95,838 results

  • Out of the mouths of pots : Towards an interpretation of the symbolic meaning of Cypriot Bronze Age funerary artefacts including examples in the University of Canterbury's Logie Collection

    Washbourne, Rose (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis proposes that objects from funerary contexts in Early Bronze Age Cyprus were expressions of belief in a continuation of some form of life for the deceased. In reference to this, the author argues that these funerary deposits were intended for the use of the deceased who were reborn into the Underworld; with some objects actually playing a symbolic role in the process of rebirth. So-called 'Plank Figure' images were probably representations of a deity associated with re-birth (in this thesis identified as the Near Eastern Inanna-Ishtar); whilst the pottery bowls, jugs, and elaborately decorated vessels may have also been linked with the idea of re-birth by performing the function of surrogate agents in which 'gestation' occurred. In support of this hypothesis, the form and decoration of the Red Polished funerary ware of the Early Cypriot Bronze Age is discussed in relation to its associations with motifs generally accepted as pertaining to fertility. As this pottery comes from a pre-literate period in the history of Cyprus, Near Eastern literature and artifacts are used to provide evidence of contemporary practice outside Cyprus as this may have impacted on Cypriot culture. A chapter dedicated to archaeological comparanda from the Near East, Anatolia, and Cyprus, provides evidence to suggest that Cyprus was in contact with Near Eastern religious ideas that probably influenced Early Bronze Age Cypriot society. The notion that Bronze Age beliefs survived into literate periods is pursued, with the Greek goddess Aphrodite providing the link between the Near East (in her guise as Inanna-Ishtar), Cyprus (as Phoenician Astarte), and Greece. Art, archaeology, and 'survivals' of an earlier age into a literate society are brought together in an attempt to reconstruct the Cypriots' intentions concerning the deposition of funerary goods during the Early Bronze Age. The University of Canterbury's Logie Collection provides some of the evidence, and a catalogue of the Cypriot Bronze Age tomb-groups held in the collection is included.

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  • Management Accounting Change in a Chinese State-owned Enterprise: An Institutional Perspective

    Li, Min (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Primarily, this research provides insight on a management accounting change in a Chinese state-owned enterprise (SOE) from institutional perspective. Comprising a qualitative field study, the research examines and explains how and why a management accounting change occurred in the SOE, which is the oldest and largest beer producer in China. The study focuses on the introduction and usage of a Balanced Scorecard (BSC), at both the headquarters and the factory level of the organization. The framework of institutionalization proposed by Burns and Scapens (2000) is utilized as the theoretical framework for this research. The major findings take the form of a comparison between the usage of the BSCs at the headquarters and at the factories. It is found that higher resistance to change occurred in the factories than at headquarters and resulted in the rules required by these management accounting practices to be only loosely coupled with routines embedded in everyday working activities, as the factories carried on brewing their beer. In contrast, behaviors at headquarters were more tightly coupled with the rules of the revised accounting practices. This diversity in the effect of the change process may be explained by the new management accounting practices entailing rules that fit better with the activities and routines carried out at headquarters, and so being more easily institutionalized. In contrast, institutionalization has not had much success in the factories primarily because of a lack of fit between complying with the new rules and maintaining the success of brewing operations, and because of historical circumstances that the factories have had some independence in operational matters, although part of an organizational hierarchy. Given the location of this study in a Chinese setting, the findings may contribute that, despite its Western roots, institutional theory may explain the low success rate of the implementation of the BSC in China.

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  • Texture-boundary detection in real-time

    Hidayat, Jefferson Ray Tan (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Boundary detection is an essential first-step for many computer vision applications. In practice, boundary detection is difficult because most images contain texture. Normally, texture-boundary detectors are complex, and so cannot run in real-time. On the other hand, the few texture boundary detectors that do run in real-time leave much to be desired in terms of quality. This thesis proposes two real-time texture-boundary detectors – the Variance Ridge Detector and the Texton Ridge Detector – both of which can detect high-quality texture-boundaries in real-time. The Variance Ridge Detector is able to run at 47 frames per second on 320 by 240 images, while scoring an F-measure of 0.62 (out of a theoretical maximum of 0.79) on the Berkeley segmentation dataset. The Texton Ridge Detector runs at 10 frames per second but produces slightly better results, with an F-measure score of 0.63. These objective measurements show that the two proposed texture-boundary detectors outperform all other texture-boundary detectors on either quality or speed. As boundary detection is so widely-used, this development could induce improvements to many real-time computer vision applications.

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  • Superconducting Transformer Design and Construction

    Chew, En Phin (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis first outlines the testing undertaken on a partial core superconducting transformer under open circuit, short circuit, full load and endurance test conditions. During the endurance test, a failure occurred after 1 minute and 35 seconds. During the failure, voltage dipping and rapid liquid nitrogen boil off was observed. This prompted a failure investigation which concluded that the lack of cooling in the windings was the most probable cause to the failure. Full core transformer and superconductor theories are then introduced. A copper winding transformer model, based on a Steinmetz equivalent circuit and a reverse design method, is described. A superconductor loss model which outlines the different types of losses experienced under AC conditions is used to determine the resistance of the windings in the Steinmetz equivalent circuit. This resistance changes with the magnitude of current and the strength of the magnetic field that is present in the gaps between each layer of the windings. An alternative leakage flux model is then presented, where the flux is modelled based on the combination of the reluctance of the core and the air surrounding the windings. Based on these theories, an iterative algorithm to calculate the resistance of the superconductor is developed. A new design of a 15kVA single phase full core superconducting transformer, operating in liquid nitrogen, is presented. The issues with building the superconducting transformer are outlined. First, a copper mockup of the superconducting transformer was designed where the mockup would have the same tape and winding dimensions as the superconducting transformer, which means the same core can be used for two different sets of windings. This led to designing a core that could be easily taken apart as well as reassembled. Construction of the core, the copper windings and the superconductor windings ensued. The process of cutting the core laminations, insulating the copper and superconductor tapes, and making the steel fasteners and terminations are described. The copper mockup and superconducting transformers was then tested under open circuit, short circuit, different load and endurance conditions at both liquid nitrogen and room temperatures. These test results were then compared with the those from two models. The comparison showed a significant inaccuracy in the reactances in the models. This introduced a correction factor into the superconductor model which ii made it more accurate. However, further work is required to explain and quantify the correction factors for the copper transformer model under different load conditions.

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  • Performance of ductile reinforced concrete moment resisting frames subject to earthquake actions.

    Flores Ruiz, Jose Antonio (2005)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    It has been shown that the strengths specified in the Loadings Standard NZS 4203: 1992 (Standards New Zealand 1992) to resist seismic actions are low when compared with major international design codes (Fenwick and Davidson 1994; Fenwick et al. 2002). Few modifications to these low strengths other than an increase in the minimum permissible base shear have been made in the draft revision of the Standard, NZS 1170.5. Furthermore, the design procedure to allow for higher mode effects in multi-storey structures subject to dynamic forces was developed in the 70's using a limited number of non-linear time-history analyses with a bilinear hysteretic rule and in most cases neglecting P-delta effects. In this work, a four storey, a six storey, and two twelve storey buildings, in which the resistance to lateral forces is provided by concrete moment resisting frame structures were designed and analysed. Through a senes of non-linear time-history analyses using a Takeda hysteretic rule and considering P-delta effects, three main objectives were studied. The first objective was to investigate if the strengths given to beams and columns met the objectives set by the Loadings Standard (Standards New Zealand 1992). The second objective was to examine how well the method of determining column actions from the NZS 3101:1995 (Standards New Zealand 1995) works when using the lateral loading specified in NZS 4203:1992 (Standards New Zealand 1992) and the draft provisions of the proposed Loadings Standard NZS 1170.5 and the third objective was to compare the performance of multi-storey moment resisting frame buildings where columns are modelled as: Elastic responding columns except at the base; Columns designed to meet the minimum requirements as given in NZS 3101: 1995 (Standards New Zealand 1995); and Columns designed to meet the minimum strength requirements as defined in the 2004 draft of NZS 1170.5 where limited protection to plastic hinge formation is given. The influence of the choice of hysteretic rule was assessed and in general, the structures studied performed in a satisfactory manner due to the use of a more realistic hysteretic model. The individual results from the non-linear time-history analyses were very scattered making the structures reach critical performance levels with some of the selected ground acceleration records and poor performance was observed for structures analysed using a 2,500 year return period earthquake. It was also shown that P-delta effects have a significant influence to the response even for the four and six storey structures and concluded that P-delta effects should always be included in the design and analysis of structures.

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  • The socio-cultural and psychological effects of tourism on indigenous cultures

    Berno, T. E. L. (1995)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research addresses the socio-cultural and psychological effects of tourism on the indigenous people of a developing nation. The Cook Islands served as a case study. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect data on four islands which had experienced varying degrees of tourism and other acculturative influences. The data were then analysed using a methodology informed by grounded theory. It was found that although residents on all four islands had experienced acculturative influences including tourism, (a highly visible, contemporary form of acculturation), there was no significant indication of psychological dysfunction associated with this. It is suggested that this is due in part to the characteristics of Cook Islands culture, the type of tourism currently experienced in the Cook Islands, and specific ethnopsychological features of Cook Islanders which act to moderate the stressful aspects of intercultural contact resulting from tourism. A conceptual model is proposed outlining this process and its subsequent outcomes.

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  • The contemporary New Zealand town: A study in urban geography

    Pownall, L. L. (1955)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    -

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  • The snow environment of the Craigieburn Range

    Prowse, T. D. (1981)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The snow environment of the Craigieburn Range is addressed under three major themes: snowfall, snow metamorphism and snow melt. A six year record of alpine climate and three years of snow structure analysis, which form the most extensive and reliable record of alpine snow conditions yet available in New Zealand, act as the data base. Overall, the results indicate that the Craigieburn Range snowcover is most typical of intermontane or coastal-transition regions. Snow storms and snowpack structure exhibit some characteristics typical of both maritime and continental climates. Snowfalls are usually small magnitude, low intensity events, although on average one extreme event occurs each year. Snow storms often contain periods of rain, and are characterized by temperatures which rarely fall below -6°C. In the absence of strong winds, new snow densities are similar to those for continental regions. Changes in the density and structure of deposited snow are rapid because of the relatively warm nature of the snowpack. Equi-temperature metamorphism produces density increases of up to 50% per day and is further hastened by frequent melt and rain periods which occur during the main winter period. Indirect climatic evidence suggests temperature gradient metamorphism is unlikely. Field investigations, however, demonstrated that depth hoar crystals occur throughout the snowpack and frequently develop in conjunction with ice crusts, another dominant feature of the snow stratigraphy. Sensible heat flow is the major source of heat in both winter and spring melt periods. On a daily basis, net radiation is of secondary importance, although during the daylight hours, solar radiation is usually the largest heat supply. The greatest total heat transfer to the snowpack occurs on days with rainfall. For these days, precipitation heat flow is small but the latent heat released by condensation exceeds that from net radiation. Days of high sensible heat transfer, characterized by high winds and warm air temperatures, are related to the occurrence of north-westerly winds. The amount of evaporation during many of these days is equal to high values measured overseas. The implications of an intermontane classification for the Craigieburn Range is also reviewed relative to two practical considerations, avalanche forecasting and snowmelt hydrology.

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  • Rift architecture and Caldera volcanism in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Spinks, Karl D. (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) is investigated to determine the interaction of regional structure and volcanism. A three-tiered approach is employed involving (i) analysis of rift geometry and segmentation in Modem TVZ(<15 km3, but estimates of the original volume approach 50 km3 when intra-caldera volumes are considered. Kawerau Ignimbrite thus represents the largest eruption from OCC in the last 65 ka since the Rotoiti event, and is the youngest partially-welded ignimbrite in TVZ.

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  • Demography and Population Projections of the Invasive Tunicate Styela clava in southern New Zealand

    Webber, D'Arcy Nathan (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis is about the demography of the tunicate Styela clava, a species of some notoriety because of its invasiveness and impacts in many parts of the world. Species assemblages have continuously changed throughout evolutionary history, but the rate of today’s anthropogenically facilitated dispersal is unparalleled in history. Non-indigenous species (NIS) are now considered one of the most important risks to native biodiversity. NIS become invasive by becoming both widespread and locally dominant. This requires that a species becomes established, spreads locally, and increases in abundance. In the early stages of invasion, its demography and life history characteristics are of crucial importance. In New Zealand, Styela has established populations in several places, but none of these populations has yet reached the high densities found in other countries. In Lyttelton Port, where this study was located, Styela was first noticed in 2005. It therefore presented an ideal situation to study an invasive species in its early stages of establishment and provided a potentially good model for understanding how invasive species get local traction and spread from initial infestation points. Therefore, I set out to determine demographic features of Styela to understand the numbers game of population dynamics. This study used empirical data on growth rates, size-frequencies through time, and size and age to maturity to test several models, including von Bertalanffy, Logistic dose-response, Ricker and power models of individual growth. The most useful proved to be the von Bertalanffy model. Styela individuals shrink frequently, so average growth rates were often quite low, even though some individuals reached 160 mm or more in total length. Mortality was greatest in summer, presumably after reproduction, and lowest in winter. Fewer than 5% of individuals survived 12 months, and most or all of these died soon afterwards. Populations were, therefore, essentially annual. Recruitment was difficult to determine because of the cryptic nature of small juveniles. However, size-frequency, abundance and mortality data indicated that recruitment most likely occurred in early spring (late-October), and then again in late summer, with growth to maturity (at c. 50 mm total length) within < 5 months. Several manipulative experiments showed that Styela did not readily capitalise on provision of free space but the other non-native ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, rapidly recruited. Transplants of Styela were greatly affected by C. intestinalis, which overgrew them, similar to a localised replacement of Styela by Ciona seen overseas. Lefkovitch modelling was used to test whether Styela had an “Achilles heel” in its life history, whereby managed removal could impact future populations. This showed that under several scenarios intervention would most likely be ineffectual. Overall, this study showed that the original populations in Lyttelton Port are either static or in decline, somewhat contrary to original expectations. Nevertheless, it appears that these small populations may be acting as stepping stones for spread of this species outside of the port.

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  • Studies on nematodes of dune sands

    Yeates, G. W. (1968)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Although nematodes abound in soils little has been discovered about their role in the biology of soils. Dune sands were selected for this study since if this "relatively simple" habitat could be understood it would provide a starting point to an understanding of the vastly more complex biology of agricultural soils. It was thought that the nematode fauna in sand dunes would be depauperate, that the environmental conditions might be simple enough to be understandable, if necessary duplicable, and that their variation might explain variation in the nematode fauna. In an attempt to achieve some understanding of the nematode fauna the following points were considered:- 1. Taxonomic characterisation of the nematode fauna to species level. Although de Man (1880, 1884) described several species of nematodes from the coastal dunes of the Netherlands, the nematode fauna of this environment is poorly known. Clark (1960, 1963) and Killick (1964) have described new species from New Zealand dunes. 2. Examination of the population changes of the species in relation to season, depth and other environmental factors. The majority of population studies have concerned economically important species in agricultural soils. 3. Elucidation of trophic relationships. The trophic relationships of many nematodes are unknown or unsubstantiated. Goodey (1963) gives the essence of the knowledge of the bionomics of each genus. 4. General examination of the biology of "free living" nematodes, aided by comparison between conditions in vivo and in vitro. Because of the supposed simplicity of the biota, physics and chemistry of dune sands comparison of results obtained from cultures with those obtained in the field seem more acceptable than if species from a complex agricultural soil were used.

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  • Ko e Fanā Fotu´: Success in motion, transforming Pasifika education in Aotearoa New Zealand 1993-2009

    Tongati‘o, Lesieli Pelesikoti (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis is a retrospective review and analysis of the processes and information gathered and used by the Ministry of Education in its development of Pasifika education strategic plans from 1993 to 2009. This is a high level strategic analysis, adopting interdisciplinary approaches from across the social sciences particularly from education, public policy and management, and Pacific studies. It draws on information gathered by the Ministry of Education through talanoa ako (consultation), ngaahi fekumi (literature review) and ngaahi ngāue (policy stocktake), to review whether Pasifika strategic plan development met Pasifika and non-Pasifika requirements; fulfilled authorising environments’ expectations; created public value and leadership across the education sector; and, identified what worked and why. The thesis draws upon Tongan and Pasifika values and methodologies and demonstrates how these integrate and create value across Pasifika and non-Pasifika worlds, using tools specifically created to address the methodological challenges in this thesis. The thesis finds that it is important to formulate Pasifika strategic plans with Pasifika communities, and that the Pasifika Education Plans worked in focusing the Ministry of Education and consequently the education sector on Pasifika students, parents, families and communities’ education expectations and aspirations. Keys to successful Pasifika education plan formulation included engaging Pasifika students, parents, families and communities in education discourses; improving the education workforce’s responses to Pasifika peoples; placing Pasifika learners at the centre of pedagogy and epistemology; faster scaling up of what worked in raising participation, engagement and achievement; and, having more choice for Pasifika communities to realise their education potential and exercise their voice at all levels of education governance and decision making. It identifies the successful coordinating factor to be the growing of champions and leaders within the Ministry of Education, Pasifika communities and in the education sector to lead and sustain change through ownership, responsibility, accountability and monitoring for Pasifika success.

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  • Investigating the relationship between spatial ability and feedback style in ITSs

    Milik, N.; Mitrovic, A.; Grimley, M. (2008)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Rapid and widespread development of computerised learning tools have proven the need for further exploration of the learners’ personal characteristics in order to maximise the use of the current technology. In particular, this paper looks at the potential of accounting for spatial ability in ERM-Tutor; a constraint-based tutor that teaches logical database design. Our evaluation study shows no conclusive results to support a difference in effectiveness of the textual versus multimedia feedback presentation modes with respect to the students’ spatial ability. However, we observed a number of trends indicating that matching the instruction presentation mode towards the students’ spatial ability influences their perception of the system and motivation to use it, more than their learning gain.

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  • Implementation of an agent-based simulation platform for audiology trainees

    Heitz, A.; Grimley, M.; Davis, N.; Dunser, A.; Grady, J. (2010)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Narrative assessment and practising for equity in early years education

    Gunn, A.C.; de Vocht van Alphen, L. (2010)


    University of Canterbury Library

    In whose interests does narrative assessment work? Can narrative assessment be viewed as the kind of assessment that leads to equity? How and for whom? This paper critically examines the shifts in assessment practice in New Zealand early years education, framing it as a move towards equity and questioning the place of narrative in this.

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  • Reading errors made by children with low vision

    Douglas, G.; Grimley, M.; McLinden, M.; Watson, L. (2004)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Previous research has shown that, on average, children with low vision lag their sighted peers in general reading development (in terms of speed, accuracy and comprehension). This study sought to examine this apparent lag by comparing the reading profiles of 25 normally sighted readers (mean age 8 years 8 months) with 25 low vision readers. The children were tested using a reading test (the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability, NARA) and were matched on the reading accuracy score produced by the test. Therefore in terms of the reading accuracy scores (and reading ages) derived from the NARA both groups were the same. The low vision readers were on average older than the normally sighted children (mean = 10 years, 5 months). When the reading profile (i.e. accuracy, comprehension and speed) was examined in the same analysis no significant effect was revealed [d.f. = 1, 48; F = 0.05; p > 0.1], but a general lag for these children is suggested (in keeping with previous research). However, a closer analysis of the reading error profile revealed the most common reading errors made by all readers in the analysis were either mispronunciations or substitutions. The low vision readers were more prone to making substitution errors than mispronunciations and the reverse was true for normally sighted readers [d.f. = 1, 48; F = 7.1; p < 0.05]. This indicates that the reading strategies adopted by low vision readers may differ from those of normally sighted readers of the same apparent reading ability.

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  • Supporting school improvement: The development of a scale for assessing pupils' emotional and behavioural development

    Grimley, M.; Morris, S.; Rayner, S.; Riding, R. (2004)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Available online via the Taylor & Francis Group site by subscription.

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  • The Principal-Manager Choice Model and Corporate Governance: An Empirical Study of Agency and Stewardship Theory

    Crombie, N.A. (2007)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Using the Case Study Method to Develop Generic Skills: An Analysis of Student and Tutor Perceptions

    Crombie, N.; Lord, B. (2009)


    University of Canterbury Library

    Amid calls from the accounting profession and accounting educators for a syllabus that would develop generic skills as well as technical competence, the course supervisor of a final year management accounting course made changes to the tutorials. It was hoped that weekly one-page assignments, presentations and discussions of assigned cases would develop communication, team work, problem solving, critical thinking, conceptual thinking, time management and research skills. This research comprised a survey of current and past students’ perceptions of their learning of generic skills in the tutorials, as well as the views of the current tutors. Both students and tutors felt that the format of the tutorials and assessment enabled the development primarily of problem solving and critical thinking, but also to a high degree of team work, time management, communication and conceptual thinking. Research skills were the least developed. The same skills were perceived to be useful in an accounting career.

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  • New Zealand's Discourse on Executive Remuneration

    Crombie, N.A. (2010)


    University of Canterbury Library

    Purpose: Zajac and Westphal (1995; 2004) found that US companies have transitioned from corporate (or managerial) to agency (or shareholder) logic. This study examines the institutional logic embedded with New Zealand’s discourse on executive remuneration, and how it influences the decision-making of remuneration committees. Design/methodology/approach: Data are collected from 33 semi-structured interviews with 5 executives, 16 non-executive directors, 7 consultants, and 5 representatives of issuers (who produce codes of best practice). The interviews focused on executive remuneration in New Zealand publicly listed companies. Findings: Non-executive directors draw on a multitude of rationales to justify or legitimise their decisions regarding executive remuneration. The rationales include: agency, consultant, fairness, human resources, market, motivation, pay-for-performance, and responsibility. However, the market rationale dominated the discourse on executive remuneration. The majority of non-executive directors, executives, and consultants interviewed argued that one executive’s remuneration should be comparable to another executive’s remuneration. Research limitations/implications: Both the agency and corporate logics have been institutionalised in New Zealand. However, the dominant remuneration rationales fit with the corporate logic, rather than the agency logic. Practical implications: As the remuneration rationales are taken-for-granted they offer non-executive directors considerable flexibility in deciding how and how much to remunerate executives. Shareholders and regulators need to be aware of this flexibility. Originality/value: This study develops and tests a theoretical framework for understanding how institutional logics can influence organisational decision-making. Type: Research paper

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