91,714 results

  • Modelling land use decisions of smallholder farmers in Tonga for agricultural policy and planning

    Fakava, Viliami T.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The main objective of the study was to develop an understanding of Tongan smallholder farmers' decision making regarding the utilisation of their limited land resources. This enables assisting planners and policy makers in their assessment and evaluation of government policy measures. A secondary, but associated objective was to analyse and describe the Tongan household farming system and aspects of the goals, priorities, and constraints that influence the decisions. The objective was to be more realistic than past studies by improving the ways in which social and cultural values, beliefs, attitudes, and intentions can be incorporated. In particular, the multiple goals and preferences of Tongan smallholders, and behaviour related to non-economic goals such as socio-cultural and church obligations, were incorporated. Some insight is provided into the physical, economic, and social environment of the farming systems. Using a systems research framework, the dynamics of the smallholder farming system, its structure, decision making processes and the environment within which decisions are made, were explored. A cohesive conceptual framework for linking social, cultural and psychological processes to land use decisions was developed and allowed the development of a goal programming (GP) model to portray the decision-making process of three main farm types of Tongan smallholder farmers (progressive, emergent and marginal). This involved identifying and quantifying the resources, objectives, constraints and the many demands on the farmers' available time and limited resources that influence decision-making. In addition, three agro-ecological zones were identified and a total of eight representative models developed to describe the different farm situations. The models were subjected to validation and verification before being used to explore the effects of a number of agricultural policies. It was concluded that the models, as developed, were effective as policy analysis tools and adequate for modelling the different farm types and different agro-ecological zones which characterise Tongan agriculture. Particular attention was paid to government policies which might facilitate the successful implementation of a development strategy for increasing productivity. The main instruments explored included (a) regulations on farm size and tenure security, (b) investment in agricultural research and extension for generating improved technology, (c) market and institutional supports for market prices (changes in market prices as well as market avenue), and credit policies, and (d) influencing farmer's goals and priorities. The result of this research clearly shows that the production plans are determined not only by the resources available, the technology and the institutional constraints, but also by the preferences and importance attached to the farmers' objectives and goals. Modelling experiments for different policies concluded that feasible policy options do exist and these should help to improve the performance of the agricultural sector in Tonga and of the smallholders in particular. The results suggest the key areas for the Government to address in enhancing agricultural growth. These include (a) facilitating access to land under a secure tenure, (b) orienting the national agricultural research program towards more adaptive research, (c) improving the marketing system, (d) improving the skills and motivation of smallholders through education, training, and incentives, and (e) encouraging the development of farmers' groups.

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  • Dynamic planning and pig fattening

    Nuthall, Peter L.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Farmers make decisions in a planning environment in which planning information is frequently imperfect and outcomes uncertain. Efficient planning systems must therefore be dynamic in nature. However, available systems which are capable of being directly applied to individual farms on a whole farm basis do not reflect the true nature of the planning environment. This study explores the nature of these problems through developing a dynamic planning system for pig fattening. The study considers the nature of the pig fattening problem and specifies the important factors that planning models must allow for representing the realistic planning environment. The features of currently available models are reviewed leading to a statement of the improvements required. A realistic model of pig fattening is developed and possible solution algorithms are considered. As the models require detailed pig growth information a simulation model designed to predict response from alternative feeding patterns was developed. The output from this model together with the output from a model which calculates growth distributions and posterior probabilities on potential growth provide some of the input data for a stochastic multi-period linear programming model of the problem. The remainder, feed cost information, is obtained from least cost models formulated to represent the features of the dynamic planning problem. With imperfect information, planning involves continual re-planning as new observations are made. Consequently only the solution to the first period of the model is likely to be implemented. To ensure that the first period decision set is optimal it is shown that a minimum number of periods must be included in the planning model. The minimum number is referred to as the planning horizon. Methods of determining a planning horizon are reviewed and it is concluded that available methods do not provide a general method for all planning situations. A method is developed for the pig fattening problem. Finally, a number of planning experiments were carried out to demonstrate the value of the planning models and systems developed. The results indicate the potential value of applying sophisticated planning methods to individual farms and provide a means to examine the condition under which detailed individual farm dynamic planning can be worthwhile.

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  • Software project on fracture dynamics of wood and artificial neural network model for prediction of fracture toughness

    Dassanayake, Dharmasiri

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This study focussed on fracture and dynamics in wood using high speed imaging equipment, general and various types of imaging software other than the general equipment such as testing machine and related software. The C++ programming language helped to analyse and calculate data. Recorded fracture processes at experiments were highly valuable as they carry very important dynamic data rather than animation. This study clearly displayed the importance of the crack closure and extensions at fracture, which provided quantitative and qualitative data with the aid of software. Further data obtained from this study on fracture dynamics that combines the physical fracture path and relevant load or stress along the fracture path during its fracturing time events seems to be more important. But the thesis limits the analysis up to quantitative values of physical fracture such as crack length and speed separately analysed with the fracture toughness for crack initiation. Fracture toughness at crack initiation was modelled using an Artificial Neural Network software package. It was a hard task due to the complexity of the parameters related to fracture. However, a fine model was developed drawing zero weights to about 40% of the input parameters used. The model proved that the linked (uncracked) particles or molecules of wood are highly influenced on fracture and fracture toughness. It agrees with the Weibull's weakest link theory, but changes occur according to the loading configuration used. Therefore the local volume effect as the size effect is hypothesised to distance dependent from the crack plane and the loading plane. The study shows that the fracture effectiveness of the geometry factor of the fracturing member differs according to the loading configuration. In other words, the type of the geometry factor whether the volume or the length etc., is determined by the loading configuration used in the application. Therefore, a requirement of a proper definition or categorisation of loading configuration for fracture is raised at this point. This concept is effectively confirmed by the study in crack dynamics too as it shows the low volumetric effect at high rates of loading while it is high at low rates of loading. The study has contributed considerable new work to its field. This includes a theoretically and practically sound method of deriving length and speed of individual crack of the bunch of cracks made at any event during the fracture process recorded by a high speed camera followed by a C++ programming module and a Dbase IV database. The data accuracy was very high due to this module and the use of several general and imaging software packages too. There are valuable data left behind that can be used for computer simulation type of studies on fracture. Approximation using Artificial Neural Network method on fracture toughness was also a new method for this study, which provided a very good model.

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  • Seasonal grazing of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) on high country farmland, Canterbury, New Zealand

    Win Andrew

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    There is ongoing debate between landowners and recreational hunters about the significance of grazing by Canada goose (Branta canadensis) on New Zealand's high country farmland. The South Island Canada Goose Management Plan (1995), which includes in its aims the alleviation of such impacts, was developed in the absence of any quantitative measures of goose grazing intensity. This study aimed to quantify the impacts of Canada geese on one high country farm, through an exclosure study at Lake Grasmere, inland Canterbury. Fieldwork was conducted from July 1999 to June 2000, in conjunction with monthly observations of Canada geese on 69 ha of paddocks adjacent to Lake Grasmere. Canada goose numbers on the study site varied throughout the year, ranging from fewer than 10 geese in October and November 1999 to peak of over 400 in March 2000. These geese significantly reduced pasture production (p<0.05). Observations of the behaviour of geese on the paddocks indicated that neither season nor time of day had any pronounced effect on their foraging intensity. Consequently, grazing pressure on pasture is determined primarily by the number of geese on the paddocks. Goose numbers and impacts were highest in late summer and early autumn. Goose damage at this time is of particular concern for high country farmers who are typically trying to maintain autumn-saved pasture to assist in over-wintering their stock. At present the North Canterbury Fish and Game Council culls this goose population annually. These results may in future assist managers to better assess the costs versus benefits of any proposed changes to goose management in the high country.

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  • Institutions for water resources management in North Canterbury: a case study

    Neeson, M. P.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The Canterbury water economy is moving from a development to a mature phase. Increased water demand for agricultural purposes, especially irrigation, will place considerable stress on available water supplies and accelerate conflict with other water users. A complex institutional system exists for managing water resources in North Canterbury. This study examines these institutional arrangements and the decision-making processes of the North Canterbury Regional Water Board. The focus is upon an ex poste evaluation of the events which lead to the preparation of water allocation plans for the Waiau and Hurunui Rivers. It is shown that those groups and interests whose social power is not institutionalised are unlikely to secure more than marginal changes to the status quo. Greater changes can be secured only by directing political activity at the policy making level. The study concludes that existing institutional arrangements lead to suboptimal social decisions. Various strategies for strengthening water management institutions and policies are outlined.

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  • Wallscapes in the urban environment

    Gordon, C. F.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Look around you and the world is filled with structure. These structures are from nature, human made, physical realities but also cultural. Generally these structures create barriers or walls, visually and to our physical movement. These walls give us a sense of place, of space, helping to decide our movements and generally helping define how we 'feel' while we are going and when we get there. Through history there have always been 'walls', from the natural elements and early villages through to our modern city scapes. Humans have generally made use of their walls, from early drawings on cave walls to building decoration to create style and uniqueness to the use of pure colour to heighten and brighten. But how well do we really understand our 'walls'. What affect do they have on us? How do they define our sense of where we are and where we are going? And with the knowledge we do have, do we take the time to create wallscape which is interesting, bright or harmonious? Or is it more dull, continuous, plain, confusing. Understanding how wallscape affects us and why it is important. Understanding the elements that will enable us to create interesting surroundings in our world is also very important. In the following chapters these issues will be examined, hopefully constructing a sense of understanding about our walls and how it is possible to design wallscapes which will brighten our lives and help us enjoy our world to its fullest potential.

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  • Establishment of inner city reserves

    Preston, Dennis C.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This study examines some recent developments in the establishment procedures of small urban parks in a modem city. North American experiences are related to New Zealand approaches to inner city reserves. Colonial ideals and establishment mechanisms are compared with present day legislation and implementation procedures. Three new inner city Christchurch reserves are illustrated and some general design guidelines presented. A summary of problems, possible sources of those problems and new approaches to reserve establishment is made.

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  • Rest areas on tourist highways

    Moore, M. W.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Rest areas on New Zealand tourist highways' have primarily been provided as features to increase the safety of road users by making provision for rest stops. However from the point of view of the tourist they also provide important opportunities to enhance experience of the landscape. As tourism continues to grow and as the trend towards more flexible forms of transportation continue, rest areas will become increasingly significant facilities. This study aims to identify the functions that rest areas fulfil now and potentially, and to consider ways that they can become a well integrated part of the tourists travelling experience. The approach taken is firstly to consider tourists to understand as much as possible who they are and what they are travelling for. Given these aspirations attention is turned to the travel experience to analyse the inherent characteristics of high speed road travel and to identify opportunities presented by stopping. Section two looks at ways to integrate rest areas into the travel experience. This section looks principally at distribution planning, site selection and site treatment. A case study is then given in section three and the theoretical considerations previously outlined are tested on a real situation. An evaluation of existing provision is also made. Finally the factors responsible for the present problems are identified and recommendations are given.

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  • Cool-season management of a winter-active lucerne cultivar

    Lucas, W. J.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    A dryland lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) grazing trial to compare cv Wairau and a winter-active cultivar, Rere, was conducted over a two and a half year period using mixed aged ewes. Four cool-season grazing treatments were imposed; no cool-season grazing, grazing in mid-June, a short spelling in spring and a combination of the mid-June grazing and short spelling in spring. During the warm season, the trial was given one management of 10 days grazing with 42 days spelling. In the first season, there was no difference in total dry matter yield of Wairau and Rere. The winter-active, Rere, out yielded Wairau during part of the cool-season, while Wairau outproduced Rere in early spring. By the third season, however, the annual dry matter yield of Wairau and Rere was 10,820 and 7,300 kg DM ha⁻¹ respectively. This difference in yield was due, in part, to the appearance of crown rot in the final season. Over 60% of Rere plants were affected by crown rot, compared to only 3% of Wairau plants. The incidence of crown rot in Rere was increased by a further 20% when grazed in mid-June, although this grazing treatment did not affect the susceptibility of Wairau to crown rot. Rere was also 90% higher in weed content than Wairau when both had been grazed in June. However, grazing either cultivar in June removed overwintering aphids and resulted in lower spring aphid numbers than in lucerne spelled over June. This difference was only significant until aphid flights in November. The short spelling in spring depressed subsequent yields of both cultivars until mid-January, although aphid numbers on lucerne subjected to this short spelling treatment remained below 2 per stem until aphid flights in November. In contrast, lucerne given a longer spelling in spring had up to 90 aphids per stem prior to aphid flights. This spring grazing treatment did not affect the incidence of crown rot in either cultivar. After two seasons, combination of the June grazing with the short spelling in spring reduced the dry matter yield of both Wairau and Rere by 40% compared to lucerne with no cool-season treatment. Two other trials were established, with the lucerne cultivars Saranac, Wairau, Rere and Matador, which range from low to high winter-activity in that order. There was strong evidence from these trials that the depressive effect of June grazing on the yield of Rere in spring was due to a reduction in root reserves required for spring regrowth. Spring root reserves of the winter-active cultivars (Rere, Matador) were lower after the June defoliation than less winter-active cultivars (Saranac, Wairau) because of the greater use of reserves made by winter-actives in the cool-season utilisation of cool-season activity and high spring production thus proved to be incompatible.

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  • Bicultural resource management in an Aotearoa New Zealand context : me aka whakamua

    Oliver, E. F.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This dissertation is a synthesis of four years university study in the policy, planning and Maori resource issues area. I wrote this because many Pakeha still have no real understanding of Maori environmental values and management. I also wrote this to show "the way it is" with regard to Maori participation in resource management and decision-making. I was curious to know the reason why, even though recent legislation recognises Maori interests, their voices continue to be ignored in many important resource management areas. This dissertation discusses biculturalism and introduces the concept of bicultural resource management practice. Recommendations are made regarding what should be incorporated in to this type of practice. Their purpose is to guide those participating in resource management at the Government level right down to those working in resource agencies. This map of action came about from reflection on the institutions and legislative frameworks of this country. It was found that Aotearoa New Zealand's natural resources are managed within a monocultural framework. This dissertation has two main objectives. Firstly, to examine the common ground between Maori and Pakeha environmental values and management. The split people continue to make between Maori and Pakeha knowledge of the environment must stop. Fragmentation removes people from both the environment and the solutions to resource problems. If further research is completed regarding the common ground, a more holistic approach to resource management may be found. The second objective of this dissertation is to highlight the importance of institutional change. Without a commitment to institutional change, the policies recognising Maori interests will never be successfully implemented, nor will the essence of partnership guaranteed under the Treaty of Waitaki. In my view, if monocultural decision-making continues, so too will racial tension in this country. In many respects, this dissertation is intended for a Pakeha audience, but because I discuss common ground and bicultural resource management it will also be of interest to Maori. I feel a greater sense of identity with this piece of work by using personal pronouns. In my view, it is important not to separate oneself from one's research and because I discuss such concepts as common ground, I think it is entirely appropriate. Therefore, this dissertation is not written from the third person stance. Finally, I'll mention here that whakatauaki are found throughout the dissertation. This is because they contain valuable messages for all those participating in resource management.

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  • Pip and stone fruit production : proceedings of a course in "Fruit production" at Lincoln College in November 1980, with an additional paper from an earlier course in "Alternative land uses" held in February 1979

    Department of Horticulture, Landscape and Parks

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The papers included in this bulletin have been edited by staff of the Rural Development and Extension Centre, Lincoln College.

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  • Rock climbing on Banks Peninsula

    Grew, Ronan

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    As the pressures of modern life increase, more and more people are turning to a wide variety of outdoor pursuits to fill their leisure hours. While some are content to walk and jog, other more determined individuals seek out and climb steep and airy rock faces - this is rock climbing. Easy access and solid rock make Banks Peninsula ideally suited for rock climbing. This dissertation is an attempt to describe the origins and evolution of the sport to its present day status, that of a highly technical, competitive and physically demanding sport. One of the other purposes of this dissertation is to locate and describe the crags on Banks Peninsula. Finally, the dissertation will look at some use conflicts that have arisen in recent years and offer some tentative recommendations in an attempt to resolve these conflicts. Unfortunately, because of the technical nature of the sport, the author has had to resort to the use of a large number of specialist terms and jargon associated with the sport. For the uninitiated, there is a glossary of terms at the end of this document.

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  • Blueberry production

    Department of Horticulture, Landscape and Parks

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Proceedings of a course in "Fruit Production" at Lincoln College in November 1980, with an additional paper from an earlier course in "Alternative Land Uses" held in February 1979. The papers included in this bulletin have been edited, by staff of the Rural Development and Extension Centre, Lincoln College.

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  • Kahikatea - Podocarpus dacrydioides

    Symmes, G. W.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Kahikatea (Podocarpus dacrydioides) forests were once found extensively on alluvial plains and river flats throughout New Zealand. Today these forests have dwindled in extent; largely as a result of clearing of the fertile soils for pastoral farming and the use of the non-tainting timber for butter boxes. Kahikatea is still being used for many purposes despite the availability of suitable substitutes. The largest remaining areas of kahikatea are in South Westland, where they are protected by a Government-imposed moratorium on logging which expires in 1990. To protect these forests after that date and to establish ongoing reserves, two clear courses of action must be taken: the protection of these forests from logging, and the drawing up and implementing of a policy directed specifically at managing kahikatea in all stages and conditions of its development.

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  • The grape experiments at Lincoln College

    Department of Horticulture, Landscape and Parks

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This bulletin is a progress report on the trials that have been done up until June 1981. Bulletin no. 36, first edition.

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  • Survey of agricultural professionals - a report to the New Zealand Institute of Agricultural Science

    Sheppard, R. L.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    A report to the New Zealand Institute of Agricultural Science

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  • Heritage sites as tourist attractions : a case sudy of Luang Prabang, Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Phosikham Thongmala

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore the significant factors on international tourists' decision-making to visit Town of Luang Prabang and to identify the role of World Heritage status on international tourists' decision to visit the Town of Luang Prabang in Lao PDR. The study was conducted in the Town of Luang Prabang over the months of April and May 2009. It employed the use of a quantitative research methodology with a self-administered questionnaire survey with international tourists who were eighteen years and over. The survey was conducted at Luang Prabang International Airport, Mount Phousy, Xieng Thong Temple, open-air night market, Internet shops and restaurants along the Mekong and Namkhan rivers. The results of the research indicated that the World Heritage status of Luang Prabang plays a crucial role in attracting tourists to visit the town. However, while most of the participants stated that they travelled to the town of Luang Prabang because it is on World Heritage list, only one in three of the participants perceived themselves as 'heritage tourists'. The findings showed that this contradiction was associated with tourists' age and length of stay. Tourists who labelled themselves as 'heritage tourists' tended to be older and had a shorter length of stay in Lao PDR as well as on their total trip compared to tourists who did not call themselves heritage tourists. The study also found that older tourists were more knowledgeable about the World Heritage status of Luang Prabang before they started their trip and indicating that older tourists used more generating markers than younger tourists. The study contended that younger people often travel to heritage sites but they do not label themselves 'heritage tourists'. It is suggested that younger tourists feel uncomfortable with name heritage tourists because they might think 'heritage' is related to some thing 'old'. This study may help marketers to identify their markets and have more understanding that not all tourists to heritage sites have the same level of motivation for cultural heritage experiences and perceive themselves as heritage tourists.

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  • Country branding, consumption values, and purchase decision confidence: a case study of tourists to Thailand

    Srisutto, Sawaros

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The tourist’s purchase decision process in travelling abroad is complex. With global competition, tourists have an opportunity to choose from many countries. There are many factors influencing tourists’ travel destination choices, and affecting the confidence in their purchase decisions. These factors relate to consumption values, travel information sources, and country image. There is a lack of research simultaneously investigating these three factors together. Moreover, the research into how consumption values influence tourists’ travel decisions is limited, and would benefit from deeper investigation. This research seeks to examine the factors affecting tourists’ travel destination choices, and the factors influencing their purchase decision confidence. Furthermore, the research investigates whether the pattern of consumption values and travel information sources used differ based on socio-economic characteristics and purposes of trip. To understand the importance of consumption values to tourists, the concept of consumption values theorised by Sheth, Newman, and Gross (1991) was adapted. A quantitative approach was used with a self-administered survey questionnaire distributed to tourists arriving at Suvarnabhumi Airport, the International Airport of Thailand. The valid sample size was 1,707 respondents from seven world regions (East Asia, Europe, North America, Oceania, the Middle East, South Asia, and Africa). The results showed that functional and emotional values were the main factors motivating tourists to travel abroad. They searched for travel information from various sources, mainly from the internet, previous experience, word-of-mouth recommendations, and travel guidebooks. They also evaluated country image, and had few constraints on travelling to their selected country. Furthermore, the results indicated that five consumption values (functional, emotional, social, conditional, and epistemic) had slight positive relationships with the usefulness of a variety of travel information sources. The findings also indicated that functional and emotional values positively related to tourists’ purchase decision confidence. Images focusing on relaxation, infrastructure, convenience, and the attractions of a country also significantly influenced their confidence. In addition, five travel information sources (previous experience, brochures/pamphlets, the internet, friends/family/relatives, and travel guidebooks) were found to significantly affect confidence. Some socio-economic characteristics and purposes of trip had statistically significant differences in consumption values and the usefulness of information sources; however, there were only small mean differences. This research contributes to the theoretical and practical implications of destination marketing by extending knowledge on the relationships between consumption values, travel information sources, country image, socio-economic characteristics, purposes of trip, and purchase decision confidence. It also provides an understanding of how consumption values relate to tourists making their travel decisions, and supports the idea of how a country could build an effective brand to attract tourists. The findings of this study provide useful information for destination and tourism marketers in planning an effective marketing strategy, and in promoting a country brand to attract tourists.

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  • SOOBs in Christchurch: go or whoa?

    Boyd, Felicity

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    This related directly to the content of the course SOCI 314 (Lincoln Univeristy), which provides a critical study of issues in the provision of professional services in environmental planning, design, social sciences, tourism, sport and recreation. As part of the assessment the articles were subject to the LPR review processes and those written by Felicity Boyd, Shaun Coffey, and Sean Garlick are included here.

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  • Golf course design

    Glasson, C. R.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Accompanying maps can be consulted in the library.

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