95,899 results

  • Bring your own device (BYOD) and teacher pedagogy in a New Zealand primary school.

    Rae G; Dabner NJ; Mackey J (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    The practice of students bringing their own mobile devices (BYOD) to school is increasingly being used to leverage digital learning opportunities in New Zealand schools. This paper presents a summary of the findings from a case study that explored the experiences of three primary school teachers as they introduced BYOD into their classrooms for the first time. The aim of the study was to understand the impact BYOD had upon their pedagogical practices and to identify factors that influenced these practices. The paper includes recommendations for schools and teachers who may be considering implementing BYOD in the future.

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  • An experimental assessment of the energy performance of novel concrete walls embedded with mini solar collectors

    Bellamy LA (2012)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Experimental measurements from a twelve-month trial are used to assess the energy performance of a solar-heated stratified concrete wall panel. The panel comprises an interior layer of high thermal mass concrete and an exterior layer of insulating concrete that is embedded with a solar thermal collector covering 10% of the panel’s face. Results indicate that the collector improves the energy performance of stratified concrete panels by more than 15%.

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  • Which panel data estimator should I use?: A corrigendum and extension

    Moundigbaye M; Rea WS; Reed WR (2018)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study uses Monte Carlo experiments to produce new evidence on the performance of a wide range of panel data estimators. It focuses on estimators that are readily available in statistical software packages such as Stata and Eviews, and for which the number of cross-sectional units (N) and time periods (T) are small to moderate in size. The goal is to develop practical guidelines that will enable researchers to select the best estimator for a given type of data. It extends a previous study on the subject (Reed and Ye, Which panel data estimator should I use? 2011), and modifies their recommendations. The new recommendations provide a (virtually) complete decision tree: When it comes to choosing an estimator for efficiency, it uses the size of the panel dataset (N and T) to guide the researcher to the best estimator. When it comes to choosing an estimator for hypothesis testing, it identifies one estimator as superior across all the data scenarios included in the study. An unusual finding is that researchers should use different estimators for estimating coefficients and testing hypotheses. The authors present evidence that bootstrapping allows one to use the same estimator for both.

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  • Comparison of Timber Extraction Productivity between Winch and Grapple Skidding: A Case Study in Southern Italian Forests

    Proto A; Macri G; Visser RJM; Russo D; Zimbalatti G (2018)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Forests in southern Italy are mainly located in mountainous areas, where ground-based extraction is still the most common harvesting technique. In particular, 60% of southern Italy’s forests are on slopes with an angle of inclination between 20–60%. The low level of mechanization in forest operations is due to the difficult site conditions, as well as the small-scale characteristics of both the forest owners and the harvesting contractors. The most common work method uses chainsaws to fell the trees, and animals or farm tractors equipped with winches for bunching and extraction. This study assesses the productivity and cost effectiveness of extraction with a purpose-built John Deere 548H skidder, including a comparison of winch and grapple configurations. The results show that the productivity of skidding depends on distance as well as the condition of the skid trail. The number of trees per cycle and volume of each load also had a clear effect. While large purpose-built skidders represent a significant investment, this study demonstrates that the productivity is very high compared to traditional extraction methods and the resulting extraction costs are very competitive. As such, this study indicates that, over time, southern Italian harvesting operations should invest in purpose-built harvesting systems.

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  • Enhanced Tax Reporting Requirements under the BEPS Project: Preparing the Profession

    Sawyer AJ; Sadiq K (2018)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    As part of the OECDís Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project, country by country reporting (CbCR) has been promoted as a mechanism to enhance transparency with respect to the operations and tax planning activities of large multinational enterprises. CbCR involves the disclosure by a company, either publically or in confidence to governments, of tax figures and, potentially, other financial data on a country-by-country basis for all jurisdictions in which it operates. In this paper we adopt a cross-country comparative case study analysis, involving two jurisdictions, Australia and New Zealand, which have implemented CbCR. This paper reports on a series of semi-structured interviews conducted with key tax professionals in large chartered accountancy (CA) firms, along with revenue officials, with the aim of ascertaining the readiness of the profession and their MNE clients for CbCR. The interviews not only reinforced our prior expectations based on documentary analysis that the two jurisdictions approaches would differ, but revealed significant differences in the level of involvement of tax practitioners in preparing for CbCR, and between the Big 4 and mid-tier CA firms. At this stage our analysis should be interpreted with caution as CbCR is yet to be fully implemented across all jurisdictions that have indicated their commitment to it, and the implications from revenue authoritiesí analysis of the reports have yet to be experienced.

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  • A study of the selection, achievement and loss of student nurses from one school of nursing in New Zealand

    King, Berenice Evelyn (1969)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In 1967 there were approximately 4,300 young women in New Zealand undertaking the three year course leading to State registration as a nurse. On the basis of past and current records it could be assumed that at least one in every five of those student nurses would withdraw from the programme before qualifying. The reasons given for withdrawal could be divided into two broad categories. The first, those reasons which account for a proportion of the loss from any predominantly female occupation, marriage, ill-health or a change in personal or family circumstances. The second were those which bore a direct relationship to the career choice; for nurses these were 'dislike of nursing' and 'study problems' It was the purpose of this study to determine, if possible, what constituted 'dislike of nursing'; what factors differentiated the student who withdrew from the programme because of 'study problems' from her successful colleague and whether or not there was a demonstrable relationship between the individual's reaction to nursing and her level of achievement. The term success in this context ref erred solely to the student nurse who progressed satisfactorily in the nursing programme. No attempt was made to assess the quality of care given and there was only a passing reference to the amount of satisfaction derived by the individual from her nursing role. Withdrawal was a post-recruitment problem. Factual information about the reasons given for and the stage of training reached when resignation occurred was available from the annual returns submitted by the matrons of all training schools; the level of general education attained by student nurses was also recorded at national level. Such objective data was important but it did not provide the background information on the individual who had elected to nurse. Why and when the decision to nurse was made and the source and type of information available on nursing were two areas of interest to those concerned with recruitment programmes. Those concerned with the planning of nursing education for the present and future had a need to know more about the nature and extent of the general education of actual and potential student nurses. Finally, investigation into the question of withdrawal was prompted in part by the statistical evidence that the rate of withdrawal was high and in part from personal experience with students who had been disappointed in their expectations of nursing, of themselves or of both.

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  • Academic self-efficacy, evaluative anxiety, and achievement during the transition to university.

    Sotardi VA; Brogt, Erik (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Encountering the pedagogy of live and interactive architectural projects

    Pretty, Annabel; McPherson, Peter (2017-12-21T13:30:24Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    The use of the word “live” as a prefix for a project, is a thought-provoking, and perplexing concept; does one assume that all other projects are dead? Or is it that "(a)live," in the studio build paradigm, is about the currency and value of the moment? Or is it that one is operating outside of normative architectural academia, and is therefore (a)live? Untangling the meta meaning of the verb “live” and then juxtaposing it with the word “interactive” could draw the reader to the conclusion that we are talking about a nonmomentary or continuous two-way transfer of information – often as not between the student, the lecturing staff and external agencies (in many cases real clients). It is this existence between the borderland of academia and practice that this chapter hopes to unpack and clarify.

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  • The Use of Joule Heating as a Phytosanitary Treatment

    Heffernan WJB (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • 21st century learning in New Zealand: leadership insights and perspectives

    Benade L; Gardner M; Teschers C; Gibbons A (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Schooling in New Zealand in this, now the second decade of the 21st century, a time perceived to be one of significant change. School leaders (and their school communities) are currently challenged by the focus on 21st century learning, which demands a shift to digital pedagogies, increasingly enacted in flexible learning spaces, and the demand for the the curriculum to be a vehicle for developing new skills and competencies. The research question guiding this study highlights the problem of leadership in this particular time of change. What is the influence of the concept of 21st century learning on leadership in a selection of New Zealand schools? This article grows out of a larger, Auckland University of Technology funded study, and focuses on the insights and perspectives of two school leaders on 21st century learning. The larger study is particularly interested in the influence of 21st century teaching and learning initiatives on school strategic statements and practice, an area currently under researched and analysed in New Zealand. This research seeks to address this gap, and make a contribution to New Zealand academic scholarship. This article analyses data from two principal participants. The participants demonstrate that certain characteristics of exemplary leadership remain constant even in the face of some of the most radical challenges to the ways in which the work of teachers, school leaders and schools is conceptualised and conducted.

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  • Practical Joule Heating for Phytosanitary Log Treatment

    Heffernan WJB; van Herel M; Nursultanov N; Smart T (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    A team at the University of Canterbury’s Electric Power Engineering Centre (EPECentre) has developed a laboratory machine and process that can rapidly and reliably Joule heat the sapwood of softwood timber. This treatment, initially intended for phytosanitary purposes, has been demonstrated on multiple full-sized, New Zealand (NZ) grown, Pinus radiata logs. The team has been working with Scion (NZ’s Forest Research Institute) and Canterbury University’s Departments of Forestry, Chemical & Process Engineering and Electrical & Computer Engineering, with funding from NZ’s Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) and industry organization Stakeholders in Methyl-bromide Reduction (STIMBR). A publications search shows that the Joule heating idea was trialled as a veneer log pre-treatment by the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Madison, Wisconsin in 1953. More recently some computer modelling work has been done in France for the same purpose, but the idea has not been commercialized, seemingly due to insufficient understanding of the process to overcome the problems of uneven heating profile. The EPECentre team has studied the electrical and thermal behaviour of freshly harvested P. radiata in sufficient depth to create both a full Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model and a simplified computer model. The simplified model is sufficiently robust to generate control parameters enabling the machine to successfully heat all sapwood parts of every log tested to above 60o C, for ISPM-15 type compliance over a half hour period.

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  • An Educational Approach to the Art of Living

    Teschers C (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    This article will engage with theories about the art of living and the good life, especially Schmid’s concept “Lebenskunst”, as well as with relevant findings of positive psychology research from an educational point of view. An argument will be made for the importance for education to refocus on the lives and living circumstances of our students, and the contribution an art of living can make to education. It will be shown that a shift of the educational focus in theory and practise is necessary, away from being mainly economical driven to a more comprehensive understanding of education and Bildung that includes not only social and economical considerations, but also other important aspects of human life and well-being.

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  • He kōrero wairua: indigenous spiritual inquiry in rongoā research

    Ahuriri-Driscoll A (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Ngā Tohu o te Ora research project was developed to investigate outcomes associated with rongoā Māori, in order that this practice might enjoy increased support as a funded service. The primary aims were to: 1) identify wellness outcome measures used by traditional Māori healers; and 2) develop and test a framework of traditional Māori wellness outcome measures. The Ngā Tohu o te Ora research team met with healers in a series of workshops over 3 years. The process of inquiry that unfolded was guided and shaped by healers. This established a specific set of ethical parameters and processes influenced strongly by wairua, which thereby influenced the conduct of the research. What emerged methodologically was a variant of kaupapa Māori participatory research, resembling broader indigenous research approaches, with features of “spiritual inquiry”. This paper will outline this unique form of research, and implications for engaging meaningfully with healing communities.

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  • Value Creation, Dynamic Capabilities and Slack Resources in Service Firms

    Sharma, Angel (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This study explores the antecedents of value creation in service firms. Specifically, whilst prior research has acknowledged the critical role of dynamic capabilities, little is known about the roles of different orders of dynamic capabilities and how they affect value creation. Building on the hierarchy perspective of dynamic capabilities, and through a review of voluminous but recent literature we establish service exploration as a higher order dynamic capability and service exploitation as a lower order dynamic capability and investigate their relationship with value creation. Moreover, given the importance of financial resource slack and human resource slack in service firms, and in the development of dynamic capabilities, we explore their relationship with service exploration and service exploitation. Using data from 61 New Zealand based service firms, we test our theoretical model. The results show that human resource slack enhances service exploration but does not enhance service exploitation, and service exploration does not enhance value creation directly but does so via service exploitation.

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  • The rights of the young person in the New Zealand youth justice Family Group Conference

    Lynch, Nessa (2009-08-22)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The youth justice family group conference (FGC) is a statutory decision making process whereby the young person, their family/whanau, state officials and the victim of the offence come together to decide on a response to offending by that young person. The FGC is an integral part of the youth justice system, involving thousands of young people and their families each year. There is a considerable amount of literature available on the youth justice FGC, most notably in regard to the purported restorative justice nature of the process. However, for a legal process which involves so many young people on a daily basis, there is little information available on the due process rights of young people in the FGC. This thesis seeks to remedy this gap in the research knowledge. Firstly, this thesis establishes the theoretical framework for the rights of the young person in the youth justice system. The historical context and theoretical justification for these rights is considered, and the benchmarks for rights coming from international and national human rights standards are identified. A key theoretical issue is the application of rights to the FGC. It is argued that although the FGC differs in format from the adversarial criminal process, it remains a state process involved in resolving a breach of the criminal law, and thus the young person's rights should be safeguarded. Secondly, this thesis evaluates legislation, policy and practice relating to the rights of the young person in the FGC. Three key areas of rights are considered: legal assistance, how the offence is proved, and outcomes of the FGC. Reference is made to practice examples derived from observation of the FGC in two centres in New Zealand. Finally, as the FGC is certain to remain an integral part of the youth justice system, recommendations are made as to how legislation and practice could be improved to better safeguard the rights of young people in this process.

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  • An exploratory study into the consistency and effectiveness of written feedback provided by markers in a tertiary education programme

    Murray, Jacqueline Mary (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Although consistency and effectiveness of feedback have been alluded to in literature, there has been little research that has specifically looked at these issues. Very few studies have quantified feedback types or looked at whether markers consistently use the same feedback types on written assignments. Most studies have instead asked students, through interviews, about the nature of feedback they have received. These studies found that feedback received is inconsistent in its quantity and quality, and that it is often ineffective. In conducting a literature search for this research, very few studies were found that examined consistency of feedback types used by markers when marking the same assignment or that used descriptive statistics to show variability in feedback types used by these markers. This research aimed to address this gap. Markers in two different studies marked and provided feedback on the same student assignments, and a taxonomy for coding different feedback types used by markers was developed. This taxonomy was based upon already defined feedback types, a review of currently available coding systems for feedback, and a deductive and inductive analysis of feedback types currently used by markers in the study. The findings of the research revealed that inconsistency was occurring among markers, both across and within assignments, and that very little effective feedback was being provided. The inconsistency was occurring in the score/grade given, in the amount and types of feedback used, and in the messages conveyed in the feedback comments. Feedback was classified as being effective if it provided information that answered Hattie and Timperley’s (2007) three questions; where am I going, how am I going and where to next? Very few comments in the research answered these three questions, thus, very little feedback provided by markers was found to be effective. This research had only a small number of participants and focused on one institution, so the findings cannot be generalised. Further studies in other institutions and/or in other areas of education would help to support or refute the findings found here. Lack of consistency is an issue that is occurring in education, and it is an issue that deserves more attention. Students deserve feedback that is consistent and effective, allowing them to improve future work. This research is intended to increase awareness around these two issues.

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  • Understanding the Impact of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Processing on Onions

    Nandakumar, Rajkumar (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis aimed to obtain an extensive understanding of the mechanism by which pulsed electric fields (PEF) at low electric field strengths (E ≤ 2 kV/cm) affect the structure and functionality of intact onions. A few studies have investigated the effect of PEF treatment on intact tubers, but little information is known for a complex and multicellular plant organ, made up of layers. Therefore, in this study, onion bulbs and spring onions were chosen as a model system, to understand the PEF induced changes in the tissue integrity and some physiological responses. The impact of PEF treatment on onion tissue integrity was studied based on ion leakage measurements as well as cell viability staining techniques. PEF treatment (0.3 – 1.8 kV/cm, 0.5 kJ/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the ion leakage (conductivity) in the incubation medium as electric field strength increased. The ion leakage measurements determined in the individual scales of bulb and spring onions indicated that the outer tissue scales were more susceptible to PEF treatment compared to the inner tissue scales due to the positional differences between the scales, with outer scale protecting the inner scales. A similar result was obtained using a cell viability assay. Onion cells present in the outer tissue scales showed more damage as visualised by the amount of cell death, compared to the cells present in the inner tissue region. This indicates that the application of PEF treatment on onion bulbs results in non-homogenous and complex changes in onion structure and cell viability. This study attempted to identify the potential of volatile compounds as markers of cell membrane damage, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and proton transfer reaction–mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The changes in the volatile concentrations corresponded to biochemical changes associated with PEF treatment and during storage time. PEF treatment (0.3 – 1.2 kV/cm, 5 kJ/kg) significantly increased the concentrations of propanethial s-oxide (PSO, lachrymatory factor), propenyl propane thiosulfinate (PrPthiosulfinate), 2-methyl-2-pentenal and the disulfides (dipropyl disulfide, propenyl propyl disulfide, methyl propyl disulfide and methyl propenyl disulfide), immediately following PEF treatment (T0), compared to the control (non-PEF treated) samples. In addition, the effect of PEF treatment on the volatile concentrations was much higher after 24 hr of storage at 4 °C (T24). The concentrations of volatile sulfur compounds (such as PrPthiosulfinate, disulfides and trisulfides) increased significantly (P < 0.05), compared to control and sample concentrations detected at T0. The increase in the concentrations of volatile compounds at T0 and T24 was found to be dependent on the applied electric field strength. The maximum concentration (Cmax) of volatile compounds produced in spring onions (Ishikura and Red Bunching) were obtained upon PEF treatment at 1.2 kV/cm whereas, in the Yellow sweet Spanish bulbs, the Cmax was obtained upon PEF treatment at 0.7 kV/cm. The dynamic changes in volatile concentrations were investigated in the spring onions as a function of time following PEF treatment using PTR-MS. The Cmax of the mass ions measured for target volatile compounds and the rate at which volatile concentrations reached steady state were found to be based on the applied electric field strength, significantly different to the control samples. The mass ions were found to reach steady state at different time points, reaching their maximum concentrations either at the start or the end of the analysis (120 min). The results demonstrated that the volatile kinetic trends were due to the relative position of the volatile compound in the onion enzymatic reaction cascade, where the mass ions measured for target compounds of interest were found to either increase or decrease over time to reach completion. Overall, it was found that the concentrations of volatile compounds were predominantly linked to the degree of enzyme – substrate mixing, which corresponded to the applied electric field strength. However, some exceptions were found in the products formed through a mixed chemical reaction cascades, showcasing a different trend. These results suggested that the changes in the onion volatile concentrations were not only correlated to the enzyme initiated reaction cascade but also to physiological responses. Investigation of cell viability following PEF treatment indicated that there were differences in the degree of cell disruption across the onion tissue regions, based on the applied electric field strength. The cells present in the outer tissue region were dead, and the cells that make the scale of the central core were found to be viable. To evaluate the effect of PEF treatment intensities on the volatile compositions according to the cellular disruption, the volatile compounds were analysed in the inner and outer tissue regions of spring onions. The results showed three different trends based on the concentrations detected in the onion tissue regions, indicating the differences in the physiological response from the onion tissue regions. To further comprehend these volatile trends, several biomarkers related to oxidative damage and antioxidant markers were measured to understand the degree of cell damage. The effect of PEF treatment at 0.3 kV/cm was found to damage the cells present in the outer tissue region, but the inner tissue region was found to be unaffected. In the outer tissue region, the levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPOX, and GR) activities were found to increase significantly. However, no significant changes in the levels of oxidative damage (protein carbonyls and lipid peroxides) markers were observed in the outer tissue region. Volatile compounds such as methyl propenyl disulfide (MPrDS), propyl propenyl trisulfide (PPrTS) and methyl propyl trisulfide (MPTS) were produced in higher concentrations in the inner tissue region, and are suspected to be associated with the physiological response from the viable cells. These results indicate that the metabolically active cells are synthesising new proteins to counteract the oxidative stress. These results suggest that upon PEF induced stress, living cells can change their metabolism to prevent oxidative damage to the cellular components caused by the reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, application of PEF treatment at 0.7 kV/cm resulted in significant accumulation of damage markers and a significant reduction of antioxidant enzyme activities, in both inner and outer tissue regions. This result indicates that the PEF treatment has resulted in extensive cellular disruption in both onion tissue regions, causing oxidation of lipids and denaturation of proteins and enzymes. The volatile compounds such as propanethial s-oxide (PSO), dipropyl disulfide (DPDS), methyl propyl disulfide (MPDS), propyl propenyl disulfide (PPrDS) and dipropyl trisulfide (DPTS), which are associated with cell damage were detected in higher concentrations in the outer tissue region and relatively lower concentrations in the inner tissue region. This study has demonstrated that the overall PEF induced changes in the structure and physiological function of intact onions could be assessed by evaluating the markers associated with cellular damage and biochemical analysis. Evaluation of the volatile compounds produced in onion tissues makes a unique contribution to the current knowledge in understanding the properties of PEF treated fruit and vegetable tissues. From an industrial point of view, understanding these complex responses will aid in tailoring the activities of antioxidant enzymes, enhanced recovery of phytochemicals, improved texture, flavour and bio-active properties of fruits and vegetables.

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  • What to do culturally diverse middle school students value for the mathematics learning? : thesis presented in partial fulfilment for the degree of Masters of Educational Psychology, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Hill, Julia Lindgren

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Mathematics education values concern what students perceive to be worthy or of importance in mathematics, and relate specifically to learning and pedagogy (Seah & Andersson, 2015). These values take place in the context of activities and decisions that are made to enhance the learning and teaching of mathematics (Seah, 2016). This study explores the types of mathematics education values espoused by diverse middle school learners in New Zealand, focusing on a cohort of Pākehā/European, Asian, Māori and Pāsifika students. This study also examines the relationship between the students’ cultural values and what they value for their mathematics learning. The methodology used in this study involved a comparative case study to investigate student perceptions of the most and the least important mathematics education values. Using a survey format, students ranked twelve mathematics education values in order of their importance, with follow up interviews to better understand the reasoning for students ranking of certain values. The use of a range of methods provided a more holistic approach and allowed for greater diversity of student perspectives. The results demonstrated that culturally diverse middle school students shared three mathematics education values, that is utility, effort/practice and flexibility. The commonality of these mathematics education values reflects shared educational and societal values. However, students from different cultures (and from different mathematics learning environments) were found to endorse alternate values as most and least important for their mathematics learning. These mathematics education values were reflective of the students’ cultural values as identified by earlier research and policy documents (Hofstede, Hofstede, & Minkov, 2010; Ministry of Education (MoE), 2011, 2013). The Māori and Pāsifika students identified most strongly with the mathematics education values collaboration-group work and family, reflecting the collectivist cultural values of these students. Conversely, the Pākehā/European and Asian students espoused independent mathematics education values including teacher explanations and mathematical understanding/clarity, reflecting New Zealand’s individualist values, and values relating to the teacher-student power imbalances amongst many East Asian cultures. An unintended outcome of this study was the impact of classroom norms and pedagogy on students’ mathematics education values, specifically, the influence of an inquiry based classroom intervention upon the Māori and Pāsifika students’ collaborative mathematics education values. The findings from this study provide insight into what is valued by culturally diverse middle school mathematics learners. It is hoped that the results from this study may assist teachers to develop culturally responsive mathematics pedagogy which aligns with the values of their students, leading to enhanced mathematics learning outcomes for diverse middle school students.

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  • The success and value of non-formal education for sustainable development : the case of children in the Wilderness Eco-Club Programme in the Zambezi region, Southern Africa :|ba thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Environmental Management at Massey University, New Zealand

    Adams, Sarah

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Education for sustainable development (ESD) has emerged strongly in recent years to become a key mechanism for moving towards a more sustainable future. The aim of this study is to gauge the success and value of non-formal ESD using a case study approach. Children in the Wilderness (CITW), a subsidiary organisation of ecotourism operator Wilderness Safaris, offers an extracurricular ESD programme for primary school children, and their Zambezi Region operation was selected as the case study site. A qualitative research approach was taken for this study, employing data collection methods such as interviews, focus groups, observation, and the examination of national policy documents and the CITW eco-club curriculum. The CITW eco-club programme responds to UNESCO’s (2005) characteristics for ESD, particularly regarding the establishment of relationships with the wider community, and a multi-method, learner-centred approach to teaching. While the national governments in Zambia and Zimbabwe aim to respond more strongly to UNESCO’s characteristics, they are constrained by limited human and financial capital resources. The eco-club programme, however, complements the formal sector by providing teacher training and resources, demonstrating the value of the programme in providing students with a more enriching learning experience. This study concludes that the non-formal education sector provides significant support to the formal education system, leading to improved vertical integration between international guidelines and implementation at a local level. The eco-club programme enables CITW to achieve its aim and vision by focusing on prevalent issues such as poverty, deforestation, poaching, and pollution. While the scope of the research and the limited time spent in the field did not allow for a detailed examination of the eco-club programme’s influence on proenvironmental behaviour, it became clear that some pro-environmental behaviour has occurred as a result of the programme.

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  • The prevalence of nutrition risk and associated risk factors among older adults recently admitted to age-related residential care within the Waitemata District Health Board region : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Nutrition and Dietetics at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

    Hettige, Dushanka

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Background: New Zealand has a rapidly growing ageing population, aligned with the ageing population trend occurring globally. Older adults account for a significant proportion of the government health care expenditure, primarily due to higher needs for disability services and a higher level of care, such as residential care. Malnutrition is multi-factorial and may result in disability and poor health contributing to a significant decline in the independence in older adults. Internationally, previous research has found a high prevalence of malnutrition among older adults in the residential care setting. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of malnutrition and associated risk factors among older adults (aged 64 to 84 years) newly admitted to residential care facilities across the Waitemata District Health Board (WDHB) region. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among older adults newly admitted to WDHB residential care facilities. A questionnaire was used to assess participant sociodemographic and health characteristics. Anthropometric and body composition measurements were recorded. Grip strength was measured using a handgrip dynamometer and gait speed was measured by a 2.4m walk test. Nutrition risk was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment- Short Form (MNASF), dysphagia risk was determined from the 10-item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) examined cognitive function. Results: The mean age of participants was 78.7 ± 5.0 years. Of 77 participants, just under half (45.5%) were malnourished with a further 49.4% were at high nutrition risk. Over a third (37.7%) of participants were at dysphagia risk. Malnourished participants were more likely to require daily help prior to admission (p=0.011) and have a slower gait speed (p=0.014). A higher nutrition risk (lower MNA-SF score) was strongly correlated with a lower BMI (r=0.274, p=0.024), grip strength (r=0.368, p=0.001), higher dysphagia risk (r=-0.248, p=0.029) and higher medication use (r=-0.213, p=0.043). Conclusion: Nearly half the participants were malnourished, and over a third were at risk of dysphagia. This study highlights that low BMI, grip strength and higher dysphagia risk and medication use are potential risk factors for malnutrition. Findings highlight the importance of malnutrition and dysphagia screening among older adults upon admission to residential care. This will ensure appropriate diagnosis and treatment for those identified at risk.

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