91,714 results

  • A study of nurses working in a community development model

    Hetaraka, Bernadette

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This qualitative descriptive study describes nurse’s experiences of working in a community development model. The objective of the study is to identify characteristics that support nurses working in this way. Three nurses working in a community development model were interviewed. Data was analysed using a general inductive approach and three key categories emerged. These are the Community Development Process, the ‘Make-up of the Nurse’ and the Health Environment. The study findings suggest that nurses in the community development role have a window of opportunity when working with the individual, whanau, and community. Specific attributes, knowledge and skills are identified as the core being for nurses and contribute to this window of opportunity. Identified in these findings are that nurses have an acceptance of others, with a love of people and a strong desire to make a difference when working in communities. In this cyclic process of a community’s development, nurses have a window of opportunity to providing education and knowledge as they support people in this growth. Nurses acknowledge that although they possess qualities that are intrinsic they identify that this complex process requires nurses of an expert level in areas of relationship building and working in collaborative ways. If this model of practice is to be incorporated into health practitioners working in communities then further areas of research and education for nurses needs to occur.

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  • The unconscious influences of developmentally arrested symbol formation on the therapeutic relationship with a client diagnosed with borderline personality disorder: A Kleinian perspective

    Christiansen, Kitt Klitgaard

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This dissertation is a modified systematic literature review with the purpose of exploring the following two questions. Firstly, what is Melanie Klein and Hanna Segal’s theory of symbolisation? This question is discussed in terms of Klein’s theory of symbolisation and symbol formation in the developing infant, and the contributions made by Segal to this theory. Secondly, how can this theory help understand the unconscious dynamics within the therapeutic relationship when working with a client diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder. Descriptive clinical vignettes are used to explore how one client’s developmentally arrested capacity for symbol formation manifests therapeutically. Emphasis is given on the therapist’s role in facilitating symbol formation processes between the client and the therapist, and eventually within the client using a substitute object. Klein’s theory of infant development is critiqued against infant research revealing shortcomings in her theory of symbol formation. A link is made between the structure of Borderline clients object relations and the inability to effectively negotiate the transition between the two developmental positions Klein (1946, 1948) termed the paranoid-schizoid and depressive position. Finally, the relevance of this link to symbolisation is discussed concluding the significance of symbolisation for the Borderline client in therapy.

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  • U-fold: A home improvement concept

    Wallace, Katy

    Exegesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    No abstract.

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  • Suicide: A dying shame: A literature review of the therapeutic relationship

    Goldstiver, Susan P.

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the role that shame plays in suicidality. Shame is an emotion that is not easily communicated or identified and suicidal ideation is often taboo. Given that shame and suicide can both be hidden and silent, how does a psychotherapist work with clients who experience chronic shame and who are potentially suicidal? The case of Kurt Cobain is used as an illustrative example. A modified systematic literature review was the method used to ensure a thorough investigation of the psychological literature available on this topic. It was found that shame is present in many attempted and completed suicides. This dissertation raises the possibility of a fundamental connection between suicide and shame but further research is required, as other emotions were not reviewed for their connection with suicidality. Clinical implications are highlighted for the practicing psychotherapist.

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  • Me, myself and I: An artist exploration of notions of identity

    Heiford, Dana

    Exegesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This project will explore through practical art means the way notions of identity are constructed by the individual. Using myself as subject matter I will explore the multiple aspects and fluid relations which constitute a sense of me, myself and I with a particular focus on sexuality. The intention is to raise issues and questions and to manifest new relations using the medium of art as a flexible vehicle for juxtaposing and testing complex interrelationships of ideas. Psychological and sociological contexts will be addressed and the relationship between these and my own sensibilities will be explored. The research approach will be to investigate notions of identity and explore the possibility of multiple personal narratives. It will explore the unique identity of the artist, that is, of the individual perspective of an artist instead of a theorist. To emphasise the central themes of my research I will take a multi-angled approach to methodology, working simultaneously on several responses to the research question. The practical project will be explored through various different visual media with the range of styles and approaches further developing the idea of a decentred self. This accompanying exegesis will discuss the methodological approach taken, as well as issues and contexts surrounding the project.

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  • Countertransference and projective identification: What is the relationship between them, and how useful are they as a way of understanding the emotional nature of the therapeutic relationship?

    Cox, Amanda

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This dissertation explores the relationship between countertransference and projective identification by researching the ways in which each concept values the impact the therapist and client might be having on each other. This includes investigating how useful these concepts are when put into practice. The literature suggests that there is a continuum of ways of understanding what is occurring emotionally between the therapist and the client, and countertransference and projective identification are words used to describe these. They are said to be used by therapists in imprecise ways and are often considered ambiguous and contradictory. In this dissertation I am investigating the history of these concepts as well as their usefulness in clinical practice. This dissertation also discusses whether these emotional responses experienced by the therapist are the creation of the therapist, the creation of the client, the creation of both (but initiated by the client), or the creation of both (initiated by either the client or the therapist). The literature suggests a general shift away from a one-person psychology to a two-person psychology, where the therapist’s subjective responses might be a valuable source of information regarding the origin of the emotional transactions taking place between both the client and the therapist, thus implying the existence of a more interactive dynamic. The method used is a modified, systematic literature review, including a clinical vignette to provide an illustration from which to apply and evaluate these concepts.

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  • Ineffable: A spatial installation

    Lee, Moon

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Developing from a concerted research interest in time and comic writing, this research project was not designed to reveal the limitations of language with respect to an understanding of time or to avoid this dilemma. It focuses on the temporal phenomenon in comics. But the struggle between metaphysical thoughts and language are a constant antagonism throughout the research process, especially when verbal definitions are attempted to describe the two core concepts of this project: closure and the present. I began to feel the dilemma of metaphysical thoughts trapped between logical language and pictorial interpretation. Art in any format could be applied efficiently to assist in explaining and representing some metaphysical thoughts that are difficult to interpret accurately through language: “So the artistically sensitive man responds to the reality of the dream in the same way as the philosopher responds to the reality of existence; he pays close attention and derives pleasure from it: for out of these images he interprets life for himself, in these events he trains himself for life” (Nietzsche, F. W., The Birth of Tragedy, p.20). Hence, artistic aptitude seems like something of a necessity in practicing or even introducing philosophical speculations effectively. Perhaps it is that artists may bypass the limits of language and represent thoughts through other media efficiently. Even though it could be less accurate representing a philosophical thought through art works, but the pluralistic fact could also help audiences to perceive ineffable feelings or notions internally that may reflect the abstract philosophical thoughts behind the work, if only somewhat approximately. Except for aesthetic pleasure and enjoyment, this research project aims to unconceal an academic value of art for metaphysics. This is especially so in representing some ineffable notions: art offers detours that may bypass the limits to language efficiently because of its pluralistic and ambiguous being.

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  • Roadnoise: The old friends tour

    Morgan, Lee

    Exegesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    My thesis a project that researches the part memory has on recollecting and recounting memoryas narratives, using the road trip and Jack Kerouac’s beat novel On the road (1955) as a motivation to translate Kerouac’s spontaneous ideology, into a visual medium. The road trip philosophy is one of chance encounters, it is not a fully constituted, pre planned excursion, but rather an approach that allows a fluidity and spontaneity with people and places as they occur. The project explores the notion of intertextuality forwarded by Kristeva (1986) and the artifact Archimedes palimpsest, the layering of text over partially obliterated text, and the influence of computer technologies found within the general population. The project culminates in video: The old friend’s tour 2006.

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  • Digital Decay: Glitch Architecture

    Haslop, Blaire (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    We now live in a world where architecture is produced through arrays of pixels and this remains as the representation rather than the reality of buildings inevitably ageing their physical forms. So if architecture is kept in this digitally frozen state, then how does architectural form age over time? It glitches. A glitch is defined as a sudden malfunction or fault caused by the harsh reality of digital decay. Currently glitches as a result of digital decay are solely explored as forms of 2d art therefore this thesis looks to reconnect the underlying data to its digital architectural spatial form and interpret digital decay in 3d. Our methodology follows a systematic iterative process of transformational change to explore design emergence on the base of computational glitches. A numerical data driven process is explored using decayed files which are turned into 3d formal expressions. In this context, stereoscopic techniques are experimented, helping understand further how glitch can be performed within a 3d virtual environment. Ultimately we explore digital architectural form existing solely in the digital realm that confidently expresses glitch in both its design process and aesthetic outcome. This thesis does not aim to answer the research question through a resolved building, we instead define architecture as three dimensional digital form and space. This thesis uses glitch as a methodology to design three dimensional spaces within the digital realm. The architecture exists in the digital therefore the spatial perception of architecture created through this research is in the eye of the beholder and their previous spatial experiences. Employing a methodology of transformational change to explore design emergence on the base of glitches or decayed files, the aim is to generate a contemporary architectural interpretation of decayed data. (Haslop et al., 2016).

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  • Harmony, associativity, and metaphor in the film scores of Alexandre Desplat

    Clark, Ewan Alexander (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The objective of this doctoral study is to develop and demonstrate a theoretical framework to guide both the analysis and composition of twenty-first-century film music. The compositional portfolio submitted as part of this thesis includes scores for nine short films and for a feature-length docudrama. The thesis is based on analysis of twenty feature film scores by Alexandre Desplat (b. 1961), with particular attention to two: The Curious Case of Benjamin Button (2009) and The Grand Budapest Hotel (2014). Studying one composer’s output enables the observation of a compositional voice articulated across multiple film genres. Desplat’s work has proven a relevant and worthy subject, because the films he has scored exemplify a wide variety of styles and approaches, including skilful integration of past styles and current trends. The theoretical framework I use to discuss both Desplat’s film music and my own, draws together selected concepts from semiotics, metaphor theory, narratology, and harmonic analysis, especially transformational theory. I use the framework to explore how musical objects – such as modes, chords, and their transformations through time – might act as symbols, icons, or metaphors for one or more elements of the narrative – such as a setting, character, characters’ emotions, events, or the attitude of the cinematic narrator. It is argued that this combination of ideas provides a suitable framework – useful in both composition and analysis – for understanding how music might expressively contribute to filmic narratives. It is argued that Neo-Riemannian triadic transformations – in Desplat’s work and mine, at least – are often most usefully considered in relation to the scales and modes that they articulate, transform, and/or subvert. This is a point of difference from other recent transformational analysis of film music. Although my analyses focus primarily on pitchbased features, I also consider how these elements accrue meaning in their interactions with other musical features, such as tempo and orchestration.

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  • Designing mobile applications for Positive Behaviour for Learning (PB4L) pedagogy

    Reddy, L.; Baghaei, Nilufar; Vermeulen, G.; Hilton, C.; Steinhorn, Gregor (2017-08-23T14:30:04Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Applications and online digital games are currently being used in New Zealand schools for the teaching of reading, writing and maths regularly. However, the teaching of behaviour has been heavily reliant on paper based and traditional forms of reinforcement as shown by the Positive Behaviour for Learning–School Wide (PB4L-SW) pedagogy. In this paper, we will introduce our current school based research for developing a tool for implementing PB4L-SW. We also describe our efforts in gamifying the teaching and reinforcing of behaviour through the design and development of the proposed “mPB4L” mobile application. We then outline our future plan for evaluating the effectiveness of the app in teaching Positive Behaviour and seeking teachers’ feedback at an Auckland-based Intermediate school. The findings will be used to support further development of integrating the PB4L into the digital world.

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  • Moodle Course and eLearning in 2015

    Liu, Yong (2018-02-06T13:30:04Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Contents: E- learning in 2015 What challenges our courses How does Moodle engage students Conclusion

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  • International outcomes of problem-based sustainability projects.

    Panko, Mary; Kudin, Roman; Nderingo, Donald (2017-08-31T14:30:01Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This case study examines the strengths and weaknesses of a Problem-based learning project conducted at a New Zealand Institute of Technology by international students researching the process and effects of converting a petrol-powered three-wheeled motorised vehicle (Tuk-Tuk) into a battery-powered electric vehicle. Such unmodified vehicles are a significant cause of air pollution and allied social issues in third-world countries. Students were divided into two groups according to their study areas - the first group (two automotive students from Tanzania and Fiji) focused mainly on mechanical aspects of the conversion. The second group (three electrotechnology students from Saudi Arabia) designed the power system and explored the practicality of using solar energy to assist battery recharging. Both groups had specialist supervisors and were expected to collaborate with one another, but all students were asked to develop their own research questions and methodology, focussing on the wider rationale for sustainability within their discipline. The purpose of the current study is to examine the learning experiences of these international students who had participated in this collaborative, interdisciplinary, sustainable transport project. They were expected to undertake all aspects and challenges of a real-world project - theoretical research, design choices, purchasing decisions, dealing with components suppliers, as well as communicating with supervisors and industry bodies. In this process students demonstrated different levels of independence in learning and problem solving skills and the project had a significantly different impact on each student. At the end of the project feedback was sought from all the students on their learning, and the extent to which they thought it might influence their insights into sustainability and their career opportunities upon returning home. Their reflections, together with the responses from the two supervisors, have led to recommendations for future improvements in this form of pedagogy.

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  • Providing regular assessments and earlier feedback on Moodle in an introductory computer science course : a user study

    Nehring, Natalia; Dacey, Simon; Baghaei, Nilufar (2017-08-23T14:30:00Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Formal feedback on assessments is given to students half way through the semester for a lot of tertiary level courses. For some students, it can be too late to change their study habits and they might not have realised that they were struggling before getting the feedback. Receiving late feedback can also result in lowering learner’s motivation as well. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of providing regular feedback on students’ academic achievement. The sample group included 92 students from semester 2 2016 and 57 students from semester 1 2017. They were the first-year Bachelor Computer Science students at UNITEC Institute of Technology, New Zealand, doing an introductory database course. The course had three assessments in 2016 including two computers based tests and a final exam on paper. Weekly quizzes were introduced in 2017 with the aim of providing early regular feedback to students. Preliminary results show that providing this feedback early on did not significantly improve the results of their first formal assessment. More studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of weekly quizzes on students’ performance throughout the semester. Subjective evaluation showed that majority of students liked getting regular feedback in form of quizzes and found it valuable for their learning.

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  • Train-For-Life : on-line interactive training for industry learners

    Barmada, Bashar; Baghaei, Nilufar (2017-08-23T14:30:02Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Learning a topic online via Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) has gained a lot of popularity due to their scalability and efficiency of knowledge distribution. However, participating in these courses usually means fully committing to the course for at least a few months in some cases. Providing engaging online education is a challenger for industry/non-academic trainees mainly due to their lack of time. In this paper, we describe a practical experience of online learning for non-academic audience in transport, logistics, security and safety industry. The proposed training courses are designed to be short, flexible and interactive to keep the trainees interested and engaged with the content. During any courses the trainees were challenged with different interactive tasks to emphasis on some important points. Results show that more than 90% of the trainees managed to complete the training parts of the courses they are registered to do and enjoyed their experience.

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  • Effects of suspended sediment on freshwater fish

    Cavanagh JE; Harding JS (2014)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report integrates new information on the effects of suspended sediment on fish with existing literature information to further develop guidance for determining acceptable suspended sediment concentrations in freshwater systems on the West Coast. The project was carried out for the West Coast Regional Council under Envirolink Grant 1445-WCRC129.

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  • Patterns of hydrogen peroxide among lakes of the Mackenzie Delta and potential effects on bacterial production

    Febria CM (2005)

    Theses / Dissertations
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Cognition, psychiatric symptoms and conversion to dementia in Parkinson’s disease

    Horne, Kyla-Louise (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder which can have a significant effect on a patient’s quality of life. Psychiatric symptoms and cognitive decline are common, with dementia (PDD) ultimately occurring in approximately 90% of patients. Mild cognitive impairment in PD (PD-MCI) is an intermediate state of cognitive decline, where patients are at a higher risk of progression to PDD than non-PD-MCI patients. The high rates of patients who develop PDD demonstrate that it is pertinent to have indicators of imminent PDD; particularly should a preventative therapy ever become available. Therefore, the aim of my PhD project was to use cognitive and neuropsychiatric measures to predict cognitive decline within a four-year period. Firstly, we examined permitted variations within Movement Disorder Society Task Force (MDS-TF) Level II diagnostic PD-MCI criteria. We aimed to identify a PD-MCI criterion which optimally captured individuals who later progressed to PDD. To evaluate this, we followed 121 non-demented PD patients for up to 4.5 years; 21% converted to PDD over this period. Three unique groups of patients were classified as PD-MCI using baseline neuropsychological assessments. Each patient was required to have two impaired cognitive test scores, with impairment defined as (1) -2SD, (2) -1.5SD or (3) -1SD below normative data. Relative risk (RR) of PDD for each criterion was calculated, with the -1.5SD criterion found to be optimal for maximizing progression to PDD over four-years. Secondly, another variation within the MDS-TF PD-MCI criteria was examined - whether the impaired tests need to occur within a single cognitive domain or only across two or more cognitive domains. The same sample of PD patients was reassessed to determine (1) RR of PDD when two impairments at -1.5SD existed within one cognitive domain, followed by (2) RR of PDD in the unique group whose two impairments at -1.5SD did not exist within one cognitive domain. The -1.5SD cut-off produced a high RR of PDD only when two impairments were identified within one cognitive domain (7.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.4–16.6, p<0.0001). This suggests that if the intent of a PD-MCI diagnosis is to detect increased risk of PDD in the next four years, optimal criteria should identify at least two impairments at -1.5SD within a single cognitive domain. Next, we examined the number of tests permitted per cognitive domain by the MDS-TF criteria. We tested a reduced test battery of only two tests per cognitive domain, to determine if it could identify PD-MCI patients who were at risk of PDD within the next four-years. Tests were ranked for each cognitive domain based on the number of PD-MCI level impairments they identified. Subsequently, we used an improved methodology, logistic regression, to select two tests sensitive to PDD over four-years in each of five cognitive domains. The 10 neuropsychological test battery consisted of map search, digit ordering (Attention), Stroop interference, Trails B (Executive), picture completion, Rey copy (Visuospatial), CVLT-II SF free recall, Rey-short delay (Memory), DRS-2 similarities and ADAS-Cog language measures (Language). To determine if at-risk patients could be identified RR was conducted on an updated sample of 138 PD patients; 28 progressed to PDD. Using this 10 neuropsychological test battery, patients who classified as PD-MCI defined by ‘two impairments at -1.5SD in one cognitive domain’ had an equivalent RR (7.0, 95% CI 3.8-12.6) to the same group classified using the full 24 neuropsychological test battery (RR = 6.9, 95% CI 3.3-14.6). PD-MCI in patients with ‘one impairment in each of two cognitive domains’ now showed significance (RR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.3-9.5), unlike when the same criterion when applied to the 24 neuropsychological test battery. A modified PD-MCI criterion of ‘two impairments in any of the 10 neuropsychological tests’ was used and showed a similar RR (7.1, 95% CI 3.2-16.1) to the PD-MCI ‘two impairments in one cognitive domain’ criterion. This study demonstrated that a 10 neuropsychological test battery can identify PD patients at-risk of PDD within four-years and demonstrated that a modified PD-MCI criterion (‘two impairments in any 10 neuropsychological tests’) can be used when the battery consists of tests sensitive to PDD. Lastly, the relationship between neuropsychiatric symptoms in PD and progression to dementia was explored. One-hundred-and-twenty-three non-demented PD patients, followed over 3.5-4.5 years were included; 27 progressed to PDD. All received comprehensive Level II neuropsychological testing and neuropsychiatric evaluations. ROC analysis was used to analyse whether neuropsychiatric measures at study entry were associated with future PDD progression. Patient-reported hallucinations was the only neuropsychiatric measure which related to future progression to PDD (PD Questionnaire hallucinations measure: AUC=0.70, CI=0.60-0.80; Unified PD Rating Scale hallucinations measure: AUC=0.69, 95% CI=0.57-0.80). By contrast, hallucinations reported by the patient’s significant other on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory did not discriminate patients. Neither patient-reported hallucinations (OR=1.70, 95% CI=0.73-4.03) nor motor function (OR=1.02, 95% CI=0.97-1.09) were found to add any additional useful information above global cognitive ability (OR=26.34, 95% CI=6.44-184.71) and age (OR=1.28, 95% CI=1.11-1.54) for predicting PDD. Cognitive ability and age were stronger predictors of conversion to PDD within the next four-years than any neuropsychiatric measures tested. The findings of this thesis show that MDS-TF PD-MCI criteria can identify patients at-risk of PDD within a four-year period, even when a reduced 10 neuropsychological test battery is used for classification. Cognition and age were found to be more useful at predicting future PDD than any neuropsychiatric symptom assessed. Hence, specific PD-MCI criteria may be used as an additional tool to enrich samples for disease modifying interventions.

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  • Adrenergic stimulation of HK-2 proximal tubular cells in hyperglycaemic conditions

    Embury, Alexander (2018)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    One of the most commonly associated complications of Diabetes Mellitus is nephropathy, with one in five diabetics sustaining renal injury over their lives. Renal denervation has been shown to decrease systemic blood pressure and increase renal function, by removing sympathetic innervation to the kidneys. Our lab investigated the effects of renal denervation on diabetic nephropathy in hypertensive rats and found it decreased a range of injury markers, such as TGF-β1. It is possible that part of the renoprotection afforded by renal denervation in hypertensive diabetics is due to decreased adrenergic signalling. This study aimed to determine the effects of combined noradrenaline and glucose on proximal tubule cells and their profibrotic signalling, by measuring the excretion of the prosclerotic cytokine, TGF-β1. HK-2 cells were treated with a range of glucose concentrations (Control: None, Normoglycaemic: 6.1 mmol/L D- glucose, Hyperglycaemic: 25 mmol/L D-glucose, Osmotic Control: 6.1 mmol/L D-glucose + 18.9 mmol/L D-mannitol) in the presence of noradrenaline (1 nM) or a control (PBS or 0.1 nM ascorbic acid). After 48 hours the samples were harvested and levels of TGF-β1 measured via western blot. However, the cells were severely damaged by washing. The primary aim of investigation subsequently became the optimisation of plating protocols. Seeding densities, growth time and well size were increased, extensions to growth arrest and low serum (2%) growth arrest media used, as well as a range of different wash solutions and culture surfaces. By increasing the seeding density to 2x105 cells/mL and surface area up to a 100 mm culture dish a monolayer was formed that could repeatedly survive the wash phases (P<0.001). The initial study recommenced and western blotting was unable to find any trace of TGF-β1 in either the cell lysate or conditioned media. These findings suggest that neither alone nor together noradrenaline and glucose do not cause an upregulation of the production and excretion of TGF-β1.

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  • Light-induced anthocyanin pigmentation in transgenic Lc petunia : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Plant Biology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Albert, Nick William

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Introduction of Leaf colour (Lc). a bHLH transcription factor from maize, under the control of the CaMV35S promoter into petunia (cv. Mitchell) plants resulted in enhanced anthocyanin pigmentation in vegetative tissues. Anthocyanin biosynthesis was observed to be dependent on the level of light the plants were grown under: plants grown in a plastic greenhouse remained green, while plants exposed to high-light were dark purple. The nature of this response to light and the associated molecular mechanisms were the focus of this investigation. Molecular analysis of gene expression in Mitchell petunia showed that light induced the expression of the early flavonoid structural genes, as well as flavonol synthase (FLS) required for flavonol production. Light induced both the early and late structural genes required for anthocyanin biosynthesis in the transgenic Lc Mitchell petunia plants, but reduced the expression of FLS. Light-induced flavonoid gene expression was examined under three light treatments: shade (50 - 350 µmol m -2 sec -1 ); ambient-greenhouse (300 - 750 µmol m -2 sec -1 ) and high-light (750 µmol m -2 sec -1 ). The level of flavonoid gene expression was dependent upon light intensity. High-light was required to maximally activate anthocyanin pigmentation in Lc petunia. Expression of the Lc transgene remained unchanged irrespective of light intensity, indicating that the light-induced changes in anthocyanin synthesis were not due to variable expression of the transgene. Anthocyanin regulation occurs primarily at the transcriptional level, and two classes of transcription factors. Myb and bHLH. are generally involved. Transient expression studies using several exogenous Myb transcription were carried out using shade-grown (non-induced) Lc petunia material. The induction of coloured cells in the treated tissue supports the idea that the bHLH transgene (LC) is interacting with an endogenous Myb under high-light conditions, resulting in the activation of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway and accumulation of anthocyanin pigments. A partial sequence of a candidate endogenous Myb transcription factor from petunia was cloned. It was light-induced and shares structural features with other anthocyanin-regulating Myb transcription factors, particularly An2 from petunia. This Myb in combination with LC may be responsible for the light-induced anthocyanin pigmentation observed in Lc petunia.

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