86,511 results

  • Antarctica New Zealand and Environmental Education

    McKay, David (1999)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study investigates Antarctica New Zealand's (ANZ) current recognition, understandings and use of environmental education as a management tool to optimise the achievement of o*ctives Of its and plans. It is written in the hope that, through this study Of its literature. Antarctica New Zealand may identify Strengths and weaknesses in its current use Of education, information and training, become aware of alternative approaches, and ensure optimal use and outcomes Of educational opportunties for and wth Antaraica and the Southern Ocean (M.f.E., to We for Otr Envi•onment.• A National Strategy for Environmental Education, 1998). This study investigates Antarctica New Zealand's (ANZ) current recognition, understandings and use of environmental education as a management tool to optimise the achievement of o*ctives Of its and plans. It is written in the hope that, through this study Of its literature. Antarctica New Zealand may identify Strengths and weaknesses in its current use Of education, information and training, become aware of alternative approaches, and ensure optimal use and outcomes Of educational opportunties for and wth Antaraica and the Southern Ocean (M.f.E., to We for Otr Envi•onment.• A National Strategy for Environmental Education, 1998).

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  • International Project Management, with Particular Reference to Antarctica and the Cape Roberts Project

    Noble, Nicola (1999)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Various economic, social and political considerations have led to an increasing number of international projects being implemented. These projects can provide valuable opportunities to all the participants including an increased resource pool, greater depth of knowledge in all areas and top quality state-of-the-art technology. This report examines the use of project management techniques and how they Can be applied to international scale If scientific research is to grow in the future as it has done in the past, many advances and an increased awareness in project management and international relations is essential. Antaraica, an ideal laboratory, provides the perfect place for nations to participate in interdisciplinazy studies and research. With increased global co-operation and collaboration, the research carried out will continue to be refreshing and new, while providing the increased resources and technologr required in today's society, and in the future. Various economic, social and political considerations have led to an increasing number of international projects being implemented. These projects can provide valuable opportunities to all the participants including an increased resource pool, greater depth of knowledge in all areas and top quality state-of-the-art technology. This report examines the use of project management techniques and how they Can be applied to international scale If scientific research is to grow in the future as it has done in the past, many advances and an increased awareness in project management and international relations is essential. Antaraica, an ideal laboratory, provides the perfect place for nations to participate in interdisciplinazy studies and research. With increased global co-operation and collaboration, the research carried out will continue to be refreshing and new, while providing the increased resources and technologr required in today's society, and in the future.

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  • An Analysis of Trace Lead, Cadmium and Zinc Levels in Antarctic Soils

    Powell, H.K; Paton, Mark (1999)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Analysis of Trace Lead, Cadmium, and Zinc Levels in Antarctic Soils The Analysis of Trace Lead, Cadmium, and Zinc Levels in Antarctic Soils

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  • Applications of Fractal Geometry and Chaos Theory in Antarctic Research

    Chappell, Michael (2001)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Chaos theory, with its recently-discovered mathematical tool of fractal geometry, is a new way Of thinking and of analysing data. Its intuitive appeal is that it not only removes the long-standing polarity between stochastic and deterministic systems, it actually synthesises the two approaches, giving them each a necessary pan, but not full weight, in any "chaotic" system. Chaos theory pmvides the means of finding order (determinism) within chaos (stochasticism). It allows, even expects, systems to be critically dependent on initial conditions in a way which makes strictly deterministic analysis futile. At the same time it allows, even expects, that some Of these initial conditions will send the system towards a "strange attractor" which produces reasonably ordered, predictable behaviour which we can know more about than just probabilities. In this paper I shall firstly give a background to these two inter-related disciplines — fractals and chaos theory, Then I shall look at the paradigm shift that is often required to use them, with Antarctic data as the example. Fractal analysis, and to a lesser extent chaos theory, has been used incleasingly in analysing Antarctic data in the last decade. I will summarise this, before discussing other possible applications. Finally I shall give a practical example of how fractal analysis can be used with sea ice. Chaos theory, with its recently-discovered mathematical tool of fractal geometry, is a new way Of thinking and of analysing data. Its intuitive appeal is that it not only removes the long-standing polarity between stochastic and deterministic systems, it actually synthesises the two approaches, giving them each a necessary pan, but not full weight, in any "chaotic" system. Chaos theory pmvides the means of finding order (determinism) within chaos (stochasticism). It allows, even expects, systems to be critically dependent on initial conditions in a way which makes strictly deterministic analysis futile. At the same time it allows, even expects, that some Of these initial conditions will send the system towards a "strange attractor" which produces reasonably ordered, predictable behaviour which we can know more about than just probabilities. In this paper I shall firstly give a background to these two inter-related disciplines — fractals and chaos theory, Then I shall look at the paradigm shift that is often required to use them, with Antarctic data as the example. Fractal analysis, and to a lesser extent chaos theory, has been used incleasingly in analysing Antarctic data in the last decade. I will summarise this, before discussing other possible applications. Finally I shall give a practical example of how fractal analysis can be used with sea ice.

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  • Marine Protected Areas for Antarctica

    Gibson, Mark (1999)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The marine environment accounts for 71% of the earth's surface (Nybakken, 1997). As water is a three dimensional medium, this makes the entire volume Where organisms can live equate to 1370 x 106 km3, Which makes it the single largest habitat stanghQlQ on the planet. The marine environment is in need Of protection. Protection is urgent to conserve marine heritage and life support systems of the globe (Kelleher & Kenchington, 1992). The oceans regulate climate, dissolve harmful gases, provide food and habitats to sustain life on planet earth. The natural state of the marine ecosystems needs preservation. Oceans of the world have not been respected by humans in the past. Humans have seen them as an inexhaustible source Of food, as having an infinite capacity to absorb and purify our wastes, and as a source of all the raw materials to sustain an industrial society (Nybakken, 1997). This has gone on for too long. Humans are adversely effecting the marine environment all the time. Constant destruction Of our terrestrial habitat directly effects the marine environment in many ways. For example, domestic sewage entering aquatic systems inevitably ends up in the oceans, Consideration Of our impacts needs to take form. The marine environment accounts for 71% of the earth's surface (Nybakken, 1997). As water is a three dimensional medium, this makes the entire volume Where organisms can live equate to 1370 x 106 km3, Which makes it the single largest habitat stanghQlQ on the planet. The marine environment is in need Of protection. Protection is urgent to conserve marine heritage and life support systems of the globe (Kelleher & Kenchington, 1992). The oceans regulate climate, dissolve harmful gases, provide food and habitats to sustain life on planet earth. The natural state of the marine ecosystems needs preservation. Oceans of the world have not been respected by humans in the past. Humans have seen them as an inexhaustible source Of food, as having an infinite capacity to absorb and purify our wastes, and as a source of all the raw materials to sustain an industrial society (Nybakken, 1997). This has gone on for too long. Humans are adversely effecting the marine environment all the time. Constant destruction Of our terrestrial habitat directly effects the marine environment in many ways. For example, domestic sewage entering aquatic systems inevitably ends up in the oceans, Consideration Of our impacts needs to take form.

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  • Seabird bycatch and longline fishing in the Southern Ocean

    Hoar, Jennifer (2000)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Albatrosses and petrels are truly birds of the oceans. These birds spend most of their lives at sea, and only return to land to breed. Most albatross and petrel species live only in the Southern Hemisphere, and many of these breed only in latitudes south of 450 (13 albatross species out ofa total of 24; Gales 1998). These birds breed mostly on sub-antarctic islands and range widely across the Southern Ocean - a large body of water that circles the continent of Antarctica, largely uninhibited by landmasses. Commercial longline fishing is a popular fishing method used to catch large pelagic and demersal fish, such as tuna and cod. Longlining, compared to other fishing methods such as driftnets, has been regarded as a size and species-selective technique which is "environmentally friendly' (Bjordal & Lokkeborg 1996; cited in Brothers et al. 1999). However, it has been found that a large amount of seabird incidental mortality at sea is largely a result of longline fishing activity. Both are concentrated in areas of ocean where there is a high level of biological productivity, and the foraging methods employed by feeding seabirds can lead them into danger. Albatrosses and petrels are truly birds of the oceans. These birds spend most of their lives at sea, and only return to land to breed. Most albatross and petrel species live only in the Southern Hemisphere, and many of these breed only in latitudes south of 450 (13 albatross species out ofa total of 24; Gales 1998). These birds breed mostly on sub-antarctic islands and range widely across the Southern Ocean - a large body of water that circles the continent of Antarctica, largely uninhibited by landmasses. Commercial longline fishing is a popular fishing method used to catch large pelagic and demersal fish, such as tuna and cod. Longlining, compared to other fishing methods such as driftnets, has been regarded as a size and species-selective technique which is "environmentally friendly' (Bjordal & Lokkeborg 1996; cited in Brothers et al. 1999). However, it has been found that a large amount of seabird incidental mortality at sea is largely a result of longline fishing activity. Both are concentrated in areas of ocean where there is a high level of biological productivity, and the foraging methods employed by feeding seabirds can lead them into danger.

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  • A Review of the Diving Adaptations of Weddell Seals (Leptonychotes Weddellii)

    Webb, Keryn (1999)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report contains a compilation and review of adaptations of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) for diving. Discussed are anatomical adaptations including its teeth and eye structure, and ability to collapse its lung; behavioural adaptations including diving within its anaerobic dive limit; and physiological adaptations including having high haemoglobin and myoglobin, and ability to control heart rate and consequent blood circulation. Their unique adaptations, as well as those they share with phocids and pinnipeds in general, are addressed, including comparisons where appropriate. This report contains a compilation and review of adaptations of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) for diving. Discussed are anatomical adaptations including its teeth and eye structure, and ability to collapse its lung; behavioural adaptations including diving within its anaerobic dive limit; and physiological adaptations including having high haemoglobin and myoglobin, and ability to control heart rate and consequent blood circulation. Their unique adaptations, as well as those they share with phocids and pinnipeds in general, are addressed, including comparisons where appropriate.

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  • What is Antarctica? A Teaching Resource in Experiential Education

    Downer, Kate (1999)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    • What is Antarctica A close look at the Antarctic region Students- create a physical and biological Antarctic region Possible scenarios to the fate of the Antarctic region The Place of Science Students solve world problems by discovering scientific information Within the Antarctic region Positive and negative impacts are •dentified We Need Each Other a) Inspection of the connecti ie Within an ecosystem Interdependence of s b) Pyramid of Life Structure of a food chain c) Keeping it in Balance Balance Of an ecosystem • Why is the Antarctic Ecosystem so Fragile? a) Breeding Maturity c Susceptibility of sp cient9 impacts due to the long length of time it takes Antarctic specie to reabh breeding maturity b) A Mixed up Bunch - Susceptibility of spe impacts due to juvenile and adult sp •el ving in the same area • Resource Management Natural and unnatural resource management strategies within the Antarctic region • What is Antarctica A close look at the Antarctic region Students- create a physical and biological Antarctic region Possible scenarios to the fate of the Antarctic region The Place of Science Students solve world problems by discovering scientific information Within the Antarctic region Positive and negative impacts are •dentified We Need Each Other a) Inspection of the connecti ie Within an ecosystem Interdependence of s b) Pyramid of Life Structure of a food chain c) Keeping it in Balance Balance Of an ecosystem • Why is the Antarctic Ecosystem so Fragile? a) Breeding Maturity c Susceptibility of sp cient9 impacts due to the long length of time it takes Antarctic specie to reabh breeding maturity b) A Mixed up Bunch - Susceptibility of spe impacts due to juvenile and adult sp •el ving in the same area • Resource Management Natural and unnatural resource management strategies within the Antarctic region

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  • Navigational instruments and methods for the Amundsen and Scott expeditions to the South Pole.

    Seale, Joyce (2001)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The navigational instruments and methods during the early 1900s provided a challenge for the organisation of an expedition to the South Pole. Navigational techniques had not changed radically since the time of James Cook and his voyages to locate the great southern continent. The instruments and methods of the early 1900s had to be adapted to be used in the extreme Antarctic conditions. The obvious conditions to addressed are the extreme cold and the effects it had on the instruments and the limitations of using a magnetic compass in IX)lar regions. "Ille navigational instruments and methods used on Amundsen and Scott expeditions will be compared. This paper will explore the choices Of their instruments and methods along with the impact that those choices had on the success of their individual expeditions to arrive and fix the location of the South Pole. The navigational instruments and methods during the early 1900s provided a challenge for the organisation of an expedition to the South Pole. Navigational techniques had not changed radically since the time of James Cook and his voyages to locate the great southern continent. The instruments and methods of the early 1900s had to be adapted to be used in the extreme Antarctic conditions. The obvious conditions to addressed are the extreme cold and the effects it had on the instruments and the limitations of using a magnetic compass in IX)lar regions. "Ille navigational instruments and methods used on Amundsen and Scott expeditions will be compared. This paper will explore the choices Of their instruments and methods along with the impact that those choices had on the success of their individual expeditions to arrive and fix the location of the South Pole.

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  • The financing of an Antarctic Expedition of the Heroic Era

    Chaplow, Lester (2000)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    There is much written by and about Antarctic expeditions. This includes a number of diaries, both published and unpublished, of men from these voyages and times. Their correspondence home, with sponsors, governments, suppliers and each other, all combine to tell the story of their struggles. These struggles were not only for their survival on the Antarctic continent, but even before that; struggles to obtain sufficient funding in order to even arrive there at all. After all, "Finance, or rather the lack of finance, is the most burdensome problem to beset any Antarctic expedition" (Helm & Miller, 1964, p.56). This paper, is a review and discussion Of several published records of the era, the men and the expeditions. The activities of the expeditions of discovery and adventure are largely ignored. This paper explores the role of money and more particularly financing, including non-cash donations, in these expeditions and its effect on the men, and the outcomes of the expeditions. There is much written by and about Antarctic expeditions. This includes a number of diaries, both published and unpublished, of men from these voyages and times. Their correspondence home, with sponsors, governments, suppliers and each other, all combine to tell the story of their struggles. These struggles were not only for their survival on the Antarctic continent, but even before that; struggles to obtain sufficient funding in order to even arrive there at all. After all, "Finance, or rather the lack of finance, is the most burdensome problem to beset any Antarctic expedition" (Helm & Miller, 1964, p.56). This paper, is a review and discussion Of several published records of the era, the men and the expeditions. The activities of the expeditions of discovery and adventure are largely ignored. This paper explores the role of money and more particularly financing, including non-cash donations, in these expeditions and its effect on the men, and the outcomes of the expeditions.

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  • New Zealand’s Future Policy on Tourism in Antarctica

    Watson, Nigel (1999)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report addresses the future direction of New Zealand policy on tourism in Antarctica and in particular the Ross Sea region. It highlights a number of policy options and makes recommendations on favoured options. Each option dictates a different level of engagement with the private sector and with that a different role for Antarctica New The topic is a sensitive and controversial one. It is value driven and requires the development Of well-considered Officials Antarctic Committee (OAC) policy. This report builds on previous research, including Tourism Opportunities in the Ross Sea Region - A Report for the Officials Antarctic Committee by Bev Abbott of the New Zealand Tourism Board Report (1997), Antarctic Tourism - Where To? An Analysis of the Future of Antarctic Tourism (1999) prepared by the author and others as part of the University of Canterbury inaugural Certificate in Antarctic Studies end Tim Higham's Antarctica New Zealand internal discussion document, Choices in relation to private sector activity in Antarctica (1999). This report does not intend to repeat their findings except where necessary to provide relevant context. This report addresses the future direction of New Zealand policy on tourism in Antarctica and in particular the Ross Sea region. It highlights a number of policy options and makes recommendations on favoured options. Each option dictates a different level of engagement with the private sector and with that a different role for Antarctica New The topic is a sensitive and controversial one. It is value driven and requires the development Of well-considered Officials Antarctic Committee (OAC) policy. This report builds on previous research, including Tourism Opportunities in the Ross Sea Region - A Report for the Officials Antarctic Committee by Bev Abbott of the New Zealand Tourism Board Report (1997), Antarctic Tourism - Where To? An Analysis of the Future of Antarctic Tourism (1999) prepared by the author and others as part of the University of Canterbury inaugural Certificate in Antarctic Studies end Tim Higham's Antarctica New Zealand internal discussion document, Choices in relation to private sector activity in Antarctica (1999). This report does not intend to repeat their findings except where necessary to provide relevant context.

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  • Long Term Temperature Trends at Scott Base, Antarctica

    Gill-Fox, Deborah (2000)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Temperature data from Scott Base, Antarctica, for the years 1957-1999 were analysed for long-term trends using linear regression. The annual mean temperature was found to be increasing at 0.0290C yr-l , and monthly and seasonally averaged temperatures mostly showed increasing trends. The diurnal temperature range was found to be decreasing due to increases in daily minima. Temperature data from Scott Base, Antarctica, for the years 1957-1999 were analysed for long-term trends using linear regression. The annual mean temperature was found to be increasing at 0.0290C yr-l , and monthly and seasonally averaged temperatures mostly showed increasing trends. The diurnal temperature range was found to be decreasing due to increases in daily minima.

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  • Documenting the effects of human-induced disturbance on a Weddell seal colony

    Muller, Chris (2001)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this study was to document the effects of human-induced disturbance on a Weddell seal (Leptonychotes wedelli) colony. The main disturbance source used was a group of two to twelve people moving thlvugh the colony, and approaching within 5m Of seals. Average measures of the activity level of the colony were obtained using the Instantaneous scan sampling method (Altman 74). The average activity rate Of the colony increased markedly in the presence of disturbance, with the pmportion of the population resting dropping from around 87% pre-disturbance to 36% during disturbance. An increasing proportion of active disturbance-response behaviours were recorded in the presence of the disturbance (eg. watching, looking up, or moving away). Data from controlled approaches to individual seals indicated that 10m is a more suitable maximum approach distance to seals than 5m, and reduces the cumulative percentage of population lesponse (or probability of disturbance) from around 60% to 17%. It may be possible to achieve "no disturbance" with an approach distance limit of 20m. Therefore it can be concluded that the seal colony was disturbed by the human activity, and this in a change of behaviour and of the average activity levels of the colony. Further study is required to confirm these trends, and to determine whether such disturbance would have a significant impact on the colony, or significant cumulative effects over time. The purpose of this study was to document the effects of human-induced disturbance on a Weddell seal (Leptonychotes wedelli) colony. The main disturbance source used was a group of two to twelve people moving thlvugh the colony, and approaching within 5m Of seals. Average measures of the activity level of the colony were obtained using the Instantaneous scan sampling method (Altman 74). The average activity rate Of the colony increased markedly in the presence of disturbance, with the pmportion of the population resting dropping from around 87% pre-disturbance to 36% during disturbance. An increasing proportion of active disturbance-response behaviours were recorded in the presence of the disturbance (eg. watching, looking up, or moving away). Data from controlled approaches to individual seals indicated that 10m is a more suitable maximum approach distance to seals than 5m, and reduces the cumulative percentage of population lesponse (or probability of disturbance) from around 60% to 17%. It may be possible to achieve "no disturbance" with an approach distance limit of 20m. Therefore it can be concluded that the seal colony was disturbed by the human activity, and this in a change of behaviour and of the average activity levels of the colony. Further study is required to confirm these trends, and to determine whether such disturbance would have a significant impact on the colony, or significant cumulative effects over time.

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  • The TAE Hut

    Falconer, Tamsin (2000)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Heritage can be described as a process of determining what we wish to pass on to future generations. This project aims to contribute to the debate about what New Zealand and its Antarctic community values as heritage. To date, the Antarctic community has been willing to recognise and protect its heritage, though it has been somewhat selective in doing so. The TAE Hut points to a key period in New Zealand's Antarctic history and is rapidly becoming part Of our heritage. What is the best future for the TAE Hut? This project examines future options for the TAE Hut. What are the debates around the TAE Hut — what values are What precedents are there for managing and preserving this historic building and in what ways are they applicable? What are the options for the future and the debates that should be had? Heritage can be described as a process of determining what we wish to pass on to future generations. This project aims to contribute to the debate about what New Zealand and its Antarctic community values as heritage. To date, the Antarctic community has been willing to recognise and protect its heritage, though it has been somewhat selective in doing so. The TAE Hut points to a key period in New Zealand's Antarctic history and is rapidly becoming part Of our heritage. What is the best future for the TAE Hut? This project examines future options for the TAE Hut. What are the debates around the TAE Hut — what values are What precedents are there for managing and preserving this historic building and in what ways are they applicable? What are the options for the future and the debates that should be had?

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  • Southern Ocean Whaling: Is there a need for a new treaty?

    Huston, Miranda (2001)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This project explores Southern Ocean whaling and the possible desirability Of a new treaty. This project is a qualitative investigation. The history Of Southern Ocean whaling is explored. As part Of this history, the International Whaling Committee (IWC) and the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW) are also examined. Several loopholes within the Convention are identified and discussed, and these include open membership, an objections procedure, enforcement issues, and provisions made. The strength of public opinion is identified and so too are cultural belief systems. Key decisions made by the IWC are discussed such as the moratorium, the Revised Management Procedure and the establishment Of sanctuaries. There are a number Of International laws that can be related to whaling in the Southern Ocean, some specifically and others in a more general way. These are identified and discussed. It appears there are several options that could be employed to manage whaling in the Southern Ocean as well as continuing with the status quo. A number of suggestions are made as to how best Southern Ocean whaling could be managed and who should manage it. This project explores Southern Ocean whaling and the possible desirability Of a new treaty. This project is a qualitative investigation. The history Of Southern Ocean whaling is explored. As part Of this history, the International Whaling Committee (IWC) and the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW) are also examined. Several loopholes within the Convention are identified and discussed, and these include open membership, an objections procedure, enforcement issues, and provisions made. The strength of public opinion is identified and so too are cultural belief systems. Key decisions made by the IWC are discussed such as the moratorium, the Revised Management Procedure and the establishment Of sanctuaries. There are a number Of International laws that can be related to whaling in the Southern Ocean, some specifically and others in a more general way. These are identified and discussed. It appears there are several options that could be employed to manage whaling in the Southern Ocean as well as continuing with the status quo. A number of suggestions are made as to how best Southern Ocean whaling could be managed and who should manage it.

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  • Antarctic Metadata – Management, Issues, Concerns and Recommendations

    Cadenhead, Natalie (1999)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) together with the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP) is addressing data management issues through the Joint Committee on Antarctic Data Management (JCADM). JCADM comprises the manager of each National Antarctic Data Centre (NADC)2, and one nominee from each of SCAR, COMNAP and the Antarctic Master Directory host. JCADM has implemented an Antarctic Data Directory System (ADDS), endorsed by the XVIIIATCM, to make information about Antarctic scientific data readily available. The ADDS is composed of an Antarctic Master Directory (AMD) containing information on Antarctic scientific data, and a network of National Antarctic Data Centres (NADCs). The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) together with the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP) is addressing data management issues through the Joint Committee on Antarctic Data Management (JCADM). JCADM comprises the manager of each National Antarctic Data Centre (NADC)2, and one nominee from each of SCAR, COMNAP and the Antarctic Master Directory host. JCADM has implemented an Antarctic Data Directory System (ADDS), endorsed by the XVIIIATCM, to make information about Antarctic scientific data readily available. The ADDS is composed of an Antarctic Master Directory (AMD) containing information on Antarctic scientific data, and a network of National Antarctic Data Centres (NADCs).

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  • Antarctic Wilderness – a door to yourself?

    Ossenkamp, Gabriel (2001)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This "Individual project" for the 2000/2001 Graduate Certificate of Antarctic Studies was born out of a two-fold interest. Firstly, a wish to refine and put into perspective my own fledgling thinking about wilderness and nature's relationship to it, and secondly, a desire to read some of the diaries of the heroic era explorers. The first wish stems from two years of deliberatly searching for wilderness in New Zealand's relatively untouched backcountry. This search has led to a slowly emanating perception that there are spiritual values and experiences beyond the thrill of achievement and physical exertion to be found when engaging in travels through such lands. The second wish stems from a boyhood fascination with explorers, a seed of which probably most people interested in the Antarctic carry within themselves. This essay started as an attempt to merge these two reading projects. I begin with an overview of the temporal evolution of the idea of wilderness in the western world. My initial idea was to find fragments in the accounts of the heroic era explorers that would fit into the picture drawn by this historic review. However, these diaries proved to be a very poor mine of thoughts on the landscape and nature, so that my reading of these diaries often proved to be like the proverbial search for a needle in the haystack. Therefore, I extended my readings to some contemporary authors where more suitable passages, albeit on an absolute scale still few, can be found. The result that is to hand is primarily thought as a step on my own journey towards a better understanding and sharpened perception. This "Individual project" for the 2000/2001 Graduate Certificate of Antarctic Studies was born out of a two-fold interest. Firstly, a wish to refine and put into perspective my own fledgling thinking about wilderness and nature's relationship to it, and secondly, a desire to read some of the diaries of the heroic era explorers. The first wish stems from two years of deliberatly searching for wilderness in New Zealand's relatively untouched backcountry. This search has led to a slowly emanating perception that there are spiritual values and experiences beyond the thrill of achievement and physical exertion to be found when engaging in travels through such lands. The second wish stems from a boyhood fascination with explorers, a seed of which probably most people interested in the Antarctic carry within themselves. This essay started as an attempt to merge these two reading projects. I begin with an overview of the temporal evolution of the idea of wilderness in the western world. My initial idea was to find fragments in the accounts of the heroic era explorers that would fit into the picture drawn by this historic review. However, these diaries proved to be a very poor mine of thoughts on the landscape and nature, so that my reading of these diaries often proved to be like the proverbial search for a needle in the haystack. Therefore, I extended my readings to some contemporary authors where more suitable passages, albeit on an absolute scale still few, can be found. The result that is to hand is primarily thought as a step on my own journey towards a better understanding and sharpened perception.

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  • Anthropogenic impacts on the Sea & Soils of Antarctica

    Gemmell, Michael (2000)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Every thing we do creates an impact. Everything we do influence those things around us at least some way. Even the act of observing in some way influences the object we are observing. Physicists doing sub atomic particle studies have found that by observing the sub atomic particles they were altering the behaviour of the particle. According to a common interpretation of quantum mechanics, sub-atomic particles such as electrons do not have a well-defined existence unül we try to observe them. They exist in all possible states until our act of observation forces them into one particular state (Anderson 1998). No matter how hard we try we cannot avoid having impacts on our environment so we must endeavour to minimise these especially any harmful ones. In Antarctica special care is taken to minimise any effects the actions are having on the environment although this has not always necessarily been the case. The value of Antarctica in its relatively pristine condition has been recognised. Even now with stringent rules governing behaviour in Antarctica people are still having detrimental effects on the environment. The logistics of getting to Antarctica and being able to survive means that this will always be the case this does not mean that we need not do anything rather we should always be looking for ways of further reducing our impact on Antarctica. Getting to Antarctica requires either air flight or ship travel, both Of which involve large amounts of fuel consumption and the associated release of pollutants into the environment. Hopefully with advances in technology more efficient and cleaner engines and energy sources will reduce these. The same goes for base logistics such as heating and local travel both of these again rely on fuel consumption diesel generators for heat and electricity and vehicle transport around the bases and to and from field camps. Every thing we do creates an impact. Everything we do influence those things around us at least some way. Even the act of observing in some way influences the object we are observing. Physicists doing sub atomic particle studies have found that by observing the sub atomic particles they were altering the behaviour of the particle. According to a common interpretation of quantum mechanics, sub-atomic particles such as electrons do not have a well-defined existence unül we try to observe them. They exist in all possible states until our act of observation forces them into one particular state (Anderson 1998). No matter how hard we try we cannot avoid having impacts on our environment so we must endeavour to minimise these especially any harmful ones. In Antarctica special care is taken to minimise any effects the actions are having on the environment although this has not always necessarily been the case. The value of Antarctica in its relatively pristine condition has been recognised. Even now with stringent rules governing behaviour in Antarctica people are still having detrimental effects on the environment. The logistics of getting to Antarctica and being able to survive means that this will always be the case this does not mean that we need not do anything rather we should always be looking for ways of further reducing our impact on Antarctica. Getting to Antarctica requires either air flight or ship travel, both Of which involve large amounts of fuel consumption and the associated release of pollutants into the environment. Hopefully with advances in technology more efficient and cleaner engines and energy sources will reduce these. The same goes for base logistics such as heating and local travel both of these again rely on fuel consumption diesel generators for heat and electricity and vehicle transport around the bases and to and from field camps.

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  • Prevention & Management of Unwanted Organisms in Antarctic Wildlife in the Ross Dependency

    Mackereth, Graham (2000)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A workshop on diseases in Antarctic Wildlife was held in August 1998 at Hobart. A report on the workshop was considered by the Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP II). The committee's response to the report was to agree to the formation of an open-ended contact group to report to CEP Ill on matters arising from the workshop. The terms of reference of the contact group were to diminish the risk of the introduction and spread of disease to Antarctic wildlife and to detect, determine the cause, and minimise the adverse effects of unusual wildlife mortality and morbidity events in Antarctica (Kerry et al, 1999). This document looked at these terms of reference and the recommendations Of the workshop in relation to the Ross Dependency. Part 1 of this document focused on practical steps to prevent the introduction or spread of unwanted organisms in the Ross Dependency. It was found that there were already a number of management practices to this end. Minor adjustments and education were recommended to further minimise the risks. Disinfection techniques were described in detail. Part 2 of this document examined possible disease detection techniques. Existing science and monitoring activities where found to provide some surveillance for high mortality events. It was recommended that this passive surveillance be formally organised to maximise the surveillance value of current activities. This would involve identifying indicators and a reporting structure. Active surveillance (surveys and serum banks) were discussed in detail. The organisation of a passive surveillance system was considered to be a higher priority than active surveillance. Part 3 of this document considered what could be done in response to an incident of mass mortality. It outlined a possible incident management system. It was recommended that a Co-ordinated Incident Management System be established for responding to high mortality events. A simulated response to a disease scenario was recommended as a science event to test the proposed incident response system. An investigation into wildlife mortality involves some risk and should be carried out by competent and trained personnel. Procedures for the safe transport of diagnostic specimens were described. A workshop on diseases in Antarctic Wildlife was held in August 1998 at Hobart. A report on the workshop was considered by the Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP II). The committee's response to the report was to agree to the formation of an open-ended contact group to report to CEP Ill on matters arising from the workshop. The terms of reference of the contact group were to diminish the risk of the introduction and spread of disease to Antarctic wildlife and to detect, determine the cause, and minimise the adverse effects of unusual wildlife mortality and morbidity events in Antarctica (Kerry et al, 1999). This document looked at these terms of reference and the recommendations Of the workshop in relation to the Ross Dependency. Part 1 of this document focused on practical steps to prevent the introduction or spread of unwanted organisms in the Ross Dependency. It was found that there were already a number of management practices to this end. Minor adjustments and education were recommended to further minimise the risks. Disinfection techniques were described in detail. Part 2 of this document examined possible disease detection techniques. Existing science and monitoring activities where found to provide some surveillance for high mortality events. It was recommended that this passive surveillance be formally organised to maximise the surveillance value of current activities. This would involve identifying indicators and a reporting structure. Active surveillance (surveys and serum banks) were discussed in detail. The organisation of a passive surveillance system was considered to be a higher priority than active surveillance. Part 3 of this document considered what could be done in response to an incident of mass mortality. It outlined a possible incident management system. It was recommended that a Co-ordinated Incident Management System be established for responding to high mortality events. A simulated response to a disease scenario was recommended as a science event to test the proposed incident response system. An investigation into wildlife mortality involves some risk and should be carried out by competent and trained personnel. Procedures for the safe transport of diagnostic specimens were described.

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  • An Analysis of the Built Environment of Scott Base, Antarctica

    Kestle, Linda (1999)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    I. Introduction 1.1 The Analysis The Built Environment at Scott Base, Antarctica has evolved over time from a series of fairly rudimentary sheltering enclosures in 1957 to the present day sophisticated yet simple building designs, incorporating technologically advanced structural and mechanical systems. This analysis focusses on the built environment in terms of the following themes: • Contextualising the challenges of building at Scott Base • Evolution of the Construction Techniques • Evolution of the Construction Technologies Evolution of Statutory Compliance for buildings at Scott Base The analysis has involved, researching existing literature and documentary evidence, discussions with design consultants and operational personnel ( in their official capacities) familiar with the Scott Base projects so that an evaluative Summary could be effected. 1.2 Scott Base — the starting point The idea Of a third Polar Year (previously 1882 and 1932) to coincide with maximum sunspot activity, evolved in 1950 in the USA at a private function. In effect an International Geophysical year ( IGY) extending to stations worldwide, and focussing on geophysical observations. Hence 'Bases' would form important components of this network. • 1953 the New Zealand Antarctic Society made continued submissions to the Ministry of External Affairs for the establishment of a New Zealand station in the Ross Dependency, followed by letters to Prime Minister Sid Holland to ask for "very serious consideration to a station being operational in 1957 for the IGY." • 1955 (February) Britain gave approval for a Trans Antarctic Expedition (TAE). In May the New Zealand Government promised 50,000 to the expedition and the Ross Sea Committee was formed. This in effect was a cofimitment to the IGY and to the Commonwealth TAE. Further New Zealand agreed to lay depots for the British Expedition on the Ross Sea side. The cost to I. Introduction 1.1 The Analysis The Built Environment at Scott Base, Antarctica has evolved over time from a series of fairly rudimentary sheltering enclosures in 1957 to the present day sophisticated yet simple building designs, incorporating technologically advanced structural and mechanical systems. This analysis focusses on the built environment in terms of the following themes: • Contextualising the challenges of building at Scott Base • Evolution of the Construction Techniques • Evolution of the Construction Technologies Evolution of Statutory Compliance for buildings at Scott Base The analysis has involved, researching existing literature and documentary evidence, discussions with design consultants and operational personnel ( in their official capacities) familiar with the Scott Base projects so that an evaluative Summary could be effected. 1.2 Scott Base — the starting point The idea Of a third Polar Year (previously 1882 and 1932) to coincide with maximum sunspot activity, evolved in 1950 in the USA at a private function. In effect an International Geophysical year ( IGY) extending to stations worldwide, and focussing on geophysical observations. Hence 'Bases' would form important components of this network. • 1953 the New Zealand Antarctic Society made continued submissions to the Ministry of External Affairs for the establishment of a New Zealand station in the Ross Dependency, followed by letters to Prime Minister Sid Holland to ask for "very serious consideration to a station being operational in 1957 for the IGY." • 1955 (February) Britain gave approval for a Trans Antarctic Expedition (TAE). In May the New Zealand Government promised 50,000 to the expedition and the Ross Sea Committee was formed. This in effect was a cofimitment to the IGY and to the Commonwealth TAE. Further New Zealand agreed to lay depots for the British Expedition on the Ross Sea side. The cost to

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