87,550 results

  • Midwives' Experiences of Caring for Women During Childbirth Who Have Undergone Female Genital Mutilation: an Interpretative Study

    Garvey-Graham, Annette Marie (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In recent years, as a result of globalisation and increased immigration from countries known to engage in Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), exposure to the results of the centuries old tradition/cultural practice of FGM Type III is becoming part of the New Zealand midwifery experience. While a wealth of information exists around the FGM procedure itself, little research has been specifically documented about the midwives' experiences of caring for women in childbirth who have undergone this procedure. This study captures the experience of a small group of midwives, caring for women who have undergone FGM Type III, during the childbirth experience. It focuses on the feelings and experiences of the midwives during the process of labour and birth. An interpretive approach was adopted, using in-depth open-ended interviews, in order to explore, to gain insight and to understand the midwife's experience. The study recognises there are many different possible interpretations with midwives 'telling their story', and identifies issues that they encountered in providing care for these women. Four themes were identified in the midwife's experience: 'feeling unprepared', 'negotiating the cultural gap', 'the traumatic reality of deinfibulation' and 'tensions and paradoxes'. These reflect the journey of the midwife through their experiences and the challenges they faced. This research proposes that midwives require further support in their theoretical and practical knowledge in caring for women who have undergone FGM Type III. It also highlights the lack of structured support and information that surrounds their care.

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  • An Exploration of the Preparation of New Zealand Nurse Educators for their Role in Teaching Postgraduate Clinical Nursing Courses

    Skally, Mary Helen (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Little is known about the preparation of New Zealand nurse educators teaching clinically focused postgraduate programmes. This research gives an insight into their world and the preparation they had in order to fulfil their roles. A review of the literature on nurse educator preparation revealed a dichotomy of preparation nationally and internationally. This study was carried out to inform the New Zealand nursing profession on the preparedness of its educators teaching clinical nursing postgraduate programmes. It was my assumption that nurse educator preparation lacked strategic direction and was not nationally uniform. The research expected to answer how and to what extent New Zealand nurse educators teaching clinical nursing postgraduate courses at NQF Level 8 are prepared and supported for their teaching role. This research used an exploratory descriptive survey methodology and was underpinned by a conceptual framework. The conceptual framework, referred to as the critical elements of nurse educator preparation (CENEP), contained four key concepts, support, educational preparation, personal attitudes and experience. These concepts informed the design and construct of a questionnaire to determine the level of preparation of New Zealand nurse educators teaching clinical postgraduate programmes. A total of 89 postal questionnaires were administered resulting in a response rate of 46% (N=41), however, four questionnaires were excluded leaving a sample size of 37. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 12) was used to analyse the data, and descriptive statistics along with non-parametric testing was undertaken. There were three open-ended questions included in the questionnaire and these were analysed thematically. Results of this research reveal a culture where nurse educator preparation lacks uniformity and consistency. Individually, New Zealand nurse educators were found to be highly qualified for their positions and motivated and enthusiastic about their roles. However, 40% of respondents did not hold a teaching qualification. Results from this research revealed a pattern of clinical training for postgraduate nurses that was immersed in the world of the academic institution. This research study is limited and cannot be generalised to the entire population of nurse educators teaching clinical postgraduate programmes. However, some valuable insights have been gained into a previously unexplored area, and recommendations have been made for the future direction of preparation for nurse educators teaching clinical postgraduate programmes in New Zealand.

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  • A Photo and Thermally Stimulated Luminescence Study of BaCl2:Eu2+ with Application to Neutron Imaging

    Robinson, Jeremy (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis presents the results of a photo and thermally stimulated luminescence study of europium-doped barium chloride in relation to its potential application as a storage phosphor in glass ceramics for radiation imaging, particularly for neutron imaging. Previous work done on lithium borate (LiBO) glasses containing BaCl2:Eu2+ nanocrystals at Victoria University of Wellington had demonstrated comparable imaging capability with commercially available BaFBr:Eu2+ based imaging plates, though the sensitivity and spatial resolution were inferior to that material, and there was a substantial afterglow during the read-out process which degraded any image. These problems are addressed here. The effect of various different co-dopants on the storage properties was examined using the thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) technique, with dopants primarily chosen from the alkali and alkaline earth elements. The resulting glow curves have been analysed to determine the activation energies associated with the various traps, and tentative assignments of structural defects to the various glow curve peaks are proposed. It was found that Li+ and Na+ gave small increases (20% and 50% respectively) in efficiency, though other dopants tended to reduce the overall output. In particular, K+ and Rb+ were found to substantially reduce the output efficiency. It was found that Li+ co-doped BaCl2:Eu2+ contained thermally unstable traps which at room temperature could result in the observed afterglow in LiBO/BaCl2 glass ceramics through a read-out induced phototransfer process. The experimental measurements required substantial hardware and software development of the existing VUW facilities for TSL, and these improvements are also described here. The most significant improvements are an extension of the operating range at the lower end of the existing TSL spectrometer to -50 degrees C through a cooled gas flow system, and the engineering of a completely new system to record TSL from 25 K to 400 K.

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  • Featherweight Generic Confinement

    Noble, James; Potanin, Alex; Biddle, Robert; Clarke, Dave (2006)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Existing approaches to object encapsulation either rely on ad hoc syntactic restrictions or require the use of specialised type systems. Syntactic restrictions are difficult to scale and to prove correct, while specialised type systems require extensive changes to programming languages. We demonstrate that confinement can be enforced cheaply in Featherweight Generic Java, with no essential change to the underlying language or type system. This result demonstrates that polymorphic type parameters can simultaneously act as ownership parameters and should facilitate the adoption of confinement and ownership type systems in general-purpose programming languages.

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  • Annotating UI Architecture with Actual Use

    Ramsay, Neil; Potanin, Alex; Stuart, Marshall (2008)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Developing an appropriate user interface architecture for supporting a system's tasks is critical to the system's overall usability. While there are principles to guide architectural design, confirming that the correct decisions are made can involve the collection and analysis of lots of test data. We are developing a testing environment that will automatically compare and contrast the actual user interaction data against the existing user interface architectural models. This can help a designer more clearly understand how the actual tasks performed relate to the proposed architecture, and enhances feedback between different design artifacts.

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  • Snapshot Query-Based Debugging

    Noble, James; Potanin, Alex; Biddle, Robert (2004)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Object-oriented programs, when executed, produce a complex webs of objects and references between them, generally referred to as object graphs. These object graphs are difficult to design correctly and even more difficult to debug if incorrect. Unfortunately, very subtle bugs in object-oriented programs are directly caused by object graph topologies. Snapshot query-based debuggers let programmers examine object graph snapshots of programs in detail using a specially designed query language. This provides users with an ability to debug and examine their programs in great detail at the time when the memory snapshot is taken.

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  • Java Bytecode Verification for @NonNull Types

    Pearce, David J; Male, Chris; Dymnikov, Constantine; Potanin, Alex (2008)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Java's annotation mechanism allows us to extend its type system with non-null types. However, checking such types cannot be done using the existing bytecode verification algorithm. We extend this algorithm to verify non-null types using a novel technique that identifies aliasing relationships between local variables and stack locations in the JVM. We formalise this for a subset of Java Bytecode and report on experiences using our implementation.

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  • Isolation and Structure Elucidation of New Secondary Metabolites from New Zealand Marine Red Algae

    Popplewell, Wendy Lynne (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The natural product analysis of New Zealand red algae has been neglected in recent years, and there is obvious scope for the chemical re-evaluation of New Zealand marine red algae. This study describes the isolation and structure elucidation of 12 new and eight known compounds from four different genera of red algae. To aid in this process, 34 red algae were screened in order to generate a digital HSQC spectra mask, a screening tool developed by the VUW Marine Natural Products group to identify extracts of interest for further analysis. All 34 algal extracts were screened using the HSQC mask and four extracts were identified as interesting and analysed in detail. Examination of extracts of the red algae Plocamium costatum and Ballia callitricha lead to the isolation of three known metabolites. Eleven new oxylipins, labillarides A to K, are reported from the alga Phacelocarpus labillardieri. Labillarides A to H are polyunsaturated alpha-pyrone macrocycles, all of which show similarities to the previously reported compounds isolated from southern Australian collections of the algae. Labillarides E to H are of particular interest as they represent the two diastereomeric pairs associated with variation at the C-3 and C-8 chiral centres. Labillarides I and J are related enol macrocycles while labillaride K is a furan-3-one oxylipin, all of which have biogenic significance to the macrocyclic alpha-pyrones. Labillarides A, B and I exhibit moderate cytotoxicity while labillaride C shows moderate antibacterial activity. A new nitrogenous bromophenol, colensolide A, was isolated from the alga Osmundaria colensoi along with five known bromophenols. The presence of nitrogen-containing sidechains in bromophenols is unusual but not unprecedented. The bicyclic nitrogenous moiety observed in colensolide A is proposed to be of histidine origin. Several of the known bromophenols exhibit antibacterial activity and one shows moderate cytotoxicity.

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  • Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) and Other Environmental Stressors on the Development of Intertital Mollusc Embryos

    Russell, Janine Mary (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Ozone depletion is a humaninduced global phenomenon that allows increased ultraviolet radiation (UVR) to the Earth's surface. Although UVR is known to be harmful, relatively little is known about how increased UVR impacts natural ecosystems. Ecosystems in New Zealand are particularly at risk, because ozone depletion is much greater here, with levels of biologically harmful UVR up to two times greater than in northern latitudes. In the intertidal environment, potentially negative abiotic stressors are associated with low tide; and organisms inhabiting this environment are particularly vulnerable to UVR. Furthermore, embryos and larvae deposited in this habitat are especially susceptible to these stressors. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of UVR and other environmental stressors on the development of mollusc embryos in New Zealand. Surveys of microhabitats in which egg mass deposition occurs, and what effect this site of deposition has on the survivorship of embryos, revealed that encapsulated embryos of the two common pulmonate limpets Benhamina obliquata and Siphonaria australis are highly vulnerable to the environmental stressors associated with different microhabitats. In particular, egg masses deposited in the sun for both species suffered high mortality. Although, B. obliquata is more susceptible to UVR damage than is S. australis, B. obliquata predominantly deposits egg masses in dry shaded microhabitats while S. australis deposits the majority of its offspring in sunny tidal pools, which surprisingly equated to highest embryonic mortality. Results of manipulative experiments reflected those found in the surveys: egg masses exposed to full spectrum light incurred the greatest embryonic mortality; additionally environmental stressors (e.g. tidal pool conditions and desiccation) synergistically enhanced this mortality. UVR in North America is significantly lower compared to New Zealand; this allowed a unique opportunity to use identical methods to examine the responses of ecologically similar, related species (bubble shell snails in the genus Haminoea), from two regions where UVR naturally differs. Results from surveys and manipulative experiments revealed that the New Zealand species Haminoea zelandiae suffered high embryonic mortality under full spectrum light and this mortality was enhanced by periods of desiccation. The North American species Haminoea vesicula also suffered significant mortality during periods of desiccation, but there were no signs of UVR damage. These results appear to be driven by speciesspecific vulnerability to these stressors and not to ambient UVR intensity in the regions at the time of study. Relative concentrations of the chemical sunscreen compounds, mycosporinelike amino acids (MAAs), varied depending on several factors, but the biggest differences were among species. Analyses revealed that B. obliquata had the highest concentration of MAAs despite suffering high embryonic mortality when exposed to direct sunlight. MAA concentrations in S. australis were intermediate, with H. zelandiae having the lowest concentrations of all three species. MAA concentration for B. obliquata was dependent on stage of development and initial sun exposure at egg mass deposition site, suggesting interactions between MAAs, environmental conditions and embryonic development that need to be further explored. MAA concentrations were higher in S.australis egg masses deposited in spring compared to those deposited in early autumn, which may be driven by a shift in diet or nutrient levels. MAA concentrations did not appear to be correlated with ambient levels of UVR or embryonic survival in S.australis. However, MAA concentrations were related to UV irradiance in both Haminoea species with higher MAA concentrations observed in egg masses initially deposited in the sun compared to those found in the shade. Combined these results suggest: (1) increased UVR due to ozone depletion together with increases in temperatures due to climate change are likely to have strong impacts on the early life stages of these species, unless behavioural and physiological adaptations occur; (2) New Zealand species may be at particularly high risk from UVR damage compared to those from the Northern hemisphere; (3) the role of MAAs as photo-protection in these mollusc species is likely to be species specific, with a variety of abiotic and biotic factors influencing their uptake and sequestration. These experiments in part demonstrate how New Zealand's mollusc species are responding to humaninduced changes in UVR levels.

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  • Directional Statistics, Bayesian Methods of Earthquake Focal Mechanism Estimation, and Their Application to New Zealand Seismicity Data

    Walsh, David (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A focal mechanism is a geometrical representation of fault slip during an earthquake. Reliable earthquake focal mechanism solutions are used to assess the tectonic characteristics of a region, and are required as inputs to the problem of estimating tectonic stress. We develop a new probabilistic (Bayesian) method for estimating the distribution of focal mechanism parameters based on seismic wave polarity data. Our approach has the advantage of enabling us to incorporate observational errors, particularly those arising from imperfectly known earthquake locations, allowing exploration of the entire parameter space, and leads to natural point estimates of focal mechanism parameters. We investigate the use of generalised Matrix Fisher distributions for parameterising focal mechanism uncertainties by minimising the Kullback-Leibler divergence. We present here the results of our method in two situations. We first consider the case in which the seismic velocity of the region of interest (described by a velocity model) is presumed to be precisely known, with application to seismic data from the Raukumara Peninsula, New Zealand. We then consider the case in which the velocity model is imperfectly known, with application to data from the Kawerau region, New Zealand. We find that our estimated focal mechanism solutions for the most part are consistent with all available polarity data, and correspond closely to solutions obtained using established methods. Further, the generalised Matrix Fisher distributions we examine provide a good fit to our Bayesian posterior PDF of the focal mechanism parameters, enabling the posterior PDF to be succinctly summarised by reporting the estimated parameters of the fitted distribution.

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  • Tu Kaha: Nga Mana Wahine Exploring the Role of Mana Wahine in the Development of Te Whare Rokiroki Maori Women's Refuge

    Turner, Tairawhiti Veronique (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Whanau are the building blocks of society and their well-being is critical to strong,vibrant and connected communities. When a women or child is beaten, abused, or worse killed as a result of family violence, individuals are adversely affected, whanau suffer and wider communities in New Zealand are impoverished. From the margins of New Zealand society, Maori women are leading development campaigns that seek to end violence against women and children, uphold their human rights and freedoms and challenge oppressive colonial ideologies which are hegemonic and masculinist. Their work is part of local, national and global agendas to end violence and bring about long-term, positive change. They are a part of the decolonisation agenda within which many Maori actively campaign. This thesis brings together theory and practice to explore such a campaign. The overall goal is to explore the role of Mana Wahine in the development of Te Whare Rokiroki Maori Women's Refuge. Mana Wahine is a theory and ideological framework which is centred on Maori world views and ways of knowing. It is also a tool for analysing situations and events and has been adopted to create space for Maori women to tell their stories and develop ideas. This thesis seeks to achieve the following aims: explore the meaning of Maori development in a Refuge environment; investigate the expression of Mana Wahine by Maori women Refuge advocates; and identify the extent to which Mana Wahine has influenced decolonisation. The research framework which informs the overall approach comprises a: Kaupapa Maori epistemology, Mana Wahine and Qualitative methodologies and interviews. This thesis joins the Refuge in its pursuit for Tino Rangatiratanga (sovereignty) and contributes to the growing body of Mana Wahine knowledge. The conclusions of this thesis assert development within the Refuge means women and children leading lives free from violence and abuse. A Mana Wahine perspective is critical to the development of the Refuge and achieving positive, long-term change. At a fundamental level, the means through which development and change is achieved is Maori culture, Tikanga and Te Reo. The women of Te Whare Rokiroki are unsung heroines whose stories of commitment, sacrifice, learning, determination, anger, resistance and generosity has to be told.

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  • Policy Advisory Capability in Papua New Guinea's Central Government: Evaluation, Implications and Lessons

    Sause, Lawrence L (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    There has been mounting criticism (generally associated with the "weak state thesis") of the inability of the Papua New Guinea (PNG) public service to discharge its various policy formulation and implementation tasks. Such criticisms tend to be generalised in nature. Information about performance and the operational deficiencies of specific departments and policy domains derived from scholarly research has been sparse. Against this background, and using as a measure key elements of capability from the development administration literature, this study examines the state of policy advisory capability in three key central agencies within the PNG central government; identifies key constraints on the agencies' ability to provide comprehensive and reliable advice; and then proposes policy intervention measures aimed at strengthening capability. The agencies play a very influential and significant role in the government advisory machine and comprise the Department of Finance and Treasury (DF&T), the Department of Prime Minister and National Executive Council (DPM&NEC) and the Department of Personnel Management (DPM). Analysis is primarily based on the responses from the policy staff of the lead policy units in each department. Such responses have been gauged using a questionnaire survey and indepth interviews in early and late 2002 in Port Moresby. This study shows that the problems affecting policy advisory capability are, in most cases, pervasive and systemic. Such a loss in capability tends to arise from a variety of interlocking (and often interwoven) problems from both the political and the administrative and organisational dimensions within which policy advice is developed and delivered. On a broader level, the weakening of policy advisory capability raises important implications for the organisation and delivery of quality and timely advice. In particular, there is a risk that policy issues will not be comprehensively assessed taking into account the available evidence, views of parties concerned and, most important, the implications arising from various policy options provided to ministers and the National Executive Council (NEC) (cabinet). There is, therefore, a risk of ministers and NEC being ill advised on policy issues. This, in turn, may affect the executive branch's effectiveness in policymaking. The deterioration in the policy advisory capability of the three key agencies also gives rise to doubts about whether the three agencies can effectively maintain their key functions of control, monitoring and oversight and policy coordination across the PNG public service. There is a risk of the centre of the PNG government losing its ability to control and steer the government machine. This conclusion is consistent with the existing anecdotal evidence of a deteriorating capability of the PNG public service and, to some extent supports the weak state thesis advanced in the literature. This study on the ground of three key agencies demonstrates, however, that the political environment is not the only cause of weak performance by the PNG public service. That is a function of a variety of interlocking political and administrative and organisational capability factors. An improvement in policy advice capability in PNG will require attention to the several systemic factors identified in the study. Using insights from the policy transfer literature this study shows that policy lessons from other jurisdictions could be drawn on to improve capability in policy advice in PNG.

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  • Development of a Global Spatio-Temporal Seismicity Model and Its Application to the Vrancea Seismic Zone, Romania

    Scholz, Nastasja Anais (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study investigates the temporal behaviour of major earthquakes in the Vrancea Seismic Zone (VSZ)in Romania. I used the Romplus catalogue, which is a compilation of several sources and spans the time from 984 AD to the year 2005 and in which the data are of different quality. This catalogue contains only Vrancean earthquakes and consists of more than 8000 events. Qualities 'A', 'B' and 'C' were used to model the data. 'D' and '=' were found as too unreliable for modeling. Using the b-value, I concluded that 3.5 is the correct cut-off magnitude for earthquakes after 1980 and at depths of 60 km and greater. Thereby I detected an increase in the b-value after 1986 of about 0.2 units. The reason for this increase could not be found. Plotting the Gutenberg-Richter relation for several time and depth intervals, it was found that at larger depths than 60 km, there are too many M7 earthquakes as compared to small shocks. The shape of the Gutenberg-Richter relation is similar as to the one expected by the characteristic earthquake model (Schwarz and Coppersmith, 1984; Wesnousky, 1994). A strike of 53 degree was found and the earthquake coordinates were rotated correspondingly. The resulting view on the slab showed the confined volume in which the earthquakes happen and well as the 'aseismic part' of the slab between 40 km and 60 km of depth. The seismicity seems to reach a depth of 180 km. Only the earthquakes in the slab, below a depth of 60 km, show clustering behaviour. Furthermore, the M7 earthquakes all happened in the slab. Thus, a depth limit of 60 km was introduced for modeling. In order to find aftershocks in the catalogue, the temporal behaviour of the Vrancea earthquakes was examined. The mean magnitude increases after each major earthquake, indicating an aftershock process. This was confirmed by the rate of occurrence, which showed an increase in rate after the 1990 earthquakes. The rate of occurrence is too low for the first 580 days after 1980, possibly due to insufficient earthquake detection in this period of time. All the damaging M7 earthquakes all happened in the slab. Thus, shallow earthquakes had to be considered separately. A depth limit of 60 km was introduced and earthquake in shallower and deeper depths were considered separately. For the shallow earthquakes there was a sharp increase in the apparent b-value below the cut-off magnitude of 3.5. After reaching a value of 2.4, the b-value starts to fall steeply. This was attributed to biases in the magnitude calculation. I used the rounded value of 3.5 as a cut-off magnitude for the shallow earthquakes. Having found the magnitude cut-off, depth and time limit, modeling could be started. The model gives two important parameters: the proportion of aftershock and the time to the next earthquake. Using the Maximum Likelihood Method, a best fit was found for a data set starting at 1980 and consisting of earthquakes with a cut-off magnitude of 3.5 and a depth equal and greater than 60 km. According to the model, this data set consists of 13 plus or minus 5% aftershocks and has an inter-event time for new earthquakes of 13 plus or minus 1 days. Using several cut-off magnitudes, it was found that the calculated inter-event time for these earthquakes is consistent with the Gutenberg-Richter law. In contrast, the predicted value for the interevent time of M7 earthquakes does not match the one found in the catalogue. While the Maximum Likelihood Method leads to 814 years as recurrence time, the data shows a recurrence time of only 23 years. The model fits the data set of the 1990 aftershocks very well, too, leading to a aftershock proportion of 58 plus or minus 15%. The data set for the 1986 did not lead to good results, probably due to missing aftershocks shortly after the main shock. Comparing model and data with a pure Poisson model I could see that earthquakes tend to cluster in the first days after the major event. Several days later, their behaviour changes and then is similar to the one proposed by the seismic gap model. Looking at the ratio between the probabilities of the model of Smith and Christophersen and of the Poisson model, a clustering behaviour in the first 24 hours after the main shock was found, followed by a decreased seismicity, which reverts to be Poissonian after 100 days. Thus, I concluded that aftershock behaviour is only relevant after the first 24 hours following a major earthquake. After 24 hours, seismic hazard decreases to be less than as expected by the Poisson model in the following 100 days, until seismicity returns to be Poissonian again. Additionally, I suggest that the 1990 earthquake and its aftershocks should be considered as a 'model earthquake' for future earthquakes as it seems to be representative for earthquake behaviour in the VSZ.

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  • The Impact of the Alignment Between Information Systems and Marketing on Business Performance

    Hooper, Valerie Anne (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The purpose of this research was to determine the impact of the strategic alignment between information systems (IS) and marketing on business performance. The work of Chan (1992) was used as a point of departure. She had explored the fit between IS and business strategies and had used strategic orientation as a basis for determining the fit (alignment). Although the marketing literature did not reveal any measure for alignment, measures existed for market orientation. This appeared to be the approximate marketing equivalent of strategic orientation. Given the strategic nature of market orientation, it was decided to use it in addition to strategic orientation in order to calculate alignment. It was also decided to use marketing performance as an intermediary dependent variable. A conceptual model was devised which could be applied to the assessment of alignment according to either strategic orientation or market orientation. It consisted of three constructs: alignment, marketing performance and business performance. Implicit in this model was the calculation of alignment based either on strategic orientation or on market orientation. Two versions of the model would thus be tested. A mixed methods approach was adopted for the research. First, a qualitative phase of interviews with 36 respondents (the heads of information technology (IT)/IS and the heads of marketing of 18 companies) was conducted. The purpose was to obtain a deeper understanding of perceptions of alignment between IS and marketing, and to ascertain the different measures used for marketing performance and business performance. The findings served to refine the conceptual model and inform the second phase survey. The second phase was quantitative and consisted of a mail survey of heads of IT and heads of marketing of large New Zealand companies. In total 415 responses were received, 350 of them being pairs from 175 companies. Pairs of responses were a requirement for the calculation of alignment. A new formula was developed for the calculation. This was used to calculate alignment according to both strategic orientation and market orientation. The data collected in the second phase were used to test the model, using both factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Statistically significant evidence was provided that indicated that the alignment between IS and marketing exerts a positive impact on both business performance and marketing performance, and that marketing performance exerts a positive impact on business performance. This is so, irrespective of whether alignment is calculated according to strategic orientation or market orientation. The value of the research lies in the development of a parsimonious model which measures the alignment between IS and marketing and the impact of that on business performance. It also lies in the development of a robust formula for the calculation of alignment. It further demonstrates the value of a cross-disciplinary approach which could have significant implications for both academic research and for practitioners. The potential impact on companies consists of the breaking down of the silo mentality; an emphasis on cross-functional teamwork, cross-functional training and job rotation; and an impact on organizational structure and culture.

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  • Stakeholder Engagement Strategies for Designating New Zealand Marine Reserves: a Case Study of the Designation of the Auckland Islands (Motu Maha) Marine Reserve and Marine Reserves Designated Under the Fiordland (Te Moana o Atawhenua) Marine Management Act 2005

    Mize, James (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In recent years, marine reserves (areas of the sea where no fishing is allowed) have enjoyed increased popularity with scientists and agencies charged with management of ocean and coastal resources. Much scientific literature documents the ecological and biological rationale for marine reserves, but scholars note the most important consideration for successful establishment reserves is adequate involvement of the relevant stakeholders in their designation. Current guidance for proponents of marine reserves suggests that to be successful, reserves should be designated using "bottom-up" processes favouring cooperative management by resource-dependent stakeholders, as opposed to "top-down" approaches led by management agencies and international conservation organizations. However, there is a dearth of guidance as to how to identify relevant stakeholders, and what constitutes adequate engagement. New Zealand provides a unique opportunity for study of the two different approaches, with examples on both ends of the spectrum. The recent establishment of the Auckland Islands (Motu Maha) Marine Reserve under the designation framework provided by the Marine Reserves Act 1971 demonstrates a "top-down" approach; the designation of eight marine reserves as a component of the Fiordland (Te Moana o Atawhenua) Marine Management Act 2005, legislation that marks the culmination of a lengthy community stakeholder negotiation process, demonstrates a corresponding "bottom-up" design. A comparison of the two approaches elicits issues relevant to managers in considering designation approaches to follow in comparable situations elsewhere. In this thesis, the author identifies and categorizes potential stakeholders by applying a framework modified from World Conservation Union ("IUCN") stakeholder assessment processes adopted for terrestrial reserves and guidance for establishing marine protected areas. The researcher describes the two designation processes using a case study methodology, relying on secondary research materials and primary data from targeted interviews. The analysis considers relative relevance of the groups using a stakeholder model developed in the corporate social responsibility movement of the management field. In closing, the author proposes a heuristic model for managers to use when analysing stakeholder dynamics in future marine reserve designations when considering whether to use a "top-down" or "bottom-up" approach.

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  • Evolution of Australasian Plantago (Plantaginaceae)

    Tay, Mei Lin (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Phylogenetic analyses using molecular data were used to investigate biogeographic and evolutionary patterns of Australasian Plantago. The Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) from nuclear DNA, ndhF-rpl32 from chloroplast DNA and cox1 from mitochondrial DNA were selected from a primer assay of 24 primer pairs for further phylogenetic analyses. Phylogenetic reconstruction and molecular dating of a dataset concatenated from these regions comprising 20 Australasian Plantago species rejected a hypothesis of Gondwanan vicariance for the Australasian group. The phylogeny revealed three independent dispersal events from Australia to New Zealand that match expected direction because of West Wind Drift and ocean currents. Following this study, a dataset with 150 new ITS sequences from Australasian Plantago, combined with 89 Plantago sequences from previous studies, revealed that the New Zealand species appear to have a recent origin from Australia, not long after the formation of suitable habitats formed by the uplift of the Southern Alps (about 5 mya), followed by radiation. The ITS phylogeny also suggests that a single migration event of alpine species to lowland habitats has occurred and that recurrent polyploidy appears to be an important speciation mechanism in the genus. Species boundaries between New Zealand Plantago were unclear using both morphological and molecular data, which was a result of low genetic divergences and plastic morphology. The taxonomy of several New Zealand Plantago species need revision based on the ITS phylogeny.

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  • The Breeding Biology and Habitat Relationships of the Yellowhead

    Elliott, Graeme Peter (1990)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study aimed to find an explanation for the decline of yellowheads and formulate recommendations for management and further research on the species. There were three main lines of investigation: basic population ecology and behaviour; the effect of introduced predators on breeding; and the habitat relationships of the species. A detailed study of a yellowhead population in the Eglinton Valley in Fiordland National Park was undertaken. Birds were caught and banded and their behaviour, breeding and survival monitored for 4 years. The relationship between yellowhead distribution and vegetation, topography, and fertility were investigated in part of Mt Aspiring National Park during one summer. Yellowheads suffered high rates of predation from stoats during "plagues" that occurred after heavy beech seeding. Three aspects of yellowhead biology made them vulnerable to mammalian predation: (1) they nested in holes and predators killed not only eggs and nestlings, but also incubating adults; (2) only the females incubated, thus losses to predators had a greater effect on the population than if equal numbers of males and females were killed; and (3) yellowheads nested later than most other forest passerines and were still nesting when stoat numbers reached their summer peak. Though the yellowhead's hole nesting habit made them vulnerable to mammals it restricted nest parasitism and predation by long-tailed cuckoos and hole nesting is likely to have evolved in response to cuckoos. Yellowheads were found to be tall forest specialists; they occurred more frequently in tall forests than short ones, and preferentially used the largest trees. Their choice of nest sites had no effect on their preference for any forest types. The forests they favoured grew mainly on fertile valley floors at low altitudes. Yellowhead populations in "good habitats" raised two broods a year and these populations are probably sufficiently productive to withstand stoat plagues occurring once every 5 years, the average frequency of this event. Populations in "poor habitats" raise only one brood and their productivity is probably insufficient to match losses to stoats. Such populations are probably slowly declining, and are very vulnerable to extinction. A habitat suitability index was devised and forests in the north of the South Island from which yellowheads have disappeared, were compared with those in the south where yellowheads persist. Northern forests were as good for yellowheads as southern ones. Thus, the combination of habitat preference and predation cannot account for the recent disappearance of yellowheads from the northern half of the South Island. The decline in yellowheads was attributed to both predation by introduced mammals and competition with introduced vespulid wasps. Predation may have eliminated yellowheads from podocarp-dominated forests where predator numbers are constantly high, but they survive in some beech forests where predator numbers rise only once every five years. However, even within beech forests only the most productive populations are sufficiently productive to survive predation and these populations are probably susceptible to competition with wasps which eat large numbers of invertebrates. Yellowheads are likely to be more vulnerable to wasp competition than other forest insectivores because: (1) predation has reduced their productivity more than other birds because they nest in holes; (2) they are specialised in low altitude, tall forest that the wasps also favour; (3) their breeding is later than most other forest birds and their period of juvenile dependence much longer. Yellowheads are still feeding fledgling yellowheads at the time when wasps numbers reach their peak in the autumn, whereas the offspring of other forest birds are independent by this stage.

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  • Low-Dimensional Physics of Organic-Inorganic Multilayers

    Ingham, Bridget (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis demonstrates the rich low-dimensional physics associated with the class of organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on atomic layers of a metal oxide separated by organic spacer molecules. Hybrid materials based on tungsten oxide and also transition metal tungstates (with manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel and copper) were synthesised and characterised using a variety of techniques. The materials in question represent one example of the huge variety of systems classed as 'organic-inorganic hybrids' and have the potential to combine the high-electron mobility of the metal oxide layers with the propensity for self-assembly of the organic layers. The crystal structures of the compounds were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction, and compared with structural information obtained using IR, Raman, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies. This data confirmed the presence of a 2- dimensional layered structure. The electronic properties of the hybrids were studied using optical spectroscopy and confirmed via ab initio calculations. The band gaps of the tungsten oxide hybrids were found to be independent of interlayer spacing, and in all cases were larger than that observed in the three dimensional WO3 'parent' material. For the transition metal tungstate hybrids there appeared to be significant interactions between the organic amines and the transition metal ions within the inorganic layers. The magnetic properties of the hybrids incorporating transition metal ions were also studied in detail. Many of these metal tungstate hybrids display magnetic transitions at low temperatures indicating a crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional behaviour. This illustrates the importance of the low-dimensional nature of the inorganic layers in these hybrid materials and thus their potential in nano-structural applications.

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  • Moments of Rupture. Changing the State Project for Teachers: a Regulation Approach Study in Education Industrial Relations

    Simpkin, Patricia Gay (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the response of secondary school teachers to the Tomorrow's Schools education reforms. Their early response was made largely through their union, the Post Primary Teachers' Association (PPTA), in an industrial relations setting as the reform proposals were in development and taking their final shape. The interaction between the professional project of these teachers with the proposed reforms produced an outcome for secondary school education shaped by the interaction, rather than just by the reforms themselves. A case study situated at the intersection of industrial relations, state sector and education restructurings during the period 1984-1989 is the focus of the thesis. The argument is located within French regulationalist theory. The concept of the Keynesian Welfare National State provides a means for connecting education as part of the mode of regulation with the role of the state in New Zealand. The Fourth Labour Government entered into a political project that shifted the role of the state in the economy and society. The roots of the project lay in the discourse of economic rationalism. Policy resulting from this discourse was put into operation through legislation affecting all parts of the state. In education, the discourse of economic rationalism introduced a new approach, the values of which were at odds with those of the previous education settlement of the Keynesian Welfare National State. The object of the thesis is to trace the process of change within the secondary schools sector of education through the years 1984-1989 as the two different sets of values interacted. The assumption is made that institutional change results from a dynamic interaction between new ideas and continuities and discontinuities with the past. This allows for the possibility of the effects of agency on public policy. Analysis focuses on a series of industrial negotiations between the PPTA and the State Services Commission, the negotiating body for government. They took place as various government policy documents and resulting legislation altered the positioning of teachers within the state. The negotiations were of such a character that the educational discourses of economic rationalism and the education settlement of the Keynesian Welfare National State came into conflict and were debated at length. The thesis concludes that, by the end of the negotiations and despite the introduction of legislation on education, the values of secondary teachers remained substantially unchanged and in opposition to the intent of the government reforms.

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  • Navigating Uncharted Waters: Teachers Collaborating Across Difference

    Hynds, Anne (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis provides a unique navigational story which describes my own careful exploration of a collaborative dynamic when culturally diverse teachers worked together on a unique professional development initiative. Between 2001 and 2003 the Ministry of Education in Aotearoa/New Zealand funded the first phase of an action research initiative, Te Kauhua/Maori in the Mainstream Pilot Project, in a number of schools across the country. This initiative aimed to improve teaching practice and outcomes for Maori students through the development of collaborative partnerships between MÃ ori and non-Maori within participating school communities. I worked to gather the stories of teachers' collaborative partnership work, from various perspectives over a period of two years, in two schools which had taken part in this first phase of this government funded project. The immediate result of such collective work was a commitment to work together for change and improvement in practice, and an apparent transformation in the thinking and practices of many teachers. My initial analysis highlighted partnership mechanisms and processes which held much promise and which had enabled the beginnings of change within and across both school communities. However as I continued my investigation over time I came to realise that sustaining change and development in schools, targeted at student groups who have been marginalised in the education system for a long time, was more complex than I first realised. Beneath the surface, in both schools, were submerged influences which militated against continuation and acceptance of such collaborative partnership work within and across both cultural communities. It became increasingly clear that a lack of shared vision across the schools generally, together with active resistance on the parts of particular groups, contributed to destroying the respect, trust and partnership that I thought had been established within the staff communities. This thesis therefore outlines the opportunities, challenges and threats to collaborative partnership work that aims to improve practice and outcomes for culturally diverse students.

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