95,838 results

  • Collateral Damage: A Mixed Methods Study to Investigate the Use and Withdrawal of Antidepressants Within a Naturalistic Population

    Thrasher, Susan (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The use of modern antidepressants has flourished over the past few decades with the modern attribution of affective disorders such as depression to biomedical causation. However, recent re-examination of clinical trials has raised questions regarding antidepressant drug efficacy, and issues around side effects and dependency are prevalent. In spite of this, as many as 10% of us may be taking these medications (Szabo, 2009). This study examines responses to an anonymous online survey about antidepressant use and withdrawal. Participants included 176 current users, 181 currently withdrawing, 108 ex-users, and a control group of 44 participants who had never used antidepressants. Participant groups were compared quantitatively regarding attitude towards antidepressants use and perceived value, effect on well-being and mood, symptoms and side effects, and their perceived changes in themselves on and off the drugs. Participants were also given the opportunity to include spontaneous comments at the end of the survey which were analysed thematically. Key findings include: 1) Antidepressant users have a more positive estimation of the value of the drugs than those who have discontinued the drugs or who have never used them; 2) Scores on the WHO-5 well-being survey for all three groups with antidepressant experience (users, those withdrawing, and ex-users) showed poor levels of wellbeing, suggesting that neither antidepressant therapy nor cessation of antidepressant therapy were adequate interventions to create positive well-being; 3) Multivariate analysis of participant responses revealed a significant difference between the four groups on 35 of 37 physical and emotional symptoms associated with antidepressant use or withdrawal, with the never-used group scored the lowest in all cases except one, and the withdrawing group scoring the highest for 27 of the symptoms; 4) Concern over antidepressant dependency and withdrawal was the most prevalent topic reported by all user groups in spontaneous comments; other key themes included frustration with side effects and lack of information and support from the medical profession; 5) study results suggest that antidepressant withdrawal may take longer and be more challenging than the assumed "mild", "self-limiting" and "resolving spontaneously…three weeks after onset" (Haddad & Anderson, 2007); and 6) 30% of ex-users spontaneously reported what they believed were adverse drug reactions, or withdrawal reactions, months or years after antidepressant use had ceased, a long-term iatrogenic disablement that has yet to be addressed in the literature. Overall, the study reveals that antidepressants are not an adequate intervention to create positive well-being in patients and their use comes with a substantial risk of unpleasant side effects, dependency, and the potential for residual post-drug health complications.

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  • The Role of Steroids, Growth Factors and CAMP Stimulators on the Gap Junction Activity in Cumulus Oocyte Complexes in the Rat

    Yadav, Manvi (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Bidirectional communication between mammalian oocytes and their surrounding somatic cells is essential for oocyte maturation. Gap junctions promote the transfer of essential metabolites, nucleotides, amino acids and ions from cumulus cells to the oocyte that are crucial for oocyte growth and development. However, the range of factors present in the microenvironment of the developing antral follicle, which modulate gap junction activity of the cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), is largely unknown. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of various steroids, growth factors and cAMP stimulators on the gap junction activity in rat COCs. The gap junction activity was measured in presence or absence of different treatments using a fluorescence dye and in the presence of milrinone, a phosphodiesterase type 3 inhibitor. The major findings of this study were that cAMP stimulators increased the rate of dye transfer from cumulus cells to the oocyte. Under in vitro conditions it was established that neither steroids nor IGF1 by themselves were able to modulate gap junction activity in rat COCs. Furthermore, forskolin, a potent cAMP stimulator; caused a relative increase in Cx37 gene expression levels following a four hours incubation period. The outcomes from the present study may help to provide new insights into developing suitable in vitro conditions, for the in vitro maturation of mammalian oocytes.

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  • A Personal and Fragile Affair: The Sonic Environment and Its Place In My Compositions

    Voyce, Thomas (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    To begin with, I will briefly outline my compositional process. This will help to provide an understanding of my motivations. I will then pose some questions relating to the practice of field recording and the use of these materials in electroacoustic composition. Through a discussion of early electronic music, musique concrete, soundscape composition and the ideologies of composers associated with these movements, I will reveal the tensions surrounding the use of referential material in acousmatic music. Finally, I will show how I have attempted to address these tensions in my own work.

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  • The Future is Curatorial! Reconceptualising Curation Through Material Culture

    Schrader, Reuben (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Objects, though the material stuff of curating, occupy a peripheral role in curatorial theory and practice. Art and museum curating both promote relational and ideological positions that centre on certain people, excluding less prominent participants and objects alike. Although all these groups have been examined at length for their discursive qualities, their active processes are still mostly unclear. Developments in material culture theory suggest the need for re-evaluation of the relationship between objects, curators, and audiences, based on these processes. This dissertation is an attempt to construct a concept of curating that begins with objects, the circumstances in which they take part, and the effects they have on the people around them. This investigation into the operations of people and things approaches the subject with an interdisciplinary eye, drawing upon art history, media studies, material culture studies, sociology, anthropology, and other fields. They are linked by a strongly qualitative methodology, which incorporates the researcher's own subjective experiences with a conceptual framework derived from Deleuze and Guattari and Bruno Latour. The use of a rhizomatic perspective based on movement, emergence, and opportunity opens up a series of alternative methodological and analytical approaches. With these tools, four creative works are examined and discussed as singular objects and guides to further generalisation. The research suggests a degree of complexity and potential within objects that is rarely considered. Peoples' interactions with objects mean they share in that potential, opening up the static and structured roles previously addressed. A series of curatorial practices are derived from these findings, expanding the definition of 'curator' by allowing for the exercise of distinct curatorial functions beyond the institution. This dissertation serves as a starting point for a democratic reconceptualisation of curating, based on processes rather than end points, involving the public as curatorial agents.

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  • Rapanui and Chile, a Debate on Self-Determination: A Notional and Legal Basis for the Political Decolonisation of Easter Island

    Gómez S., Rodrigo A. (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This project is an ambitious attempt to review the tie between Chile and Rapanui according to law. According to Gonschor the people of Easter Island are entitled to obtain political decolonisation according to the United Nations' parameters and international treaties of which Chile is signatory. This means that the thesis supports the proposition that Easter Island is "the" Chilean colony in Oceania, a belief shared by an important, though so far unquantifiable number of the island's citizens who have internationally raised the question no fewer than three times, in the recent past...

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  • The Collected Works of Charlotte Evans 1841-1882 Introduction and Biography

    Brown, Anne Doreen (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis provides an introductory view of the life and works of early New Zealand romantic novelist Charlotte Evans 1841-1882. The work is comprised of three separate sections, including two introductions, a biographical essay and footnoting and markup for digitisation. Evans wrote short stories in addition to novels and poetry. I have attempted to create here a useful and informative overview of her two published novels Over the Hills and Far Away: A Story of New Zealand and A Strange Friendship: A Story of New Zealand - each of which were published in 1874. In the biographical essay I include a discussion of Evans’ general works, in particular the collection of poetry published by her husband Eyre Evans in 1917 entitled Poetic Gems of Sacred Thought. An important feature of the thesis has been to establish how Evans’ range of literary output may be cited and contextualised within New Zealand’s literary heritage in more detail than has previously been available. A significant aspect of the research has, in addition, involved examining the social and historical influences surrounding the author, both prior to and at the time of writing. In that respect the discussion has drawn upon available materials, such as book reviews and items published in newspapers. An appendix has been compiled of selected published poetry and articles from the North Otago Times of relevance to the foregoing text discussion. Contemporary photographs of Evans and map material of the ‘Teaneraki’ district are also included. It is hoped that situating the research evidence to specifically New Zealand contexts may provide a basis for positing Evans’ works more fully as New Zealand texts in their overall relation to pioneer period fiction. An important feature of the project has therefore meant developing a foundation of historical work concerning the author, much of which has been sourced from the National Alexander Turnbull Library and recently published family history that draws upon archive material related to the Evans and Lees families. Due reference to a range of recent critical texts has also, it is further hoped, enabled a more in-depth and detailed response to Evans’ contribution to the developing field of New Zealand literature and more specifically, Victorian Studies.

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  • Using the H-Index to Measure Research Performance in Higher Education: A Case Study of Library and Information Science Faculty in New Zealand and Australia

    Tyson, Amber (2009)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    As academia increasingly turns to bibliometric tools to assess research impact, the question of which indicator provides the best measure of research quality is highly debated. Much emphasis has been placed on the value of the h-index, a new bibliometric tool proposed in 2005 which has quickly found favour in the scientific community. One of the first applications of the h-index was carried out by Kelly and Jennions (2006), who found a number of variables could influence the h-index scores of ecologists and evolutionary biologists. To test these findings, this study calculated the h-index scores of New Zealand and Australian researchers teaching in the field of library and information science (LIS). Publication and citation counts were generated using the Web of Science (WoS), where a number of limitations with using the database to calculate h-index scores were identified. We then considered the effect that gender, country of residence, institutional affiliation, and scientific age had on the h-index scores of LIS researchers in New Zealand and Australia. The study found a positive relationship between scientific age and h-index scores, indicating that the length of a scientist's career should be considered when using the h-index. However, analysis also showed that gender, country of residence, and institutional affiliation had no influence on h-index scores.

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  • Emulsion Microstructure and Dynamics

    Malassagne-Bulgarelli, Nelly (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Emulsions are kinetically stabilised mixtures of two immiscible fluids (e.g. oil and water). They are encountered in many industrial applications including cosmetics, food, road, drug delivery and paint technology. Despite their wide spread use, the formulation of emulsions remains largely empirical. The nature of the relationships between ingredients, composition, emulsification method and energy input, defining the microstructure (e.g. droplet size distribution and surfactant packing at the oil/water interface), the dynamics (e.g. interdroplet exchange) and the lifetime of emulsions, is still poorly understood. In particular, little work has focused on the mutual interactions between emulsifier and oil molecules and how these affect the properties of the interfacial domain and emulsion dynamics. The emulsion system oil/Triton X-100/water was investigated, where Triton X-100 is a commercially available non ionic surfactant and the oil is one of toluene, p-xylene or octane. The microstructure and the dynamics of these oil/Triton X-100/water emulsions were monitored upon varying oil type, oil concentration, emulsion age and ionic strength while maintaining the oil-to-surfactant weight ratio, temperature, energy input and emulsification method constant. For this purpose, laser scanning confocal microscopy, cryo scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), pulsed field gradient NMR (PFG-NMR), macroscopic phase separation and light scattering techniques were used as experimental techniques. The occurrence of an oil exchange between oil droplets that is not coupled to droplet growth and emulsion destabilization is reported for the three oil systems: toluene, p-xylene or octane. The mixture of two separately stained emulsions, using green and red fluorescing dye molecules, leads to all droplets emitting yellow fluorescence under the confocal microscope within ∼10 min of mixing due to the interdroplet exchange of the two water insoluble dyes. Furthermore, the PFG-NMR data for both toluene and p-xylene systems indicate that, for long observation times, Δ, the echo attenuation of the oil signal decays as a single exponential upon increasing the diffusion parameters. In other words the individual motions of the droplets and oil molecules are described by a unique diffusion coefficient belying the system polydispersity and indicative of a dynamic process occurring on a time scale faster than the observation time. One way to explain this outcome is to consider a motional averaging of the oil diffusion arising from either oil permeation upon droplet collision or reversible coalescence of the droplets. These two mechanisms are supported by the extensive droplet contact observed by cryo-SEM. Such an oil transfer occurring in three distinct oil systems, independently of emulsion destabilization, has not been reported previously. Upon decreasing the NMR observation time below a specific value, Δswitch, a switch of the echo attenuation data was detected between a single exponential and a multiexponential decay, the latter indicative of the emulsion droplet size distribution. The time scale of the oil transfer, Δswitch, was probed upon varying oil type, oil concentration, emulsion age and ionic strength. In particular, the time scale of the oil exchange is an increasing function, spanning from ~300 ms to ~3 s, of droplet concentration in toluene emulsions despite the concomitant increase of the droplet collision frequency. Upon increasing the toluene content and decreasing the mean interdroplet spacing, the oil droplets are kinetically stabilized by the enhancement of the surfactant packing at the oil/water interface. In addition to the surfactant packing at the surface of the oil droplets, ionic strength and droplet size, the rate of oil exchange is controlled by the mutual interactions between oil and Triton X-100 molecules. The rate of oil transfer is a decreasing function from toluene to p-xylene to octane. The increase of the mean droplet size in the same order cannot solely account for the observed slowdown of the oil exchange. The macroscopic phase separation data indicate that the Triton X-100 layer is increasingly robust with respect to oil transfer from toluene to p-xylene to octane. This can be compared with the oil exchange process and explained in terms of oil penetration effects into the surfactant layer and energy cost for hole nucleation.

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  • Phylogeny, Connectivity and Dispersal Patterns of the Giant Kelp Macrocystis (Phaeophyceae)

    Macaya Horta, Erasmo Carlos (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Macrocystis represents the most widely distributed kelp genus, providing structure and energy for one of the most productive ecosystems on earth. Despite its ecological and economical importance, many aspects of its taxonomy, distribution and dispersal still remain unknown. Using different molecular markers I studied the taxonomy, phylogeography and dispersal patterns of Macrocystis. The analysis involves samples from different populations throughout the world. Using the DNA barcoding method I, confirmed previous suggestions that the genus must be considered as monospecific, M. pyrifera being the only species. The effects of historical and contemporary events on the haplotype distribution were determined by analyzing samples from the southeastern Pacific (SEP) using the atp8-S mitochondrial marker. The last glacial maximum as well as oceanographic anomalies (El Niño phenomena) may be important factors driving the genetic pattern along the SEP. The genetic structure in southern Chile was also analyzed in more detail, especially in the Chilean Fjords. Samples from attached and floating kelp individuals revealed that dispersal via kelp rafts is possible. Finally, a global analysis using COI sequences showed shared haplotypes along vast distances in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, recent dispersal and high gene flow can explain such genetic homogeneity. Additionally, microsatellite analysis confirmed that gene flow along the Southern Ocean is occurring over ecological time scales, where rafting of detached reproductive kelps seems to be facilitated by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current connecting populations in the Southern Hemisphere. This study has provided valuable genetic evidence to understand factors shaping the genetic structure of this important ecologically and economically species. It also contributes important knowledge for conservation and management strategies, especially in places where M. pyrifera has been harvested. In summary, the results of this study confirm previous suggestions of high gene flow among M. pyrifera populations at different scales. It also provides evidence suggesting that kelp rafts act as an important dispersal mechanism in this species, thus giving important information to understand the factors shaping the evolution of the largest seaweed on earth.

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  • Children’s Memory for Mild Emotional Information: Positive and Negative Emotional Information and Associations with Temperament

    McIvor, Janelle L. (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The 2 aims of the current study were to investigate 1) children’s memory for positive and negative emotional information and 2) the influence of temperament on the type of emotional information recalled. Seventy-five children aged 61-77 months participated in a staged event, “Visiting the Pretend Zoo”. Approximately 6-9 days later children participated in a memory interview. Parents/caregivers completed a temperament questionnaire. Children recalled more negative relative to positive emotional information. Children higher in Effortful Control (EC) recalled more negative emotional information relative to children lower in EC. This indicates that EC may play an important role in children’s memory. No other effects of temperament were identified. Limitations of the current study are discussed followed by directions for future study.

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  • The Politics of Development: A Study of the Structure of Politics from 1870 to 1890

    Armstrong, Warwick Robert (1960)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis is the result not of any specific idea gained from a general study of the period under review; rather it is based upon the research and work done on an earlier project, a provincial history of Taranaki, which, concentrating mainly on the eighteen-seventies, culminated in the abolition struggle and the years immediately following. However, the detailed study of the provincial economy, its politics in both the provincial and central government spheres, and the political attitudes of the local press, accompanied by a general coverage of the politics of the central government throughout the decade, led to the conclusion that in one province at least, the politics of the period were economically based - around the focal point of Sir Julius Vogel's 1870 public works and immigration policy. From this gradually evolved the concept that economic development and material progress were the issues of greatest importance in the politics of the seventies; they were the prime cause of provincialist jealousies and parochialism, while, in the sphere of central government, Vogelism became the issue on which newly-formed groupings aligned themselves. To see if this concept had validity, the first thing which had to be done was to extend research to get a wider understanding of colonial and provincial economic and political developments, as well as cover the main provincial newspapers for editorial and public opinion throughout the country.

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  • Crossing the Threshold: Masculinities and the Transition to School

    Norris, Jenni (2001)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Starting school is a significant cultural and social milestone in the lives of children (Ramey & Ramey, 1994; Renwick, 1984). However, the experiences of boys making the transition has not been a particular focus for research. My master's thesis, 'Transforming Masculinities: Boys making the transition from early childhood to school' (Norris, 1999) explored the transition of four boys from early childhood education centres to schools, in relation to masculinities. My interest in researching issues for boys stemmed from my experience as a feminist mother of sons. In educational terms, I was interested to explore whether frequently cited and perplexing problems with boys in education (e.g., Arnot, 1984; Askew & Ross, 1988; Campbell & Brooker, 1991; Kelly, 1986; Mahoney, 1985; Spender, 1980) might be related to anecdotal reports of 'rocky' transitions to compulsory education made by many boys. Studies pointed to clear patterns of gender disadvantage suffered by girls in relation to boys' behaviour at school (Bird, 1992; Newton, 1992) and perhaps furthered the idea that girls were the 'victims' while boys were the 'perpetrators' in educational research (Arnot, 1991), cited in Mac an Ghaill, 1994, p. 8). However, questions had also been raised about the adequacy of previous work on the subject of boys, and the need to develop more sympathetic understandings of masculinities (McLean, 1997; Yates, 1997). Despite a burgeoning literature, the subject was often cast in relation to the 'big picture' (Segal, 1997). It seemed worthy and important to focus on real life experiences. I was interested to discover how masculine identities were affected by the transition, as well as how masculine identities operated in the two settings of early childhood education and school. The essence of the research became the notion of boys as 'transformers', undergoing changes as they made this highly significant cultural transition or 'status passage' (Glaser & Strauss, 1971).

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  • Derivational Syntax: a Minimalist Approach to Affixation in Bahasa Indonesia Predicates

    Sukarno, Wahyono (2003)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis focuses on verbal phrase aspect (vP-aspect) in Bahasa Indonesia (BI). In BI, vP-aspect is morphologically marked on the predicate. I claim that the sufiix -kan marks an aspect, which I refer to as kan-aspect, indicating that the object undergoes change. This is in a stark contrast with i-aspect, where the object is stationary and unchanged. The analysis is based on the notion that the semantics and syntax of a predicate should be analysed within the vP (for instance, Tenny 1987, 1994, Chomsky 1995, Arad 1998, Croft 1998, among others), with the core argument determining the aspectual property of an event structure (Tenny 1987, Arad 1998, Ritter and Rosen 1998). Since this thesis proposes to take into account the -kan and -i distinction as an important aspect in the analysis, the structural location of the two suffixes will take centre stage. This has not been done in the literature on BI that looks at these derivational suffixes. This thesis further develops the analysis beyond verb phrases: it takes into account the syntax of Voice Phrase of sentence structures that include (temporal) Aspect Phrase, Wh-extractions, and Relative Clauses.

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  • Oral Health in New Zealand: Findings from the New Zealand Health Survey 2006/07

    Lankshear, Lisa N. (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis investigates oral health in New Zealand. This is carried out through an analysis of the New Zealand Health Survey (NZHS) which was undertaken by the Ministry of Health in 2006/07. The World Health Organisation recognises oral health as an integral part of general health and a basic human right. The New Zealand government also recognises the importance of oral health and aims to be proactive in addressing the needs of those at greatest risk of poor oral health. This analysis identifies those who have poorer oral health and less regular oral health care. The New Zealand goverment also aims for high-quality oral health services that promote, improve, maintain and restore good oral health to all New Zealanders. The results of the NZHS 2006/07 showed that the mean number of teeth lost due to tooth decay and gum disease in people aged 15 and over is 4.59 (4.56,4.61). This is strongly associated with age, with younger people having lost fewer teeth. Alcohol as well as fruit and vegetable intake had no association with tooth loss in adults. Fizzy drink intake was not significantly associated with poor child oral health, however a higher number of take away meals eaten by children consistently led to poorer oral health for those children. Ethnicity and deprivation were associated with tooth loss, regularity of oral health care, time since last oral health care visit, unmet oral health care need in the past 12 months and urgent unmet need. Those from more deprived populations had lower rates of regular care and higher rates of need and tooth loss. The final component of this thesis is a comparison of oral health outcomes over time, using NZHS 2006/07 and the New Zealand data from the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes 1988 (ICS II). It was found that in 2006/07 more 12-13 year olds are brushing their teeth 2 or more times a day than in 1998, and that the time since last visit to an oral health care worker for adults has reduced over time.

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  • Practicing with Respect: What Does that Mean for Teachers Working with Infants

    Christie, Toni (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This qualitative case study examines the teaching practices, inspired by the Pikler approach and RIE philosophy, in one infant and toddler centre in a main city of New Zealand. Specifically the practices studied were primary caregiving, freedom of movement and respect for infants’ confidence and competence. Recommendations for practitioners are made at the conclusion of this thesis. Data were collected through non-participant observations, semistructured interviews with teachers, a focus group interview with parents, and collation and analysis of relevant documentation. The framework for data interpretation and analysis was based on a thematic coding of observations and interview data. The findings indicated that a culture of respect was embedded throughout all aspects of teachers’ interactions with children, colleagues and parents within the centre. Respect, defined as treating with consideration, was the overarching feature underpinning the values and actions of teachers. Teachers engaged in ways that would suggest they accept each person as an individual with rights and freedoms. Teachers invited children to engage with them and no action would be initiated for or with a child without his or her agreement. This agreement was shown through cues and gestures, to which the teachers were all highly attuned. Teachers slowed their pace intentionally and offered children choices in their care and education. Peaceful observation from teachers enhanced their ability to interpret individual children’s needs and wants and they would provide support for children rather than intervene unnecessarily. Limitations to this research included the fact that I only studied one early childhood centre and completed observations over a limited period of two weeks. The centre studied had ratios better than the minimum ratios required by early childhood regulations, which means

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  • A civil and ecclesiastical union? The development of prison chaplaincy in Aotearoa-New Zealand

    Mansill, Douglas B (2009-05-28T22:14:26Z)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    New Zealand prisons were a colonial construct established by early colonial administrations to deal with criminal behaviour occurring at the time of European settlement. Like the prison system, prison chaplaincy also had its origins in colonial experiences from the United Kingdom where chaplains were employed to meet the spiritual needs of those in institutions such as schools, hospitals, colleges, the military and legations. This thesis addressed the question of how the partnership between Church and State administrators in New Zealand for the provision of chaplaincy services developed between 1840 and 2006. Four phases were identified in the evolution of prison chaplaincy: phase one 1840-to-1950, characterised by ad hoc arrangements between clergy and local prison management; phase two 1951-to-1989 when Secretary for Justice Samuel Barnett established a formal relationship with the National Council of Churches and the Roman Catholic Church to provide chaplains for penal institutions; phase three identified as ‘prisons in change’ 1990-1999, when the Interim Chaplaincy Advisory Board and Prison Chaplaincy Advisory Board worked in tandem with the Departments of Justice and Corrections to administer the Prison Chaplaincy Service, arising from the recommendations of the Roper and Perry Reports; and phase four 2000-to-2006, a period when the Prison Chaplaincy Service of Aotearoa New Zealand was contracted to the Department of Corrections to employ prison chaplains. The research adopted a multi-faceted approach, consisting of phenomenology, ethno-methodology and hermeneutics to understand attitudes and experiences of key players and institutions in the evolution of Prison Chaplaincy. Data was collected through interviews of key informants, critical evaluation of published and unpublished material in public and private collections. The study identified six key factors that influenced the development of Prison Chaplaincy in New Zealand. These were: the nature of the Church-State interface, the impact of biculturalism, the influence of theological and ecclesiastical trends, and the impact of inter-church politics, the influence of socio economic trends and developments, and changes in Government policy. It also found that while there were tensions, the Church-State partnership had positive benefits for the spiritual outcomes for prisoners.

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  • Development of Extrospective Systems for Mobile Robotic Vehicles.

    McClymont, Johnny Robert Keogh (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Extrospection is the process of receiving knowledge of the outside world through the senses. On robotic platforms this is primarily focussed on determining distances to objects of interest and is achieved through the use of ranging sensors. Any hardware implemented on mobile robotic platforms, including sensors, must ideally be small in size and weight, have good power efficiency, be self-contained and interface easily with the existing platform hardware. The development of stable, expandable and interchangeable mobile robot based sensing systems is crucial to the establishment of platforms on which complex robotic research can be conducted and evaluated in real world situations. This thesis details the design and development of two extrospective systems for incorporation in the Victoria University of Wellington's fleet of mobile robotic platforms. The first system is a generic intelligent sensor network. Fundamental to this system has been the development of network architecture and protocols that provide a stable scheme for connecting a large number of sensors to a mobile robotic platform with little or no dependence on the existing hardware configuration of the platform. A prototype sensor network comprising fourteen infrared position sensitive detectors providing a short to medium distance ranging system (0.2 - 3 m) with a 360' field of view has been successfully developed and tested. The second system is a redesign of an existing prototype full-field image ranger system. The redesign has yielded a smaller, mobile version of the prototype system capable of ranging medium to long distances (0 - 15 m) with a 22.2' - 16.5' field-of-view. This ranger system can now be incorporated onto mobile robotic platforms for further research into the capabilities of full-field image ranging as a form of extrospection on a mobile platform.

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  • Engagement in Music Therapy: A Detailed study of Communication Between the Therapist and Client Presenting with Severe and Multiple Handicaps

    Stamenovic, Miona (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The impact of multiple disabilities causes difficulties in the area of communication. Individuals with severe and multiple handicaps often have no verbal language as a result of serious physical impairments. This population may show little obvious response and it is therefore difficult to know if they are engaged and for the person him or herself to maintain engagement when involved in activities. The purpose of the study was to find out what happens in a normal music therapy session, during moments of perceived engagement. Four individuals experienced in the field of multiple disabilities were invited to take part in semi-structured interviews where they observed a half hour video of a therapist and a student with severe and multiple handicaps participating in music therapy. Data was analyzed in two steps, firstly through participants observing and explaining their reactions to video of music therapy and secondly by the researcher interviewing the participants and writing up a transcript of their commentaries about the video. The key themes that emerged in participants' descriptions of engagement during moments in music therapy suggest it is possible to observe and identify engagement as reflected in the students' non-verbal responses, such as body movement, eye contact and vocalizations.

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  • Miocene and Pliocene Silicic Coromandel Volcanic Zone Tephras from ODP Site 1124-C: Petrogenetic Applications and Temporal Evolution

    Stevens, Matthew Thomas (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Coromandel Volcanic Zone (CVZ) was the longest-lived area of volcanism in New Zealand hosting the commencement of large explosive rhyolitic and ignimbrite forming eruptions. The NW trending Coromandel Peninsula is the subaerial remnant of the Miocene-Pliocene CVZ, which is regarded as a tectonic precursor to the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), currently the most dynamic and voluminous rhyolitic volcanic centre on Earth. This study presents new single glass shard major and trace element geochemical analyses for 72 high-silica volcanic tephra layers recovered from well-dated deep-sea sediments of the SW Pacific Ocean by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 181. ODP Site 1124, ~720 km south and east from the CVZ, penetrated sediments of the Rekohu Drift yielding an unprecedented record of major explosive volcanic eruptions owing to the favourable location and preservation characteristics at this site. This record extends onshore eruptive sequences of CVZ explosive volcanism that are obscured by poor exposure, alteration, and erosion and burial by younger volcanic deposits. Tephra layers recovered from Site 1124 are well-dated through a combination of biostratigraphic and palaeomagnetic methods allowing the temporal geochemical evolution of the CVZ to be reconstructed in relation to changes in the petrogenesis of CVZ arc magmas from ~ 10 to 2 Ma. This thesis establishes major and trace element geochemical "fingerprints" for all Site 1124-C tephras using well-established (wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis) and new (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) in situ single glass shard microanalytical techniques. Trace element analysis of Site 1124-C glass shards (as small as 20 um) demonstrate that trace element signatures offer a more specific, unequivocal characterisation for distinguishing (and potentially correlating) between tephras with nearly identical major element compositions. The Site 1124-C core contains 72 unaltered Miocene-Pliocene volcanic glass-shard-bearing laminae > 1 cm thick that correspond to 83 or 84 geochemical eruptive units. Revised eruptive frequencies based on the number of geochemical eruptive units identified represent at least one eruption every 99 kyr for the late Miocene and one per 74 kyr for the Pliocene. The frequency of tephra deposition throughout the history of the CVZ has not been constant, rather reflecting pulses of major explosive eruptions resulting in closely clustered groups of tephra separated by periods of reduced activity, relative volcanic quiescence or non-tephra deposition. As more regular activity became prevalent in the Pliocene, it was accompanied by more silicic magma compositions. Rhyolitic volcanic glass shards are characterised by predominantly calc-alkaline and minor high-K enriched major element compositions. Major element compositional variability of the tephras deposited between 10 Ma and 2 Ma reveals magma batches with pre-eruptive compositional gradients implying a broad control by fractional crystallisation. Trace element characterisation of glass shards reveals the role of magmatic processes that are not readily apparent in the relatively homogeneous major element compositions. Multi-element diagrams show prominent negative Sr and Ti anomalies against primitive mantle likely caused by various degrees of plagioclase and titanomagnetite fractional crystallisation in shallow magma chambers. Relative Nb depletion, characteristic of arc volcanism, is moderate in CVZ tephras. HFSEs (e.g. Nb, Zr, Ti) and HREEs (e.g. Yb, Lu) remain immobile during slab fluid flux suggesting they are derived from the mantle wedge. LILE (e.g. Rb, Cs, Ba, Sr) and LREE (e.g. La, Ce) enrichments are consistent with slab fluid contribution. B/La and Li/Y ratios can be used as a proxy for the flux of subducting material to the mantle wedge, they suggest there is a strong influence from this component in the generation of CVZ arc magmas, potentially inducing melting. CVZ tephra show long-term coherent variability in trace element geochemistry. Post ~ 4 Ma tephras display a more consistent, less variable, chemical fingerprint that persists up to and across the CVZ/TVZ transition at ~ 2 Ma. Initiation of TVZ volcanism may have occurred earlier than is presently considered, or CVZ to TVZ volcanism may have occurred without significant changes in magma generation processes.

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  • Analysis and Diagnostics for Censored Regression and Multivariate Data

    Aziz, Nazrina (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis investigates three research problems which arise in multivariate data and censored regression. The first is the identification of outliers in multivariate data. The second is a dissimilarity measure for clustering purposes. The third is the diagnostics analysis for the Buckley-James method in censored regression. Outliers can be defined simply as an observation (or a subset of observations) that is isolated from the other observations in the data set. There are two main reasons that motivate people to find outliers; the first is the researcher's intention. The second is the effects of an outlier on analyses, i.e. the existence of outliers will affect means, variances and regression coefficients; they will also cause a bias or distortion of estimates; likewise, they will inflate the sums of squares and hence, false conclusions are likely to be created. Sometimes, the identification of outliers is the main objective of the analysis, and whether to remove the outliers or for them to be down-weighted prior to fitting a non-robust model. This thesis does not differentiate between the various justifications for outlier detection. The aim is to advise the analyst of observations that are considerably different from the majority. Note that the techniques for identification of outliers introduce in this thesis is applicable to a wide variety of settings. Those techniques are performed on large and small data sets. In this thesis, observations that are located far away from the remaining data are considered to be outliers. Additionally, it is noted that some techniques for the identification of outliers are available for finding clusters. There are two major challenges in clustering. The first is identifying clusters in high-dimensional data sets is a difficult task because of the curse of dimensionality. The second is a new dissimilarity measure is needed as some traditional distance functions cannot capture the pattern dissimilarity among the objects. This thesis deals with the latter challenge. This thesis introduces Influence Angle Cluster Approach (iaca) that may be used as a dissimilarity matrix and the author has managed to show that iaca successfully develops a cluster when it is used in partitioning clustering, even if the data set has mixed variables, i.e. interval and categorical variables. The iaca is developed based on the influence eigenstructure. The first two problems in this thesis deal with a complete data set. It is also interesting to study about the incomplete data set, i.e. censored data set. The term 'censored' is mostly used in biological science areas such as a survival analysis. Nowadays, researchers are interested in comparing the survival distribution of two samples. Even though this can be done by using the logrank test, this method cannot examine the effects of more than one variable at a time. This difficulty can easily be overcome by using the survival regression model. Examples of the survival regression model are the Cox model, Miller's model, the Buckely James model and the Koul- Susarla-Van Ryzin model. The Buckley James model's performance is comparable with the Cox model and the former performs best when compared both to the Miller model and the Koul-Susarla-Van Ryzin model. Previous comparison studies proved that the Buckley-James estimator is more stable and easier to explain to non-statisticians than the Cox model. Today, researchers are interested in using the Cox model instead of the Buckley-James model. This is because of the lack of function of Buckley-James model in the computer software and choices of diagnostics analysis. Currently, there are only a few diagnostics analyses for Buckley James model that exist. Therefore, this thesis proposes two new diagnostics analyses for the Buckley-James model. The first proposed diagnostics analysis is called renovated Cook's distance. This method produces comparable results with the previous findings. Nevertheless, this method cannot identify influential observations from the censored group. It can only detect influential observations from the uncensored group. This issue needs further investigation because of the possibility of censored points becoming influential cases in censored regression. Secondly, the local influence approach for the Buckley-James model is proposed. This thesis presents the local influence diagnostics of the Buckley-James model which consist of variance perturbation, response variable perturbation, censoring status perturbation, and independent variables perturbation. The proposed diagnostics improves and also challenge findings of the previous ones by taking into account both censored and uncensored data to have a possibility to become an influential observation.

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