature) was fed to 24 lactating NZSL and tissue samples were collected at different time intervals. Significant increases in the concentration of specific fatty acids in serum and milk were observed with peaks within 12hrs and 24hrs respectively of ingestion. Concentrations in milk remained elevated for up to 72hrs and there were differential rates of incorporation into milk. These findings confirm the potential of FASA to infer the composition of the diet. The variation in milk fatty acid signatures from lactating NZSL from four years (1997, 2003, 2004 and 2005) of sampling were measured in order to test whether differences occurred between years. Fatty acids signatures from five potential prey species including the commercially important arrow squid were incorporated into the analysis to associate the changes in milk fatty acids with a shift in prey choice. The results indicated that milk fatty acid signatures were different in 1997 and 2003; however, it was not possible to relate these differences to the five prey species. The variability in the annual arrow squid catch data suggested that local food resources around the Auckland Islands may also be variable. In conclusion, the milk produced by the NZSL has the lowest concentration of fat and energy in early lactation reported for any otariid species. The main factors that contributed to changes in milk quality were stage of lactation, year and maternal body condition. The yearly variation in the quality of milk appears to be a result of their lactation strategy or to variable local food conditions that also affect maternal body condition. Therefore monitoring the annual milk quality may be a means to monitor the health of a pinniped population and potential management tool for pinniped species. This thesis has shown that annual changes in the diet of NZSL can be assessed with milk fatty acid signatures.

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  • Mind the gap! : policy change in practice : school qualifications reform in New Zealand, 1980-2002 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Alison, Judie

    Thesis
    Massey University

    'Policy gaps' in education mean that the visions of policy-makers frequently fail to materialise fully, or at all, in teacher practice. This thesis argues that a significant 'policy gap' developed in New Zealand around school qualifications policy during the 1990's, and puts forward some explanations for that. A significant shift in government discourses over that period, from largely social democratic to predominantly neo-liberal discourses, was not matched by a similar shift in the discourses of teachers or the union that represents them. During the same period, teachers and their representative bodies were excluded from policy development, reflecting this shift in government discourses. Government and teachers were 'talking past each other'. As a result, qualifications reforms that might have been expected to be generally welcomed by the profession, as a government response to calls from the profession over many decades, were instead rejected by the majority of teachers. Furthermore, the absence of the teacher voice from policy development meant that the shape of the reforms moved significantly away from the profession's original vision, a further reason for its unacceptability to teachers. Reform was only able to be achieved when teachers and their union were brought back into the policy-making and policy-communicating processes and a version of standards-based assessment closer to the union's original vision was adopted by government. Nevertheless, the National Certificate of Educational Achievement that resulted appears to still be perceived by teachers as externally imposed and its origins in the profession's advocacy for reform over many years have been lost. This indicates that 'policy gaps', while easily opened, are not as easily closed.

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  • Modeling heat transfer in butter products : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D.) in Bioprocess Engineering, Institute of Technology and Engineering, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Nahid, Amsha

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Butter keeping quality and pallet physical stability during transport and storage are dependent on the temperature distribution through the product. Understanding these temperature changes are of vital importance for the dairy industry with regard to butter manufacture, storage and shipping. Three dimensional mathematical models of heat transfer were developed to predict thawing and freezing in butter products. These models require accurate thermophysical data as an input. Specific heat capacity and enthalpy of butter with different composition was measured using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The specific heat capacity of butter differs for cooling and heating operations due to significant supercooling and delayed crystallization of the fat fraction of butter at temperatures well below the equilibrium phase change temperature during cooling. This reduces the heat capacity for cooling relative to that for heating. Thawing of individual blocks of butter was accurately predicted by the conduction only model (no mass transfer limitations) with equilibrium thermal properties giving accurate predictions when the butter was completely frozen before thawing. For partially frozen butter the conduction model with the measured temperature dependent specific heat capacity data for unfrozen butter including melting of some of the fat fraction gave accurate predictions. For freezing it was observed that water in the butter supercools many degrees below its initial freezing point before freezing due to its water in oil structure. Experiments suggested that during freezing release of latent heat observed as a temperature rebound is controlled as much by the rate of crystallisation of water in each of the water droplets as by the rate of heat transfer. A conduction only model including water crystallization kinetics based on the Avrami Model predicted freezing in butter successfully. Simple models with equilibrium thermal properties and nucleation only kinetics (based on homogenous nucleation theory) or the sensible heat only model (no release of latent heat) gave poor predictions. The models for individual blocks were extended to predict heat transfer in butter pallets. A butter pallet contains product, packaging material and the air entrapped between the packaging and butter cartons. Measurements were made for freezing and thawing of full and half pallets at a commercial storage facility and in the University laboratory. Thawing and freezing in wrapped tightly stacked pallets was predicted accurately by the conduction only model with effective thermal properties (incorporating butter, packaging and air) estimated by the parallel model. For unwrapped tightly stacked or loosely stacked pallets there is potential for air flow between the adjacent cartons of butter. An alternative approach was developed which consisted of modeling the pallet on block by block basis using effective heat transfer coefficients for each surface. Different heat transfer coefficients were used on different faces of the blocks depending on the location of the block in the pallet. This approach gave good predictions for both unwrapped tightly stacked and loosely stacked pallets using the estimated effective heat transfer coefficients from the measured data. Further experimental and/or modelling work is required in order to develop guidelines for estimating effective heat transfer coefficient values for internal block face for industrial scenarios.

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  • Modelling sulphate dynamics in soils : the effect of ion-pair adsorption : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Soil Science at Massey University

    Cichota, Rogerio

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Sulphur is an important nutrient to plants, and reports of its deficiency have been increasing worldwide. Sulphur starvation causes losses in both yield and quality, and it reduces nitrogen use efficiency of plants. As the timing for fertilisation can be decisive for avoiding deleterious effects, improvements in the description of the sulphur balance in fields are a valuable contribution for assisting fertiliser management. Sulphate is the most important inorganic form of sulphur in soils. Being the mobile form, sulphate is readily available for plants, and also prone to be leached. Therefore the description of the movement of sulphate is the key component of the sulphur balance. Leaching of sulphate from the soil can be significantly delayed by its adsorption onto the soil particles. Soil type and pH are the main factors defining the sulphate adsorption capacity; although the presence of other ions in the soil solution can have a considerable effect. It has been reported that in some soils, typically volcanic and tropical soils with variable-charge characteristics, the co-presence of sulphate and calcium can substantially enhance their retention via ion-pair adsorption (IPA). To determine the influence of cations on the movement of sulphate, series of batch and miscible displacement experiments were conducted using two New Zealand soils, of contrasting ion adsorption capacities: the Taupo sandy and Egmont loam soils. These experiments demonstrated the occurrence of cooperative adsorption of sulphate and calcium in the Egmont soil, but not in the Taupo soil. Batch experiments were conducted to examine the IPA adsorption process in the Egmont soil in more detail. Based on the analyses of the results from these two series of experiments, plus the review of published data, three different mathematical approaches for evaluating the amount of solute adsorbed as ion-pairs are proposed. A computer program was built for solving an adsorption model using these three approaches, and was used to compare the model's predictions and the observed adsorption data. An extension of this program, coupling the adsorption model with a solute transport description, was used to simulate the movement of sulphate and calcium. Comparisons between the data from the miscible displacements and the results from this model are used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed IPA description for modelling the transport of these ions in the soil. Finally, results from a pot trial with Egmont soil are used to examine the relevance of IPA for the movement of sulphate under non-equilibrium conditions, and with active plant growth. Although the results from this experiment regarding IPA were statistically non-significant, some insights could be obtained and are discussed. More studies involving IPA under non-equilibrium experiments are needed for a better understanding of the relevance of IPA in field conditions.

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  • The epidemiology of Johne's disease in New Zealand dairy herds : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University

    Norton, Solis

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Johne's disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a chronic, debilitating enteritis of cattle, other domestic livestock and some wildlife species. JD was first identified in the late 1800s and today it is a worldwide problem in dairy cattle. Heavily infected cows have reduced milk production, a higher risk of removal from the herd and low slaughter value. Several countries have implemented national level control strategies. In New Zealand, JD was first reported in 1912 and today the prevalence of infected dairy herds is thought to be high. To improve our understanding of the epidemiology of JD and to evaluate the feasibility of a national control strategy, four studies were conducted. The first study was a questionnaire based case-control study to identify associations between management practices and the occurrence of clinical JD on farms from four regions of New Zealand. The second study was on the effect of sub-clinical JD on milk production and the risk of removal from the herd in four dairy herds over four milking seasons. The effect of misclassification of disease status on productivity estimates was also studied. In the third study diagnostic test result data from the productivity study was combined with a novel Bayesian regression model to estimate performance of the ELISA and faecal culture tests as a function of covariates and utilising repeated tests on individual cows. Finally, results from these three studies were used to adapt an existing JD simulation model, 'JohneSSim', to represent the epidemiological behaviour of JD in New Zealand dairy herds. Control strategies for the disease were simulated and evaluated based on their cost effectiveness. Of the 427 farmers responding to the questionnaire, 47% had suspected clinical cases of JD in their herd in the preceding 5 years. Only 13% of suspected infected herds had an average incidence of greater than 0.5 cases per 100 cow years at risk. The disease was not considered a serious problem by 20% of herd managers who reported the presence of disease in the preceding 5 years. The presence of Jersey cows in the herd and the purchase of bulls had strong positive associations with the presence of clinical JD. Grazing calves in the hospital paddock, larger herds, the purchase of heifers, and the use of induction were also positively associated with JD. In the productivity study the herd-level prevalence of JD by ELISA and/or faecal culture ranged from 4.5% (95% CI 2.6-6.9) to 14.2% (95% CI 9.2-20.6). Daily milksolids production by JD positive cows was 0.8% (95% CI -6.1%-4.5%) less than that of JD negative cows. However in herd D, JD positive cows produced 15.5%, (95% CI 6.75%-24.2%) milksolids less than JD negative herd mates daily. This equates to a loss of 53kg of milksolids/305 day lactation, or NZD 265/lactation, given a price of NZD 5/kg of milksolids. In herd D only, the annual hazard ratio of removal for JD positive cows was significantly increased. It was 4.7 times and 1.4 times higher in cows older than 5 years and younger than 5 years. The results were insensitive to misclassification. Analysis of the diagnostic test data demonstrated the strengths of our Bayesian regression model. While overall estimates of sensitivity and specificity by this method were comparable to estimates by existing methods, it showed a broad trend of increasing sensitivity in higher parity groups and higher sensitivity in early, relative to late, lactation. It also showed that estimates of prevalence may in fact decline with repeated, relative to single, testing. Our novel approach demonstrated trends that could not be shown by existing methods, but could be improved by application to a larger data set. Simulation showed that control strategies for JD based on either test-and-cull, vaccination, breeding for genetic resistance, or removal of offspring from clinically affected cows, were not cost effective for the average infected herd. Improvement of the hygiene associated with calf management provided the greatest reduction in the within-herd prevalence of JD. While JD is present in a high proportion of New Zealand dairy herds, the incidence of clinical cases is usually low, and most farmers consider it to be of little importance. However, JD causes significant losses in productivity in some herds. The disease would probably be best controlled on a herd-by-herd basis, given the limited success of national-scale control programs for JD in other countries. The education of dairy farmers regarding risky management practices, and the offer of a risk assessment to farmers wishing to control the disease, would provide a combination of wide reaching and targeted approaches, of low cost, for JD control. It seems likely that JD will persist in some capacity in the years ahead, but will remain of minor concern next to major animal health issues, such as infertility and mastitis. Clarification of the effect of genetic strain on the virulence of MAP may help explain differences in the effect of the disease between herds. This knowledge could then be used to further improve the efficiency of JD control.

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