96,071 results

  • The secondary school teacher in New Zealand, 1945-2000 : teacher identity and education reform : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Couling, Donald F.

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis aims to show how the secondary teacher in New Zealand was constituted in discourse through an examination of two major recontextualisations of education, the changes resulting from the Thomas Report (1944), and the Picot Report (1988), and of the collective identity of secondary teachers. Both reports redirected government education policy and regulation and had fundamental implications for teachers' work and the role they were expected to play in education. Secondary teachers resisted both reforms, and in doing so they revealed elements of their conservative, pragmatic and defensive collective identity, which changed in only one significant respect in the time period considered in this study. It took twenty years before the central tenets of the Thomas Report were even close to being universally accepted. Even then, the child-centred philosophy and practice propounded by the Thomas Report, supported by the Currie Report in 1962 and supervised by the gentle discipline of the Department of Education, was likely to have been more honoured in the breach than in the observance by many New Zealand secondary school teachers. In more recent times, the 'neo-liberal', market-driven view of education and teachers, as expressed in the reforms which followed the Picot Report, were stoutly resisted despite the much more rigorous disciplinary techniques employed by the Ministry of Education. This thesis will show that the dominant discourses which constituted the secondary teacher were those of the collective identity of secondary teachers and that these effectively frustrated attempts to impose change on New Zealand secondary teachers and on secondary education.

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  • When prudence is reckless : rethinking the role of project risk management : a 152.785 (25 point) research report presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Management at Massey University

    Busch, Adrian

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Despite the widespread use of project risk management, the results of such efforts are often underwhelming. Do project risk management practices somehow miss the point? To explore this idea I use a critical management studies framework to study project risk management. The approach prescribed in the Project Management Institute's Project Management Body of Knowledge is compared to the very different approach of a professional project manager. A theorised analysis of the difference between these approaches finds that they employ the logic of different knowledge-constitutive interests thereby making them suitable for different purposes. The study concludes with a discussion of how the results of this analysis can be presented to practitioners in a way consistent with the emancipatory agenda of critical management studies.

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  • City revealed : the process and politics of exhibition development : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Museum Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Smith, Daniel Charles Patrick

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines the ways in which the process of exhibition development and the politics this involves affects the practice of history in the museum. It does this by establishing the broad parameters of history practice in the museum and places this in relation to academic practice, focusing on the New Zealand context and specifically upon Auckland War Memorial Museum. From this basis the thesis examines the development of City exhibition at Auckland Museum as a large-scale museum history exposition. The development process for this exhibition was created with the aim of changing the traditional Museum approach so as to create a more engaging and scholarly history exhibition than is traditional. At the same time however, there was also an aim of retaining the appearance of the traditional Museum within this programme of change. These aims were to be met by the innovation of the collaboration between an academic historian and the Museum's practitioners in the development process.The research is based upon a detailed investigation of the roles played by the exhibition team members and the decisions, negotiations and compromises that they made through the development process. Beginning with their original intentions and concepts for the exhibition its metamorphosis into the exhibition as it was installed in the Museum gallery is traced. Emphasis is placed on the resonance that the various decisions and changes carried into the finished exhibition. The findings indicate that the Museum's traditions of developing and displaying knowledge exerted a strong conservative effect over the exhibition development in conflict with the programme of change. This conservatism vied with the authorial intentions of the exhibition development team. As a result of this influence the exhibition developed leant towards the conventional. The unexpectedly orthodox outcome resulted from the absence of critical museological practice. The thesis argues that although Auckland Museum had undergone extensive restructuring, including the introduction of new exhibition development processes and a new outlook as an organisation, the conception of history in the Museum had not changed. Ultimately this precluded that the practice of history in the institution would advance through the revised exhibition development process. However, the development of City did help achieve the updating of social history in the Museum and remains a platform upon which a more critical approach to the past can be built.

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  • The Immaculate Perception project : exhibition creation and reception in a New Zealand regional art museum : thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Museum Studies, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Hansen, Paul

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Internationally, museums have increasingly come under review since Bourdieu's (1969) research focused on art gallery visiting patterns and cultural codes. Museums exist within a post-modern milieu that demands a more democratic approach to defining their cultural and educational role within society. Over the last decade in particular, art museums, criticised for being elitist and insular within their communities, have been challenged to be more inclusive, accessible and relevant to their local communities.The literature suggests that a review of the core mission and the culture of museums is required to provide the catalyst for change. However, there is little evidence or few models offered as to how such re-visioning could be implemented. New Zealand art museums have been slow in responding to the issues, or to conducting research involving either their visitors or their communities. These emergent issues provided the context for this study, which is focused on the creation and reception of a community based exhibition within a contemporary regional art museum.This exhibition project brought together community participants and established artists, and the study evaluates the responses of the exhibition creators and the exhibition audience. In line with action research methodology, evaluation surveys and observational data were collected during the distinct phases of the project and resulted in a number of findings that have implications for regional art museums.The findings from this present study indicate that curators working alongside the community with an action research methodology, while developing exhibition projects, can produce positive outcomes for the participants, the audience and the museum. Creative partnerships can be established that enhance life-long-learning opportunities and contribute to the relevance of museums within their communities.The present study also proposes that museums re-vision their mission to become 'learning organisations' (Senge, 1994, 2000) and provides a model that could be appropriate for museums intent on enriching their organisational culture and enhancing their significance and profile within their community.

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  • Yeast metabolism in fresh and frozen dough : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Food Technology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Miller, Simon Derek

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Author also know as SM Loveday

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  • Advertising and the market orientation of political parties contesting the 1999 and 2002 New Zealand general election campaigns : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Politics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Robinson, Claire Elizabeth

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis proposes an alternative way of establishing a link between market orientation and electoral success, by focusing on market orientation as a message instead of as a management function. Using interpretive textual analysis the thesis examines the advertising messages of the highest polling political parties for evidence of voter orientation and competitor orientation in the 1999 and 2002 New Zealand general election campaigns. Relating manifest market orientation to a number of statistical indicators of electoral success the thesis looks for plausible associations between the visual manifestation of market orientation in political advertisements and parties' achievement of their party vote goals in the 1999 and 2002 elections. It offers party-focused explanations for electoral outcomes to complement existing voter-centric explanations, and adds another level of scholarly understanding of recent electoral outcomes in New Zealand.While the thesis finds little association between demonstration of competitor orientation in political advertisements and electoral success, it finds a plausible relationship between parties that demonstrated a voter orientation in their political advertisements and goal achievement. The parties that achieved their party vote goals in 1999 and 2002 tended to demonstrate an affinity for their target voter groups by showing images of voters and their environments and images of party leaders interacting with voters. They demonstrated concern for the satisfaction of the needs of existing voters by using words of togetherness and proving they had met their previous promises. They did not change their policy or leadership messages dramatically between campaigns. There was a visual consistency to their television, print and billboard advertising messages which rendered the messages easy to recognise and remember. They were clear about what they were offering in exchange for the party vote and recognised the need to offer something in addition to previous offerings in order to attract new voters.

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  • A macroeconometric analysis of foreign aid in economic growth and development in least developed countries : a case study of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (1978-2001) : a dissertation presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Economics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Xayavong, Vilaphonh

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Despite receiving large quantities of aid, many developing countries, especially the Least Developed Countries, have remained stagnant and became more aid-dependent. This grim reality provokes vigorous debate on the effectiveness of aid. This study re-examines the effectiveness of aid, focusing on the ongoing debate on the interactive effect of aid and policy conditionality on sustainable economic growth. A theoretical model of the aid-growth nexus was developed to explain why policy conditionality attached to aid may not always promote sustainable economic growth. Noticeable methodological weaknesses in the aid fungibility and aid-growth models have led to the construction of two macroeconometric models to tackle and reduce these weaknesses. The Lao People's Democratic Republic's economy for the 1978-2001 period has been used for a case study.It is argued that the quality of policy conditionality and the recipient country's ability to complete specified policy conditions are the main factors determining the effectiveness of aid. Completing the policy prescriptions contributes to a stable aid inflow. The aid-growth nexus model developed in this study shows that stable and moderate aid inflow boosts economic growth even when aid is fungible. However, failure to complete the policy conditionality owing to inadequate policy design and problems of policy mismanagement caused by lack of state and institutional capability in the recipient country triggers an unstable aid inflow. The model shows that unstable aid flows reduce capital accumulation and economic growth in the recipient country. These empirical findings reveal that policy conditionality propagated through the "adjustment programmes" has mitigated the side effects of aid fungibility and "Dutch disease" in the case of the Lao PDR. Preliminary success in implementing the policy conditions in the pre-1997 period led to a stable aid inflow and contributed to higher economic growth. This favourable circumstance, however, was impaired by unstable aid flow in the post-1997 period. The lack of state and institutional capacity in the Lao PDR and the inadequate policy design to deal with external shocks triggered the instability of aid inflow, which in turn exacerbated the negative effects of the Asian financial crisis on the Lao PDR's economy.

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  • The role of prolactin in the control of ovine lactogenesis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science at Massey University

    Peterson, Samuel Walter

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A series of trials was carried out to examine the role of prolactin (PRL) in the control of lactogenesis in New Zealand Romney x Border Leicester ewes. In addition, a study was made of differences in milk yields and plasma PRL concentrations between spring- and autumn-lambing ewes.Daily subcutaneous injections of 2 mg CB154 inhibited PRL secretion and delayed lactogenesis. There were no consistent effects on plasma progesterone or insulin concentrations. CB154 treatment was more effective in reducing milk yield in twin-bearing than in single-bearing ewes when used for 20 days than for 9 days prepartum. The differential effects on milk yield cannot be explained by corresponding effects on plasma PRL or insulin concentrations. Circulating PRL during the period 20 to 10 days prepartum may have an important effect on milk yield in twin- but not single-bearing ewes.Subcutaneous injections of 0.5 mg/kg live weight oPRL, administered on 2 consecutive days peripartum, to ewes treated with CB154 for 7 days prepartum, resulted in milk yields similar to those in control ewes and significantly (P<0.001) higher in spring (282±12 g/d) than in autumn (225±15 g/d). The seasonal differences were confounded with corresponding differences in ewe live weight and it was not possible to determine whether dietary differences contributed significantly to the differences observed.Two routes of oPRL supplementation were used to test the effectiveness of elevating peripheral or local levels of PRL in autumn-lambing ewes which, based on previous results, were expected to have low plasma PRL concentrations and milk yields relative to spring-lambing ewes. Administration of 10 mg supplementary oPRL directly into the gland or subcutaneous injection of 0.5 mg/kg oPRL did not increase the milk yields, or change the composition of milk, compared to controls. These results suggest that the circulating level of PRL, and the intramammary concentration of PRL, in autumn-lambing ewes are not limiting lactogenesis. Because the plasma prolactin concentration in the ewes was unexpectedly high, it was not possible to reach firm conclusions regarding possible effects of supplementary oPRL in ewes with naturally low plasma PRL concentrations. Nevertheless, the results indicate that raising the intramammary concentration of PRL around the time of parturition, in ewes with circulating PRL levels characteristic of normal spring-lambing ewes, does not enhance lactogenesis.It is concluded that PRL is important to the complete initiation of lactogenesis in ewes, that it acts directly on the gland and that it is necessary for establishing the maximum potential of the gland to secrete milk.

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  • Instructional and improvisational models of music therapy with adolescents who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) : a comparison of the effects on motor impulsivity : a thesis presented to fulfil the requirements for the degree of Master of Music Therapy at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Rickson, Daphne Joan

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study compared the impact of instructional and improvisational music therapy approaches on the level of motor impulsivity displayed by adolescent boys who have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Measures included numbers of errors made on a Synchronised Tapping Task (STT); and Conners' Rating Scales (Conners, 1997). Participants (n=13), aged 11 - 16 years, were enrolled in a special residential school. A combination of a multiple contrasting treatment and an experimental control group design was used. Students were randomised to three groups; control (Group A) and two treatment groups. Students in Group B received eight sessions of improvisational music therapy followed by eight sessions of instructional music therapy, while the order was reversed for Group C.There was no statistical difference between the impacts of the contrasting music therapy approaches on the level of motor impulsivity displayed by the students as measured by the STT and the Restless-Impulsive and Hyperactive-Impulsive Conners' subscales. However all students significantly improved on the STT across each phase of treatment and improvement was slightly greater during the instructional treatment periods for both groups. During these same periods teachers reported a small decrease in restless and impulsive behaviours. The results therefore cautiously imply that the instructional approach might contribute to a reduction in motor impulsivity in the classroom.Significant improvement on STT without the corresponding improvement in motor impulsivity suggested that increased accuracy on the STT might be attributable to progress in other developmental domains. Teacher report of significant improvement for treatment groups on the DSM-IV Total Subscale adds weight to this suggestion, and implies that combined music therapy approaches might have contributed to a reduction in DSM-IV symptomology in the classroom.Rickson's (2001) tentative suggestion that creative music-making might over-arouse students with ADHD was not confirmed. Students did make more errors when tested on the STT a second time on the same day but this was regardless of whether they had been involved in instructional, improvisational or no music therapy programme. It is possible that students who have ADHD are easily aroused by the general school milieu and classroom or music room interactions with peers.

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  • Mathematical modelling of granulation processes : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Mathematical Physics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Rynhart, Patrick Reuben

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Granulation is an industrial process where fine particles are bound together into larger granules. The process has numerous applications including the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and the production of cosmetics, chemicals, detergents and fertilisers. This thesis studies aspects of wet granulation which involves the application of a viscous binder, usually in the form of a spray, to an agitated bed of powder particles. Individual powder particles may adhere together, joined by small quantities of binder fluid called liquid bridges. By a process of collision and adherence additional particles may join the newly formed agglomerates. Agglomerates may also coalesce together which is a process that leads to granule formation. On the completion of this process, granules are typically dried.This thesis studies wet granulation on three different levels. First, micro-level investigations of liquid bridges between two and three particles are performed. For the two-particle case, the fluid profile of static (stationary) and dynamic (moving) liquid bridges is investigated. For the static case, a numerical solution to the Young-Laplace equation is obtained; this relates the volume of binder fluid to liquid bridge properties such as the inter-particle force. An analytic solution is also obtained, providing the liquid bridge profile in terms of known mathematical functions. For both solutions, the radii of the (spherical) primary particles may be different. The dynamic case is then studied using the Navier-Stokes equations with the low Reynolds number approximation. The motion of the approaching particles is shown to be damped by the viscosity of the liquid bridge. Static liquid bridges between three equally sized primary particles are then studied. Symmetry of the problem is used to obtain a numerical solution to the Young-Laplace equation. Liquid bridge properties are calculated in terms of the binder fluid volume. Experimental agreement is provided.Secondly, a model to estimate the stickiness (fractional wet surface area) of agglomerates is proposed. Primary particles are approximated as spheres and are added one at a time in a closely packed arrangement. The model includes parameters to control the inter-particle separation distance and the fluid saturation state. Computational geometry is used to obtain results which relate the number of particles and the volume of binder fluid to the stickiness of the agglomerates.Finally, a population balance model for wet granulation is developed by extending an earlier model to incorporate the effects of binder fluid. Functions for the inter-particle collision rate and drying rate are proposed, including functions which are derived from the geometric model, described above, for the case of maximum particle consolidation. The model is solved numerically for a range of coalescence kernels and results are presented which show the effect of binder volume and the drying rate.

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  • Trauma and recovery in Janet Frame's fiction; a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Graduate Studies (Department of English), The University of British Columbia.

    Lawn, Jennifer

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Focusing on four novels by Janet Frame in dialogue with texts by Freud, Zizek, Lacan, and Silverman, my project theorizes trauma as the basis for both an ethical and an interpretive practice. Frame's fiction develops a cultural psychology, showing how the factors of narcissistic fantasy and the incapacity to mourn contribute to physical and epistemic aggression committed along divides of ethnicity, gender, and linguistic mode of expression. Employing trauma as a figure for an absolute limit to what can be remembered or known, I suggest that reconciliation with whatever is inaccessible, lacking, or dead within an individual or collective self fosters a non-violent relation with others. I begin by querying the place of "catharsis" within hermeneutic literary interpretation, focusing on the construction of Frame within the New Zealand literary industry. With Erlene's adamantine silence at its centre, Scented Gardens for the Blind (1964) rejects the hermeneutic endeavour, exemplified by Patrick Evans' critical work on Frame, to make a text "speak" its secrets. My readings of Intensive Care (1970) and The Adaptable Man (1965) address inter-generational repetitions of violence as the consequences of the failure to recognise and work through the devastations of war. The masculine fantasy of totality driving the Human Delineation project in Intensive Care has a linguistic corollary in Colin Monk's pursuit of the Platonic ideality of algebra, set against Milly's "degraded" punning writing. In The Adaptable Man, the arrival of electricity ushers in a new perceptual rgime that would obliterate any "shadow" of dialectical negativity or internal difference. The thesis ends with a swing toward conciliation and emotional growth. The homosexual relationship depicted in Daughter Buffalo (1972) offers a model of transference, defined as a transitional, productive form of repetition that opens Talbot to his ethnic and familial inheritance. Working from within a radical form of narcissism, the novel reformulates masculinity by embracing loss as "phallic divestiture" (Kaja Silverman)

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  • A qualitative exploration of emotional competence and its relevance to nursing relationships : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Nursing at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Wilson, Stacey Caroline

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This qualitative research project explored the experiences of nurse educators who sought to assess aspects, which could be related to facilitation of emotional competence, in nursing students. Focus groups were conducted in three different educational institutions, offering a Bachelor of nursing degree. Each of the participants had a teaching and assessment role within the school of nursing. The contributions of the nurse educators and their interactions were audio taped, transcribed and then later, analysed using thematic and focus group analysis practices.From the analysis of the experiences of the nurse educators, four predominant themes arose which capture the areas of importance to the participants. Student nurses can develop emotional competence by critically reflecting during classroom and clinical experiences. Continuous consideration must be made within each practicing area of nursing, of the environmental and relational challenges which inhibit or facilitate nurse's ability to practice with emotional competence. Educators and practicing nurses, who work alongside students, must uphold the expectation that emotional competence is a requisite ability and provide opportunities to foster emotional growth and skills to resolve conflict within the culture of nursing.A common view shared by the educators was that the profession of nursing needs to have a clear understanding of what constitutes emotional competence. Strategies to realistically incorporate emotional competence into the educational curriculum and competency based assessment opportunities within nursing education are required.Suggestions are presented from which undergraduate nursing education can facilitate development of emotional competence with those students working toward becoming a registered nurse. Emotional competence is suggested as an essential learning outcome in the movement toward transformative nursing education and a collaborative nursing profession.

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  • Variety X management interactions of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)

    Hay, R. J. M.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Field studies at the Welsh Plant Breeding Station, Aberystwyth were designed to evaluate the responses of diploid and tetraploid representatives from early and late flowering groups of red clover, to various autumn defoliation managements. A cutting trial was established comprising the four varieties under four autumn/winter defoliation managements; undefoliated or defoliated once, twice or three times during this period. During spring/summer all plots experienced the same management which was three silage-type cuts. DM measurements were taken at each defoliation. Plant counts, morphological measurements and chemical and quality analyses were carried out at appropriate times during the trial. Plants were removed from the field to a depth of 400mm at the end of the first winter, planted in soil-filled boxes and placed in a heated light-exclusive chamber. Thus an attempt was made to establish the importance of the level of carbohydrate root reserves in initiating structural regrowth under favourable conditions, but in the absence of photosynthetic products. The same autumn/winter treatments were imposed on a year-old established sward of an early flowering diploid red clover variety, but defoliation was effected with sheep rather than by mower. Sane comparison was thus obtained between cutting and grazing. Discriminant and multiple regression analyses were used to identify the factors most sensitive to autumn/winter management for each variety, and to see if predictive models could be established for DM yield from measured components of yield. Detailed measurements were taken at the end of winter in the first year, and before the first and second spring/summer harvests of the same year, to provide the required data. Both techniques of analysis were found to be useful, with high levels of classification obtained for varieties, and accurate predictive models established; e.g. 74% of the variation in DM yield at the first spring/summer harvest was explained from an equation of factors measured at the end of winter for the diploid late flowering variety. This increased to 81% of the variation explained by just two factors in the grazing trial. Overall the most important factors in determining yield variation were root carbohydrate levels and plant number per unit area. Genotype x environment regression analysis showed that early flowering varieties were detrimentally affected by autumn/winter defoliation to a much greater extent than late flowering varieties. Diploids were more sensitive than tetraploids within each flowering group. At the second spring/summer harvest there was evidence of a compensatory mechanism operating for treatments defoliated two and three times in autumn/winter. This resulted in there being very little difference in TIM between defoliation treatments. This was especially so for the late flowering varieties. The dark room experiment showed a direct relationship between the concentration of total available carbohydrate of red clover roots and their ability to produce structural growth in the absence of light. A controlled environment experiment was carried out at Lincoln College using three day/night temperature regimes likely to be experienced in autumn in temperate environments. The same four red clover varieties were grown and the plants subjected to four defoliation regimes during the course of the experiment. This experiment demonstrated that warm temperatures in autumn markedly increased red clover growth, particularly in early flowering varieties. This was, however, associated with a lowering of carbohydrate root reserves which were lowered still further with any defoliation. These results are interpreted and discussed in terms of present-day management of red clover swards on intensive grassland farms.

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  • Rivers or drains? Management of urban rivers with reference to the Heathcote

    Bostwick, Glenda

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Rivers and settlements belong together; there are few urban areas without at least one significant watercourse flowing through them. Urban rivers, and in particular the Heathcote River, are the subject of this dissertation. Discussion centres on their significance and vulnerability, and on management options for their protection and enhancement. Part One is concerned with the broad-scale issues of rivers in urban areas. It summarizes the natural forces and processes at work in a river. It considers the importance of an urban river, its role in a developing city, and the typical pressures it is subject to. Finally the laws and authorities as they relate to the urban river in New Zealand are outlined. Close attention is paid to the local situation in Christchurch, as well as the potential of management plans in river administration. The Heathcote River is used as a case study of an urban river under pressure in Part Two. Its significance to Christchurch is described and illustrated. Ways of resolving the inherent conflicts of its use and management are discussed, and recommendations for catchment management are proposed.

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  • Food miles, carbon footprinting and other factors affecting our trade

    Saunders, Caroline

    Conference Contribution - Unpublished
    Lincoln University

    Paper presented at the 2007 NZARES Workshop, Wellington, New Zealand. August 23, 2007.

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  • Reflective mulch effects on the grapevine environment, Pinot noir vine performance, and juice and wine characteristics

    Ross, Olivia C.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Reflective mulches were applied in a cool climate vineyard in Canterbury, New Zealand. Materials used were waste products: mussel shells (MS) and green (GG) and clear (CG) recycled crushed glass. A control of bare soil was also included. MS and CG were light coloured while GG and CON were dark. Treatments were applied randomly within each of three replicates. Soil parameters tested were temperature, moisture, microbial biomass carbon, dehydrogenase enzyme activity and nutrient levels. Also investigated were canopy temperature and radiation reflected from each treatment. Vine parameters included nutrient levels, photosynthesis, leaf greenness, fruit components and pruning weights. Juice and wine parameters included wine colour, phenolic concentration and acid composition. A blind tasting was held and gas chromatography-olfactory (GC-O) was used to analyse aroma profiles of wine and juice. Mulches affected various soil parameters. MS buffered soil temperature and all mulches increased soil water retention especially MS. MS had higher microbial biomass carbon than glass. Soil pH levels increased under MS while sodium levels were highest for GG. Higher levels of vine canopy boron, copper, potassium, molybdenum, phosphorous and sulphur were found for mulches. No differences were noted for vine gas exchange although differences were found for related parameters between mulches and CON. Cluster number and fruit weight were higher for light compared to dark treatments and pruning weights were highest for light and mulched treatments. All mulches reflected solar radiation into the canopy. No differences were found for canopy temperature at any stage during the growing season however differences for light parameters were highly significant. Part of the ultra violet spectrum (300 - 400 nm), photosynthetically active radiation (380 – 760 nm) and red to far red ratios (660:730 nm) were all higher for light compared to dark treatments. Analysis of wine attributes such as colour, phenolics, acids and aroma suggested a treatment effect on the wine. The tasting also highlighted, that reflective mulches could be used to alter wine flavour, aroma and mouthfeel. Differences in juice aromas measured by GC-O were reported slightly differently by each panellist who detected them, but significant results were found within each data set. The first panellist recorded more differences between mulch treatments and CON with higher results in most cases for CON regardless of aroma type. For the second panellist results were more varied with significant results for different comparisons and a range of aromas. Reflective mulches directly affected environmental and vine performance parameters. They could be applied in the vineyard to optimise the distribution of radiation, improve vine health and productivity. These effects have had a subsequent impact on the fruit and wine produced. It is clear from this trial that mulches had impacted on juice and the research forms a basis for future work. Ultimately the mulches offer the possibility to manipulate aromas, which could be a useful tool for winemakers in cool climates who seek to make consistently distinctive wines in variable conditions.

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  • Potential of forest resources to alleviate poverty and unemployment in rural Nepal

    Dhakal, Bhubaneswor; Bigsby, Hugh R.; Cullen, Ross

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    The study examines the importance of community forest resources for income and employment in rural areas of Nepal by studying the effect of current forestry policy on forestland use. Using data from 259 households in six community forest user groups in three hilly districts (Dolakha, Kavre and Nuwakot), the results show that the resources available from private lands and community forests with current policies are inadequate to fully utilize the family labour force of many rural households and are insufficient to meet the bare survival income of the poorest households. Current government policy dictates the use of all community forestland for limited timber production and environmental conservation, and provides little scope for fodder and firewood production. The study shows that community forestland management with an agroforestry model could overcome rural unemployment problems and increase incomes.

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  • Valuing agricultural externalities in Canterbury rivers and streams

    Tait, Peter R.; Cullen, Ross; Bicknell, Kathryn B.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Water quality and quantity concerns in Canterbury are intrinsically related to agriculture. Monetary values for impacts on streams and rivers is lacking in policy debate. This paper employs choice modelling to estimate values of three impacts on rivers and streams in Canterbury associated with agriculture: health risks of E coli from animal waste, ecological effects of excess nutrients, and low-flow impacts of irrigation. This study provides a valuation of outcomes for public policy implemented in Canterbury such as The Dairy and Clean Streams Accord, Living Streams, and The Restorative Programme for Lowland Streams.

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  • Who are controlling community forestry user groups in Nepal? Scrutiny of elite theory

    Yadav, B. D.; Bigsby, Hugh R.; MacDonald, Ian A.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Nepal has established community forestry institutions to manage natural resources at the local community level under the assumption that there will be better management than under Government agencies. However, community forestry has not been entirely successful as it has not addressed the needs of poor and marginalised groups. The main goal of this study is to examine how Nepalese social structure guides the structure of the Executive Committee (EC) of Community Forestry User Groups and in particular, whether the EC is dominated by elite groups that could in turn hinder the needs of poor and marginalised groups. This paper uses data from the middle hill district of Baglung, Nepal. Statistical analysis indicates that decision-making is dominated by the local elite, who are typically from higher castes, have larger land holdings, and have a higher income. The empirical results are expected to suggest policy makers design program for empowering people of low caste, poor and lower socio-economic status to create opportunity to be involved in decision making in order to have equal or need based benefits acquired by CF.

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  • State and Not-For-Profit delivery of species conservation: cost utility analysis of multiple-species projects

    Vesey, S. E.; Cullen, Ross; Hughey, Kenneth F. D.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Conservation of species is challenging, and there is continuing interest in finding more effective means to achieve conservation goals. State provision of conservation occurs in many countries, alongside a growing range of alternative providers including Not For Profit organisations and the private sector. Few studies have compared the effectiveness and efficiency of State provision against Not For Profit or private sector provision. This research assesses the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of multiple-species projects in regard to the conservation of threatened and endangered species using a cost-utility analysis. Three State managed projects, three Not For Profit managed projects and one project managed by the State yet funded privately, were evaluated. All of the Not For Profit managed projects were enclosed by predator-proof fences, while the other projects relied on natural barriers and/or intensive predator control methods. Results indicate that State managed multiple-species projects are both more effective and cost-effective than those projects managed by Not For Profits. While the Not For Profit managed projects are not so effective in improving national population totals, they are essential for ensuring regional biodiversity of threatened and endangered species. The objectives set by the projects appear to have a significant impact on their outputs. A number of recommendations are made for improving conservation efforts in the future. Most importantly, the development of a threatened and endangered species database to be contributed to by all conservation project providers. The importance of standardised reporting techniques is highlighted to allow comparisons both over time and between projects.

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