86,506 results

  • Consultative party status and alternative governance systems in the Antarctic

    Calder-Steele, Nicole; Hogarth, Kathy; McArthur, Nicky; McTurk, Lesley (2013)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Concerns about contemporary challenges have raised questions about the ability of the Antarctic Treaty System to effectively regulate and manage Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. The increased human activity on the continent, and the protection of its fragile environment from degradation and the exploitation of resources is the focus of this paper. The Antarctic Treaty System consists a complex array of bodies that aim to ensure the sustainability of Antarctica. The Antarctic Treaty’s primary aims are peace and science and it has a proud history of achievement, but it must remain fit for purpose. The difficulty of operating within its system is demonstrated through the case studies of extended continental shelf claims in Antarctica and bioprospecting. This paper argues that it is time for the Consultative Parties to address the core complexities of the Antarctic Treaty: the issue of sovereignty claims, the paradigm for governance, consensus decision making and to acknowledge the political nature of the governance regime. It is proposed that, in order to overcome these issues, a new deal is needed. This could be achieved through an assessment of the governance structure of the Antarctic Treaty System by Consultative Parties in order to make improvements and increase its effectiveness and efficiency. Regular “Meetings of Parties” at a Ministerial level, facilitated by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, would see an increase of the effectiveness of the regime, underpinned by scientific research. The collapse of the Antarctic Treaty System, without a suitable alternative, would likely see a “free for all” to its resources by selfinterested states.

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  • Within online corporate annual reporting for a globalised world, whose voice is being heard?

    Rolland, Deborah; O'Keefe Bazzoni, J. (2017-07-11T00:06:26Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Is there a new shareholder paradigm today that requires a new way of reporting? ( Leuner, J. 2012).The online communication of espoused organisational identity currently reflects within its message construction a rethinking of communication, space and identity reporting for globalised audiences. Within these “spaces of collective interest “ ( ibid) globalization appears to be creating new and different opportunities for organizations to communicate commitment to Non-financial reporting to their stakeholders and simultaneously, for stakeholders to assess the organisational ethics, values and achievements within Non-financial reporting. This assessment can enable organisational legitimacy to be conferred – or not. As these stakeholder audiences increase, the question of the impact of such extra-organizational influences and motivations (eg moral, ethical or other reasons) for expanded and deliberate Non-financial reporting arises. How is message construction for such reporting purposes being developed in New Zealand? This paper firstly explores the re-thinking of the role of corporate reporting and the influences on the rise of integrated non-financial reporting. Such influences include nature of stakeholder relationships or information needs as drivers for such a re-thinking (eg changing societal expectations, organisational legitimacy or the immediacy of social media spaces/ transparency). Secondly, the case of NZ Post will be outlined as a local organisation adhering to current online non-financial reporting for a globalized world. Is the voice of the annual report now encapsulated in the words of Mark Yeoman (CFO NZ Post) “an accountability document, not a marketing document?” (Yeoman,M. 2013).

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  • Associations between sensory issues, mealtime behaviours, and food and nutrient intakes in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Human Nutrition and Dietetics at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Taylor, Nicole

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Appendix 2, BPFAS scoring sheet, redacted for copyright reasons

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  • The riots in Ferguson, Missouri as a sequel of the movie ‘The Purge’ - Freedom of Speech in the Age of New Media

    Goltz, Nachshon (Sean) (2017)

    Scholarly text
    University of Waikato

    In the wake of the Supreme Court decisions in Stevenes v. US and Brown v. Entertainment, shielding animals cruelty depictions and violent video games under the freedom of speech, an invisible and dangerous line has been crossed. This paper will argue that these decisions and the violent message they carry with them, seeps under the surface of the American society fabric - conscious and unconscious - causing unprecedented consequences. These consequences can be seen in the movie the Purge, the riots in Ferguson and the events that caused them and even in the academic discourse as it unfolds in the media ecology association list serve.

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  • [n] infants, [n] votes

    Munn, Nicholas (2016)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    The inclusive presumption suggests that we should only disenfranchise those whose inclusion will undermine democratic values. Most people think we ought not to enfranchise infants. What harm would enfranchised infants do to our democratic institutions? At worst, they would systematically vote badly, choosing the worst of the available options. More plausibly, they would (mostly) fail to cast valid votes, and those who did successfully cast ballots would select randomly among the available options (as do some enfranchised adults). Neither of these possibilities provides good reason to disenfranchise them. I argue that in a well-constructed democratic system, the inclusion of infants (and all other currently disenfranchised citizens) will on balance be positive. To the extent that in extant democratic systems, enfranchising infants will do harm, that is an issue not with the infants, but with the system, and ought to be addressed from that side.

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  • The influence of two methods of crop removal at different leaf areas on maturation of Sauvignon blanc ((Vitis vinifera L.)

    Parker, Amber; Trought, Michael C.; Hofmann, Rainer; McLachlan, Andrew R.; van Leeuwen, C.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Aim: The research aims to determine if removing all bunches from alternate shoots had the same effect on berry maturity parameters of Sauvignon blanc as removing alternating bunches – apical versus basal – from each shoot. Methods and results: Shortly after fruit set, 50% crop was removed from four-cane vertical shoot positioned (VSP) pruned vines using the two different methods. At the same time, all the shoots were trimmed to six or 12 main leaves. Soluble solids (°Brix), pH, titratable acidity and berry weight were measured weekly from pre-veraison to harvest. Leaf area and yield were also measured at harvest. There were no differences in fruit composition between the two methods of crop removal. However, reducing leaf number per shoot from 12 to six leaves delayed veraison, reduced soluble solids accumulation and reduced berry weight with no additional effect from the thinning treatments. Conclusions: The thinning methods produced no differences in berry maturity parameters of Sauvignon blanc, indicating that carbohydrates can be readily translocated from shoots with no bunches to those with bunches. Significance and impact of the study: Carbohydrate translocation can occur at the whole-vine level where shoots behave as an integrated system and not as individual shoot units, especially under source-limited conditions.

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  • Effect of Plai cream [Zingiber montanum (J.Koenig) Link ex A.Dietr. syn. Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.] combined with ultrasound on delayed onset muscle soreness

    Manimmanakorn, Nuttaset; Manimmanakorn, Apiwan; Boobphachart, D.; Thuwakum, W.; Laupattarakasem, W.; Hamlin, Michael J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Plai cream (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.) has been used as a remedy for release pain and inflammation of musculoskeletal problems. The enhancement of the anti-inflammatory effect of Plai cream by phonoporesis or ultrasound therapy is questionable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Plai cream combined with ultrasound in the treatment of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Seventy-five volunteers were randomly allocated into 3 groups; 14 % Plai cream (5 cm long strip), ultrasound treatment (1MHz, 1watt.cm⁻²) for 5 min, and combined 14 % Plai cream and ultrasound for 5 min. The participants performed eccentric exercise (4 sets of 25 repetitions at a speed of 60°.s⁻¹) of dominant quadriceps using isokinetic dynamometry to induce DOMS. All participants received their allocated treatment once per day for the next 7 days. We found pain score, thigh circumference and serum creatine kinase were increased, while pressure pain threshold and muscle strength were decreased, but small changes of joint motion after intensive exercise (post-exercise day 1, 2, 3 & 7). However, there was no significant difference changes of all outcomes among three groups. In conclusion, combined 14 % Plai cream with ultrasound had no additional benefit at reducing DOMS compared to either14 % Plai cream alone or ultrasound alone.

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  • Urine patch detection using LiDAR technology to improve nitrogen use efficiency in grazed pastures

    Roten, Rory; Fourie, Jaco; Owens, Jennifer; Trethewey, Jason A. K.; Ekanayake, Dinanjana; Werner, Armin; Irie, Kenji; Hagedorn, Michael; Cameron, Keith C.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    In grazed dairy pastures, the largest N source for both nitrate (NO₃⁻) leaching and nitrous oxide (N₂O) emissions is urine-N excreted by the animals. Additional application of N on urine patches as fertilizer may increase these losses. Identification of urine patches could reduce N losses in grazed pastures through more efficient fertilizer application and improved fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE). The aim of this study was to determine if remote sensing using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology could accurately identify urine patches in grazed pastures based on height variation of the grass canopy in close proximity. Synthetic cow urine (7 g N L⁻¹) was applied to two blocks (20 m x 20 m) in a well-established pasture in Canterbury, New Zealand, which had no recent exposure to grazing animals or N fertilization. Urine patches were scanned weekly for five weeks. LiDAR based contour maps of the pasture were shown to accurately detect the asymmetric urine patches as well as calculate a percent area of urine based high N as early as one week after a simulated grazing event.

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  • Fatty acid profile of New Zealand grown edible pine nuts (Pinus spp.)

    Vanhanen, Leo P.; Savage, Geoffrey P.; Hider, Richard

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Pine nuts are becoming a popular snack because of their interesting taste and positive nutritional profile. Their fatty acid profile has been reported but there is some confusion identifying named cultivars. This study presents the fatty acid profile of five different cultivars of pine nuts currently growing in the South Island of New Zealand. The data are compared to three different samples of pine nuts currently imported into NZ. Identification of the twelve different fatty acids extracted from these samples was identified by retention time using GC-FID and GC-MS methods. The peaks were further identified by comparison of the retention times with a MS Library match and their corresponding LRI value. All but two of the extracted fatty acids were identified by comparisons with a known pure fatty acid standard sample for each fatty acid. Botanical identification of the five locally grown pine nuts was confirmed by calculating the Diagnostic Index of each cultivar from its fatty acid composition.

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  • A Context-based Groundwater Data Infrastructure

    Kmoch, Alexander

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Groundwater bodies are important and valuable natural resources. To better understand the hydrological state of the environment and groundwater dynamics, data sets and measurements need to be made available and accessible to scientists, planners, and stakeholders to allow for proper decision making support. A common challenge in hydrogeological modelling is to discover available data and fit these correctly into required input formats for specific modelling tools. The results need be made available again as inputs for analyses, presentation, and for subsequent use in dependent modelling routines. Information exchange via the internet has become faster, but data sets remain scattered both in location and formats. Present research in hydrogeology and freshwater resources management can be significantly supported and accelerated by relating, reusing and combining existing data sets, models and simulations in a streamlined, computer-aided and networked fashion. In this thesis Design Science Research (DSR), Grounded Theory (GT) and Case Studies are triangulated in a GIScience research framework in order to design a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) concept that addresses the full data life cycle in the context of hydrogeology in New Zealand. The 'Hydrogeology Infrastructure' was designed as a distributed system of platform- and location-independent services. It describes which data formats, interfaces and services are required in order to integrate inter-organisational data management, processing, hydrogeological modelling, and visualisation. A series of networked and open standards-based prototypes of the components of the 'Hydrogeology Infrastructure' were implemented, tested, evaluated and discussed. A web-based user interface was developed that demonstrates the access to the distributed functions and services of the infrastructure. Formerly disconnected and distributed data sets can now be used for hydrogeological data analysis, visualisation and modelling from within one user-facing application. Enabling interoperability of environmental data management tools, scientific modelling routines and data visualisation processes will improve natural resources management and produce better and reproducible environmental knowledge.

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  • The Analogy Between Heat and Mass Transfer in Low Temperature Crossflow Evaporation

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    This study experimentally determines the relationship between the heat and mass transfer, in a crossflow configuration in which a ducted airflow passes through a planar water jet. An initial exploration using the Chilton-Colburn analogy resulted in a coefficient of determination of 0.72. On this basis, a re-examination of the heat and mass transfer processes by Buckingham's-π theorem and a least square analysis led to the proposal of a new dimensionless number referred to as the Lewis Number of Evaporation. A modified version of the Chilton-Colburn analogy incorporating the Lewis Number of Evaporation was developed leading to a coefficient of determination of 0.96.

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  • A Journey With Elie Metchnikoff: From Innate Cell Mechanisms in Infectious Diseases to Quantum Biology

    Merien, F

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Many reviews of Elie Metchnikoff's work have been published, all unanimously acknowledging the significant contributions of his cellular theory to the fields of immunology and infectious diseases. In 1883, he published a key paper describing phagocytic cells in frogs. His descriptions were not just about phagocytes involved in host defense, he also described how these specialized cells eliminated degenerating or dying cells of the host. This perspective focuses on key concepts developed by Metchnikoff by presenting relevant excerpts of his 1883 paper and matching these concepts with challenges of modern immunology. A new approach to macrophage polarization is included to introduce some creative thinking about the exciting emerging area of quantum biology.

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  • Counsellors' Experiences of Working With Learning Disabled People Who Have Been Sexually Abused: A Thematic Analysis

    Chand, Snehaa

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The study aimed to explore counsellors’ experiences of working with clients who had learning-disabilities and had been sexually abused. This qualitative study assisted in identifying the issues raised for the participating counsellors when working with such people. Obtaining information from counsellors may further assist in identifying future social developments such as increasing awareness and minimising exclusion, discrimination and prejudice towards learning-disabled people who have been sexually abused. This study used a qualitative descriptive design under the post-positivist paradigm. The participants were recruited within the Auckland region, through counselling and/or disability health services such as the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) that provide counselling and therapy for sexually abused learning-disabled people. Counsellors or practitioners (which include psychologists, psychotherapists and therapists) who identified as having clients or learning-disabled persons who have been sexually abused, took part in a semi-structured interviews which explored their experiences of providing their services. The interviews were conducted face-to-face. Through the process, three participants (practitioners) who had previously or are currently working with sexually abused learning-disabled people, were interviewed. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Through the analysis, a key theme of ‘Applying practice’ was developed with three sub-themes. These were: accessing therapy, using appropriate therapies and ensuring follow-ups. The findings identify how counselling practice and services may assist learning-disabled people who have been sexually abused. This included the recognition of issues relating to learning-disabled individuals as being highly vulnerable, having limited educational support, particularly sexual education. Another issue was the identification of sexual abuse having occurred. Furthermore, there is a lack of prevention strategies in eliminating sexual abuse for learning-disabled people. This research might help to influence New Zealand counsellors’ and their practice methods when dealing with their clients who have a learning-disabilities. As mentioned earlier, this study might influence future development for learning-disabled people.

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  • The Impact of Using a Foreign-language in Restaurant Menus on Customers’ Attitude and Behavioural Intention

    Bi, Hongyang

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Although many ethnic restaurants present their menu in a foreign language as well as in English, there has been limited research regarding customers’ perceptions of a restaurant menu written in a foreign language. This study aims to investigate the use of foreign language on restaurant menus, and its psychological effects on customers’ perceptions. A total of 149 adults participated in the online survey testing the psychological influence of using a foreign language on a restaurant menu. Three scenarios involving the use of English and/or Chinese language scripts on a restaurant menu were designed to fulfil the purpose of this research. The findings show that the use of a foreign language on a restaurant menu significantly influenced consumers’ perceptions of a restaurant’s brand personality, food authenticity, and target marketing as hypothesised. Furthermore, the results of a sub-group analysis show that a menu including Chinese script has significant impacts on non-Chinese speaking customers’ perceptions of the restaurant’s brand personality, food authenticity and target marketing, whereas a menu including Chinese script has no significant impacts on Chinese speaking customers’ perceptions. Providing an initial empirical evidence, this study adds new knowledge to the academic literature on customers’ perceptions toward the use of a foreign language on restaurant menus. In addition, the findings of the study can be used for restaurant practitioners as a reference to position their business in designing their menu by including the use of a foreign language.

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  • A malu i fale le gagana, e malu fo'i i fafo. The Use and Value of the Samoan Language in Samoan Families in New Zealand

    Wilson, Salainaoloa

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    New Zealand census data indicates Samoan language use has declined rapidly in the last 20 years, particularly among the New Zealand-born Samoan population. The aims of this qualitative and family-based study were to identify factors which might impact these declines with five South Auckland families through group and individual talanoaga, participant observations, speech recordings and 24-hour recall sheets of language use. These were carried out over a one-year period exploring the valuing and, more particularly, use of the Samoan language in Samoan families, including whether there was a relationship between the two. Research suggests that the ultimate survival of a language depends on the intergenerational transmission of language within the family. The Samoan family was chosen as the vehicle for this study given its central place in the fa’asamoa, as the place where values, beliefs and practices are nurtured and where activity and decision-making changes occur. Youth are a second focus in this study because they are the carriers of Samoan language, yet data shows that they are experiencing the most language shift. This study was situated in the global context of language shift and maintenance, and so responses were grouped according to domains of language use. A bricolage approach was employed to connect the multiple ways of knowing and knowledge construction of the fa’asamoa. The findings highlighted that Samoan was highly valued in these families as the heart of fa’asamoa and connected with spirituality, identity, culture and communication. This high valuing, however, did not transfer to the use of the language, particularly among the youth. Instead, language shift was evident in most families, with the exception of those which made deliberate efforts to use and enrich the Samoan language. The complexity of intermarriage in Samoan families was also an influencing factor, which is likely to continue to impact the future of the Samoan language. For the youth, Samoan language use was confined to the private domains of the home and church. However, and significant within these two previously safe domains, was that Samoan language use was changing largely through the use of digital technology and the internet, even by grandparents and elders. At the same time youth asked questions such as ‘do you need to speak Samoan to be Samoan?’ The lack of quality time as a family, and the changing family compositions, schooling and geographical environments, were also factors that influenced Samoan language. The study conclusions were that intentional efforts such as having a language champion, Samoan-only language rules in the home, and quality family time together, are needed. However, more importantly, the impact of the use of digital technology and the internet and other new media on Samoan language use and sustainability is a new and changing area which is likely to continue to have a considerable impact on Samoan language use. It is argued that sustaining the Samoan language, and other minority language groups in New Zealand, will require family, community and State partnerships to ensure that the Samoan language continues to be valued and used in New Zealand.

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  • An Exploration of the Ways in Which Psychotherapists Describe Their Ongoing Development in Their Practice

    Thomas-Anttila, K

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    No abstract available.

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  • Immersive Visualisation of 3-dimensional Spiking Neural Networks

    Marks, S

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Recent development in artificial neural networks has led to an increase in performance, but also in complexity and size. This poses a significant challenge for the exploration and analysis of the spatial structure and temporal behaviour of such networks. Several projects for the 3D visualisation of neural networks exist, but they focus largely on the exploration of the spatial structure alone, and are using standard 2D screens as output and mouse and keyboard as input devices. In this article, we present NeuVis, a framework for an intuitive and immersive 3D visualisation of spiking neural networks in virtual reality, allowing for a larger variety of input and output devices. We apply NeuVis to NeuCube, a 3-dimensional spiking neural network learning framework, significantly improving the user’s abilities to explore, analyse, and also debug the network. Finally, we discuss further venues of development and alternative render methods that are currently under development and will increase the visual accuracy and realism of the visualisation, as well as further extending its analysis and exploration capabilities.

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  • Does Maximal Strength Training Improve Endurance Performance in Highly Trained Cyclists: A Systematic Review

    Ellery, S; Keogh, J; Sheerin, K

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Muscle strength may play an important role in endurance road cycling events. By increasing lower body strength and power, the anaerobic energy production and maximal levels of muscular force required during races to climb hills, perform repeated surges in pace, or in the final sprint may improve. While strength training is often performed by highly trained cyclists, the scientific literature supporting this practice is subject to a number of methodological limitations and potentially confounding variables that raise doubts over the efficacy of strength training to enhance performance in this population. The purpose of this review is therefore to identify and evaluate original research examining the influence of strength training on road cycling endurance performance in highly trained cyclists. Using relevant databases and keywords, nine training studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Grade B-level evidence indicated that following performance of strength training, highly trained road cyclists can significantly improve performance variables such as lactate power profile, oxygen cost or consumption, cycling economy, work or exercise efficiency, as well as peak and mean power outputs during time trials lasting between 30-seconds and 4-kilometres. Grade C evidence also suggests mean and average power outputs during time trials ranging from 40 to 60 minutes, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power or 80-85% VO2max are improved. However, the physiological mechanisms responsible for these improvements are unclear. Future research is also necessary to determine what is the best form(s) of strength training for these athletes, and how best to incorporate such training into their annual periodized training plan.

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  • Performance of a Building Integrated Photovoltaic/Thermal Concentrator for Facade Applications

    Piratheepan, M; Anderson, TN

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    The use of building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPVT) concentrators is an effective way to harness solar energy within the built environment, particularly for façade applications. However, in order to precisely predict the overall performance of building integrated façade collectors it is crucial to have a validated model that represents such systems. In this study, a combined optical and thermal model was developed to describe the performance of a façade integrated BIPVT solar concentrator system and subsequently was validated with a physical prototype. Using the validated model, it was shown that key parameters such as tube spacing, and thermal conductivity between the solar cell and the absorber have a significant effect on the overall efficiency. Finally, it is suggested that façade integrated BIPVT solar concentrator systems would serve as a complement to roof mounted photovoltaic systems, and that this may be a step towards net zero energy buildings.

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  • Reverse Zoonoses: An Assessment of the Risk to Weddell Seals at Scott Base from Clyptosporidium in Human Sewage Effluent

    Weinstein, Phil (1999)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Cryptosporidiosis is a disease generally considered in the context of humans being exposed to animal faeces, but the converse route Of infection is also theoretically possible. In summer at Scott Base (Antarctica), about 8,000 litres of effluent per 24 hours is discharged untreated into the ocean. Levels of viable Cryptosporidium oocysts in the resultant effluent plume could reach about one oocyst per litre. A 200-300kg Weddell seal is unlikely to Ingest more than about 500ml of sea water per day, and is therefore can not receive an infective dose of Cryptosporidium (about 10 oocysts). Because the combination of this pathogen and host constitute a worst case scenario for mammals exposed to human effluent from Scott Base, it is unlikely that base effluent poses a microbiological risk to any Organisms in the area. However, there are many other examples of situations in which 'reverse zoonoses' might pose a threat to fauna in sensitive environments, and both scientific research and 'ecotourism' should be managed with this in mind. Cryptosporidiosis is a disease generally considered in the context of humans being exposed to animal faeces, but the converse route Of infection is also theoretically possible. In summer at Scott Base (Antarctica), about 8,000 litres of effluent per 24 hours is discharged untreated into the ocean. Levels of viable Cryptosporidium oocysts in the resultant effluent plume could reach about one oocyst per litre. A 200-300kg Weddell seal is unlikely to Ingest more than about 500ml of sea water per day, and is therefore can not receive an infective dose of Cryptosporidium (about 10 oocysts). Because the combination of this pathogen and host constitute a worst case scenario for mammals exposed to human effluent from Scott Base, it is unlikely that base effluent poses a microbiological risk to any Organisms in the area. However, there are many other examples of situations in which 'reverse zoonoses' might pose a threat to fauna in sensitive environments, and both scientific research and 'ecotourism' should be managed with this in mind.

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