96,058 results

  • Some physiological changes in female athletes during and after exercise : investigating the use of a new, low-invasive sampling method (electrosonophoresis) : a thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Exercise Physiology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Purnell, Heather Margaret

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was to monitor cardiovascular and endocrine changes in sedentary and training females during a six week period, and to assess the accuracy of a new, low-invasive sampling methodology (electrosonophoresis). Changes in fitness were measured using oxygen consumption (VO2). The impact on VO2 of sleep quality, sleep duration and alcohol consumption (recorded in sleep logs) was assessed. Cortisol, testosterone and growth hormone levels in plasma were monitored for acute changes following fitness tests, and chronic changes related to training, oral contraceptive use or alcohol consumption. Hormone concentrations in blood and saliva samples were compared to those in interstitial fluid (obtained using electrosonophoresis) to investigate the accuracy of electrosonophoresis. Mean VO2 increased by 3.3 ± 1.3mL/kg/min between Week 1 and Week 5 and the changes detected in heart rate (HR) during the fitness tests suggest that aerobic fitness of the training participants increased across the study. No significant associations between sleep quality, sleep duration or alcohol consumption and VO2 were detected. No acute changes in plasma hormone concentrations following fitness tests were detected. No chronic changes in plasma cortisol or testosterone concentrations were detected, although a non-significant trend towards increased plasma GH levels in training participants was detected. Resting plasma cortisol levels were significantly lower in oral contraceptive users compared with non-users. Plasma testosterone and growth hormone levels were unaffected by oral contraceptive use. Alcohol consumption had no acute detectable effects on plasma concentrations of the three hormones. Plasma testosterone levels were higher in participants who abstained from alcohol, and higher plasma growth hormone levels were detected in heavy drinkers. These results contrast with published reports. Concentrations of the three hormones in interstitial fluid and plasma exhibited highly significant positive correlations (r2 > 0.98) with an interstitial fluid:plasma concentration ratio of about 1:10 in each case. Equations to predict plasma concentrations of cortisol, testosterone and growth hormone from interstitial fluid concentrations have been derived. The electrosonophoretic method apparently provides an accurate, painless, low-invasive method for prediction of the plasma levels of these three hormones. This technology has far-reaching implications for research in human, animal and biomedical fields.

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  • Blood brothers & southern men : engaging with alcohol advertising in Aotearoa : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology at Massey University

    Cherrington, Jane

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of this project is to develop a robust methodological translation of the insights of 'culturalist' theoretical positions in communications studies as an alternative through which to approach contemporary media research. The focus is on engagements with alcohol advertising. In Aotearoa/New Zealand, as internationally, there is a significant body of publicly-funded research examining how alcohol advertising affects audiences. However, this thesis contends that important questions need to be asked about the adequacy of these (dominantly positivist) investigations. A review of local research identifies that in theoretical and methodological terms the majority of these studies are riddled with tensions and contradictions. In addition, when located within the context of wider developments in contemporary communication studies, an important epistemological gap is highlighted as requiring attention and debate. Comparison of this local review with international studies highlights similar concerns, particularly around 'effects' driven research, the adequacy of dominant positivist models, and the need to examine epistemological alternatives that can encompass meta, meso, and micro forms of enquiry. A discursive-theoretical approach is then argued as an epistemological alternative that is highly congruent with contemporary communication studies, which, if more robustly translated through methodology and method, could provide a very solid 'culturalist' alternative framework for media research. Taking a contrastive, multi-voiced, context-based approach, the present research focuses on connections, divergences, or disjunctions between different participants' interpretations of, and responses to, themes, ideas and positions they perceive as existing in the ad-texts, and themes and ideas on offer about alcohol in the wider social context. Using a methodology I describe as 'Discursive Sonar', this research highlights the socially located, interpretative complexity of advertising engagements. By unpacking that complexity, this project identifies how, and why, media engagements vary for different participants (including that of the reflexively engaged participant researcher). By locating the interactions between participants and ad-texts within the context of wider struggles over meanings around alcohol in Aotearoa/New Zealand the research shows ways in which both ad-texts and participants reflect, employ, and debate those wider struggles. I contrasted and compared individual participant interactions with the content and themes they identify in response to the ad-texts, with what producers intended those texts to communicate, and also with the views of the other participants. Through these analyses key textual 'mechanisms' become apparent as determining why and how engagements can be closely shared or variable between people and groups. Focusing on diversity and variance in engagements highlights cultural shifts around how alcohol is understood in Aotearoa/New Zealand, as well as significant alterations in views between the generations involved in the project. Focusing on commonalities across engagements identifies how 'interpretative communities' can be produced through textual responses, which are in turn engendered in response to commonly held constructs such as gender and age. This project succeeds in two ways. As well succeeding in significantly developing existing 'operationalisation' of discursive theory, it also constructs a viable discursive framework through which to approach media research. It is suggested that further development of this alternative might move us beyond the barriers of abstraction and effects in media research to examine the ways in which media and other dominant discursive forms interact, and are interacted with, to shape choices in our social worlds.

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  • Teachers and children learning together : developing a community of learners in a primary classroom : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education at Massey University

    Sewell, Alison Mary

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study investigates the development of a community of learners by observing the changes in teachers' and children's participation in four Year 3 / 4 classrooms. The study also explores the teachers' and children's perspectives of learning and teaching and the impact of these on the development of a community of learners. Factors enabling and constraining this developmental process are also identified. These research foci respond to a synthesis of research revealing the importance of teachers and children learning together in cohesive learning communities (Alton-Lee, 2003); a sociocultural approach that is uncommon in New Zealand primary classrooms.Sociocultural theory also informs the generation, analysis and presentation of data. Participant observations, sustained conversations and interviews with the teachers and target children were used to generate data across three cycles of collaborative action research over one school year. Analyses of these data were made by observing the teachers' and the children's transformation of participation through Rogoff's (2003) personal, interpersonal and institutional lenses. The results of this analysis process are presented according to the lens through which the transformation was observed.The findings showed a community of learners as comprising reciprocal connections across cognitive, social, emotional, spiritual and physical dimensions. Transformations of the teachers' and the children's participation in these five reciprocal connections were observed as evidence that a community of learners was developing. These new forms of participation in the classroom shaped, and were shaped by, new identities as learners and teachers, new perspectives about learning and teaching, as well as new culturally authorised values and practices for learning together. Multiple factors constrained the development of a community of learners. The most pervasive constraint was the persistence of teachers' and children's traditional perspectives that prevented understanding of the reciprocity and responsivity of shared activity. A range of factors also enabled the development of a community of learners. The opportunity for professional dialogu in this collaborative action research most enabled the teachers' to develop a community of learners in the classroom: the opportunity for guided participation with teachers and peers in shared classroom activity most enabled the children to learn together.These findings reveal the demanding, complex and mutually constituting nature of developing a community of learners in a primary classroom. The transformation of participation observed in this study provides evidence of the positive contributions sociocultural theory can make to both teachers' and to children's learning. Implications based on these findings are considered for teachers, children, researchers and education providers who together share responsibility for developing and sustaining a community of learners as accepted instructional practice in primary classrooms.

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  • Knowledge creation : a study of consulting practice in corporate governance : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Management at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Peirano-Vejo, Maria Elisa

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The management consulting industry has been growing exponentially during the last two decades influencing the relationships between business schools, corporations and universities, achieving a significant role as a modern "knowledge creator". This thesis studies the process of knowledge creation undertaken by management consultants. The academic mode of creating knowledge as described by Kuhn (1996) was used to direct this exploration of consultants as a knowledge creating community. The purpose of using the scientific method of knowledge creation is not to compare or to judge consulting knowledge, but to use it as a way of entry to explore consultants' practices. In a complementary way to Kuhn's core concepts, a brief Foucauldian overview identified concepts like inclusion and exclusion, discourse and the notion of practices, which are used in the analysis. An empirical research was conducted focusing specifically on a group of practicing consultants in New Zealand. Thirteen consultants who specialize in corporate governance advice were interviewed. Corporate governance was chosen as a field of advice because it is a clearly separable area of management consulting. In this study, the categories of community and paradigm served as a point of entry to explore knowledge creation practices. The data was analyzed qualitatively in search for evidence of community belonging and patterns in consultants' knowledge creation practices. It has been found that consultants, in spite not having a formal regulating professional body, behave as a professional community that has entry requirements, exit procedures and credentials for belonging. Consultants define their identities in the intersection of overlapping communities, which sometimes include their former educational backgrounds, their professions and their current practice. Research findings show that consultants in governance share a paradigm, which trascend particular consulting firms and reach a larger group of consultants. This paradigm has quality control processes such as reputation and re-engagement, and common methods in dealing with governance problems. In addition, in terms of the body of knowledge shared, there are certain factors that determine the value of that knowledge for consultants such as novelty, commercial value, utility and accessibility.

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  • Shards of teacher and curriculum development in four New Zealand secondary schools : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    O'Neill, John

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study examines teacher and curriculum development in the period of intense curriculum policy reform of the mid-1990s. It is based largely on interviews conducted with teachers in four New Zealand secondary schools. It documents and analyses the thinking and strategising that informed their attempts as teachers and curriculum leaders to develop their individual and collective practice and respond to external demands for change. The accounts are contextualised within the history, politics and culture of New Zealand secondary schooling since the Thomas Report on the Post-Primary school Curriculum in 1943, and parallel developments in secondary schooling in other anglophone countries.The study attempts to understand the workgroup, organisational and systemic constraints within which secondary school teachers conduct their work and how they seek to exercise their individual and collective agency in order to gain more control and knowledge of their occupational circumstances. The study links contemporary dilemmas of practice to longer standing, embedded tensions of curriculum content, pedagogy and assessment. It identifies continuities and discontinuities of secondary schooling practice in the decades since the 1940s and shows how contemporary policy options and proposed solutions are simply the latest staging post in a protracted sequence of political efforts to solve 'problems' of curriculum and credentialing. In some respects, the official policy texts introduced in the 1990s spoke directly to teachers, own pragmatic concerns and aspirations. Thus, in this study, teachers and curriculum leaders engaged creatively and energetically with the challenges posed by school-based Unit Standards trials because they appeared to offer the opportunity to end secondary teachers' long search for meaningful alternatives to examination dominated schemes of work, assessments and credentials. However, curriculum innovation always took place alongside other day-to-day routines and seasonal patterns of work. For curriculum leaders in this study, these multiple demands meant that any potential benefits of voluntary curriculum innovation had constantly to be weighed against its costs in terms of other workgroup priorities, the energies and dispositions of fellow workgroup members and their personal health and well-being.

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  • Shiftwork in air traffic services : coping strategies and well-being : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Signal, T. Leigh

    Thesis
    Massey University

    It is becoming widely recognised that shiftwork has significant implications for the health, safety and quality of life of shiftworkers. To date, little research has been carried out on how individuals cope with the problems caused by shiftwork and how effective coping strategies maintain their health and well-being. It has been proposed, by Monk (1994), that there are a number of aspects of a shiftworker's life which are important in determining the ability of an individual to cope with shiftwork. These factors are an individual's circadian rhythms, sleep patterns, and social and domestic situation. Further literature also suggests that workplace factors and coping style are an important part of tolerating shiftwork. The primary aim of the present study was to determine which factors are important in predicting the physical and mental well-being of Air Traffic Services staff working on shifts. It was hypothesised that individuals who are evening types, have few social, domestic, sleep, and work place difficulties will be physically and mentally healthy. In addition, it was hypothesised that the use of engagement strategies in dealing with shiftwork related problems will relate to better physical and mental health. To test the hypotheses, 183 Air Traffic Services staff from Melbourne centre, Australia were surveyed by questionnaire. The results of the regressions showed that physical health was predicted by variables from each of the five areas considered; circadian typology, the social and domestic situation, work place factors, sleep patterns and coping style. Mental well-being was best predicted by a single domestic variable, which is the extent to which shiftwork caused domestic problems and the two coping variables of engagement and disengagement. The results support the suggestion that in order for an individual to be able to tolerate shiftwork they must have strategies in place to help them deal with the effect of shiftwork variables on a range of factors in their lives. An additional aim of the present study was to determine the reliability of a questionnaire for use with Air Traffic Services staff. This was due to a lack of suitable questionnaires for use in this occupational context. Overall the items in the questionnaire were found to have acceptable reliability, although the collection of sleep data by subjective reporting is not recommended.

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  • He huarahi motuhake : the politics of tribal agency in provider services : submitted in fulfilment of the requirement of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Te Pūtahi a Toi, School of Māori Studies, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Jahnke, Huia

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis explores the nature of tribal service provision, in particular the characteristics that distinguish tribal provider services. An indigenous research paradigm, Mäori philosophical traditions and tribal histories provide the context for researching and theorising about the three tribal organisations upon which this study is based. The thesis argues that tribal authorities emerged not only as a response to state policies of devolution but also as ongoing expressions of self-determination. How tribal organisational bureaucracies were established historically provides the context for examining the interface between tribal organisations and the state. In particular, specific historical events leading up to the 1840 annexation of New Zealand by Britain that demonstrate British assumptions of authority, humanitarian ideals and interventions by state functionaries in the affairs of New Zealand.A discussion on the nature of the state as the basis for Eurocentric bias in modern constitutionalism offers a platform for understanding the art of government. Four interconnecting themes give a systematic basis for exploring the distinctive characteristics of tribal provider services that emerged as significant in this study; 'ngä mahi a ngä tangata' examines advocacy, responsiveness and relevancy. 'Ngä mahi mä te iwi' considers how links to the Mäori communities are constituted relative to whänau, hapü and marae. 'Ngä mahi a ngä tipuna' explores how culture counts and the place of Mäori culture and traditions in the workplace. 'Ngä mahi tuara' examines cultural frameworks located within Mäori philosophical and customary practices and traditions.Finally, an analysis is given of the contracting environment and the counterstrategies employed by the participants in this study in countering the limitations imposed by the terms of state contracts.

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  • The secondary school teacher in New Zealand, 1945-2000 : teacher identity and education reform : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Couling, Donald F.

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis aims to show how the secondary teacher in New Zealand was constituted in discourse through an examination of two major recontextualisations of education, the changes resulting from the Thomas Report (1944), and the Picot Report (1988), and of the collective identity of secondary teachers. Both reports redirected government education policy and regulation and had fundamental implications for teachers' work and the role they were expected to play in education. Secondary teachers resisted both reforms, and in doing so they revealed elements of their conservative, pragmatic and defensive collective identity, which changed in only one significant respect in the time period considered in this study. It took twenty years before the central tenets of the Thomas Report were even close to being universally accepted. Even then, the child-centred philosophy and practice propounded by the Thomas Report, supported by the Currie Report in 1962 and supervised by the gentle discipline of the Department of Education, was likely to have been more honoured in the breach than in the observance by many New Zealand secondary school teachers. In more recent times, the 'neo-liberal', market-driven view of education and teachers, as expressed in the reforms which followed the Picot Report, were stoutly resisted despite the much more rigorous disciplinary techniques employed by the Ministry of Education. This thesis will show that the dominant discourses which constituted the secondary teacher were those of the collective identity of secondary teachers and that these effectively frustrated attempts to impose change on New Zealand secondary teachers and on secondary education.

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  • When prudence is reckless : rethinking the role of project risk management : a 152.785 (25 point) research report presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Management at Massey University

    Busch, Adrian

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Despite the widespread use of project risk management, the results of such efforts are often underwhelming. Do project risk management practices somehow miss the point? To explore this idea I use a critical management studies framework to study project risk management. The approach prescribed in the Project Management Institute's Project Management Body of Knowledge is compared to the very different approach of a professional project manager. A theorised analysis of the difference between these approaches finds that they employ the logic of different knowledge-constitutive interests thereby making them suitable for different purposes. The study concludes with a discussion of how the results of this analysis can be presented to practitioners in a way consistent with the emancipatory agenda of critical management studies.

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  • City revealed : the process and politics of exhibition development : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Museum Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Smith, Daniel Charles Patrick

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines the ways in which the process of exhibition development and the politics this involves affects the practice of history in the museum. It does this by establishing the broad parameters of history practice in the museum and places this in relation to academic practice, focusing on the New Zealand context and specifically upon Auckland War Memorial Museum. From this basis the thesis examines the development of City exhibition at Auckland Museum as a large-scale museum history exposition. The development process for this exhibition was created with the aim of changing the traditional Museum approach so as to create a more engaging and scholarly history exhibition than is traditional. At the same time however, there was also an aim of retaining the appearance of the traditional Museum within this programme of change. These aims were to be met by the innovation of the collaboration between an academic historian and the Museum's practitioners in the development process.The research is based upon a detailed investigation of the roles played by the exhibition team members and the decisions, negotiations and compromises that they made through the development process. Beginning with their original intentions and concepts for the exhibition its metamorphosis into the exhibition as it was installed in the Museum gallery is traced. Emphasis is placed on the resonance that the various decisions and changes carried into the finished exhibition. The findings indicate that the Museum's traditions of developing and displaying knowledge exerted a strong conservative effect over the exhibition development in conflict with the programme of change. This conservatism vied with the authorial intentions of the exhibition development team. As a result of this influence the exhibition developed leant towards the conventional. The unexpectedly orthodox outcome resulted from the absence of critical museological practice. The thesis argues that although Auckland Museum had undergone extensive restructuring, including the introduction of new exhibition development processes and a new outlook as an organisation, the conception of history in the Museum had not changed. Ultimately this precluded that the practice of history in the institution would advance through the revised exhibition development process. However, the development of City did help achieve the updating of social history in the Museum and remains a platform upon which a more critical approach to the past can be built.

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  • The Immaculate Perception project : exhibition creation and reception in a New Zealand regional art museum : thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Museum Studies, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Hansen, Paul

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Internationally, museums have increasingly come under review since Bourdieu's (1969) research focused on art gallery visiting patterns and cultural codes. Museums exist within a post-modern milieu that demands a more democratic approach to defining their cultural and educational role within society. Over the last decade in particular, art museums, criticised for being elitist and insular within their communities, have been challenged to be more inclusive, accessible and relevant to their local communities.The literature suggests that a review of the core mission and the culture of museums is required to provide the catalyst for change. However, there is little evidence or few models offered as to how such re-visioning could be implemented. New Zealand art museums have been slow in responding to the issues, or to conducting research involving either their visitors or their communities. These emergent issues provided the context for this study, which is focused on the creation and reception of a community based exhibition within a contemporary regional art museum.This exhibition project brought together community participants and established artists, and the study evaluates the responses of the exhibition creators and the exhibition audience. In line with action research methodology, evaluation surveys and observational data were collected during the distinct phases of the project and resulted in a number of findings that have implications for regional art museums.The findings from this present study indicate that curators working alongside the community with an action research methodology, while developing exhibition projects, can produce positive outcomes for the participants, the audience and the museum. Creative partnerships can be established that enhance life-long-learning opportunities and contribute to the relevance of museums within their communities.The present study also proposes that museums re-vision their mission to become 'learning organisations' (Senge, 1994, 2000) and provides a model that could be appropriate for museums intent on enriching their organisational culture and enhancing their significance and profile within their community.

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  • Yeast metabolism in fresh and frozen dough : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Food Technology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Miller, Simon Derek

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Author also know as SM Loveday

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  • Advertising and the market orientation of political parties contesting the 1999 and 2002 New Zealand general election campaigns : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Politics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Robinson, Claire Elizabeth

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis proposes an alternative way of establishing a link between market orientation and electoral success, by focusing on market orientation as a message instead of as a management function. Using interpretive textual analysis the thesis examines the advertising messages of the highest polling political parties for evidence of voter orientation and competitor orientation in the 1999 and 2002 New Zealand general election campaigns. Relating manifest market orientation to a number of statistical indicators of electoral success the thesis looks for plausible associations between the visual manifestation of market orientation in political advertisements and parties' achievement of their party vote goals in the 1999 and 2002 elections. It offers party-focused explanations for electoral outcomes to complement existing voter-centric explanations, and adds another level of scholarly understanding of recent electoral outcomes in New Zealand.While the thesis finds little association between demonstration of competitor orientation in political advertisements and electoral success, it finds a plausible relationship between parties that demonstrated a voter orientation in their political advertisements and goal achievement. The parties that achieved their party vote goals in 1999 and 2002 tended to demonstrate an affinity for their target voter groups by showing images of voters and their environments and images of party leaders interacting with voters. They demonstrated concern for the satisfaction of the needs of existing voters by using words of togetherness and proving they had met their previous promises. They did not change their policy or leadership messages dramatically between campaigns. There was a visual consistency to their television, print and billboard advertising messages which rendered the messages easy to recognise and remember. They were clear about what they were offering in exchange for the party vote and recognised the need to offer something in addition to previous offerings in order to attract new voters.

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  • A macroeconometric analysis of foreign aid in economic growth and development in least developed countries : a case study of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (1978-2001) : a dissertation presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Economics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Xayavong, Vilaphonh

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Despite receiving large quantities of aid, many developing countries, especially the Least Developed Countries, have remained stagnant and became more aid-dependent. This grim reality provokes vigorous debate on the effectiveness of aid. This study re-examines the effectiveness of aid, focusing on the ongoing debate on the interactive effect of aid and policy conditionality on sustainable economic growth. A theoretical model of the aid-growth nexus was developed to explain why policy conditionality attached to aid may not always promote sustainable economic growth. Noticeable methodological weaknesses in the aid fungibility and aid-growth models have led to the construction of two macroeconometric models to tackle and reduce these weaknesses. The Lao People's Democratic Republic's economy for the 1978-2001 period has been used for a case study.It is argued that the quality of policy conditionality and the recipient country's ability to complete specified policy conditions are the main factors determining the effectiveness of aid. Completing the policy prescriptions contributes to a stable aid inflow. The aid-growth nexus model developed in this study shows that stable and moderate aid inflow boosts economic growth even when aid is fungible. However, failure to complete the policy conditionality owing to inadequate policy design and problems of policy mismanagement caused by lack of state and institutional capability in the recipient country triggers an unstable aid inflow. The model shows that unstable aid flows reduce capital accumulation and economic growth in the recipient country. These empirical findings reveal that policy conditionality propagated through the "adjustment programmes" has mitigated the side effects of aid fungibility and "Dutch disease" in the case of the Lao PDR. Preliminary success in implementing the policy conditions in the pre-1997 period led to a stable aid inflow and contributed to higher economic growth. This favourable circumstance, however, was impaired by unstable aid flow in the post-1997 period. The lack of state and institutional capacity in the Lao PDR and the inadequate policy design to deal with external shocks triggered the instability of aid inflow, which in turn exacerbated the negative effects of the Asian financial crisis on the Lao PDR's economy.

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  • The role of prolactin in the control of ovine lactogenesis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science at Massey University

    Peterson, Samuel Walter

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A series of trials was carried out to examine the role of prolactin (PRL) in the control of lactogenesis in New Zealand Romney x Border Leicester ewes. In addition, a study was made of differences in milk yields and plasma PRL concentrations between spring- and autumn-lambing ewes.Daily subcutaneous injections of 2 mg CB154 inhibited PRL secretion and delayed lactogenesis. There were no consistent effects on plasma progesterone or insulin concentrations. CB154 treatment was more effective in reducing milk yield in twin-bearing than in single-bearing ewes when used for 20 days than for 9 days prepartum. The differential effects on milk yield cannot be explained by corresponding effects on plasma PRL or insulin concentrations. Circulating PRL during the period 20 to 10 days prepartum may have an important effect on milk yield in twin- but not single-bearing ewes.Subcutaneous injections of 0.5 mg/kg live weight oPRL, administered on 2 consecutive days peripartum, to ewes treated with CB154 for 7 days prepartum, resulted in milk yields similar to those in control ewes and significantly (P<0.001) higher in spring (282±12 g/d) than in autumn (225±15 g/d). The seasonal differences were confounded with corresponding differences in ewe live weight and it was not possible to determine whether dietary differences contributed significantly to the differences observed.Two routes of oPRL supplementation were used to test the effectiveness of elevating peripheral or local levels of PRL in autumn-lambing ewes which, based on previous results, were expected to have low plasma PRL concentrations and milk yields relative to spring-lambing ewes. Administration of 10 mg supplementary oPRL directly into the gland or subcutaneous injection of 0.5 mg/kg oPRL did not increase the milk yields, or change the composition of milk, compared to controls. These results suggest that the circulating level of PRL, and the intramammary concentration of PRL, in autumn-lambing ewes are not limiting lactogenesis. Because the plasma prolactin concentration in the ewes was unexpectedly high, it was not possible to reach firm conclusions regarding possible effects of supplementary oPRL in ewes with naturally low plasma PRL concentrations. Nevertheless, the results indicate that raising the intramammary concentration of PRL around the time of parturition, in ewes with circulating PRL levels characteristic of normal spring-lambing ewes, does not enhance lactogenesis.It is concluded that PRL is important to the complete initiation of lactogenesis in ewes, that it acts directly on the gland and that it is necessary for establishing the maximum potential of the gland to secrete milk.

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  • Instructional and improvisational models of music therapy with adolescents who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) : a comparison of the effects on motor impulsivity : a thesis presented to fulfil the requirements for the degree of Master of Music Therapy at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Rickson, Daphne Joan

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study compared the impact of instructional and improvisational music therapy approaches on the level of motor impulsivity displayed by adolescent boys who have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Measures included numbers of errors made on a Synchronised Tapping Task (STT); and Conners' Rating Scales (Conners, 1997). Participants (n=13), aged 11 - 16 years, were enrolled in a special residential school. A combination of a multiple contrasting treatment and an experimental control group design was used. Students were randomised to three groups; control (Group A) and two treatment groups. Students in Group B received eight sessions of improvisational music therapy followed by eight sessions of instructional music therapy, while the order was reversed for Group C.There was no statistical difference between the impacts of the contrasting music therapy approaches on the level of motor impulsivity displayed by the students as measured by the STT and the Restless-Impulsive and Hyperactive-Impulsive Conners' subscales. However all students significantly improved on the STT across each phase of treatment and improvement was slightly greater during the instructional treatment periods for both groups. During these same periods teachers reported a small decrease in restless and impulsive behaviours. The results therefore cautiously imply that the instructional approach might contribute to a reduction in motor impulsivity in the classroom.Significant improvement on STT without the corresponding improvement in motor impulsivity suggested that increased accuracy on the STT might be attributable to progress in other developmental domains. Teacher report of significant improvement for treatment groups on the DSM-IV Total Subscale adds weight to this suggestion, and implies that combined music therapy approaches might have contributed to a reduction in DSM-IV symptomology in the classroom.Rickson's (2001) tentative suggestion that creative music-making might over-arouse students with ADHD was not confirmed. Students did make more errors when tested on the STT a second time on the same day but this was regardless of whether they had been involved in instructional, improvisational or no music therapy programme. It is possible that students who have ADHD are easily aroused by the general school milieu and classroom or music room interactions with peers.

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  • Mathematical modelling of granulation processes : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Mathematical Physics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Rynhart, Patrick Reuben

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Granulation is an industrial process where fine particles are bound together into larger granules. The process has numerous applications including the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and the production of cosmetics, chemicals, detergents and fertilisers. This thesis studies aspects of wet granulation which involves the application of a viscous binder, usually in the form of a spray, to an agitated bed of powder particles. Individual powder particles may adhere together, joined by small quantities of binder fluid called liquid bridges. By a process of collision and adherence additional particles may join the newly formed agglomerates. Agglomerates may also coalesce together which is a process that leads to granule formation. On the completion of this process, granules are typically dried.This thesis studies wet granulation on three different levels. First, micro-level investigations of liquid bridges between two and three particles are performed. For the two-particle case, the fluid profile of static (stationary) and dynamic (moving) liquid bridges is investigated. For the static case, a numerical solution to the Young-Laplace equation is obtained; this relates the volume of binder fluid to liquid bridge properties such as the inter-particle force. An analytic solution is also obtained, providing the liquid bridge profile in terms of known mathematical functions. For both solutions, the radii of the (spherical) primary particles may be different. The dynamic case is then studied using the Navier-Stokes equations with the low Reynolds number approximation. The motion of the approaching particles is shown to be damped by the viscosity of the liquid bridge. Static liquid bridges between three equally sized primary particles are then studied. Symmetry of the problem is used to obtain a numerical solution to the Young-Laplace equation. Liquid bridge properties are calculated in terms of the binder fluid volume. Experimental agreement is provided.Secondly, a model to estimate the stickiness (fractional wet surface area) of agglomerates is proposed. Primary particles are approximated as spheres and are added one at a time in a closely packed arrangement. The model includes parameters to control the inter-particle separation distance and the fluid saturation state. Computational geometry is used to obtain results which relate the number of particles and the volume of binder fluid to the stickiness of the agglomerates.Finally, a population balance model for wet granulation is developed by extending an earlier model to incorporate the effects of binder fluid. Functions for the inter-particle collision rate and drying rate are proposed, including functions which are derived from the geometric model, described above, for the case of maximum particle consolidation. The model is solved numerically for a range of coalescence kernels and results are presented which show the effect of binder volume and the drying rate.

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  • Trauma and recovery in Janet Frame's fiction; a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Graduate Studies (Department of English), The University of British Columbia.

    Lawn, Jennifer

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Focusing on four novels by Janet Frame in dialogue with texts by Freud, Zizek, Lacan, and Silverman, my project theorizes trauma as the basis for both an ethical and an interpretive practice. Frame's fiction develops a cultural psychology, showing how the factors of narcissistic fantasy and the incapacity to mourn contribute to physical and epistemic aggression committed along divides of ethnicity, gender, and linguistic mode of expression. Employing trauma as a figure for an absolute limit to what can be remembered or known, I suggest that reconciliation with whatever is inaccessible, lacking, or dead within an individual or collective self fosters a non-violent relation with others. I begin by querying the place of "catharsis" within hermeneutic literary interpretation, focusing on the construction of Frame within the New Zealand literary industry. With Erlene's adamantine silence at its centre, Scented Gardens for the Blind (1964) rejects the hermeneutic endeavour, exemplified by Patrick Evans' critical work on Frame, to make a text "speak" its secrets. My readings of Intensive Care (1970) and The Adaptable Man (1965) address inter-generational repetitions of violence as the consequences of the failure to recognise and work through the devastations of war. The masculine fantasy of totality driving the Human Delineation project in Intensive Care has a linguistic corollary in Colin Monk's pursuit of the Platonic ideality of algebra, set against Milly's "degraded" punning writing. In The Adaptable Man, the arrival of electricity ushers in a new perceptual rgime that would obliterate any "shadow" of dialectical negativity or internal difference. The thesis ends with a swing toward conciliation and emotional growth. The homosexual relationship depicted in Daughter Buffalo (1972) offers a model of transference, defined as a transitional, productive form of repetition that opens Talbot to his ethnic and familial inheritance. Working from within a radical form of narcissism, the novel reformulates masculinity by embracing loss as "phallic divestiture" (Kaja Silverman)

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  • A qualitative exploration of emotional competence and its relevance to nursing relationships : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Nursing at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Wilson, Stacey Caroline

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This qualitative research project explored the experiences of nurse educators who sought to assess aspects, which could be related to facilitation of emotional competence, in nursing students. Focus groups were conducted in three different educational institutions, offering a Bachelor of nursing degree. Each of the participants had a teaching and assessment role within the school of nursing. The contributions of the nurse educators and their interactions were audio taped, transcribed and then later, analysed using thematic and focus group analysis practices.From the analysis of the experiences of the nurse educators, four predominant themes arose which capture the areas of importance to the participants. Student nurses can develop emotional competence by critically reflecting during classroom and clinical experiences. Continuous consideration must be made within each practicing area of nursing, of the environmental and relational challenges which inhibit or facilitate nurse's ability to practice with emotional competence. Educators and practicing nurses, who work alongside students, must uphold the expectation that emotional competence is a requisite ability and provide opportunities to foster emotional growth and skills to resolve conflict within the culture of nursing.A common view shared by the educators was that the profession of nursing needs to have a clear understanding of what constitutes emotional competence. Strategies to realistically incorporate emotional competence into the educational curriculum and competency based assessment opportunities within nursing education are required.Suggestions are presented from which undergraduate nursing education can facilitate development of emotional competence with those students working toward becoming a registered nurse. Emotional competence is suggested as an essential learning outcome in the movement toward transformative nursing education and a collaborative nursing profession.

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  • Variety X management interactions of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)

    Hay, R. J. M.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Field studies at the Welsh Plant Breeding Station, Aberystwyth were designed to evaluate the responses of diploid and tetraploid representatives from early and late flowering groups of red clover, to various autumn defoliation managements. A cutting trial was established comprising the four varieties under four autumn/winter defoliation managements; undefoliated or defoliated once, twice or three times during this period. During spring/summer all plots experienced the same management which was three silage-type cuts. DM measurements were taken at each defoliation. Plant counts, morphological measurements and chemical and quality analyses were carried out at appropriate times during the trial. Plants were removed from the field to a depth of 400mm at the end of the first winter, planted in soil-filled boxes and placed in a heated light-exclusive chamber. Thus an attempt was made to establish the importance of the level of carbohydrate root reserves in initiating structural regrowth under favourable conditions, but in the absence of photosynthetic products. The same autumn/winter treatments were imposed on a year-old established sward of an early flowering diploid red clover variety, but defoliation was effected with sheep rather than by mower. Sane comparison was thus obtained between cutting and grazing. Discriminant and multiple regression analyses were used to identify the factors most sensitive to autumn/winter management for each variety, and to see if predictive models could be established for DM yield from measured components of yield. Detailed measurements were taken at the end of winter in the first year, and before the first and second spring/summer harvests of the same year, to provide the required data. Both techniques of analysis were found to be useful, with high levels of classification obtained for varieties, and accurate predictive models established; e.g. 74% of the variation in DM yield at the first spring/summer harvest was explained from an equation of factors measured at the end of winter for the diploid late flowering variety. This increased to 81% of the variation explained by just two factors in the grazing trial. Overall the most important factors in determining yield variation were root carbohydrate levels and plant number per unit area. Genotype x environment regression analysis showed that early flowering varieties were detrimentally affected by autumn/winter defoliation to a much greater extent than late flowering varieties. Diploids were more sensitive than tetraploids within each flowering group. At the second spring/summer harvest there was evidence of a compensatory mechanism operating for treatments defoliated two and three times in autumn/winter. This resulted in there being very little difference in TIM between defoliation treatments. This was especially so for the late flowering varieties. The dark room experiment showed a direct relationship between the concentration of total available carbohydrate of red clover roots and their ability to produce structural growth in the absence of light. A controlled environment experiment was carried out at Lincoln College using three day/night temperature regimes likely to be experienced in autumn in temperate environments. The same four red clover varieties were grown and the plants subjected to four defoliation regimes during the course of the experiment. This experiment demonstrated that warm temperatures in autumn markedly increased red clover growth, particularly in early flowering varieties. This was, however, associated with a lowering of carbohydrate root reserves which were lowered still further with any defoliation. These results are interpreted and discussed in terms of present-day management of red clover swards on intensive grassland farms.

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