91,802 results

  • St Helena Wine Estate (1978-2008): a longitudinal case study of a medium sized Canterbury (NZ) export winery.

    Tipples, Rupert S.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    The wine industry did not become significant in New Zealand before the 1970s. The internal New Zealand market was small and the focus of the economy was on trade in meat, dairy and wool products rather than wine. Wine production has a long history, but not in New Zealand. Wine production has also been a motor for economic growth. It became prominent after the accession of Britain to the EEC in 1973, when traditional agribusiness markets in the UK ceased to be available, and alternative agricultural products had to be found and marketed to preserve the New Zealand balance of payments. Different forms of agribusiness have been portrayed as achieving value extraction by taking performance gaps, or identifying and seizing opportunity gaps, "blue ocean" strategy being one example. That involves the development of a new product for a previously non-existent market. Thus there is no business competition because it is new. The development of [yellow tail] wines by Casella Wines of Australia exemplifies this and neatly parallels the development of St Helena Wine Estate, which has seized both opportunity and performance gaps, particularly in delivering successfully to Tesco, through its subsidiary Cottesbrook, the first New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc Bag-in-Box wine supplied to the UK market. This paper is a case study of the production and marketing successes and travails of a medium sized New Zealand winery, which has only existed for thirty years. It highlights the influence of family; the role of export marketing; the nature of the wine supply chain from New Zealand to a UK supermarket; the role of channel coordinators in maintaining that; the increasing place of developing "new labels" in marketing strategy to find new "blue oceans"; and the ongoing turnover of business arrangements for most wine businesses over time.

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  • Lysimeters without edge flow: an improved design and sampling procedure

    Cameron, Keith C.; Smith, Neil P.; McLay, C. D. A.; Fraser, P. M.; McPherson, R. J.; Harrison, D. F.; Harbottle, P.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    A description is given of a modified lysimeter design and sampling procedure designed to prevent edge flow from occuring in large soil monolith lysimeters. An internal cutting ring at the base of the lysimeter casing produced a small annular gap between the soil monolith and the wall of the casing. This gap was filled with liquefied petrolatum, which provided a water-tight seal around the edge of the lysimeter. Water and solutes were unable to leak between the monolith and casing. The use of petrolatum as a sealant is suitable for water-flux and nutrient-leaching studies, but is not suitable for pesticide studies.

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  • Reproductive ecology and life history trade-offs in a dimorphic polygynous mammal, the New Zealand fur seal

    Negro, Sandra Silvia (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Polygyny is the most common mating system in mammalian species (95%), yet our understanding of polygynous systems and microevolutionary processes is still limited. Pinniped mating systems range from extreme polygyny (e.g. elephant seals) to sequential female defence by males and hence have often been used as models for mating system studies. Parentage analysis has enabled the examination of mating success, the identification of pedigrees, and the elucidation of social organisation, greatly enhancing our understanding of mating systems (Chapter 1). However, such analyses are not without pitfalls, with erroneous assignments common in open systems (i.e. when parental and offspring samplings are incomplete). We investigated the effects of the user-defined parameters on the accuracy of parental assignment using two commonly used parental allocation programme, CERVUS and PASOS (Chapter 2). We showed that inaccurate user-defined parameters in CERVUS and PASOS can lead to highly biased output e.g. the assignment rate at 95% CL of offspring with a sampled known mother to sampled males decreased from 58% to 32% when the proportion of candidate males sampled in the parameter options decreasing 4-fold. We found that the use of both CERVUS and PASOS for parentage assignment can increase the likelihood of correctly allocating offspring to sampled parents to 97% in our study system. Incorrect parental assignment can bias estimates of various biological parameters, such as lifetime reproductive success and mate choice preference, and hence bias ecological and evolutionary interpretations. Here, we propose solutions to increase the power of parentage assignment and hence decrease the bias in biological parameter estimates. In addition, we analysed the effects of the intrinsic bias in likelihood assignment approaches towards assigning higher probability of parentage on individuals with rare alleles and those with heightened offspring-parent matches, which increase with the number of homozygous loci (Chapter 3). We showed that, as a consequence of the algorithms employed in the programmes CERVUS and PASOS, heterozygote males with rare genotypes are assigned higher rates of parentage than males with common alleles. Consequently, where two males could both be biological fathers of a given offspring, parentage assignment will more often go to the male with the rarer alleles (most often in heterozygous loci). Thus, the commonly used parentage assignment methods may systematically bias the results of parentage analyses towards supporting the notion that females prefer more genetically unusual, most often heterozygous, males. Such a bias may sway investigators towards incorrectly supporting the concept that females choose genetically more unusual males for heterozygosity fitness benefits that underpin the good genes hypothesis, when in fact no such relationship may exist. In polygynous mammals, successful males mate with multiple females by competing with and limiting the access of other males to females. When the status of many males (age, size, health, genetic etc.) prevents them from achieving the primary mating tactic, theory predicts selection for a diversification of male mating tactics. Recent studies in pinnipeds have shown that observed male mating success was correlated to male paternity success in some species (elephant-seals), but not in others (grey seals). The existence of alternative mating strategies can explain those discrepancies. Chapter 4 implemented the guidelines provided in Chapter 2 and 3 and focused on the polygynous New Zealand fur seal Arctocephalus forsteri, predicting that 1) competition for females is likely to cause a diversification of male mating tactics; and 2) that alternative tactics can yield reproductive success. Our results indicated three male behavioural profiles; one corresponded to large territorial males and two illustrated a continuum of alternative tactics employed by non-territorial subordinate males. Our study highlights that holding a territory is not a necessary condition for reproductive success in a population of otariids. The degree of sexual size dimorphism in polygynous species is expected to increase with the degree of intra-sexual competition and in turn with the degree of polygyny. The life history of an individual is the pattern of resource allocations to growth, maintenance, and reproduction throughout its lifetime. Both females and males incur viability costs of mating and reproduction. However, male viability costs due to increase growth and male-male competition can be greater than female viability costs of mate choice and reproduction. Although an abundant literature on sexual dimorphism in morphology, physiology, and parasite infections is available, little is known on the intra-sexual differences in physiology and parasite infections associated to the reproductive success of different mating strategies in mammalian species. Chapter 5 examined the reproductive costs between territorial and subordinate males New Zealand fur seal related to their relative reproductive success using a multidisciplinary approach (behaviour, genetics, endocrinology, parasitology). We found that dominant New Zealand fur seal males endure higher reproductive costs due to the direct and indirect effects of high testosterone levels and parasite burdens. Our study highlights that holding a territory confers a higher reproductive success, but induces higher costs of reproduction that may impair survival. Understanding microevolutionary processes associated to polygynous systems is fundamental in light of the ongoing anthropogenic alteration of the environment through climatic variations and habitat reduction which ultimately affect opportunity for sexual selection and shape the life history trade-offs.

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  • I understand it well, but I cannot say it proper back: language use among older Dutch migrants in New Zealand

    Crezee, Ineke Hendrika Martine (2009-05-26T22:17:01Z)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The purposes of this study were (a) to examine two groups of healthy older Dutch English bilingual migrants in a New Zealand setting to investigate whether they were showing signs of L2 attrition with accompanying L1 reversion post-retirement, and (b) to identify possible factors which might play a role in the incidence of any L2 attrition and concomitant L1 reversion. Previous research has focused on similar groups of migrants in the Australian context, while New Zealand based research has focused on language shift and maintenance amongst three generations of migrants. The research design involved an analysis of sociolinguistic life, using questionnaires. These included self-assessments of L1 and L2 proficiency at three key times: on arrival in New Zealand, at time of ultimate attainment and post-retirement. Further, an analysis of assessments of respondents’ L1 and L2 proficiency pre-and post-retirement completed by interviewees’ adult children moderated respondents’ self-reports. The findings revealed a considerable overlap between participants’ self-reports and assessments by their adult children. The study also revealed a relationship between participants’ level of prior education and their ultimate attainment in the L2, with those who had come to New Zealand having learned English at Secondary School English very likely to have achieved a “good” or “very good” level of L2 proficiency. Conversely, those who had not learned the L2 at secondary school prior to arriving in New Zealand, were less likely to have achieved a “very good” level of ultimate attainment as evident both from self-reports and assessments by adult children. The design also included a linguistic analysis of elicited free speech. Data focused on key indicators of age, gender, social class, prior education, occupation and predominant linguistic environment pre- and post-retirement. Free speech was examined for code-switching, response latency and L1 structure in respondents’ spoken L2. Results indicated that a majority of respondents showed minimal if any signs of L2 attrition with concomitant L1 reversion, both as evidenced by their spoken L2 and as indicated by self-reports and assessments by adult children. Any signs of L2 attrition which were found appeared linked to respondents’ level of prior education and L2 proficiency on arrival in New Zealand. Being exposed to a predominantly L1 social environment post-retirement also appeared to result in a lifting of the threshold for L2 lexical items, resulting in a slightly increased response latency in the spoken L2. Three participants said they experienced some problems expressing their healthcare needs to medical professionals, to the extent that they were searching for words. All stated they “got there in the end” but needed more time to paraphrase their health needs. Two subjects avoided the use of the L2 during the interview, even when prompted in English. Three respondents engaged in significant codeswitching from L2 to L1 and vice versa, with two engaging in what Muysken (2000) terms “congruent lexicalisation”. Adult childrens’ reports indicated that the respondents in question had always spoken in this manner, but to a greater extent now, post-retirement. Overall, a number of the healthy older subjects interviewed for the study were showing some signs of increased response latency and lexical retrieval problems when expressing themselves in the L2, but none to the degree that they were no longer able to communicate in that language.

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  • Gasoline and diesel pricing New Zealand

    Zheng, Rebecca (2009-05-26T23:56:33Z)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Motorists are interested in knowing what is causing the escalating at-pump petroleum prices and how does gasoline or diesel price respond to changes in international crude oil prices and currency exchange rates. This study investigates both the long-run and short-run relationships between these factors. An Error Correction Model is developed and used to test the actual 210 weekly retail petrol and diesel prices over a four-year period from 2004 to 2008. The results suggest that the world crude oil prices do have an impact on the local retail prices both in the long run and the short term, while in contrast, the currency exchange rate effect is not found in the long term. An asymmetric effect is also observed in retail petrol prices, but not in retail diesel prices. In this study, different tax treatment between the two is found to be the main reason for the differential adjustment speeds of petrol and diesel.

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  • Opening Up the Outdoors: A Case Study of Young Children's Outdoor Experiences in One Childcare Centre

    Stephenson, Alison (1999)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    "Let's go outside" is where I began: I became intrigued by how often I saw evidence of children's enthusiasm for the outdoors when I visited centres as a supervisor of early childhood teacher trainees on practicum. Having discovered how little research there was into young children's outdoor play, I wanted to investigate this topic, particularly because I suspected that what we do in New Zealand is very different from the outdoor play described in overseas research reports, where the typical scenario is a brief outdoor recess. The belief that outdoor play contributes to young children's development dates back to Rousseau (1712-1778) and Froebel (1782-1852) and the tradition continued in early kindergartens in the United States (Frost and Wortham, 1988), English nursery schools (Straw, 1990), and also within the New Zealand kindergarten movement (May, 1997). Over time, however, the commitment to outdoor play has been challenged by other pressures - increasing urbanisation with a concomitant reduction in access to the outdoors; increasingly academic programme orientation (Frost, 1992); supervision and safety concerns (Bilton, 1993; Frost and Wortham, 1988); and even staff reluctance (Bilton, 1993; Stine, 1997).

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  • The Thinking Body: a Study of the Architectural Ramifications of Maurice Merleau-Ponty's Rendering of the Human Body's Capacities

    August, Karan (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Phenomenology offers a conceptual framework that connects and strengthens the architect' s intuitive understanding of the human experience of space with the theorist's more critical approach. Phenomenology is an ideal vehicle for architectural theorists to avoid the friction between first-hand or subjective experience and generalised or abstracted accounts of experience. In this thesis I extract an account of the human experience of space that is implicit in the Philosopher Maurice Merleau-Pontys work. I consider how this understanding has been employed in architectural scholarship and practice. In particular, I argue that the human body renders the richness of space through deliberate engagement with the indeterminate and independent possibilities of the world. In other words, as the body intentionally engages with the world, it synthesises objects that create determinate spatial situations. I account for Merleau-Ponty's depiction of the body' s non-rule governed, non-reflective, normative directiveness towards spaces and elements, and label it the thinking body. Furthermore I examine how the philosophical theory of Merleau-Ponty is represented in the explicitly theoretical works of Juhani Pallasmaa. In turn I then consider how the thinking body is physically and conceptually realised in the buildings of Carlo Scarpa. Finally I find that Juhani Pallasmaa's description of the phenomenological experience of space is incompatible with Merleau-Ponty's. The strategic importance of these different accounts emerges when projecting their implications for designed space. Pallasmaa' s account points towards an architecture that prioritises sensory experiences synthesised by the mind. The design focus of Merleau-Ponty's philosophy leads to spatial practices in line with Carlo Scarpa, that are sympathetic to the causal qualities of an intentional bodily engagement with spatial situations. In accord with Merleau-Ponty I argue that human body is our medium for the world and as such creates the spatial situation we engage with from a formless manifold of possibilities.

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  • The Quest to Quit: an Exploration of the Cessation - Relapse Cycle of Cigarette Smoking

    Hooper, Carolyn May (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The smoker's perspective is seldom sought in cessation research. Consequently, cessation approaches may be less effective because they are not based on assumptions and interpretations shared by those who smoke. Understanding how chronic relapsing smokers interpret their predicament could enhance cessation approaches, improving the chances for complete, permanent cessation. To generate such an understanding, five participants were recruited who had attempted to quit smoking several times. Aiming for depth rather than breadth, multiple interviews were conducted with each participant, who also kept an event diary, recording current smoking, nicotine withdrawal, lapsing and relapsing. Narratology, a biographical method of symbolic interactionism drawing on thematic, structural, and dialogic analysis, was used to elicit the participants' points of view from interview and diary data. The findings show that participants make sense of their chronic relapsing through a master narrative of 'willpower versus weakness'. Meanwhile, the tobacco control domain is largely driven by 'cost', and subsidised treatments are driven by the 'addiction' master narrative. This gap between ways of making sense of smoking and relapse can cause self-stigma, reducing the likelihood that quitting will be attempted and that quit attempts will succeed. Changes are proposed to mitigate the negative effects on self-efficacy brought about through the present approach to tobacco control. Ways to improve the effectiveness of existing treatments are suggested. Finally, the value of the narrative method is highlighted, with suggestions for its use in research where elucidating the insider point of view may improve treatment outcomes.

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  • Existence advertising, price competition, and asymmetric market structure

    Eaton, B. C.; MacDonald, Ian A.; Meriluoto, L.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    We examine a two stage duopoly game in which firms advertise their existence to consumers in stage 1 and compete in prices in stage 2. Whenever the advertising technology generates positive overlap in customer bases the equilibrium for the stage 1 game is asymmetric in that one firm chooses to remain small in comparison to its competitor. For a specific random advertising technology we show that one firm will always be half as large as the other. No equilibrium in pure price strategies exists in the stage 2 game and as long as there is some overlap in customer bases the mixed strategy equilibrium is far from the Bertrand equilibrium.

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  • Spam: solutions and their problems

    Eaton, B.; MacDonald, Ian A.; Meriluoto, L.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    We analyze the success of filtering as a solution to the spam problem when used alone or concurrently with sender and/or receiver pricing. We find that filters alone may exacerbate the spam problem if the spammer attempts to evade them by sending multiple variants of the message to each consumer. Sender and receiver prices can effectively reduce or eliminating spam, either on their own or when used together with filtering. Finally, we discuss the implications for social welfare of using the different spam controls.

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  • Principles, practice, and policy in the management of New Zealand's marine recreational and commercial fisheries

    Irving, Paul C.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Fisheries management in New Zealand has reached a turning point in its history. The concepts of Optimum Yield (OY) and fisheries management planning have been adopted to form the basis for the future management of New Zealand's marine fisheries. One implication of these innovations is that recreational fisheries now have the opportunity to feature more significantly in the overall management of the inshore fisheries. Optimum yield requires that recreational factors, among others, be considered when determining yield. Two purposes of Fisheries Management Plans (FMPs) are to promote and develop both recreational and commercial fisheries, and to allocate fish resources with reference to optimum yields. However, to ensure that the fish stocks will be allocated to each of the potential user-groups in a manner which reflects the best interests of society a number of issues must be addressed. A solid theoretical basis for management needs to be developed, for both recreational and commercial fishing. Essential to the development of such a theoretical framework is a comprehensive information and data base. Information is needed to determine the ecologic, economic and social benefits from fishing, to develop integrated models of fishing for use in long-term planning and policy development, and to ensure that management is both specific and effective. Meaningful allocations can only be made if they are based on comparable values. The theoretical basis for recreational, commercial and joint recreational and commercial fisheries is reviewed. Fisheries management in New Zealand is discussed and a number of implications for joint fishing management noted.

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  • Biological control of Botrytis cinerea in lettuce & strawberry crops

    Card, Stuart Douglas

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Two preliminary biological control screens were developed, using lettuce & strawberry as model systems, to test potential biocontrol micro-organisms for their ability to control Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould. The first screen evaluated a range of saprophytic yeasts, bacteria & fungi for their ability to inhibit Botrytis lesions on whole lettuce plants. In a controlled environment (18 -22°C, 85-90% relative humidity & 12 h photoperiod), lettuce leaves were spray inoculated with antagonists (10⁷ fungal spores mL⁻¹ or 10⁸ bacterial cells mL⁻¹), allowed to dry & challenged by spray inoculation with the pathogen (10⁶ conidia mL⁻¹). After 7 days Pseudomonas fluorescens LU1001 & LU1003, P. synxantha LU1004 & P. veronii LU1002 had significantly reduced lesion areas by an average of 79% on whole lettuce plants. An Ulocladium sp. LU865 & Epicoccum purpurascens LU148 reduced lesion areas by 94% & 78%, respectively. The second screen evaluated selected saprophytic bacteria & filamentous fungi, with previously identified antagonistic properties (against a range of plant pathogens), for the ability to inhibit B. cinerea on detached strawberry tissues & whole strawberry plants. The most successful isolates, E. purpurascens LU148 & Trichoderma atroviride LU132, inhibited lesion development by up to 32% & suppressed sporulation on detached strawberry leaves by up to 87%. They were further evaluated on detached strawberry flowers & whole strawberry plants in a controlled environment (18°C & 85-95% relative humidity). The most consistently effective antagonist was T. atroviride LU132, which inhibited B. cinerea in all experiments, significantly (P≤0.05) suppressing B. cinerea sporulation on detached strawberry flowers & leaf discs removed from inoculated whole plants by 100% & 81%, respectively. This was similar to the level of disease suppression given by the commercial biocontrol product, Prestop & the fungicide, fenhexamid. The mechanism of action of T. atroviride LU132 was investigated. Competition for glucose & sucrose occurred on detached strawberry leaf pieces & on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes, significantly inhibiting B. cinerea germ tube length at low sugar concentrations. The isolate also produced non-volatile inhibitory substances in minimal medium that inhibited B. cinerea germ tube elongation & in dual culture, T. atroviride LU132 was found to directly parasitize B. cinerea hyphae leading to cell collapse. The biological activity of T. atroviride LU132 against the grey mould pathogen was investigated on three cultivars of strawberry under field conditions. The study also examined the effect of commonly used botryticides on germination & growth of T. atroviride LU132 to allow selection of a fungicide for mixed application. The fungicide fenhexamid significantly increased conidial germination frequency by up to 34% & was later used in mixed tank applications. The field trials demonstrated that treatment with T. atroviride LU132, fenhexamid, & the tank-mix of both could all equally suppress B. cinerea sporulation, significantly, on strawberry leaves & stamens by 42-100%. These treatments increased yield of strawberry fruit by up to 36% but they did not reduce disease incidence in the fruit in a 7 day ambient storage trial. This research has identified T. atroviride LU132 as a successful biological control agent (BCA) of B. cinerea in strawberry. The more obvious mechanisms of action such as antibiosis, competition for nutrients & mycoparasitism have been investigated & the use of the BCA within an integrated management strategy, with the fungicide fenhexamid, has been successfully implemented. Future work will focus on developing a suitable formulation for the BCA in order to increase its efficacy under field conditions.

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  • A decade of strawberry production : an economic assessment

    Thiele, Graham Frederick

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The method of growing and marketing strawberries varies throughout the world and even within countries. Traditionally New Zealand produces strawberries on a short term cropping system where the plants may be cropped for only one or two seasons, as is the case in the Auckland province, or they may be held for three of four years as is common in the South Island. Sale is still based firmly on the local market both in fresh form and as block frozen for processing. Northern areas of New Zealand have developed a sound fresh export trade in punnets particularly to Australian markets and some strawberries are also exported fresh from the South Island later in the season. Strawberries are also exported in block frozen form and in the I.Q.F. (independently quick frozen) form. Latest statistics available1 are for the 1976 year.Figures for the 1970 year are presented for comparison. The 37.6% reduction in production in 6 years corresponds to the 38.7% reduction in area. The traditional Australian market for fresh strawberries has reduced by 79% in 6 years and represents only 40% of all fresh strawberries exported compared with 77% in 1970. Fresh fruit export to the U.S.A., U.K. and Hong Kong has increased and represents now 18,10 and 10% respectively of fresh strawberry exports. Unfortunately separate statistics are not available for export of frozen strawberries but it is estimated that it is approximately 150-200 tonnes per annum.

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  • Short term cropping of blackcurrants for mechanical harvesting

    Thiele, Graham Frederick

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The Horticultural Research Centre, Levin, New Zealand established the feasability of growing black currants on a high density system suitable for mechanical harvesting. The prototype mechanical harvester developed at the centre was subsequently further developed and researched by the New Zealand Agricultural Engineering Institute at Lincoln to produce an effective commercial machine. Simultaneously, the Department of Horticulture at Lincoln College developed a 1 hectare area of black currants to research the husbandry and marketing aspects of commercial production on this intensive system and to establish the economics of production and harvesting. This paper details the results of this work.

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  • Pre- and post-flasking factors affecting establishment of Cordyline 'Purple Tower' from tissue culture

    Thomas, Michael B.; Friend, Adam P.; Conner, G.; Conner, T.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Cordyline 'Purple Tower' has dark purple leaves, and is a strong growing hybrid from C. banksii in the Agavaceae. There are 15 Cordyline species with five, including C. banksii, endemic to New Zealand. The species australis, banksii, and fruticosa are often raised by tissue culture. In 1990, 600,000 C. fruticosa were grown in the Netherlands using micropropagation, making it the eighth most important pot plant in Europe. The micropropagation of C. fruticosa has been most frequently described. This species was found to have high bud production and a high percentage ofviable in vitro buds at 24°C during the day and 18 to 24°C at night. In tissue culture, sucrose is primarily used as an energy source for developing explants. But large amounts of sucrose reduce chlorophyll and bisphosphate carboxylase activity thus loweringthe plantlet's photosyntheticrate. These changes are irreversible and continued growth ofthe plantlet is dependent on the formation ofnewleaves. The extra sucrose increases the osmotic potential ofthe medium, which can produce plantlets with high intracellular solutes. These plantlets remain turgid and are better able to survive transplanting to another environment.

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  • Land development by Government 1945-69

    Plunkett, H. J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    From the earliest European settlement in New Zealand the wealth of the country has depended heavily upon agriculture. With a lack of useful mineral resources, small population, isolation from markets, moist temperate climate and relative abundance of land, the country's comparative advantage in international trade has centred on the production of bulky, low cost agricultural products. That this is still true is illustrated by the National Development Conference's Targets Committee projecting that over 50 per cent of the increased exports necessary for the country's continued economic growth is to come from agriculture; the sector already providing over 75 per cent of the country's exports. Although the major proportion of these exports is to come from the intensification of existing farms, a considerable increment of output will be contributed by the Government continuing its current level of operations in developing farms from existing agriculturally unproductive land. It is not the aim of this study to see whether or not the Government should extend or contract these activities. The aim of the study is rather to review past operations in this field to establish a sound base for an intelligent analysis of this particular activity of Government in New Zealand. In this study an attempt was made to ascertain the costs and profitability of creating new farms from New Zealand's agriculturally unproductive land. This form of land development is considered as an alternative to land development on existing farms as a means of increasing agricultural production. In this research project the author has analysed all the completed long-term agricultural development projects undertaken by the Lands and Survey Department since the war and assessed their profitability in terms of present values and the internal rate of return.

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  • The theory and estimation of Engel curves: some estimates for meat in New Zealand

    Yandle, C. A.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This paper is one of a series based on original research conducted by Christopher Yandle at Lincoln on the New Zealand Meat Market. In the course of this work the author conducted a questionaire survey of 300 families in Christchurch in which heads of families were asked to indicate their basic preferences for different meats, and to record their actual expenditure on meat along with family income for a given week. This paper deals at a more technical level with the analysis of this data in particular with the derivative of Engel Curves showing the relationship between consumers incomes and their purchases of meat. The subject is the estimation of Engel curves from survey data. A review is made of the appropriate economic theory, and the application of that theory to market generated data.

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  • The fate of nitrogen under an animal urine patch

    Fraser, Patricia M.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    A lysimeter study was conducted to determine the fate of ¹⁵N-labelled urine applied to a pasture soil. The influence of subsoiling upon the fate of the nitrogen was also measured and the accuracy of selected soil nitrogen models tested. A total of twelve undisturbed soil monolith lysimeters (800 mm diameter x 1100 mm deep) were extracted from an established pasture. Six of the lysimeters were sampled from an area which had previously been subsoiled to an average depth of 450 mm. The other six lysimeters were sampled from a non-subsoiled area of the same paddock. All of the lysimeters were installed in an underground lysimeter laboratory, which enabled normal environmental conditions to be maintained during experimentation. The edge of each lysimeter was sealed to prevent preferential water flow or root growth. On 11th July 1990, a two litre solution of synthetic urine, containing the equivalent of 500 kg N ha⁻¹ labelled with 5 atom % ¹⁵N was applied evenly to the surface of each individual lysimeter, thus simulating a dairy cow urination event. Simulated rainfall (10 mm) was applied immediately after the urine to ensure that significant volatilisation losses of ammonia did not occur. During the following year, the pasture was harvested periodically in order to determine the efficiency of urine nitrogen recovery by the pasture plants. Leachate samples were collected from each lysimeter after each 0.05 pore volume of drainage had occurred. A high leaching scenario was created by supplementing the received natural rainfall to ring the total water inputs up to the 75th percentile of the 100 year rainfall distribution over the winter and spring. During the summer months, border-dyke flood irrigation was simulated as per common district practice. One full calendar year following the urine application, each lysimeter was carefully dissected into 50 mm depth increments and the amount of ¹⁵N remaining in the soil and roots was determined. A complete urine- ¹⁵N mass balance was therefore possible. Subsoiling had no significant effect upon the amount of recovery of applied nitrogen by the pasture plants. Over the year of the experiment, an average of approximately 40% of the applied nitrogen was recovered by the pasture on both treatments. A non-linear regress ion model, the logistic function, was used to test for significant differences between treatments for both the amount of drainage and the amount of nitrogen leached from each lysimeter. A significantly greater amount of water was found to have drained from the subsoiled (SS) as opposed to the non-sub oiled (NS) lysimeters (SS = 648 mm ; NS = 517 mm). Almost twice as much ¹⁵N was recovered in the leachate of the subsoiled lysimeters when compared with the non-subsoiled lysimeters (approximately 16% and 8% of the applied nitrogen respectively. A significantly higher amount of ¹⁵N was also recovered in the soil in the subsoiled lysimeters at the end of the experiment (SS = 26%; NS = 20%). Overall, a greater amount of (he applied 15N was able to be accounted for at the end of the experiment in the subsoiled lysimeters (SS = 81%; NS = 72%). A smaller amount of the applied ¹⁵N was therefore presumed to have been lost by denitrification in the subsoiled lysimeters (SS = 19% ; NS = 28%). This was attributed to the increased aeration status which resulted from the subsoiling operation. Difference in drainage rates and in soil water potentials supported this hypothesis. The accuracy of prediction of four selected simulation models was tested by comparing nitrate leaching losses measured in the experiment with those predicted by the models.

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  • The application of linear programming to problems of national economic policy in New Zealand

    O'Malley, T. R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This study is part of the Lincoln interindustry research programme. Using the same basic interindustry data the task will be to determine the maximum amount of consumption which can be achieved in the target year. Rather than choosing a vector of consumption targets and using the interindustry relationships to compute a structure which will be the basis for economic policy, the aim is to use linear programming to calculate the structure which will give the greatest level of consumption that the availability of resources will allow. Not only will this method serve as a useful comparison with earlier work, but the linear programming technique gives greater flexibility to the model builder than the traditional Leontief input-output system. In particular the Leontief assumption that each sector produces one, distinct, homogeneous commodity can be relaxed. Thus it is possible to have each of two activities producing the same commodity so that the system can choose between alternative sources of supply. It is also possible to make allowance for diminishing returns by specifying maximum levels for activities so that more of the, same commodity can be produced only by an activity which has a larger requirement of scarce inputs. The scope of this study will be restricted mainly to maximising consumption so that the linear programming solution can be compared with the earlier projections, and there will be only a limited exposition of the ways in which choice can be introduced into an interindustry model. However, it is hoped that the way will be made clear for the formulation of more adventurous programming models of the New Zealand economy.

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  • Consumer demand for beef in the E. E. C.

    Hannah, A. C.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    In the negotiations connected with Britain' s entry into the E. E. C., New Zealand possesses very little true bargaining power. The only advantage we can use is to be better informed than the other side about the structure and economics of the E. E. C. market for products with which we are vitally concerned. Apart from presenting detailed results for a number of econometric models relating to each of the five main E. E. C. countries, the author also gives a large amount of information on the market structure for meat in each of the countries; and he has also brought together all the relevant meat production, consumption and price data, and for this reason alone we hope the paper will prove useful for reference purposes. The object of this study has been to try and quantify the relative effects of price and income on E.E.C. demand for beef in order to yield coefficients which might be used in later projection work.

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