89,483 results

  • Seallagain: Gaelic Grammar at a Glance

    Parsons, Catrìona NicÌomhair (2016)

    Book
    University of Otago

    A native Gaelic speaker born in the Isle of Lewis and a graduate of Edinburgh University, Scotland, Catrìona NicÌomhair Parsons has been involved in the teaching of Gaelic language and song in North America for decades. For thirty summers, she taught Scottish Gaelic at the Gaelic College, St. Ann’s, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, where she was commissioned to prepare Gàidhlig troimh Chòmhradh, a Gaelic course in three volumes with recorded text. For many years, she taught in the Celtic Studies Department of St. Francis Xavier University, Nova Scotia; after retiring, she spent six years working for the newly constituted Nova Scotia Office of Gaelic Affairs. She has written well over a hundred Gaelic-English articles for local newspapers. Her poetry has been published in Scottish Gaelic periodicals GAIRM and GATH, and she has produced her solo CD of Gaelic songs entitled “Eileanan mo Ghaoil” in tribute both to Cape Breton and Lewis. From Seattle, Washington, to Grandfather Mountain, North Carolina; from Toronto to Nova Scotia, Canada; from Sydney, Australia, to Dunedin, New Zealand, Catrìona has been privileged to share her beloved language and culture with motivated students, many of whom are now instructors themselves. This, her most recent work, is a synthesis of all of the grammatical insights garnered from decades of experience teaching Scottish Gaelic to learners around the world. It clearly demonstrates in easy-to-read chapters, tables, and examples how the Gaelic language is structured. Rules, forms, pronunciation, and a host of other issues are all logically and systematically explained. Furthermore, this book can act as a handy reference for either the beginner or native speaker.

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  • The effect of a diet moderately high in protein and fiber on insulin sensitivity measured using the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST)

    Te Morenga, Lisa; Docherty, Paul; Williams, Sheila; Mann, Jim (2017-11-08)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This paper is a version chapter from a PhD thesis (Te Morenga, L. A. (2010). The effects of altering macronutrient composition on diabetes risk (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy). University of Otago. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10523/439) and as such has been externally reviewed by experts in the field. It is currently under peer review.

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  • The effectiveness of riparian buffer zones for protecting waterways during harvest in the Pipiwai forest in Northland, New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Natural Resource Management, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Hanmore, Ian

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The harvest of plantation forests has the potential to cause significant negative impacts on the waterways that flow through them. It has been proposed that to mitigate any such impacts waterways should be protected by undisturbed riparian buffer zones (RBZ). As such, this research has been conducted to investigate if RBZs protect plantation waterways during harvest. To do this a case study was carried out in the Pipiwai forest, one of Carter Holt Harvey Forests (CHHF) Northland plantations. In the investigation, 15 first order streams were sampled using an extended version of NIWA's stream health monitoring and assessment kit (SHMAK). The samples were taken from three different stream treatments, those harvested with undisturbed buffers, harvested with no buffers (clearcut) and standing mature pine forest. Each site had the quality of its aquatic and riparian habitats and invertebrate communities assessed via the SHMAK, which presented a rating for each streams health. Statistical analysis was also carried out to determine if any differences in the results were significant or simply an expression of the variation that could be expected in a single population. The management of the plantation was also investigated. CHHF managers were interviewed to determine the activities that could have impacted on the forest's waterways. The results showed that clearcut streams had degraded riparian and aquatic habitats through the loss of vegetation, exposed and eroding soil, and increased streambed sedimentation. This degradation was reflected in the invertebrate communities which were dominated by high numbers of pollutant tolerant species such as mollusks and midges. Buffered waterways, however, had no such degradation and their invertebrate communities had high numbers of pristine requiring invertebrates such as mayflies. Statistical analysis showed that the habitat and invertebrate scores of the clearcut sites were significantly lower than the buffered and pine sites, and it also showed there was no significant difference between the buffered sites and the mature pine sites. The results also showed that the management of the Pipiwai plantation was conducted to industry and council standards, but that this was insufficient to prevent the degradation of the waterways in the clearcut catchments. The two main conclusions of this research were that RBZs in the Pipiwai forest protected waterways from degradation during plantation harvest and maintained them in a state similar to that of standing mature pine forest, and that management practices and regulations in use at the time of harvest, though within industry and government standards, were unable to prevent waterway degradation and achieve results equal to those of the RBZs.

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  • An empirical evaluation of the information content of share option scheme announcements in Hong Kong : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for degree of Master of Business Studies in Accountancy at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Han, Song

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study investigates the announcement effects of share option schemes using data from Hong Kong market between 2002 and 2004. Findings indicate that share option scheme announcements have information content and that the market overall reacts unfavorably to share option scheme announcements in Hong Kong. Further investigation reveals that the market reacts favorably to share option scheme announcements by financial companies and large size firms. Higher potential growth companies have lower returns when they announce share option schemes. In addition, large size firms are more likely to announce share option schemes independently of firms public announcements.

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  • Distributed generation on rural electricity networks - a lines company perspective : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Energy Management at Massey University

    Jayamaha, Nihal Palitha

    Thesis
    Massey University

    CD held with Reference copy

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  • Effects of dietary salbutamol on growth and carcass composition in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) (Walbaum) : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science (Physiology) at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Atapattu, N. S. B. M

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Salbutamol, a β2 adrenergic agonist, has been shown to reduce carcass fat and increase muscle mass and improve feed conversion efficiency in pigs. In the present study, the effects of dietary salbutamol at 20 ppm on growth, feed conversion efficiency, carcass recovery, visceral organ weight, and whole carcass composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were studied. Rainbow trout (eighteen months old; average initial weight 324.0±0.4 g) were fed either the control or control + 20 ppm salbutamol diet for four weeks in a completely randomized design. Fish were weighed at the start and termination of the study, and records of feed intake were maintained. Carcasses were analyzed for protein, fat and ash at the start and completion of the four weeks feeding period. Dietary salbutamol had no adverse effect on fish mortality, health or feed intake. Dietary salbutamol had no effect (p>0.10) on growth, feed intake or feed conversion efficiency of rainbow trout. Internal organ weights such as liver, heart, gonads and viscero-somatic index and hepato-somatic index were also not affected (p>0.10) by dietary salbutamol. Interestingly, kidney weight was significantly (p<0.01) in salbutamol treated trout. Whole carcass protein content of both treated and control fish showed no significant differences and clearly reflected the normal allometric growth and body composition. It was concluded that dietary salbutamol at 20 ppm level had no repartitioning effect in growing rainbow trout. The effects of salbutamol at various doses in more mature rainbow trout need to be studied in future studies.

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  • The effect of paired comparisons on triple choice sets : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Marketing at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Watkins, Selwyn Kenneth

    Thesis
    Massey University

    As consumers become aware of different brands they might purchase, it is likely they will consider those brands by making a series of paired comparisons, before finally settling on one option they prefer most. Choice theory suggests that preferences are formed early, so by influencing a consumer to prefer one option in favour of other options at the start of a choice episode, this can have a systematic effect on subsequent, and in particular final choice. Simonson, Nowlis, and Lemon (1993) assert that consumers who make paired comparisons of alternatives that vary in price and quality before selecting from a triple set of the same options are more likely to choose the cheapest option, than those who evaluate just the triple set comprised of the same options. Four experiments tested this claim but the predicted effect failed to occur. Moreover, results from one experiment had the reverse effect, the preference share of the cheapest option decreased, while the share of the more expensive options increased. This was a statistically significant result. This contra finding is in agreement with the large body of published evidence that suggests consumers, when it is possible for them to do so, prefer higher quality to lower quality options. The effect of background factors on choice was of concern, so the effect of gender, household income, and age on choice was tested. Results from these tests were inconsistent, and showed that only young males from high-income households were significantly effected by the stepwise treatment. There was concern that heterogeneity in the sampled group of respondents might have confounded the measurement of treatment effects. To help reduce the influence of background factors, all results were weighted. However, Simonson et al. did not account for heterogeneity, so it is possible their treatments have interacted with some background factor associated with the context of choice, individual difference between respondents, or the product attributes. For this reason, the claim by Simonson et al. is open to criticism. Alternative explanations for Simonson et al. (1993) findings are advanced. New research is required into the effects of paired comparisons on choice.

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  • Effects of plant density on seed yield and quality in different common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Plant Science in Seed Technology at Massey University, New Zealand

    Mesquita, Filipe Jose Almeida

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are an annual legume used for human consumption. While many cultivars/genotypes have long been a feature of New Zealand home gardens and the frozen food market, there has recently been an interest in the production of new genotypes of this crop legume suitable for use particularly in fresh and canned salads, as well as for other commercial purposes. In New Zealand, little is known of the growth and performance of many genotypes of this plant as the agro-climatological conditions are different from the original native South American habitat. Therefore this study covered an evaluation of five unnamed but different seed coloured bean genotypes obtained originally from the CIAT collection by New Zealand Seed Bank Ltd. The objectives of this research were to: determine plant growth habit of the genotypes; describe plant growth habit of the genotypes; and assess the effect of plant density on vegetative and reproductive growth, seed yield and cooking quality. To facilitate the recognition of each genotype, they were named white, mottled brown, mottled black, black and brown according to their seed colour, after a visual selection of seeds at the beginning of this study. Plant morphological characteristics were assessed in a trial conducted in a glasshouse at the Seed Technology Centre, Massey University, from September to November 1994. A field trial from November 1994 to March 1995 was aimed at determining the effects of plant density and genotype on seed production and quality for sowing and eating purposes. The minimum and maximum temperatures in the glasshouse were 16°C and 25°C respectively. The daylength in September was around 11 h and gradually increased to about 14.5 h at the end of November. No supplementary illumination and no pesticides and insecticides were used in this trial. For this study, five plants of each colour group were used to determine plant morphological characteristics which included: leaf length and width for the 1st, 3rd and 8th trifoliolate leaves, recorded from the terminal leaf; length of pedicellate bracts; flower (standard and wing) colour; pod colour, length and width; plant height and branch number; main stem internode number and internode length; pods per plant; and seeds per pod. Trifoliolate leaf length was around 22 cm for all genotypes irrespective of leaf position, but leaf width increased from the 1st to the 8th trifoliolate leaf and differed with genotype. For example the 8th trifoliolate leaf width ranged from 11.0 cm in the mottled brown genotype to 14.6 cm in the brown genotype. Pedicellate bract length, main stem internode number and maximum internode length all varied with genotype, with the result that average plant height ranged from 166 cm for the brown genotype to 362 cm for the white genotype. None of the genotypes produced branches in the glasshouse. Flower colour was assessed using the Dictionary of Colour Standards and the Horticultural Colour Chart from the British Colour Council. The standard and wing were white in the white, mottled brown and brown genotypes, mauve in the mottled black genotype, and were either white or mauve to rose purple in the black genotype. The colour of the wing was mauve in the mottled black genotype and was either white or mauve in the black genotype. Pod colour for the white genotype was mimosa yellow to naples yellow, or mottled with either aster violet or hyacinth blue, while in the mottled brown genotype pod colour was predominantly naples yellow, mottled with china rose or also with chrysanthemum crimson. Pods from the mottled black genotype were mimosa yellow to amber yellow in colour, and sometimes mottled with purple brown. Pods from the black genotype were mimosa yellow or naples yellow and were either slightly mottled with lilac purple or with pansy violet, while pod colour from the brown genotype was erythrite red. Dried pod length varied from 9.3 to 12.1 cm in the brown and white genotypes respectively, while dried pod width ranged from 11.8 mm in the mottled black to 12.8 mm in the white genotype. The number of pods per plant varied from 13 in the mottled brown to 16 in the brown genotype, while seeds per pod varied from 4.4 in the brown genotype to 5.8 in the while genotype. Daylength for the field trial ranged from 14.5 h (November) to around 12.3 h (March), with a maximum daylength of about 15 h in December. Seeds from the same seed colour groups used for the glasshouse studies were used in the field trial which was located at the Frewen's block, Massey University. Seeds were sown at three different rates (2.8, 5.6 and 8.4 g/m2) by cone seeder on 28 November 1994 to obtain densities of 6.6, 13.3 and 20.0 plants/m2 at row spacings of 60, 30 and 20 cm respectively. Within the rows a uniform space of 25 cm was maintained. Each treatment (plant density x genotype) was replicated four times in a split plot design. For seed development studies, a total of 450 - 460 flowers per genotype (from the 13.3 plants/m2 density) were randomly selected and labelled at anthesis, and 60 pods per individual genotype were harvested manually at 14, 20, 26, 32, 40 and 50 days after labelling for the determination of seed moisture content, fresh weight, dry weight and percentage seed germination. Seed yield and seed yield components (number of pods per plant and seeds per pod) were recorded after hand harvesting of 10 sample plants/plot. The quality of seed for sowing purposes was assessed by germination, conductivity and accelerated ageing (AA) tests, while for cooking quality, seeds were assessed for their imbibition rate, seed texture and seed integrity after cooking. All the data acquired from this study were analyzed with the statistical analysis system of SAS with least significant differences at the 5% level. The white and black bean genotypes produced 11 and 17% plants with indeterminate climbing characteristics respectively, while the other genotypes each produced 1 - 3% of plants with indeterminate climbing characteristics. All other plants were bush-indeterminate. Plant height in all bean genotypes at all the densities measured between 50 - 60 cm with a min./max. height of 40/85 cm. The onset, peak and duration of flowering in all genotypes were not affected by plant density. The typical three phase sequence of seed development was recorded and physiological maturity, or the attainment of maximum dry weight, occurred at around 40 days after anthesis (d.a.a.) at more or less the same time for all genotypes. Seed germination started around 20 d.a.a. and reached a maximum (of 100%) about the same time as the attainment of maximum seed dry weight at 40 d.a.a. However differences in seed coat permeability influenced the rate of seed desiccation and caused differences in seed moisture content (smc) among genotypes. The number of branches per plant differed significantly from 4.6 in the brown genotype to 5.2 - 5.8 in other genotypes. At the 6.6 plants/m2 density the number of branches per plant was 7.0 and decreased to 3.8 at the 20.0 plants/m2 density. Flowers per plant varied from 46.9 to 63.9 in the brown and mottled brown genotypes respectively but did not differ with density. Pods per plant were similar for all genotypes, and reached 32.2 at the 6.6 plants/m2 density but decreased to 19.0 at the 20.0 plants/m2 density. Seeds per pod varied slightly from 4.1 in the brown genotype to 4.6 in the mottled black genotype, but did not differ with density. Seed weight/100 seeds varied from 35.7 g in the mottled black genotype to 45.2 g in the black genotype, and was similar for all densities. The black genotype produced an average seed yield of 5,705 kg/ha (the highest), while the brown genotype had an average of 4,723 kg/ha (the lowest) at 10% smc. The average seed yield from the white, mottled brown and mottled black genotypes did not differ from that of the black genotype. There was no genotype x density interaction and the average seed yield for all genotypes was 3,800 kg/ha at the 6.6 plants/m2 density, 5,366 kg/ha at the 13.3 plams/m2 density and 6,715 kg/ha at the 20.0 plants/m2 density. The conductivity test result varied from 4.7 μS cm-1 g-1 in the brown genotype to 15.5 μS cm-1 g-1 in the white genotype, which demonstrated the differences in seed coat characteristics among genotypes. The germination before AA was 100% for all genotypes, and did not differ after AA (between 97 and 99%). The conductivity test result, as well as the percentage germination before and after AA did not differ with density. The brown genotype produced an average of 53.5% of seeds with 'delayed permeable' seed coats, while this property varied from 3.5 to 10.0% in the white and mottled brown genotypes respectively. Seeds from all genotypes became soft after cooking for 20 min. However the force required to cut the seeds after cooking varied from 6.83 Newton in the white genotype to 15.23 Newton in the brown genotype. The high seed coat permeability in the white genotype caused 19.3% seed coat/cotyledonary damage, while the brown genotype had only 8.9%. The white, mottled brown, mottled black and black genotypes produced a high yield (between 5,136 and 5,705 kg/ha) of good quality seed for both sowing and eating purposes. The brown genotype had a lower seed yield (4,723 kg/ha), but the seed was also of good quality for sowing and eating purposes. Differences in the seed coat characteristic of different bean genotypes may mean a requirement for different lengths of cooking time to attain the same level of seed softness without seed coat splitting as required for human consumption.

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  • The effects of berry juice on cognitive decline in older adults : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Holdaway, Melanie Anne

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study examined the effects of blackcurrant and boysenberry juices on cognitive processes in older adults. Current research suggests that fruits such as these may be able to reverse some of the effects of ageing on cognition. The free radical theory of ageing proposes that individuals age because oxidative damage accumulates in cells and interferes with cell functions. The hardest working tissues such as the brain accumulate the most oxidative damage through respiration. Antioxidants can protect against free radical formation and damage. Anthocyanins can contribute to half of the antioxidant capacity of deeply coloured berry fruit. An increase in dietary antioxidants such as anthocyanins may help to alleviate free radical damage within the brain. Research has shown that oxidative damage within the brain can impair cognitive functioning. Working memory shows age-related decline, along with visuospatial abilities, word retrieval and sustained attention. Some of this decline is thought to be related to oxidative damage of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and areas of the brain such as the hippocampus. Past research with humans has shown that some antioxidants can affect cognitive functioning in an older population. Animal studies have also established that diets enriched with anthocyanins can improve memory, motor control and neurotransmitter functioning. The present study involved giving berry juice drinks to 52 older adults that had been assessed as having a mild impairment of cognitive function. The participants were divided into three groups and drank 200mL a day of either blackcurrant juice, boysenberry juice or a placebo for twelve weeks. The participants were assessed at three different times over the course of the experiment using the RBANS. The RBANS is sensitive to small changes in its tests of memory, visuospatial ability, language and attention. The results of this study did not support previous research on antioxidants and cognitive functioning. There were no significant interactions between berry juices and any of the cognitive domains assessed by the RBANS over the course of the experiment. Some of the limitations of the study may be responsible for a lack of effect. The experiment was short with a low dose of antioxidants, and there was little control over the participants altering their own diet after being informed of the reasoning behind the study.

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  • Depression and field dependence : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Psychology at Massey University

    Drury, Nicholas

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A psychophysiological analysis of the development of psychological differentiation is presented and compared with the psychophysiological state of self-actualization. The psychological state associated with self-actualization is presented as the baseline for measuring all human behaviour. The analysis of psychological differentiation suggests that both ends of this continuum represent a deviation from the baseline of the self-actualized state. It is suggested that one of the possible consequences of this deviation is the pathological state of depression. Thirty-one depressed patients from three hospitals were examined using a battery of tests which produced a number of significant correlations. The most important of these was that a significant difference existed between field-dependent and field-independent patients on comparison with psychiatric diagnosis suggesting that field-independence is closely related to exogenous depression and field-dependence to endogenous depression. A critical review is made of contemporary theories of depression and a new model is presented. This model suggests the people develop habitual apperceptual modes of perceiving the world and fail to recognize a change of context. Reactive depression can be accounted for by a model of a subject who habitually perceives the world as an instrumental learning context and is placed in a passive avoidance context. A therapeutic strategy is suggested for treatment of the patient which consists of altering the informational component of behaviour encouraging the motivational component.

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  • Effects of no-tillage and subsoil loosening on soil physical properties and crop performance : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Soil Science at Massey University

    Hamilton-Manns, Mark

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Much of New Zealand's lowland agriculture integrates animal and crop production on poorly drained, easily compacted soils. Over the years, conventional cultivation has given rise to degraded soil structure on many farms. No-tillage has been shown to avoid many of these problems but the question remains: "Where soils are compact, what combination of deep tillage and/or drainage systems and no-tillage allow for the most efficient transition from conventional cultivation to no-tillage crop establishment?" The objective of this study was to ascertain if soil properties, and crop (Brassica campestis x Brassica napus cv "Pasja" followed by wheat Triticum aestivum cv "Kohika") establishment and yield on land converted from a conventionally tilled system to a no-tillage system could be improved by various subsoiling and mole plough operations. Plots on a Milson silt loam (Argillic Perch-Gley Pallic Soil) (Typic Ochraqualf) were paraplowed (PP), straight-legged subsoiled (SL), mole ploughed (M) or were left as non-subsoiled controls (C) in the autumn of 1997. Forage brassica was then sown with a Cross-Slot™ no-tillage drill. Wheat was established on the same plots with the same no-tillage drill in the spring of 1997. Subsoiling initially reduced soil strength by a significant amount. Shortly after subsoiling cone indices showed disruption to 300 mm with PP, 350 mm with SL and 100 mm with M. At the same time, approximately 20% of profile cone indices from subsoiled treatments were greater than 2 MPa, compared to approximately 52% for C and M. At 267 days after subsoiling, PP continued to have lower cone index values than C and M. Subsoiling initially reduced bulk density. When measured in May, the bulk density of PP plots was significantly lower than SL, M and C although reconsolidation in all plots was observed in February 1998 after the wheat was harvested. Air permeability in PP, SL and M was significantly greater than in C. Despite the differences in soil strength and bulk density (but not air permeability), subsoiling and mole ploughing did not produce differences in plant populations or yield for either the winter brassica or spring-sown wheat crops. The lack of any differences for brassica crop performance criteria were in spite of the vertical rooting depth being greater in the PP treatment. The lack of differences in plant establishment and yield was thought to be due to the relatively dry autumn and winter soil conditions and the use of the Cross-Slot™ no-tillage opener which is reported to be tolerant of variable soil conditions.

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  • The effects of an innovation involving choice : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    Gooding, Terence John

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A principal's observations are used to illuminate the effects of innovation on a school 'community'. Parents were given the opportunity to choose which of two optional programmes they wished to place their children in for one year. Over half the pupils (165) were placed in an alternative programme which broadly aimed to combine the advantages of the small rural with those of the larger urban school. Each teacher was responsible for a range of age groups and required to confer with individual pupils for at least fifteen minutes per week while senior pupils tutored others in the class. Planned provision for catering for different cognitive styles, interests and attitudes succumbed to the stresses associated with major changes, class size, inadequacies in training, and professional, bureaucratic and social constraints. The ramifications flowing from the exercise of choice greatly influenced all that transpired and became particularly significant as the roles, relationships, and functions of people were placed under increasing pressure. Whether to introduce new ideas gradually or quickly is a problem facing the innovator. It was found though that many factors aside from rapid change had unpredictable bearings on intended outcomes. The attempt to cater for the individual while seeking to capitalise on contextual social factors indicated that principals and teachers in novel situations need initial support and on-going training. It is suggested that a single organisation cannot fully serve competing interests or different sets of values and that the association of the word 'community' with a mandatory organisation like a state school erodes the capacity of many to understand that consensus largely typifies a true community in terms of fundamental values. Opportunity for considered choice in both value and other terms is advocated. It is asserted that, since major innovations have profound effects on personal equilibriums, interpersonal and intergroup relationships, and upon the ethos in which a geographically identifiable group of people function, an innovator should be able to rely on stability and suitability of personnel so that planned gradual change towards consensual goals is possible. The value of a monolithic state system of education offering relatively little choice is questioned. To mount viable alternatives permitting real choice is shown to be a rather daunting challenge.

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  • Effectiveness of botanical preparations for the control of rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) during rice seed storage and their impact on the rice seed viability : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Seed Technology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Sartie, Alieu Mortuwah

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Food security and the maintenance of seed quality from harvest to planting are key issues for peasant farmers. In Sierra Leone, up to 28% of rice seed can be damaged by rice weevil in the six months storage period. The use of chemical insecticides to control this insect is not practical for traditional farmers. Some tribes use pepper powder (Capsicum spp.) as a seed protectant. In this study, I have compared the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil, neem powder, pepper (Capsicum frutescens cv. "Habanero") powder and lentil (Lens culinaris cv. "Raja") powder on the survival of adult rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) and weevil offspring during rice (Oryza spp.) seed storage, and on the germination of the rice. Treatment of stored rice with neem oil, neem powder and lentil powder gave some protection from rice weevil damage. Neem oil at the rate of 0.005ml/kg rice seed effectively controlled weevil damage without reducing the seed germination. Lentil and neem powders at the rate of 0.02g/kg rice seed gave effective protection against rice weevil damage with no reduction in viability of the seeds. Pepper powder did not kill adult rice weevil. Neem oil reduced the development of weevil offspring in rice seed, but the powders of neem, lentil and pepper did not. Low relative humidity of 42.5% in seed storage environment and a reduction in seed moisture content below 10% enhanced the mortality of adult rice weevils on rice seed.

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  • The effect of lipid on the digestion of cellulose by the ruminant : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Animal Science at Massey University

    Kirk, Robin David

    Thesis
    Massey University

    1.Metabolism of Lipids by Ruminants Many workers have added fats, oils and fatty acids to the rations of sheep, beef cattle and dairy cows to investigate the effects of lipid on either one or more of the following; intake, digestibility end energy utilisation of rations, live weight gains, methane production, ammonia production, N retention, milk production, milk constituents, total VPA production and VFA molar proportions or the value of lipid as a source of energy. These factors will be discussed in subsequent sections of this review. Lipids which have been fed or infused into ruminants include coconut, cod liver, corn, cottonseed, linseed, palm kernel, peanut, soyabean, tung and whale oils, animal fats (lard, tallow and poultry fat) and long chain fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic). Since the amount of lipid ingested by adult ruminants is substantial, the investigations into the effects of lipids are warranted. A cow consuming 45Kg. of pasture daily will ingest about 500g. of lipids and, under conditions of stall-feeding, pregnant and lactating animals may receive rations which provide up to 1.0Kg. of lipids daily (Garton, 1967).[FROM INTRODUCTION]

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  • Effects of plant growth regulators on vegetative development and seed production of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Supanjani, Supansani

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Effects of chemical manipulation of a crop of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) grown for seed in two consecutive years were investigated in this study. In the first year, treatments included Cultar (paclobutrazol) at 0.5 or 1.0 kg a.i./ha, Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) at 1.5 or 3.0 kg a.i/ha and Alar (daminozide) at 2.0 or 4.0 kg a.i./ha applied twice at either the late vegetative stage (October) or at the early flowering stage (November). None of these treatments affected seed yield (average 549 kg/ha),or umbel components (pods per umbel, seeds per pod and thousand seed weight). In the second year, at the same stages of plant development, Cultar and Cycocel were applied at the same rates as previously, with an additional treatment added using RSW-0411 (triapenthenol) at 0.5 or 1.0 kg a.i./ha. Again, no seed yield improvement was obtained by any chemical treatment, but average seed yield being increased 27% from 769 kg/ha by 6 days delay in harvesting from 41 to 47 DAPF. Shoot length was reduced by chemical applications, especially at the time of rapid growth, and Cultar had the strongest and longest retarding capability. However, plant branching was not improved by any treatment. Although early flowering pattern was increased by October Cultar application at the higher rate and peak flowering pattern by November Cultar application at either rate, total reproductive structures at harvest in treated plants were similar to those in untreated plants due to flower abortion. Cultar applications in the first year had no carry-over effects on seed production in the second year, but delayed early plant growth in terms of ground cover. Plant growth regulators had no effect on the quality of the subsequently harvested seeds. Effects of Cultar, Cycocel and RSW-0411 applied at higher rates in October reproductive abortion were examined in flowers produced during the flowering season in the second year. Chemical treatments increased flower abortion by 20%, especially in the early flowers. However, there was no effect on abortion of pods in an umbel, on abortion of ovules or seeds in a pod, or on seed weight. Time of flowering also modified flower abortion rate (late flowers having up to 48% greater flower survival than early flowers), and seed development rate (being slower in early season flowers), had no effect on pod abortion and seed abortion (average 44% and 70%, respectively). Flower abortion was first found as early as 10 DAOF. Pod abortion occurred consistently after flower opening, and ovule or seed abortion occurred particularly in the early stages of seed development.

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  • The effect of synthetic and bovine conjugated linoleic acid on energy balance : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Nutritional Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Hayman, Ann

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is biologically active and has altered body composition in experimental animals. Dietary supplementation with synthetic CLA reduced body fat in mice and rats in a number of studies. The CLA used in previously published research contained mixed isomers, the majority of which were 9cl 1t-CLA and 10t12c-CLA. The biologically active isomer at the time of starting the trials described in this thesis was assumed to be 9cl 1t-CLA, due to the prevalence of this isomer in biological tissues. The two trials in this thesis were designed to investigate the effect of dietary CLA on energy balance. In the first (refer Abstract, section 2.1), synthetic CLA reduced body fat in male BALB/c mice in a dose response manner, over the range 0.25 to 1.0% w/w CLA in the diet. High levels (1.0% and 2.0%) caused a reduction in growth. In the second (refer Abstract, section 3.1) dietary treatments supplemented with synthetic CLA, or bovine CLA in milk fat, at levels similar to the 0.25% w/w synthetic CLA treatment found to be effective in reducing body fat in mice, had no effect on energy balance in female Sprague-Dawley rats. The CLA in milk fat contains approximately 86% of the 9cl 1t-CLA isomer while synthetic CLA contains approximately 37%.9cl 1t-CLA and 46 % 10t12c-CLA. Results from these two trials support recent evidence from research demonstrating 10t12c-CLA is the biologically active isomer, in relation to energy metabolism and body composition. 9cl 1t-CLA is the prevalent isomer of CLA found in the human diet. The CLA used previously published research was chemically synthesised and contained a considerably higher proportion of 10t12c-CLA then found in human food sources. PREVIOUS PUBLICATION: The study described in Chapter 2 has been previously published as an abstract and displayed as a poster presentation at the Pacific Partners in Nutrition Conference, held at Auckland, New Zealand, September, 1999 (Hayman, et al., 1999).

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  • Effect of temperature and photoperiod on growth, development and reproduction of Nysius huttoni White (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Plant Protection at the Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    He, Xiongzhao

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The influence of temperature, host plant and photoperiod on Nysius huttoni White growth, development and reproduction was investigated under laboratory conditions. The growth and development rate increased in linear fashion with temperature over the range of 15-30°C. The estimated lower temperature thresholds for all life stages were above 10°C except for the third instar on shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.). Nysius huttoni completed its life cycle at 20, 25 and 30°C on twin cress (Coronopus didymus (L.) Sm.) and shepherd's purse, but could not develop through to the adult stage at 15°C on any of the test host plants or on chickweed (Stellaria media (L.) Vill.) at any of the test temperatures. Thermal requirement for completing the life cycle in N. huttoni was 625.00 degree-days on twin cress and 714.29 degree-days on shepherd's purse. The time needed for a life cycle of both sexes was similar but the adult longevity decreased as temperature increased. The estimated lower temperature thresholds for mating and oviposition on twin cress were 12.3°C 16.8°C, respectively. Females failed to lay eggs when both nymphs and adults were fed with shepherd's purse. Sunflower seed was conducive to sexual maturity and fecundity. The growth and development of N. huttoni slowed down as photoperiod decreased. Adults and fifth instar nymphs were sensitive to diapause-inducing photoperiod. When fifth instar nymphs and sequential adults were held at 12:12 and 10:14 h (L:D), 100% of females entered diapause. Females that had oviposition breaks over 50 days at 10:14 and 12:12 h (L:D) apparently entered diapause. However, exposure of the entire life cycle to 10:14 and 12:12 h (L:D) gave a significantly lower diapause incidence. The critical photoperiod for diapause was estimated between 13:11 to 13.5:10.5 h (L:D). Fecundity appeared to decrease with the decrease in photoperiod. The time needed for a life cycle and the longevity of both sexes were similar at a given photoperiod but increased as photoperiod decreased.

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  • The effect of encoding and retrieval manipulation on the retention of 'subject-performed tasks' in normal aging and Alzheimer's Disease : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Sironen, Peggy

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This research examined a technique termed ihe 'Subject-Performed Task' (SPT) in which subjects physically enact a verbal instruction and are subsequently administered recall tests to determine what information is retained. SPT is consistently found to produce superior recall to verbal instruction alone in several populations which experience memory difficulties with standard memory tasks, such as older adults and those with Alzheimer's Disease (DAT). The present study examined three issues, the first of which concerned what type(s) of information encoded in SPTs might be responsible for this effect. The second concerned the manner in which SPT was thought to instigate automatic activation of semantic category information. Finally, a comparison was made between DAT and older adult subjects to examine the ability of both groups to retain SPT information in memory. A total of 112 subjects (56 DAT subjects and 56 older adults) were presented with a series of 25 SPTs. The SPTs were presented visually and auditorally and were also demonstrated by an actor. Following presentation, subjects either performed the SPTs (motoric encoding condition) or verbally rehearsed (multisensory encoding condition) the randomly presented SPTs. Examination of automatic activation of semantic category information was assessed by comparing a relational recall condition which required categorisation of the SPTs into five semantic categories, with a free recall condition. DAT group subjects showed very low levels of recall and no significant effects of encoding or recall manipulations were found. The older adults showed higher levels of recall and both motoric encoding and relational recall enhanced performance. Reasons for the failure of DAT subjects to benefit from SPT are discussed, and the results obtained by the DAT group and the older adults are evaluated in the context of three predominant theories of SPT and memory.

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  • The effects of different forms of exercise on body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in previously sedentary females : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Exercise Physiology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Barr, Amy Catherine

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Thirty-five healthy females between the ages of 18 and 45 who had not undertaken any training for at least two months prior to the experiment were studied to determine the effects of six weeks of 'Pump It' aerobics or walking training on body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness, expressed as estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Twelve of the volunteers participated in 'Pump It' aerobics while eleven took part in walking training. The remaining twelve subjects served as controls. Prior to the training programme, subjects were assessed for their current levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition (fitness test 1). Testing was repeated at the conclusion of the training period (fitness test 2). Estimated VO2max was determined from heart rate and oxygen uptake during a submaximal treadmill-walking test. This method was validated in a preliminary experiment. Oxygen consumption during 'Pump It' was overestimated by approximately 0.38L/min using the HR/VO2 relationship obtained during treadmill walking. This was taken into account for the calculation of VO2 in Experiment 2. Body composition was evaluated from the sum of five skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, abdomen, thigh) and the sum of six circumferences (forearm, upper arm, waist, hips, thigh and calf). Data were analysed using one factor ANOVA and regression analysis. The training programmmes consisted of three 55-60 minute sessions a week. Massey University 'Pump It' aerobics consisted of a variety of traditional weight training exercises performed using light weights and high repetitions to music. Walking training involved brisk walking as a group, in and around the Massey University, Turitea Campus. Six weeks of 'Pump It' and Walking training failed to produce significant improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition compared with the Control group. There were no significant changes in body mass, the sum of skinfolds or the sum of circumferences. It was concluded that the length of the fitness programmes were too short to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and the training intensity of 'Pump It' and Walking were insufficient to improve body composition.

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  • The effect of leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) on bovine embryo development in vitro : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Animal Science at Massey University

    Margawati, Endang Tri

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) either during in vitro maturation (IVM) or in vitro culture (IVC) on bovine embryo development. Three main experiments were conducted using oocytes aspirated from 2-8 mm diameter follicles collected from cows slaughtered at local abattoirs, Hamilton. The oocytes were matured in a modified TCM-199 containing 10 µ/ml of FSH and LH, and 1 µg/ml E2, fertilised in TALP and cultured in SOF/AA/BSA. Experiment 1 examined the effect of LIF (0, 500, 1000 or 2000 U/ml) and various time periods of IVM (18, 22 or 28 h), in a 4 × 3 factorial design on oocyte maturation. Following maturation, oocytes were stripped out of cumulus cells, then denuded oocytes were stained in 1% lacmoid for determination of maturation stage while the cumulus cells were examined for the incidence of apoptosis by observation of DNA fragmentation using gel electrophoresis procedures. Experiment 2 comprised two parts, (a) the effect of LIF (0, 500, 1000 or 2000 U/ml) at 24 h IVM in a randomised block design on in vitro development of embryos, (b) comparison of 20 vs 24 h IVM in the presence of LIF (0, 500, 1000 or 2000 U/ml) in a 2 × 4 factorial experiment on embryo development. In the two studies, the proportion of bovine oocytes that cleaved and developed to blastocyst stage was recorded. In addition, cell numbers of blastocysts after Giemsa staining were counted. Experiment 3 examined the effect of LIF during IVM (0 vs 1000 U/ml) or IVC (0, 500, 1000 or 2000 U/ml) in a 2 × 4 factorial design on development of embryos. The incidence of cleavage and blastocyst development and cell numbers of blastocysts were recorded. In addition, blastocysts were further categorised into early, expanded and hatched blastocyst stages and cell numbers of blastocyst inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) after differential staining with Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide were determined. In Experiment One, an interaction of LIF concentration and duration of IVM was not observed for the proportion of immature oocytes reaching metaphase II (P>0.05). The presence of LIF (500, 1000 or 2000 U/ml) increased the proportion of oocytes at metaphase II at 18 h (50%, 52% or 58%, respectively, compared to without LIF= 27%), indication that LIF may accelerate the maturation process in vitro. Supplementation of LIF during IVM did not affect the incidence of apoptosis of the cumulus cells. In Experiment Two, compared to 24 h IVM in the presence of LIF, 20 h IVM significantly increased blastocyst rates (Σ blastocysts : Σ cleaved, P0.05), however the data show that treatment groups of 20 h IVM in LIF resulted in higher cell numbers of blastocysts than achieved by 24 h IVM. In Experiment Three, there was a correlation between LIF during IVM and LIF during IVC in the proportion of blastocysts (P0.05). However, blastocysts derived from oocytes matured without LIF had significantly increased cell numbers (121 cells) compared to those matured in 1000 U/ml LIF (109 cells, P0.05). However, a concentration of 2000 U/ml LIF during IVC accelerated blastocyst development with more blastocysts hatching (60%, P0.05). A concentration of 1000 U/ml LEF during IVC resulted in higher cell numbers of ICM (P<0.05). This study suggests that LIF of 500, 1000 or 2000 U/ml increased the proportion of metaphase II bovine oocytes and even reduced the time course of IVM. Supplementation of LIF during IVM may suppress the incidence of apoptosis of the cumulus cells. IVM for 20 h in the presence of LIF resulted in a higher number of blastocysts and 1000 U/ml LIF during IVM and culture in LIF increased the proportion of blastocysts. A higher concentration of LIF is required for reaching the hatched blastocyst stage. A level of 1000 U/ml LIF during IVC promoted higher cell numbers of ICM.

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