88,788 results

  • Genotype-based estimates of local abundance and effective population size for Hector's dolphins

    Hamner, RM; Constantine, Rochelle; Mattlin, R; Waples, R; Baker, Charles (2017-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Conservation and management decisions for wild populations are often based on demographic estimates of abundance (N??), and less frequently, on genetic estimates of effective population size (N??e). We used genotype-based methods to estimate both parameters from the same set of biopsy samples, while also providing information on the geographic closure of a local population of Hector's dolphins in Cloudy Bay, New Zealand. The assumption of closure in Cloudy Bay was supported by the lack of genetic differentiation between the two survey years and the absence of any genetically detectable migrants. Using recapture analysis based on genotype identifications, we estimated the abundance of individuals age 1+ (N??1+) to be 269 (95% CL = 233 ??? 319, CV = 0.12). This was similar to, but more precise than, N?? = 230 (95% CL = 130 ??? 407, CV = 0.30) from the more traditional analysis using contemporaneously collected photo-identifications. The N??e of the parental generation was 191 (95% CL = 23 ??? 362), and the resulting N??e/N??1+ of 0.71 was in reasonable agreement with species of similar life history characteristics. Although N??e was below the recommended threshold (500, recently increased to ??? 1000) thought to be necessary to preserve long-term evolutionary potential in perpetuity, genetic connectivity with neighboring populations on a generational time scale is likely to mitigate the negative effects of low local Ne. Our work demonstrates the breadth of management-relevant information (e.g., N, Ne, sex ratio, genetic diversity, and connectivity to neighboring populations) that can be obtained from a genotype-based analysis, and how conservation implications can change when demographic and genetic population size are considered along with connectivity.

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  • Phytochemical analysis with biological activities of Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae), growing wild in Mount Athos

    Varnava, Kyriakos (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This is the first study on the phytochemical content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae) growing in the close and protective ecological system of Mount Athos. The purpose of this study is to determine the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of C. officinalis extracts and to specify the involved compounds. The aerial parts of Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae) were extracted exhaustively with petroleum ether, dichloromethane and methanol. The concentrated methanol extract was reextracted, successively, with diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of all these extracts were evaluated through two in vitro model systems: the inhibition of lipid peroxidation induced by 1,1-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl stable free radical and the inhibition of soybean lipoxygenase. The last experiment is carried out for the first time in the genus Calendula. The extracts with the most significant antioxidant capacity with the first model system, was the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate and were equivalent. With the second model system, the extracts of the ethyl acetate as well as of the butanol and their residues, proved to be the strongest inhibitors of lipoxygenase. Phytochemical analysis of the plant lead to isolation of pseudotaraxasterol, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, diglucoside of oleanolic acid and a triglycoside of oleanolic acid. The triglycoside of oleanic acid was isolated for the first time in the genus Calendula. The results of biological experiments as well as the secondary metabolites presented in the extracts of this plant, which are known as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory factors, provide support to usage of Calendula officinalis, growing wild in Mount Athos, as a protecting factor from body cells damages caused by oxidation and as a reducing inflammation factor.

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  • Isolation and Characterization of Diastereomers of Discorhabdins H and K and Assignment of Absolute Configuration to Discorhabdins D, N, Q, S, T, and U

    Grkovic, T; Pearce, Allison; Munro, MHG; Blunt, JW; Davies-Coleman, MT; Copp, Brent (2010-10-22)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Investigations of four different sponge populations of Latrunculia species collected in New Zealand waters has led to the characterization of a new diastereomer of discorhabdin H, named discorhabdin H2, confirmation of the structure of discorhabdin K ((+)-7), and presentation of a new diastereomer, discorhabdin K2 ((???)-8). In each case the structures were established by extensive NMR and MS studies and the absolute configurations interrogated by electronic circular dichroism (ECD). Absolute configurations were assigned to the known metabolites discorhabdins H, D, 2-hydroxy-D, N, and Q by comparison of ECD spectra with those recorded for discorhabdin alkaloids of defined absolute configuration, while the configurations of discorhabdins S, T, and U were assigned by semisynthesis from (+)-(6S,8S)-discorhabdin B.

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  • Bioactive Indole Derivatives from the South Pacific Marine Sponges Rhopaloeides odorabile and Hyrtios sp.

    Longeon, A; Copp, Brent; Quevrain, E; Roue, M; Kientz, B; Cresteil, T; Petek, S; Debitus, C; Bourguet-Kondracki, M-L (2011-05-24)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Indole derivatives including bromoindoles have been isolated from the South Pacific marine sponges Rhopaloeides odorabile and Hyrtios sp. Their structures were established through analysis of mass spectra and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. Their potential inhibitory phospholipase A2 (PLA2), antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were evaluated. The new derivative 5,6-dibromo-l-hypaphorine (9) isolated from Hyrtios sp. revealed a weak bee venom PLA2 inhibition (IC50 0.2 mM) and a significant antioxidant activity with an Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) value of 0.22. The sesquiterpene aureol (4), also isolated from Hyrtios sp., showed the most potent antioxidant activity with an ORAC value of 0.29.

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  • A major ice-calving event at Tasman Glacier terminus, Southern Alps, 22 February 2011

    Dykes, RC; Brook, Martin; Lube, G (2017)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Terminus calving of icebergs is a common mass-loss mechanism from water-terminating glaciers globally, including the lake-calving glaciers in New Zealand???s central Southern Alps. Calving rates can increase dramatically in response to increases in ice velocity and/or retreat of the glacier margin. Here, we describe a large calving event (c. 4.5????????106???m3) observed at Tasman Glacier, which initiated around 30 min after the MW 6.2 Christchurch earthquake of 22 February 2011. The volume of this calving event was equalled or exceeded only once in a subsequent 13-month-long study. While the temporal association with the earthquake remains intriguing, the effects of any preconditioning factors remain unclear.

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  • Step-parenting

    Cartwright, Patricia (2014)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Many Australian children spend part of their childhood living in a step-family and many will grow up to be the step-parents of tomorrow. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS] (2007), approximately one in ten couple families contain resident stepchildren. In Wave 3 of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, 13% of households had either residential or non-residential step-children, or both (Qu & Weston, 2005). Early research, both in Australia and overseas, has found that children often experience difficulty adjusting to the changes associated with their parents??? repartnering, especially in regard to developing a relationship with a parent???s new partner, the step-parent. This chapter focuses on the role of the step-parent and presents an overview of research and clinical literature that informs our understanding of the role and experiences of being or having a step-parent.

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  • Students??? Voices Becoming: Feedback Dialogues in Intercultural Doctoral Supervision

    Xu, Linlin (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this study I draw on Bakhtin???s theory of dialogism to explore feedback dialogues in the context of intercultural doctoral supervision. The participants are six Chinese international doctoral students and their non-Chinese supervisors in a New Zealand research university. Composed of four phases, this mixed-method research offers insights into the intercultural feedback dialogues from perspectives of two research paradigms (postpositivist-oriented pragmatism and constructivist-oriented pragmatism), two disciplines (applied linguistics and doctoral education) and two kinds of dialogues (external and internal). It is a study of feedback, but moves beyond the feedback to the wider context within which feedback is provided and responded to. In phase 1, I investigate the external feedback dialogues from the research paradigm of postpositivist-oriented pragmatism and mostly from the perspectives of applied linguistics. This study commenced with an analysis of supervisors??? written feedback on the first draft of the students??? PhD proposals and the students??? feedback responses as reflected in the second draft. The findings reveal the non-Chinese supervisors??? preferences when providing written feedback in relation to the feedback focus and linguistic formulations, as well as the Chinese international doctoral students??? inclinations when responding to the feedback. In phase 2 I extend the analysis by examining the students??? self-reasoning about their feedback responses through semi-structured interviews. The findings suggest that the students??? preference for feedback provision differs from their supervisors??? feedback practice to some extent. These differences, together with the students??? perceptions of feedback focus and formulations, affect the students??? feedback responses. In phase 3, the research paradigm shifts to constructivist-oriented pragmatism. Within this paradigm, I investigate the internal feedback dialogues, through which the students??? feedback responses come into being. Insights gained through analysing the same interview data as in phase 2 indicate that the students??? feedback responses are the result of a series of complex inner dialogues made by the students. The research focus returns to the external dialogues in phase 4, in which I trace the developmental trajectory of the transformative voices identified in the students??? feedback responses from perspectives of intercultural doctoral supervision. The students were interviewed a second time and the findings show similarities and divergences among the students regarding the development of the transformative voices in their feedback responses. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of how the voices have developed, one of the six students was interviewed a third time to form a longitudinal case study in which I holistically analysed the four-phase data of this student. The findings from that single case study suggest that the supervisors??? personal qualities and cultural recognition, the student???s progressive academic expertise, as well as role modelling of peers, all play a part in facilitating the student???s assimilation of alien voices, while renovating her culturally enrooted voice. All these findings lead to a conclusion that feedback works through dialogical relationships among the feedback providers, the recipients and possible others: all the involved speaking subjects communicate the information of students??? learning gaps and strategies to fill the gaps through feedback dialogues; more importantly, through feedback dialogues they negotiate their cultural embedded ideologies and perceptions of the ???gaps??? and ???strategies???, of being ???students??? and ???supervisors???, and their epistemologies of knowledge construction.

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  • Transnational parenting practices of Chinese immigrant families in New Zealand

    Chan, Angel (2017-06-23)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This presentation advocates for fluid pedagogies that align with the transnational parenting practices of immigrant families and sustain diverse cultural practices. New Zealand is now considered to be a ???superdiverse??? country (Royal Society of New Zealand, 2013) with a large population of immigrants. This superdiversity phenomenon can therefore also be found in its early childhood education settings. Research has indicated that many contemporary immigrants are transnationals who maintain close connections with their home countries and frequently engage in border-crossing activities (see for example: Bartley & Spoonley, 2008; Gonz??lez Barea et al., 2010; Huang & Yeoh, 2005, Levitt, 2001; Pacini-Ketchabaw, 2007, Zhang & Guo, 2015). Transnational immigrants are mobile, and their parenting strategies may be similarly fluid. This presentation will use findings from a research project to illustrate Chinese immigrant families??? transnational perspectives of early childhood education and parenting practices. A life story methodological approach was applied in the project. Findings collected from individual interviews will be presented and analysed using key theoretical constructs of transnationalism (using the work of: Bartley & Spoonley, 2008; Levitt, 2001, 2003; Ong, 1999; Vertovec, 1999; Yeoh, 2006) to illustrate the participants??? cultural dilemmas in their parenting, their determination to maintain heritage practices, their preparedness to adopt early childhood education discourses of the host country, and their agency in choosing parenting strategies that they believed best support their children???s learning. The presentation will highlight the importance of parent-teacher dialogue for teachers to establish caring and respectful relationships with children and families. It will also suggest early childhood teachers to enact a curriculum with fluid pedagogies that are responsive to diverse parental aspirations and are supportive to sustaining diverse cultural practices.

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  • Pedagogies for a superdiverse Aotearoa New Zealand

    Chan, Angel; Ritchie, J (2017-06-23)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This presentation interrogates the notion of ???superdiversity??? (Vertovec, 2007) in the context of early childhood education in Aotearoa (New Zealand), highlighting the importance of relational pedagogy with regard to sustaining diverse cultures. Findings from analysing a range of national reports regarding ???(super)diversity??? issues in early childhood settings will be used to support this interrogation. The concept of ???superdiversity??? has recently begun to feature in public polices and scholarship across a range of disciplines, including education (Meissner, 2015; Meissner & Vertovec, 2015). While the term ???diversity??? is typically used in association with ethnicities, languages and cultures, Vertovec (2007) uses the notion of ???superdiversity??? to draw attention to the interplay of additional migration-related variables, such as different patterns of migration and associated socio/cultural/political complexities. Post-World War II immigration policies brought increased immigration, mainly from the Pacific Islands and Asian countries, into New Zealand (Spoonley & Bedford, 2012). The level of cultural and language complexity in a now ???superdiverse New Zealand??? surpasses ???anything previously experienced??? (Royal Society of New Zealand, 2013, p. 1). This particular manifestation of superdiversity is rendered more challenging as it overlays a particular bicultural policy context which recognises the rights of M??ori, the Indigenous population of Aotearoa (New Zealand). Recognition of superdiversity draws attention to new patterns of inequality and prejudices (Meissner & Vertovec, 2015; Vertovec, 2007), requiring reconsideration of educational policies and pedagogies in order to address these. National reports by the Education Review Office (2004, 2012a, 2012b) show that many education settings in New Zealand still fall short in catering for M??ori learners, let alone responding to the multiple dimensions of superdiversity. This presentation will consider possibilities for teachers to apply relational pedagogies, ones that engage deeply and respectfully with children and families in order to affirm and support their home languages, and cultural beliefs and practices.

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  • In Search of No-self: An Installation Exploring Relations Between Notions of Selfhood, Transcendentalism and Sublimity

    Maher, Julian

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This thesis examines two major arenas of enquiry. Firstly it explores the notions of selfhood, via a critique of Modernity’s subject. This is considered through the frameworks of both deconstruction and Buddhism’s anatta theory of no self. Through installation practice, theories of the sublime and transcendentalism have been activated in order to provide the viewer (who becomes an interactive participant) the possibility of experiencing no-self.’ ‘No-self’ is a philosophy and state of being from the Buddhism’s anatta theory, but I do not espouse here such a purity of no-self being in terms of only this theory. Rather, the project merges western post-structuralism’s deconstruction with anatta, as there are many coincidental moments that translate well in terms of the installation’s aims. This project interconnects three inter-related levels of research: 1. A critique of ‘Modernity’s Subject’ via particular post-structuralist thinkers, with respect to the notions of selfhood. 2. A comparison between the embodied self, as defined by post-structuralism as ‘non-entity’, and the Buddhist’s anatta theory of no-self 3. An investigation into an installation practice of the sublime, situated through sensual stimulus. This allows the “viewer” to experience both sublime and transcendental states.

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  • Crossing: An Investigation Into the Visual Space Between Catholicism and Medicine, Informed by Theories of the Gaze(S)

    Langdon, Katrina

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Crossing is an investigation, by means of practical art and theoretical research, into the space where Roman Catholicism (in particular Eastern European Mariolatry) and modern medicine share common ground. It explores the blurring of boundaries and uncertainty that occurs in the overlap between medicine and religion, in which a fascination with the wound and its associated sufferings become the central focus. This investigation draws on a long history of involvement with Catholic Mariolatry, and pays particular attention to the Stations of the Cross, which have strong implications in terms of ‘the wound’ and notions of suffering. It is an exploration involving theories of ‘the gaze’, drawing from material often viewed in the light of abjection; with the life of a child being the location for these paradigms. This is a journey and an experimentation process carried out by means of practical art, and largely involving the painting process. It draws on a long history of religious and anatomical/medical imagery; reinterpreting these images in view of current art practices, psychological studies, scientific observations and personal experience. This research project has been carried out by means of practical art, comprising 80% of the final work, with an accompanying exegesis of 20%

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  • An Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System in a New Zealand Community Hospice Setting

    Sprague, Emma

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Palliative patients experience substantial and distressing symptoms that impact on their quality of life. To date, a ‘gold standard’ measure is it yet to be identified for symptom assessment in palliative care. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) is the most commonly used measure to assess symptoms within palliative care throughout the world. Various studies have investigated the reliability and validity of the ESAS. However, these studies have revealed inconsistent validity and have predominately focused the measures use in populations with cancer only diagnoses. The cases of all patients admitted to a community hospice setting in New Zealand over the six month period December 2015-May 2016, were reviewed for this study (n=229). As part of the usual admitting process, the registered nurse conducts several health related assessment measures; including the ESAS and a performance status measure, the ECOG. The scores of the ESAS and the ECOG were anonymised and collated for data analysis. The psychometric properties of the 12-item, numeric rating scale version of the ESAS were evaluated using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and Rasch analysis. Exploratory factor analysis found three factors. One: drowsiness, tiredness, appetite, wellbeing, and complexity, two: anxiety, depression, and shortness of breath, three: constipation, nausea, insomnia, and pain. Rasch analysis confirmed that the ESAS is a unidimensional scale. Uniform rescoring of the ESAS indicated that the validity of item scoring could be improved by collapsing scoring options from 11 options to four options. The ESAS is shown to have some evidence of validity and reliability for assessing symptoms within the present research setting of New Zealand, community palliative care. However, the present study identified inconsistent factor structures. Therefore, several areas of key focus for future research has been identified to further validate the use of the ESAS within the New Zealand community palliative care setting.

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  • Yi-jing Within Time: The Implication of Yi-jing Into Moving Image Medium

    Lu, Zhaohui

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Yi-Jing [意境] is a signifi cant classic Chinese art concept that might be broadly understood as a certain conceptual and perceptual communication between artists and viewers. It was originally derived from Chinese poetry and was then adapted by a range of classical art forms such as Chinese painting and calligraphy. This project sets out to explore the notion of Yi-Jing within time and movement with its primary focus on video editing and digital manipulation. The research is intended to offer an alternative perspective to the appreciation of moving image. The project uses contemporary moving image mediums to reveal the uniqueness inherent within Chinese aesthetic values and to strengthen their accessibility to a western audience. It is hoped that the project might potentially open up a contemporary universal context for Yi-Jing and its application through the advancement of contemporary technology.

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  • High-Resolution Water Stable Isotope Ice-Core Record: Roosevelt Island, Antarctica

    Emanuelsson, Daniel (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis presents a water-isotope (δD) record from 1900 to 2009 for the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) ice core, Antarctica. Examination of the RICE isotope record with observation data (using global reanalysis and SST datasets) revealed details of the climate signal that is preserved within the full 763 m isotope record. RICE δD provides a proxy record, which captures the central tropical Pacific ENSO variability, the significant (p < 0.01) central Pacific δD-SST correlation pattern contain the Niño-4 SST region. Central tropical Pacific ENSO variability projects upon the Amundsen Sea region via a Pacific–South American pattern (PSA)-like teleconnection. RICE δD is primarily influenced by Amundsen Sea circulation, which coincides with the leading PSA pattern’s (PSA1) circulation focal point in the Amundsen Sea. Additionally, RICE regional physical setting (sheltered from direct impact from Amundsen Sea cyclones by WA orography) offers a unique setting, where enriched isotopes only are associated with one PSA1 polarity (El Niño, PSA1+, Amundsen Sea anticyclones). In contrast, during La Niña and Amundsen Sea cyclones, δD is depleted. Combined these settings, provides a compelling explanation to why RICE δD preserves PSA1 and ENSO variability. On interannual and seasonal time scales, the RICE δD variability is well-explained by the PSA teleconnections and their interactions over the Pacific sector. The influence from PSA2 on δD is strong during the beginning of the year (December–February, DJF). In contrast, the PSA1 influence is strong during the latter part of the year, peaking in spring (September–November, SON). The isotope record appears to preserve tropical Pacific El Niño-like interdecadal variability, particularly a decadal-signal from the central-Pacific (Niño-4 SST region) and from the Pacific-wide Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). On decadal-scales RICE δD is modulated by ENSO and Southern Annular Mode (SAM); when the correlation with SAM is active (during IPO+) δD appears to be in a depleted state and when the correlation with SAM breaks down (during IPO−) δD appears to be in a relatively enriched state. A RICE δD SST proxy reconstruction can potentially provide a record longer than the currently available observational datasets, allowing for examination of intrinsic decadal-scale tropical Pacific climate variability and its extratropical impact.

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  • Enabling Wilderness

    McKone, Matt (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Internationally known for its picturesque landscapes, New Zealand encourages both locals and tourists to experience them first hand by walking one of the many tracks around the country, an activity locally known as tramping. The Department of Conservation has identified a small number of these tracks as showcasing particularly picturesque areas; naming them the ‘Great Walks’ of New Zealand. These allow fit individuals to traverse unique landscapes over multiple days, staying over night in rustic huts. The relationship between healthy wellbeing and outdoor experiences is well documented; however, not every fit individual is physically able to experience some of New Zealand’s most significant landscapes due to the difficulty of access. This thesis combines elements of landscape architecture with the existing practises of construction in a conservation area to propose a new ‘Great Walk’ for New Zealand that would allow athletes with a physical impairment to experience New Zealand’s unique landscapes. In doing so, it will provide the opportunity for physically impaired people to continue tramping, or discover a new outdoor activity that not only improves their physical and mental wellbeing; but also allows them to establish personal connections to the land they are from or visiting. Physically pulling/pushing and manoeuvring through ‘backcountry’ landscapes, this research-led-design encourages the physically impaired community to engage with difficult terrains in a multi-sensorial manner.

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  • Expecting the unexpected: Redefining the home to adapt to the lifetime requirements of its occupants

    Groom, Sarah (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    What happens when the home expects the unexpected? Since the beginning of the current housing price rise in 2012, homeownership in New Zealand has become increasingly difficult. The desire to enter the property market has been impeded by the unsuitability of current housing stock that no longer meets the needs of the modern household. While it is widely accepted by economists, yet denied by politicians, New Zealand is amid a housing crisis. The government is addressing the issue by introducing a means to allow housing to be produced more quickly. This new housing is expected to mitigate the issues surrounding a shortage of land and population increase, by developing a large proportion of new developments in the classification of medium density housing. With a shortfall of 10,000 houses per annum, the current situation presents an opportunity to reassess how medium density housing (MDH) is configured in New Zealand. To break the cycle of housing stock rendering itself unsuitable in the future, this thesis aims to investigate how housing could be designed to allow for change over time. All age groups stand to benefit from a home that is carefully planned and considers their lifetime needs. An established design framework enables the prefabricated modular system to adapt, reflecting the lifetime requirements of its occupants. The outcome is an innovative, alternate design solution that considers the wellbeing of occupants through a lifetime design approach, offering adaptability and efficient production through prefabrication. A home that expects the unexpected.

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  • Future housing energy efficiency associated with the Auckland Unitary Plan

    Su, Bin (2017-07-11T00:08:07Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    The draft Auckland Unitary Plan outlines the future land used for new housing and businesses with Auckland population growth over the next thirty years. According to Auckland Unitary Plan, over the next 30 years, the population of Auckland is projected to increase by one million, and up to 70% of total new dwellings occur within the existing urban area. Intensification will not only increase the number of median or higher density houses such as terrace house, apartment building, etc. within the existing urban area but also change mean housing design data that can impact building thermal performance under the local climate. Based on mean energy consumption and building design data, and their relationships of a number of Auckland sample houses, this study is to estimate the future mean housing energy consumption associated with the change of mean housing design data and evaluate housing energy efficiency with the Auckland Unitary Plan.

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  • Accuracy and performance of continuous glucose monitors in athletes

    Thomas F; Pretty CG; Signal M; Shaw G; Chase JG (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices, with their 1–5 min measurement interval, allow blood glucose dynamics to be captured more frequently and less invasively than traditional measures of blood glucose concentration (BG). These devices are primarily designed for the use in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients to aid BG regulation. However, because of their increased measurement frequency and reduced invasiveness CGM devices have been recently applied to other subject cohorts, such as intensive care patients and neonates. One unexamined cohort is athletes. Continuous monitoring of an athlete's BG has the potential to increase race performance, speed recovery, and aid training. However, before these benefits can be realised the accuracy and performance of CGM devices in active athletes must be evaluated. Two Ipro2 and one Guardian Real-time CGM devices (Medtronic Minimed, Northridge, CA, USA) were inserted into 10 subjects (resting HR < 60 beats per minute (bpm), training 6–15 h per week). For each participant a fasting continuous exercise test was carried out until failure, ∼90 min, and glucoses boluses were given at 30 min (0.5 g/kg) and failure (1 g/kg). Reference BG measurements were taken every 10 min for the first 60 min, every 5 min until failure + 30 min and every 10 min until failure + 60 min with an Abbott Optimum Xceed glucometer. Pre-glucose bolus, all sensors perform better compared to results seen in diabetic cohorts with median mean absolute relative difference (MARD) of 9.7%, 9.6% and 11.1% for the two Ipro2’s and the Real-time, respectively. However, there is increased error post-bolus likely due to the gradient of BG change being higher, so the delay in transport to interstitial fluid and sensor results in a larger discrepancy from reference values. CGM devices agree very well with each other during rigorous exercise with median cross-correlation coefficients between 0.88 and 0.97 for the different sensor pairings. This good correlation between all three signals suggests the error between glucose measured by CGM and from blood is not random, but likely due to transport/uptake effects. As the interstitial fluid is the medium from which glucose enters muscle cells, this CGM value might be more useful than BG in determining glucose availability for athletes.

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  • Inclusive education aspirations: exploration of policy and practice in Bangladesh secondary schools

    Rahaman, Muhammed Mahbubur (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In accordance with global policies and pressures Bangladesh has incorporated inclusion as a change agenda in its education system and has consequently legislated a number of policies supporting inclusive education for children with disabilities in mainstream education. Secondary schools in Bangladesh are gradually initiating inclusive teaching and learning approaches to respond to the significant shifts in policy. This research examines the relationships between global pressures, national policies for the inclusion of children with disabilities and the aspirations, practices and needs in secondary schools in Bangladesh. In particular, it examines political rhetoric concerning valuing diversity within Bangladesh and juxtaposes this rhetoric with case studies of the practice of five selected schools. There is very little comprehensive research in this field in Bangladesh, so this project encompasses an exploration and review of policy and of policy context as well as an exploration of the grounded realities of education practices. It addresses the main research question: How do Bangladesh’s current policies for students with disabilities in secondary schools align with practice, resources and perceived needs? The study utilised a qualitative case study methodology. The overarching case is that of inclusive education in Bangladesh. Within this, there are a number of embedded cases examining the practices of particular schools and the perspectives of policymakers. The study was conducted in two stages. The first stage was designed to get information on policy from documents and interviews with professionals including academics, teacher educators, policy administrators, policymakers, and education policy experts. The purpose of this phase was to investigate the policy options for educating children with disabilities in mainstream/inclusive setting and to understand the influences of global policies on Bangladesh policies and legislation. The second phase involved case studies of five selected secondary schools to investigate how such policies are translated into practices. The study identified a gap between policies and practices that arose from the dominant influence of international drivers as well as the lack of strategic implementation processes. The findings from the study lead to the conclusion that schools were claiming to be implementing inclusive education despite their teachers having not received training in inclusive educational practices or having sufficient resources. As a consequence staff were often unaware of how to meet the needs of students with disabilities and of how to integrate them into class. It further identified the range of challenges that still exist. The findings are significant for the Bangladesh context as the country strives to achieve the goal of inclusive education, and as a contribution to the wider debates of inclusion and inclusive education practices. Their implications are discussed in relation to further policy formation and to the development of strategies and resources for improving teaching learning practices in inclusive classrooms. The thesis concludes that the road to inclusion for Bangladesh secondary schools may well have begun but it requires further reformation of not only schools but also national strategies of policy development.

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  • Water policy and governance in Guyana, “the land of many waters”

    Baptiste, Onika M. (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Effective water policies and good governance strategies are essential for sustainable development. Successful management of fresh water resources also requires the integration of the different sectors that use this resource. Therefore, water resource management policies should have an integrated approach that involves social, economic and environmental factors. Guyana, an American Indian word for “land of many waters”, officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is located on the north-east coast of South America. It can be said that water is part of the country’s identity, because of its inclusion in the definition of the country’s name and because of the abundance of this natural resource within the country’s borders. Additionally, the agriculture sector, which contributed 21.8% of Guyana’s annual GDP in 2016 uses 94.4% of the annually extracted freshwater. Effective policies and governance strategies are therefore important for the sustainable development of Guyana. This research investigated the current water policy and governance strategies of Region 4, Guyana. The study assessed how the water threats of the Region are outpacing existing water management policies. It also analysed policy gaps in the existing legislation through the lens of the adaptive integrated water resource management (AIWRM) process. This was done by using data from semi-structured interviews and by analysing existing laws. This study thus advances understanding of using the AIWRM process for policy development and implementation in Region 4, Guyana. The results show that there are multiple challenges to water policy in Guyana and that the existing laws are not effectively addressing these policies, because of several factors, such as the age of the legislation, the technical nature of the management strategy proposed by these laws, and the general top-down governance structure established by these Acts. These factors limit the ability of existing laws to effectively manage current and future water challenges in Region 4, Guyana. The results also show that some of the laws have aspects of AIWRM; however, policies that will give effects to these laws have not been developed, therefore the benefits derived by including the principles of AIWRM into water policy have not been realised. It is concluded that the findings offer insights into how the existing laws can be combined with the AIWRM process to address the current and future water challenges of Region 4, Guyana. Keywords: Water policy, governance, adaptive management, integrated water resources management, Guyana.

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