91,637 results

  • An examination of some investment decisions under crown renewable lease tenure

    Evans, L. T.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    New Zealand has a total area of 66.4 million acres, of which 44 million are classified as occupied farm land. More than 40 per cent of this latter area is held under leasehold tenure. The Crown is the landlord of 14.9 million acres which are let under several forms of leasing arrangement. In recent years there have been marked increases in land prices throughout New Zealand. A result of this has been a substantial increase in rents, which has caused many farmers to become disaffected with leasehold tenure. The Committee of Investigation into Rentals and Freeholding of Crown Leases (1968), convened by the Minister of Lands, studied this problem and has forwarded to Parliament recommendations for an amendment to the 1948 Land Act. The subject of this study is Crown Renewable lease tenure and its effect on farm investment. It falls naturally into three parts: firstly, a descriptive section providing a resume of the history of land tenure in New Zealand, and defining the terms of Crown Renewable lease tenure. The second part investigates the micro-economic aspects of this form of tenancy. This section takes as given the terms of the lease and investigates various courses of action at the farm level. A case study approach is used to explore the economics of alternative investment opportunities open to an individual lessee. In the third part, macro-economic aspects of Crown Renewable lease tenure are investigated. This section examines whether or not this form of tenure promotes efficient resource allocation, and is concerned with the community's point of view rather than that of the individual.

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  • Advancing the customary use debate in New Zealand : some policy considerations from a Pakeha perspective - a case study of the kuaka

    Barber, Faith

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    There has been increasing efforts, in recent years, by Maori to further restore customary use decision making rights. This has resulted in a continuing, and sometimes antagonistic, debate in New Zealand between 'preservationists and pro-harvesters'. However, the interested parties all have one key concern in common - a concern for the future well-being of the species. Maori express this concern in terms of providing the conditions for and maintaining a sustainable harvest while preservation lobby groups want this dealt with via the preservation ethic. Existing legislation such as the Wildlife Act 1953 is mostly interpreted so as to exclude Maori from decision making processes. Further, conservation legislation is interpreted from a preservationist perspective. However, New Zealand is signatory to, and has ratified, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which supports the development of sustainable use. I examined the issue of customary use decision making rights from the Pakeha perspective of national and international policy. I argue that government, in order to act consistently with the CBD and Article II of the Treaty of Waitangi, will need to involve Maori in the decision making process. Development of a national biodiversity strategy, the responsibility of the Department of Conservation, is seen as one vehicle for advancing policy and understanding in this area. It is recommended that the Crown and Iwi construct a process for the development of this strategy. Concurrently, government needs to facilitate a process to improve understanding between Maori and key preservation groups. I argue that unless some initiatives are taken soon many species' populations will continue to decline.

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  • Factors affecting the demand for meat in New Zealand

    Klinsukon Tawinuch

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Since the late 1970s, New Zealand red meat consumption has declined considerably whereas white meat consumption has gradually increased. The purpose of this research is to determine whether there has been a structural change in the domestic demand for meat in New Zealand. A parametric approach was used as it allows for the estimation of price and expenditure elasticities. The first-differenced form of the Linear Approximate Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS) model was estimated, using quarterly New Zealand data for the period 1985-2000 on meat consumption, prices and real total expenditure. The null hypothesis of no gradual shift in the share of each type of meat was tested using a time trend. Although the sign on the coefficients of the time trend in each equation conformed with a priori expectations, they were not statistically significant. These results suggest that the empirically observed changes in the pattern of meat consumption in New Zealand can be explained by changes in relative prices and expenditure. Both Marshallian and Hicksian price and expenditure elasticities were estimated. The estimated Marshallian elasticities suggested that the demand for beef and veal is price elastic whereas the demand for poultry is price inelastic. They also suggested that the demand for lamb and mutton is price unitary. Beef and veal, and lamb and mutton were determined to be luxuries whereas pig meat is a necessity. The estimated Marshallian expenditure elasticity for poultry had an unexpected negative sign but was not statistically significant. The Marshallian cross-price elasticities revealed a complementary relationship among many of the meats, which contrasted with a priori expectations. Results for the estimated Hicksian elasticities were largely consistent with the Marshallian elasticities. Compared to the Marshallian elasticities, the Hicksian own-price elasticities are smaller in magnitude. In addition, the Hicksian cross-price elasticities indicate a higher degree of substitution than the Marshallian cross-price elasticities.

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  • An analysis of factor costs in the New Zealand meat processing industry

    Clemes, Mike

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This thesis analyses the factor costs of killing and processing sheep and lambs from works gate to ex-works in a New Zealand processing company. It examines the effect of throughput numbers on these factor costs using capacity utilization as a measure of cost efficiency.

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  • The diffusion of energy efficiency innovations among residential consumers

    Ball, Richard J.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The deregulation of New Zealand's retail energy markets was expected to provide energy efficiency gains through increased competition between demand-side and supply-side options. This has lead to energy efficiency gains in the commercial and industrial sectors, but there have been no substantial energy efficiency improvements in the domestic sector. This thesis uses a diffusion theory framework to investigate the rate of diffusion of energy efficiency innovations among residential consumers in New Zealand, and makes recommendations on how the rate of diffusion may be increased. Four models were developed to compare potential adopters of two energy saving innovations at two stages of the adoption process. These models allowed comparison to be made with respect to the roles of the perceived attributes of the innovations, the communication channels through which information disseminated and a range of contextual variables. The models were given logit specifications and maximum likelihood estimates were obtained using cross-sectional data from Christchurch households. A key finding was that the perceived attributes were important in problem recognition, but that it was the nature and number of the communication channels which differentiated adopters from rejectors. It was recommended that energy efficiency programmes centre on the development of inter-personal communication strategies and increased feedback on energy use, rather than price subsidies, to increase the rate of diffusion of energy efficiency innovations among residential consumers.

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  • A public environmental education exercise in perspective

    Dangerfield, G. M.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Appendix II - "Energy in the New Zealand environment" is only available to view with the Archive copy held in the Library.

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  • An economic study of lamb fattening on rape

    Flay, A. H.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The raising of fat lambs is not restricted to any particular system of farming, but limitations are imposed by many physical factors, the major ones being soil, climate, topography, and transport facilities. The aim of this investigation was directed towards obtaining information on; (a) the cost of producing rape, (b) the productive value or gross returns from rape as a fat lamb producer, and (c) the profit or loss on the rape crop when grazed by fattening lambs. The investigations reviewed the importance of rape as a fattening crop and the circumstances under which it is grown. It appears that rape will continue to be grown in the drier areas of the Dominion. It need not be considered essential in the maintenance of soil fertility, but it fits in well with the organisation of labour on cropping farms. The cost of growing the rape crop and the gross returns are influenced by numerous factors, many of which are outside the farmer’s control. The profit from the crop in those cases where store lambs are bought and fattened is governed mainly by the rape yield and the price of store lambs. Under average conditions for farmers to make a profit by buying store lambs and fattening them on rape, there is a tendency for the prices of store lambs to be too high. Finally, investigation has shown that the field to be covered is very complex, conditions varying with the efficiency of the farmer, with soil, weather, crop yield and breed of lamb as well as with the margin between store and fat lamb prices. Another factor, more difficult to measure, is the benefit obtained from rape in the general crop rotation and farm management.

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  • Passing time: a phenomenological approach to heritage design

    Hoddinott Wendy

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    "It's a debate that's been bubbling among Akaroa's townsfolk for 130 years. Should the 4.9ha Garden of Tane (or the Domain, as it was known until 1986) be allowed to return to natives, or should it be restored, in part at least, to what many regard as its glory days in the last few decades of Queen Victoria's reign?” In response to the apparent conflict between movements to preserve natural or cultural heritage, this dissertation explores time as a design strategy, its use in international heritage sites and the application of these design principles in the interpretation of the Garden of Tane in Akaroa. Intervention within heritage landscapes can make the "passing of time visible [and] also make this passage effecting of further potential". Descombes suggests that to recover something - "a site, a place, a history or an idea - entails a shift in expectation and point of view.” Acknowledging the landscape as part of a 'living process' this study adopts a phenomenological approach to design, engaging perception and imagination in the experiential facets of space and place. Discovery of and a weaving together of the physical and the sensual, the real and the imaginary, the external and the internal, enables designers and planners to integrate the "numerous possible pasts" from which heritage is selected. Principles that enable the changing aspects of a single place to be revealed enhance meaning of the places and the activities of people who use these places without locking them into one romanticized past.

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  • Genetic engineering for antibacterial activity in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Ampomah Dwamena Charles

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Lettuce crop is affected by bacterial diseases (both in the field and in storage) with severe, consequences which can be mitigated through improving disease resistance in lettuce. The numerous constraints associated with sexual crosses in lettuce render novel gene transfer via genetic manipulation a suitable method for lettuce improvement. This study was undertaken to transfer three chimaeric genes encoding antibacterial peptides into lettuce and to ascertain the effectiveness of these peptides in enhancing bacterial disease resistance. Genetic manipulation of plants requires a good regeneration ability of genotypes in tissue culture, to ensure recovery of complete transformed plants. Twenty-two lettuce genotypes belonging to several morphological groups were thus screened for their regeneration response to defined tissue culture conditions and selection of amenable genotypes for genetic manipulation. Genotypic variation was observed in callus, shoot and root production in vitro; two lettuce genotypes Bambino (a crisphead) and Cobham Green (a butterhead) with good tissue culture response were subsequently chosen for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Two binary vectors carrying chimaeric genes (with T4 lysozyme, magainin IT coding sequences) were obtained from Crop & Food Research, Lincoln; these vectors had pBINPLUS (a recently constructed binary plasmid) as the backbone. A third binary vector, similar in structure to the two others, with a chimaeric gene encoding Shiva-1 (a cecropin B analogue) was successfully constructed. The three vectors, pBINPLYS, pBINMGN and pBINPLUSH (encoding T4 lysozyme, magainin IT and Shiva-1 respectively) in Agrobacterium strain AGLI were used for the transformation of Bambino and Cobham Green. Two transformation treatments: a delay of 5 days (after co cultivation) before explants were transferred to kanamycin selection medium and an immediate transfer of explants to selection medium were studied for their effect on transformation frequency. Successful regenerated transformed plants of Cobham Green were obtained in this study; however, attempts to transform Bambino proved futile and no regenerated transformed shoots of Bambino were obtained. The specific reasons for the failure to transform Bambino are unknown but crisphead lettuce genotypes are often recorded as being recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The delayed selection treatment gave higher transformation frequencies in Cobham Green than the immediate selection treatment. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with specific npt IT oligonucleotide primers confirmed the presence of the selectable marker gene in all the 22 putative transgenic plants recovered. An inheritance study on the selfed progeny of transformed lines, confirmed transmission of the kanamycin resistance and pointed to a single insertion of the npt II gene in most of the transformed lettuce lines. The presence of the antibacterial genes was established in all the transformed plants, by PCR. The presence and effectiveness of the antibacterial peptides were determined by an in vitro assay and greenhouse evaluation of pathogen resistance in seedlings. Crude leaf extracts from selected transformed lines and control of untransformed Cobham Green were added to cultures of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and Xanthomonas campestris pv vitians to establish their effect on the growth of the pathogens. Growth of pathogens in cultures with crude extracts from transformed lines was inhibited while extracts from the control showed no such effect on the growth of the pathogens. In the greenhouse, selfed progeny of transformed lines and untransformed control were inoculated with the two lettuce pathogens to assess their response to disease development. Overall, delayed symptoms and reduced disease severity characterised the inoculated transformed lines, compared to the control seedlings. The potential of the antibacterial genes to effectively improve the resistance of bacterial diseases in lettuce was evident in these assays.

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  • International visitor attitudes to Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal

    Pandey, Megh Bahadur

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This study was done in Sagannatha (Mt. Everest) National Park (SNP), Nepal over a period of two months - December, 1991 and January, 1992. Sagarmatha National Park is a prime destination for many of the tourists who visit Nepal. It is a World Heritage Site and thus has great importance for conservation as well as for tourism. The success of the tourism industry depends on visitor satisfactions with their visits to these destinations. The success of SNP as a conservation area is equally dependent on visitor appreciation and sensitivity in terms of their activities while in the Park. This study explores visitor reasons for visiting SNP, visitor satisfaction with their visit to the Park and the local beliefs about the visitors. Data for this research were collected from the SNP visitors and local residents through questionnaire surveys and in-depth interviews. Due to field constraints, true random sampling was not possible. Trekking, viewing scenery, Mt. Everest and Sherpa culture were the main visitor reasons (motivations) for visiting SNP. Visitors reported "highly achieved" for each of these and thus were highly satisfied with their visit to SNP. It does not negate the fact that tourism brings with it many problems. In SNP rubbish and firewood were seen to be the major problems. Among the locals, lack of knowledge and awareness were seen as being the major drawbacks in trying to solve these problems. Visitors indicated a number of other issues which they felt needed improvement such as rubbish disposal, hygiene, sanitation and the quality of drinking water. These issues were not perceived as lessening visitor satisfactions as visitors indicated that they expected these conditions. This information points out that anticipated expectations of a destination were the determinant of the actual satisfaction. Visitors rated most of the SNP hotel/lodge facilities as "reasonable" or higher but in their comments and in-depth interviews they commented about needed improvements. Visitors evaluated these facilities in terms of what they anticipated not what they thought the facilities should be.

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  • Partnership in parks. A framework for Kai Tahu participation in national park policy and planning

    Freeman, Amanda N. D.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The current opportunities for Kai Tahu to participate in national park policy and planning are, in the opinion of most Kai Tahu, inadequate. Kai Tahu are often consulted by the Department of Conservation (DOC) but their advice and comments are usually sought at a late stage in the decision making process. The Court of Appeal has said that the Treaty of Waitangi requires a partnership between Maori and the Crown. The present arrangements for representation and consultation do not provide a basis for a partnership between the Crown and Kai Tahu in policy and planning for national parks. This study proposes an institutional framework based on a negotiated partnership between the Crown (ie DOC) and Kai Tahu in policy and planning for national parks. Under this framework, the future Iwi Authority of Kai Tahu and the DOC would be required to negotiate with one another over matters of mutual concern. Both parties would have recourse to a tribunal which would be guided by the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi. The outcome of such an approach is difficult to predict because it would be very dependent on the initial negotiations (and the roles, rights and obligations assigned to each partner. The outcome partnership is also likely to be influenced by the of nature of any remedy Kai Tahu receive, or hope to receive from their claim to the Waitangi Tribunal. However, some general comments can be made. Such an approach would have implications for the funding of both Kai Tahu and the DOC, the role of the Conservation Boards and for park interpretation. The day to day management of the parks could be expected to remain much the same.

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  • Policy design and risks to compliance: The New Zealand Nursery Industry and the HSNO Act

    Clinehens, Sarah T.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The regulation of the importation of new plant species underwent a major shift in the late 1990's with the implementation of the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996. Under HSNO plant species entering New Zealand for the first time are assessed for their invasive potential. These risks are weighed against the benefits of importing the species. HSNO addresses the primary pathway for introduction of environmental weeds to New Zealand: intentionally imported horticultural species. This thesis explores the effectiveness of HSNO in regulating the importation of new plant species. The research focuses on the response of the nursery industry, a key target group, to the Act. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are used to examine nursery industry views of the HSNO Act. Possible problems with noncompliance are investigated with the aid of a conceptual framework of policy design and compliance behaviour. The analysis suggests that targets may perceive the costs of compliance to outweigh the benefits thus undermining calculated motivations for compliance. The analysis also indicates that targets may perceive HSNO to be unfair and impracticable thus detracting from normative motivations for compliance. The implications of these issues for HSNO's effectiveness are discussed and means for addressing the problems identified are considered.

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  • The physical activity levels of older New Zealanders : how active are they?

    Sinclair, Kim M.; Hamlin, Michael J.; Simpson, Clare S.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    New Zealand research on the physical activity levels of older adults has primarily focused on self-report methodologies and there has been a lack of quantification of what constitutes 'moderate-intensity' physical activity. To determine moderate-intensity physical activity in older adults, 9 male and 9 female subjects (age 72 ± 5 yrs, mass 70.7 ± 11.6 kg, height 165.8 ± 9.4 cm, BMI 25.6 ± 2.5, mean ± sd) were given a medically supervised progressive exercise test on a treadmill. Heart rates (HR) and subjective ratings were taken every minute until the test finished at 8 minutes (n = 17) or when participants were advised not to continue (n = 1). The speed of the treadmill was initially set at 1 or 2 km.h⁻¹ and adjusted each minute based on individuals' subjective rating. From regression analysis of subjective rating and speed with HR we found that a subjective rating of 3 (moderate on the Borg scale) equated to a mean treadmill speed of 4 ± 1 km.h⁻¹ (mean ± sd). At this speed the predicted mean HR was 109 ± 18 min⁻¹. A t-test verified that no significant difference existed between predicted HR scores when using either speed on the treadmill (4 km.h⁻¹) or a rating of 3 on the subjective scale (p=0.62). We conclude that a HR of 109 min⁻¹ is equivalent to moderate-intensity physical activity for older adults and may be used as a benchmark for moderate intensity in subsequent studies on the physical activity levels of older adults. The second phase of the research assessed what proportion of older adults in Christchurch and Greymouth adhere to New Zealand physical activity guidelines that recommend 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity most, or preferably all, days of the week (Guideline 1). This guideline can also be translated into 2.5 hours of moderate-intensity physical activity per week (Guideline 2). Participants HR were continuously monitored and recorded every minute for four days, from waking in the morning until retirement at night. Sixty-two (31 female, 31 male) older individuals from the Greymouth and Christchurch regions (age 71.6 ± 6.4 yrs, mass 72.4 ± 11.7 kg height 168.4 ± 8.8 cm, BMI 25.4 ± 3.8, mean ± sd) provided full sets of HR data. The physical activity level of participants was assessed through Criteria A, which was determined from our treadmill test. To meet Criteria A participants were required to elevate their HR above 108 min⁻¹ for the number of minutes necessary to meet each guideline. Subjects were deemed to meet Guideline 1 if they accumulated at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on 3 of the 4 recording days and Guideline 2 if they accumulated 86 minutes over the four days. Using our criteria gained from the treadmill test only 18% of participants engaged in appropriate amounts of physical activity to meet Guideline 1 and 40% of participants complied with Guideline 2. Physical activity adherence diminished with age across the 65-69, 70-74, 75-79 and 80+ age categories. Individuals in the 65-69 year old age group demonstrated the highest levels and those in the 80 years and over group the lowest levels of physical activity compliance. Males were slightly more active than their female counterparts when assessed under Guideline 1 (19% - 16% males and females respectively), although females produced slightly superior levels of compliance than males under Guideline 2 (42% - 39% females and males respectively). Christchurch residents were 1.6 times (95% CL 0.5 - 4.9) more likely to adhere to Guideline 1, and 1.1 times (95% CL 0.9 - 1.1) more likely to adhere to Guideline 2. There was no statistically significant difference between the physical activity participation of participants on weekdays (mean 81 ± 9 min⁻¹) compared to weekend days (mean 81 ± 10 min⁻¹) (p=0.92). When asked to self-report their physical activity participation in the last seven days, 61.3% of participants recorded that they had undertaken at least 30 minutes of physical activity each day in the previous week. Overall, this study quantified moderate-intensity physical activity for individuals aged 65 years and over in terms of walking speed and heart rate and subsequently determined the percentage of older adults that engage in sufficient levels of physical activity for health. The quantification of what constitutes moderate-intensity for older adults will assist in providing a realistic benchmark for daily physical activity involvement. The low compliance levels of older adults to physical activity guidelines highlight the requirement for active leisure policies and interventions that cater for this ageing population.

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  • Pump Fiction : the bodybuilding sub-culture and attitudes towards health

    Ballard, Graeme S.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Very little detailed analysis of bodybuilders has been conducted (Klein, 1986). Perhaps because of the lack of studies on bodybuilders, or perhaps as a reflection of the nature of the sub-culture, it appears that bodybuilders cannot easily be packaged into one particular line of thinking or academic discipline. The studies that have been undertaken on these athletes tend to examine issues such as objectification of the body, posing, harsh dieting practices and the use of drugs, including anabolic steroids. By examining these facets of bodybuilding in isolation these studies tend to judge bodybuilders in a negative way, rather than focussing on the bodybuilding lifestyle as a whole in order to more fully understand all the aspects of the sport and the reasons behind some of the norms and values. This thesis is an ethnographic-style account of elite level bodybuilders in New Zealand and is an attempt to bridge some of the gaps in the literature by emphasising how normal both males and females participating in the sport, at the elite level, can be. The first chapter is the literature review which outlines the existing literature on the body, bodybuilders and drug use. The literature chapter details the history of bodybuilding and the development of a bodybuilding subculture which was once viewed as deviant, but presently enjoys some degree of legitimacy and, perhaps, respectability among the general population. This chapter also details some of the health issues related to bodybuilders. Although this may include diet, a large segment relates specifically to drug use. Given the significance of drug use in bodybuilders' lives, a brief history of anabolic steroid use is included and shows that bodybuilders and power lifters were the first athletes to use these drugs. How anabolic steroids work, in terms of physical and psychological effects on the individual, and the possibility of healthy steroid use will be examined within the context of increasing medical intervention in the general population. In order to integrate the possibility of healthy steroid use with the values and norms associated with the bodybuilding sub-culture, the literature review will also outline the concepts of a serious leisure career and locus of control. These are the tools which will be used in the analysis sections to both explain and understand some of the issues in relation to diet and drug use in the lives of elite level bodybuilders. The second chapter details the methodology used to gather the data. The reasons why qualitative, semi-structured interviews were thought to be most appropriate, the selection of respondents to be interviewed and the places chosen to observe bodybuilders will be discussed. The ethical considerations will be described because of the potentially illicit nature of some of the data. Chapters three and four together form the analysis section. Chapter three focuses on the bodybuilding sub-culture and the important values of health and individualism associated with it. It details the gym hierarchy and illustrates, firstly, how novice bodybuilders must get in with the higher ranked athletes, and then use their knowledge to successfully compete and gain status themselves. The role of internal attributions related to the athlete's experience in the hierarchy is also examined in relation to diet and drug practices. Chapter four details how important the lifestyle of bodybuilding is to the athletes in this study in relation to a theoretical bodybuilding career path. The issues of internal control and individualism which are so important in the bodybuilding sub-culture appear to be challenged as the athlete moves up the gym hierarchy. These challenges, along with the athletes' coping strategies, are described. Chapter five discusses the two analysis chapters and attempts to integrate the findings of this study with the literature review and outlines the limitations and possibilities for future research.

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  • Decision-processes of adopters and non-adopters of an innovation

    Jangu Ngenang

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    There have been some concerns about the low uptake of new technologies by farmers. One of the ways of addressing this issue is by understanding the perspectives of different groups of decision makers, particularly non-adopters. There were four groups of non-adopters: discontinued, wait-and-see, constrained and would never adopt. These groups have not been previously studied in farm management research. The main objective of this research was, therefore, to explore the cognitive structures of the adopters and non-adopters of an innovation. In order to achieve the above objective, personal construct theory and the repertory grid technique with its computer software programme, the RepGrid, was used to elicit and analyse the interview data for a non-random sample of 25 dairy farmers in the Canterbury region. This research was exploratory in nature and focused on farmers who have used or not used heifer synchronisation. The results of the study show the importance of farmers' personal construct systems in their decisions to adopt or not to adopt an innovation. The adopters and non-adopters used different constructs in their decisions to adopt or not adopt. Furthermore, the four groups of non-adopters also construed and behaved in different ways. Within each group of decision makers individuals generally construed and behaved similarly to each other. It was also found that farmers would not accept any information or an innovation which did not fall within their own conceptual construct framework or outside the range of convenience of their cognitive structures. In other words, farmers operate both as heterogenous and homogenous groups for a particular innovation. First, the adopters and non-adopters have used different constructs and behaved differently from each other; that is, they have used contrasting constructs in their decision. Second, the individuals within each group of adopters and non-adopters have used one to three shared constructs and behave in similar ways; that is, they have used consensus constructs in their decision. Third, three groups of non-adopters (discontinued, wait-and-see and constrained) have used one shared construct and behave differently from each other; that is, they have used conflicting constructs in their decision. Fourth, within each of the four groups of non-adopters, there are both shared and different constructs but, within a group, farmers still behave in similar ways; that is, they have used corresponding constructs to reach the same decision. These groups of decision makers are dynamic in nature which is illustrated by the types of constructs. Some individuals might change if they have permeable constructs or construe in a loose manner. Other individuals might not change or remain in the group if they have impermeable constructs or construe in a tight fashion. These findings have wider implications for farm management research and extension. They are important in terms of understanding farmers' circumstances, particularly the different groups of non-adopters. The findings are also useful for extension in trying to develop some policies and strategies for increasing the uptake of new technologies by farmers. In other words, exploring the personal constructs of the adopters and the various groups of non-adopters provides useful guidelines to the development of effective technology transfer programmes in order to increase the uptake of these new technologies by farmers.

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  • Absorption of nitrogen from a liquid by pine bark

    Musgrave Simon, J.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This study investigated the potential of Pinus radiata (pine) bark to absorb organic and ammoniacal-nitrogen, from an aqueous solution and from a dairy slurry, in the laboratory and in a field treatment of dairy slurry. Preliminary experiments indicated that the initial nitrogen concentration of the solution had a significant effect on the rate of nitrogen absorption. The range of physical and chemical characteristics in pine bark and dairy slurry was found to give some variation in the quantity of nitrogen absorbed over time. Some unexplained results were attributed to differences in pine bark characteristics between samples, and to undefined analytical errors which may have included microbial activity in stored samples. Phenyl mercuric acetate was found to have no significant effect on the analysis of ammoniacal nitrogen using the Flow Injection Analyser, and was hence used for the inhibition of microbial activity in subsequent samples during storage. Empirical models were developed for predicting the amount of ammoniacal and organic nitrogen absorbed, from an aqueous solution of ammonium sulphate and from a dairy slurry, by pine bark over time as a function of pH and initial nitrogen concentration in the laboratory and in the field. The proportion of ammoniacal nitrogen absorbed over 24 hours, at pH 6 to 8, ranged from 35% from an initial concentration of 50 ppm-N, to 15% from an initial concentration of 200 ppm-N. After three weeks, approximately 75% of the ammoniacal-nitrogen was absorbed from a solution of 100 ppm-N ammonium sulphate at pH 6. About 50% of the total nitrogen in a dairy slurry was absorbed by pine bark over two weeks. The model developed for predicting the absorption of ammoniacal-nitrogen was tested and found not appropriate for describing the absorption of total nitrogen from a dairy slurry. A new empirical model was developed for the dairy slurry. Initial pH of the solution was shown to have an effect on the mechanism of nitrogen absorption. At pH 6 there was no difference in the absorption of nitrogen by sterilised and non-sterilised bark, whereas at pH 8 there was a significant reduction in absorption of nitrogen by sterilised bark. This suggested that the absorption of nitrogen at pH 6 was largely chemical, whereas at pH 8 there was significant microbially mediated absorption. Infra-red spectroscopy was used to deduce some possible functional groups involved in the absorption of various forms of nitrogen. A simple on-farm dairy effluent treatment system was designed and tested, with some success. In conclusion, pine bark was shown to have potential to remove significant quantities of organic and ammoniacal-nitrogen from a slurry, and in the process creating added value for the pine bark as a product which could be used in a horticultural context.

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  • Studies on faecal coliform bacteria in sediment of the Avon-Heathcote Estuary, Christchurch, New Zealand

    Dall, C. T.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The shallow bar built, well flushed Avon-Heathcote Estuary is a popular recreational area. Water quality within the Estuary is reduced by inputs of enteric organisms, which may include pathogens, originating from the Avon and Heathcote Rivers, oxidation pond effluent (Christchurch Treatment Works), wildlife, recreational water users and runoff from the surrounding catchment. The sediments of estuaries have been shown to be a reservoir of bacteria of sanitary significance and so a study was undertaken to determine the importance of sediment in the Estuary. Counts of faecal coliforms in sediment deposited at two intertidal sites during one tidal cycle ranged from 30 to 556 g⁻¹ (dry weight) and numbers appeared to be influenced by factors including turbulence and sediment type. Experiments undertaken to determine the role of adsorption in the removal of faecal coli forms from the water column suggested that much higher densities than would normally be expected would be needed in the water overlying one intertidal site to explain the observed counts unless other mechanisms were involved in the removal of faecal coliforms from the water column. Movement of faecal coli forms through sediment packed into columns was studied after an in situ experiment suggested that faecal coli forms deposited onto surface sediment could move to deeper sediment. Experiments showed that sediment profiles appeared to retain relatively high proportions of the faecal coli forms applied to them. Enumeration of faecal coli forms in sections taken from sediment profiles showed that numbers of faecal coli forms retained in the sediment declined approximately logarithmically with depth. When sediment profiles containing high numbers of faecal coliforms were flushed with water of low conductivity relatively few faecal coliforms were removed from the sediment. Enumeration of faecal coliforms in sections taken from sediment profiles suggested that faecal coliforms removed from the surface could be retained further down sediment profiles. A second in situ experiment suggested that bacteria could potentially travel far below the surface layers of sediment if they remained suspended in percolating estuarine water. A combination of gentle physical disturbance and reduction in the salinity (conductivity) of estuarine sediment-water mixtures resulted in substantial release of sediment bound faecal coliforms. Sediment was demonstrated to extend the survival of faecal coliforms when estuarine water and sediment were incubated together at 15°C in the dark. This appeared to be substantiated by faecal coliform counts in sediment at an intertidal site which were higher than those in the overlying water according to a previous bacteriological survey. Counts also varied seasonally while higher numbers of faecal coli forms were found in the 0-10 mm depth than at the 10-40 mm depth of sample cores. The findings of this study appear to substantiate the belief that estuarine sediments can be reservoirs of bacteria of sanitary significance, therefore, further research on bacteria in estuarine sediment is warranted, especially in light of the extended survival of faecal coliforms in sediment and their potential release as shown in this study.

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  • Administration of commercial recreation in the South Island mountain lands : a case study of the upper Waitaki

    Jebson, R. M.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Outdoor recreational activities constitute a major use of the South Island mountain lands. The commercial recreational industry has a key role in servicing the needs of both overseas and New Zealand recreationists. The industry has experienced rapid growth in the past and has the potential for further growth. At present the administrative framework within which the industry operates is in some aspects a source of dissatisfaction to both the industry and administrators alike. This study principally identifies issues of controversy stemming from current administrative policy and practice. The development of the study requires a comprehensive review of existing commercial operations within the industry, something that has not previously been undertaken. The study also has involved the setting down of the major features of existing policy and administrative practice. This has been undertaken at two levels. Part One of the study identifies the principal administrative issues facing the industry. An overview is presented of both services provided by, and public administration of, commercial recreational enterprises in the South Island mountain lands. From the overview the industry emerges as already extremely diverse in character and expanding in overall scale and complexity. Public sector administration of the industry appears as exceedingly generalized, piecemeal and, in many regards, failing to keep abreast of the industry's development. In Part Two issues of possible controversy raised by the overview are subject to detailed examination in the context of a case study. They are assessed by means of detailed personal interviews with people directly involved in either administering or operating commercial recreational enterprises within the Upper Waitaki Basin. Interview results indicate that five administrative issues in particular stand out both as having policy implications and requiring further administrative attention. The issues are: - the level of co-ordination and representation of all bodies involved in the industry; - the extent of administrative involvement in regulating particular aspects of the industry; - the establishment of length of licence tenure: - the setting of licence fees; and, - the consideration of respective rights of commercial and private recreationists, particularly in regard to public facility use. The study concludes by identifying guidelines against which both existing and developing administrative policy might be reviewed.

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  • "It lets you use your feet more like you use your hands on the rock" : a haptic geography of bouldering

    Foster, Roland J.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This dissertation presents the results of an exploratory study of the ways boulderers have developed unique haptic skills during the practice of bouldering at Castle Hill/Kura Tawhiti, 100 km west of Christchurch, New Zealand. The research is grounded in phenomenology and ecological perception and takes as its starting points the importance of movement to perception, and that the whole body is necessarily involved in haptic perception. The research highlights the ways that boulderers cultivate particular skills of haptic perception that are related to the whole body, the hands and the feet, and elaborates the role of technology as a mediator between the feet and the rock. The study concludes that feet are as important as hands for haptic perception while climbing at Castle Hill/Kura Tawhiti.

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  • Leisure and rural communities : a case study of needs and attitudes in Waipu, Northland, New Zealand

    Benson Richard

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This thesis investigates the leisure of people in rural communities using a case study approach. A mail survey was conducted among the residents of Waipu, a rural community in Northland. The study examined the needs and attitudes associated with leisure, as well as the understanding of leisure, leisure participation, and leisure intentions. Attention is also focused on the features and characteristics of rural communities. The results suggest that a range of perceptions, beliefs, feelings and intentions are associated with leisure, and that these can be the result of a number of personal and social factors. The study identified a number of statistically significant findings between males and females and among various age groups in the areas of latent and manifest need, cognitive attitudes, affective attitude and leisure behaviour and activity. The study finishes with a summary of results, along with conclusions suggesting that rural communities and their leisure, including the needs and attitudes associated with leisure, are influenced by societal expectations, traditional roles and responsibilities, the family and the purpose of leisure. The implications of the study are discussed and ideas for further research are identified.

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