96,661 results

  • Anesthesia methods and the agroecology of Scaptomyza flava (Drosophilidae), a Brassicacae pest in New Zealand and associated parasitoid, Asobara nr. persimilis (Braconidae)

    Rayl, Ryan

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    A key pest of brassicas worldwide is the leaf-mining fly, Scaptomyza flava, the larvae of which can cause cosmetic damage leading to crop rejection by supermarkets/consumers. In climates where leafy salad brassicas are harvested all year, the flies are almost always present. This necessitates control throughout the entire harvesting season and this usually consists of the prophylactic application of insecticides. One way of potentially ameliorating the negative environmental impacts of this approach is to enhance the effectiveness of biological control by providing alternative food sources for natural enemies. Planting of selected flowering plants can be useful in this respect, as many parasitoids and other beneficial insects feed on nectars. This in turn, can improve their efficacy by increasing fecundity, longevity and other aspects of their biology, contributing to increased ‘fitness’ and efficacy. This PhD aimed to find selective flowering plants that provided more benefit to the natural enemy when compared with the pest. This work was conducted through a series of laboratory and field experiments. Before the selection of flowering plants occurred, it was clear that the common practices facilitating handling drosophilid flies (carbon dioxide and chilling) were not appropriate for this work as it had been found that those methods can impact on the longevity of some insects. So, a series of experiments was conducted to compare alternative handling methodologies. Triethylamine (TEA) was compared with chilling and carbon dioxide because it had been shown in the literature to have some success but was still poorly studied and had not been used specifically to handle insects for ecological studies. Carbon dioxide and chilling were common in the literature as most studies that handled insects used one of these two. It was found in this work that triethylamine does not affect longevity and has a long anesthetic effect on the flies. So, TEA was used to handle the insects for the bioassays with flowering plants. Once this aspect of the work had been completed, female S. flava and one of its natural enemies, the braconid parasitoid wasp Asobara sp. (nr. persimilis) were used to evaluate six cultivars of alyssum (only the fly was used for these cultivars) and four flowering plant species (alyssum, buckwheat, phacelia and Leptinella dioica, Hook.f.). The latter is an endemic New Zealand plant in the Rosaceae. Cultivars differed from each other in their effect on the fly and on A. sp. (nr. persimilis). Buckwheat appeared to enhance longevity of the fly and the natural enemy to the greatest degree. The crop was Brassica juncea L. ‘Mizuna’. Problems associated with the frequency distribution of the data meant that although Cox’s proportional hazard model was initially used to compare survival times on different flowers, monotone likelihood made it difficult to ascribe statistical significance to the comparisons. Rankings, however, were consistent for the pest and Asobara and conclusions were drawn with appropriate caution. Because of the somewhat equivocal nature of the data and results, an analysis of variance was conducted to provide more robustness to the conclusions drawn. It seemed that none of the flower species evaluated was more beneficial to the parasitoid than to the pest. However, models have shown that as a parasitoid’s attack rate is the most important parameter in that natural enemy’s biocontrol potential, no differences between the effects of the ‘best’ flower (buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) between the pest and the parasitoid) do not mean that other parameters which could have been recorded for that and other plants do not differ in their relative contributions to potential ‘fitness’ of the parasitoid and its host in the studied system. Attack rate a sensu Bailey et. al. has been shown to be the most important variable in this respect and can improve when buckwheat nectar is provided to some parasitoids. In the field, insect sampling targeting S. flava and its parasitoid occurred before and after buckwheat was sown to obtain information on a wide range of potential natural enemies of Scaptomyza and how they are affected by the buckwheat. A marking technology (rubidium chloride) was used to investigate patterns of potential natural enemy numbers in relation to that plant’s flowers. Analysis was also carried out on the invertebrate natural enemy communities in that area. Overall, the work was the first time that these research questions had been applied to S. flava and useful ideas for future biological control work on this pest were demonstrated.

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  • Understandings of Social Investment in the Oil and Gas Sector

    Costa Camoes Rabello, Rafaela (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Every year, Oil and Gas (O&G) companies spend a significant amount of money on social investment programmes in communities that host their activities. Yet the benefits of these programmes are debatable. This thesis reports on a qualitative study, which explored O&G social investment experts’ discursive understandings of their social investment practices. The study involved 20 participants: 17 O&G social investment experts from 11 different countries, and three government representatives from two countries that hosted O&G companies. Participants were from all continents except for Asia. Data were collected through semi-structured and open-ended interviews. I also analysed the social investment guideline documents most frequently utilised by experts, namely the International Finance Corporation (IFC) Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability; and the World Bank Group (WBG) Community-Driven Development Principles. I used discourse analysis to examine and interpret the interviews and guideline documents. When participants talked about social investment, they adopted four main discourses, often in concurrent and conflicting ways. I describe these as working on, working around, working for, and working with discourses of social investment. Working on discourses revealed one-way and top-down understandings of social investment, where companies assumed they were the keepers of knowledge and the agents of development. Working around discourses positioned social investment as ultimately fulfilling the company’s operational interests, but also as benefitting communities. Working for discourses underpinned social investment developed for the purpose of meeting license compliance requirements, which tended to focus on the government’s agenda for social development. Working with discourses emphasised community-centred and participatory understandings of social investment. In this thesis, I argue that working with discourses represented the ideal approach to social investment. However, participants’ use of working with discourses was complicated by their simultaneous use of other discourses in discussing their social investment practices. Similarly, the guideline documents drew on all four discourses of social investment in complex and conflicting ways. Participants’ contradictory representations of social investment may have reflected the contradictions that were also evident in the guideline documents, which influenced their work. The experts’ use of the four discourses of social investment highlighted the contradictory nature of O&G social investment, and the complex positioning of social investment personnel, particularly when their personal views were at odds with institutional policies and practices. Overall, this research demonstrates the complexity of O&G social investment, which is often used as a single tool to address multiple issues, such as risk mitigation, compensation, license to operate, and community development. The thesis concludes with an alternative approach to O&G social investment, where social investment represents one of the main tools of social engagement, rather than its substitute; and where care, instead of profit, becomes the lynchpin of O&G social investment. I hope that this research serves as a starting point from which companies, social investment experts, communities, host country governments, and international banks can build more participatory and community-centred social investment programmes to promote positive futures for all people, rather than short-term gain for a few.

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  • First findings from phase one of the Child Welfare Decision-Making Variability Project: Research briefing paper.

    Keddell, Emily; Hyslop, Ian (2016)

    Report
    University of Otago

    Decision variability,that is,different decision outcomes when levels of harm are similar is a problem common to many child protection systems. The causes are many and varied: the expectation of the child protection system to respond to diverse family problems; the differing beliefs, values and worldviews of practitioners; differences in institutional cultures, sites, processes and resources; demographic inequalities; and conflicting discourses in the policy environment (Baumann et al., 2011; Keddell, 2014). This small (n = 67) exploratory mixed methods study examines if decision variability exists in Aotearoa New Zealand, and why this occurs. At the individual level, the perceptions of practitioners inform what decisions should be made in relation to specific children. This study found that there was a wide range of perceptions of levels of risk, safety, and future harm amongst frontline child welfare (both CYF and NGO) practitioners when responding to the same case vignette. These diverse perspectives were reflected in marked differences in the types of decisions recommended, and how close CYF respondents were to forming a belief that children are in need of care and protection. Problem explanations revolved around factors relating to the family socio economic circumstances, domestic violence, the children’s behaviour and parenting capacity. Despite broad similarities in problem explanations, diverse perceptions of risk remained.

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  • An Assessment of the Hydrology of the Pool Burn and the Management Opportunities for Restoring Stream Function

    Jackson, Henrietta Alice (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    New Zealand’s freshwaters have become increasingly scrutinised for reduced flows and deteriorating water quality, prompting more stringent management by regional authorities, and enforcement of environmental flow limits across all water bodies. A catchment of this nature is the Pool Burn, a channelised tributary of the Manuherikia River in Central Otago, New Zealand. Low flows have become characteristic of the Pool Burn during the warmer seasons, which has been exacerbated by the controlled releases from water storage systems and the increased abstraction for irrigation purposes. The primary objective of the study was to characterise the current state of the Pool Burn, through observing longitudinal and seasonal variations of key hydrologic parameters. Where water abstraction for irrigation and preservation of native fish species serve as two main values within the catchment, the outcome of the study aims to inform water users of potential management options to ensure water availability both spatially and seasonally. An empirical approach was adopted for this study, where hydrological, hydraulic, and water quality data were collected at seven sites established down a 20 km stretch of the Pool Burn, between October 2016–October 2017. A stable flow regime was evident for the irrigation season (October–April) for the Pool Burn, dominated by relatively low flows, varying between 0.04 – 0.14 m3 s-1 across all monitoring sites. Flow variability did increase between May–October, ranging between 0.06 – 0.57 m3 s- 1. Morphological responses to the low flow variability of the Pool Burn were most obvious through changes in depth compared to changes in width, which is characteristic of channelised streams, where reaches have become constrained to well-defined banks with relatively uniform beds. Temperatures exceeded the upper tolerance threshold (>19 ºC) at the lowest sampling site, which was attributed to the shallow, wide channel morphology, and lack of riparian planting. Furthermore, the absence of riparian planting and the stable flow regime were factors causing high phosphate concentrations (14 – 41 g P L-1) during the warmer seasons. However, a decrease in phosphate and an increase in nitrate and ammonium was observed during the wetter seasons, attributed to the greater export of nutrients to and from the stream. The effects of a regulated flow regime and abstraction for irrigation were most obvious in the downstream sections of the catchment. Therefore, proposed flow limits for the Manuherikia catchment were predicted for the Pool Burn, which showed that sufficient flows were not sustained if minimum flows (2 – 3 m3 s-1) for the Manuherikia were experienced. Alternative management options are required for the Pool Burn, to reach flow volumes suitable for providing habitat for the native fish species and improve the recreational use of the stream. Ensuring regular releases from the water storage infrastructure is implemented, as well as reducing all water takes proportionally will improve conditions observed at the downstream section of the catchment. Additionally, introducing a 2 – 4 m riparian buffer strip along the entire length of the stream will provide shading and habitat for aquatic species, and also behave as a nutrient sink, alleviating nutrient enrichment and periphyton growth in the stream. The results from the current research have highlighted the importance of adopting an integrated approach to understand the state of heavily influenced, agricultural streams, where a simple minimum flow approach will not ensure connectivity or improve restoration attempts.

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  • Investigating the evolutionary changes in Crabtree-negative yeasts during a long-term evolution experiment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Genetics at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Morley, Annabel

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The Crabtree effect is a metabolic strategy that allows yeast to ferment in the presence of oxygen. This is of interest as not all yeasts display this strategy, and nearly 100 years after its discovery it is still unclear what the overall benefit is. Two key theories attempt to explain the emergence of this phenomenon, the make-accumulate-consume theory and the rate/yield trade-off theory. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether a trade-off between rate and yield develops in Crabtree-negative yeasts over the course of 1500 generations in a high sugar environment. Chapter Two demonstrates that growth rate is more likely to increase than decrease while growth yield is more likely to decrease than increase in the isolate-derived populations of yeast. We find that species that started out relatively fast, changed little while the slower species had more significant gains in growth rate. With growth yield, the species with initially high yield lost more significantly than the already low yield species. This could suggest there is an overall optimum growth rate and growth yield, that the species are evolving towards. In Chapter Three, ethanol production was measured using colorimetric tests and no change was observed to support the development of the Crabtree effect in these populations after 1500 generations. In Chapter Four growth yield was investigated using flow cytometry and it was found that several yeast populations both increased in cell size and decreased in growth yield. This is an interesting observation that has been observed in several previous experimental evolution experiments. In Chapter Five, as cell size is often associated with ploidy changes, DNA content was measured using DAPI and SYTOX DNA stains, detected by flow cytometry. This did not provide any statistically significant conclusions but highlighted the importance of employing further techniques to analyse the DNA content of these populations. This thesis has illustrated the importance of studying the competitive behaviours of microorganisms in isolation, where selfish traits appear to thrive.

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  • Molecular analysis of plant innate immunity triggered by secreted effectors from bacterial and fungal pathogens of apple : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Plant Science, Institute of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, New Zealand

    Prokchorchik, Maxim

    Thesis
    Massey University

    In comparison to animals, plants do not have a dedicated immune system with mobile immune cells to protect themselves. Instead they rely on the innate immunity of each cell. Plant immunity branches into two classical layers: PTI (PAMP-triggered immunity) and ETI (Effector-triggered immunity). PTI detects the conserved molecular patterns (PAMPs) associated with pathogens and often can be overcome by pathogens translocating effector molecules into plant cells to inhibit the PTI. ETI, in turn, relies on intracellular receptors that can specifically recognize effectors or their activity and activate a rapid and robust response. The research presented in this thesis is focused on two pathogens of apple plants: the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora (the causal agent of fire blight) and fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis (the causal agent of apple scab disease). As both bacterial and fungal pathogens deliver effector molecules in order to promote their virulence, ETI engineering is a promising universal strategy to control these pathogens. In Chapter 3, the main aim was to elucidate the requirements and precise mechanism of how an important effector of E. amylovora, AvrRpt2, is recognized by the MR5 disease resistance (R) protein, derived from a hybrid apple Malus x robusta 5. I identified that a fragment of the guardee apple protein RIN4 was required and sufficient and required for MR5 activation. I further identified crucial amino acid residues responsible for this activation. Interestingly, cognate residues in RIN4 guardee homolog from Arabidopsis thaliana are responsible for suppression of the autoactivity of R protein RPS2. These findings led to the proposal of a novel hypothesis for evolutionary guardee adaption to the pool of R proteins present in plants. In Chapter 4, the main focus was to apply newly acquired whole-genome sequencing data of V. inaequalis for identifying the previously mapped AvrRvi8 effector, as well as several novel effectors predicted in silico. The sequences of these effectors were validated by amplification and resequencing of candidate genes from V. inaequalis cDNA. Further functional analysis of the selected gene candidates was performed. In addition, a library of constructs for generating V. inaequalis knock-out strains was prepared for future work. The findings from this thesis expected to be useful for breeders of apple to battle two economically important pathogens devastating the industry. Deployment of the MR5 system in apples should facilitate fire blight resistance in pipfruit and offers the opportunity for further engineering of MR5 to detect other pathogens. Furthermore, the effector library developed for V. inaequalis offers a novel tool for studying both virulence and avirulence mechanisms present in the applescab pathosystem. It is envisaged that further effector research will elucidate authentic targets critical for resistance development in apple.

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  • Relevance of the variability of the feline immunodeficiency virus in regard to pathogenicity and vaccination in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science, Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Stickney, Alison Louise

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Cats infected with the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) show a range of clinical signs. Given the variability of the FIV genome, it is possible that there is variation in certain biological characteristics of FIV, such as pathogenicity. This may also be relevant to vaccination against FIV, as an effective vaccine would have to result in the generation of T cells that recognise a range of different variants in the field. The Fel-O-Vax® FIV vaccine has been available to veterinarians in New Zealand (NZ) for the past 12 years. Despite this, there is a paucity of studies investigating the cross-reactivity of the vaccine-induced immune response against different variants of FIV, and no studies investigating the efficacy of the vaccine in NZ. The overall aim of the research in this thesis was to determine the relevance of the variability of FIV, in regard to pathogenicity and vaccination in NZ. Firstly, 2 separate assays were designed to assess variation in the ability of different isolates of FIV to induce apoptosis or inhibit mitogen-induced proliferation in lymphoid cells in vitro. Results showed that variation in FIV-apoptosis did occur, supporting the argument that FIV variants may also differ in pathogenicity. Secondly, the cross-reactivity of the vaccine-induced immune response was assessed in vitro and in vivo, by measuring antigen-specific cellular activation and a delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in vaccinated cats following inoculation with NZ field isolates of FIV. Results showed that the response was at least partially cross-reactive, however quantitative differences were detected in the response to each isolate of FIV tested. Finally, efficacy of the Fel-O-Vax® FIV vaccine under NZ conditions was investigated by comparing the prevalence of FIV in vaccinated and unvaccinated cats in the field. Results showed that there was no effect of vaccination on FIV prevalence, suggesting poor efficacy of the Fel-O-Vax® FIV vaccine in NZ. Results described in this thesis support the argument that there is variation among FIV in NZ, and that this may affect pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy in this country. The evidence presented did not support use of the Fel-O-Vax® FIV vaccine in NZ.

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  • What makes a good label? : the effect of wine label design on product evaluation and purchasing behaviour : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Marketing at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Jaud, David Alexandre

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Companies spend billions annually on packaging and labelling, yet little is known about how and why specific features of package design influence consumer responses. This thesis identifies, across two projects, what wine label elements or themes should be used, where and when. First, while the use of fantasy themes is increasing across product categories, it is unclear how consumers react to fantasy labels. Across five studies, the results unite seemingly contradicting theories predicting the effects of fantasy labels on product evaluation and purchasing behaviour by uncovering an important boundary condition: product quality signal, in line with the principle of hedonic dominance. The results suggest that for low quality products, fantasy labels backfire (consistent with research on metacognition). For products average in quality, fantasy and non-fantasy labels do not differ in their performance. Yet, in the presence of a high quality signal, fantasy labels impact product evaluation and purchasing behaviour positively. This positive effect is sequentially driven by the evocation of the imaginary and affect, in line with research on mental simulation. Second, it is unclear to what extent elements of wine label design affect sales relative to other marketing mix effects. Specifically, we use wine transactional data for 127 SKUs across two liquor stores in New Zealand, covering 105 weeks. The findings suggest that some specific label elements have strong effects on sales. Specifically, extra text, as a quality cue, has the strongest positive effect. Overall, after price, the combination of image(s) and extra text has the strongest (negative) effect on sales. In line with research on processing fluency, this research also shows whether and when to use simple versus complex elements (typeface, label structure, mode of information). This thesis has important implications for wine companies and retailers.

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  • Exploring the effects of outdoor activities and connectedness with nature on cognitive styles and creativity : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Leong, Lai Yin Carmen

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The natural environment’s potential to improve education, work, and lifestyles is receiving increasing attention by policy makers and practitioners. Psychological research has demonstrated that stress reduction, attention restoration, and increased creativity can result from exposure to nature. Such evidence notwithstanding, the precise psychological mechanisms explaining these effects remain unclear. This thesis provides a systematic examination of how contact with nature might affect humans. Four studies were conducted. Study 1 reports two meta-analyses (N = 10701, k = 100) involving: (i) 66 studies using preand post-test designs, and (ii) 32 experimental studies that include a control group. Although outdoor activities have been found overall to affect personal and social outcomes positively, there has been limited research into the effects on cognitive variables of exposure to outdoor environments. To address this gap in the literature, I aim to investigate whether contact with nature (in two dimensions–the psychological attachment to nature and the physical exposure to it) is associated with processes related to creativity (i.e., cognitive styles and divergent thinking creativity). Study 2 (N = 138) tests the relationship between connectedness with nature and cognitive styles and reports a significant positive association between connectedness with nature and both innovative and holistic thinking styles. Building on this finding, Study 3 (N = 185) not only replicates the results of Study 2 by controlling for wellbeing processes, but includes a new creativity test to examine the link between connectedness with nature and creative processes (connectedness with nature is found to be positively linked with divergent-thinking creativity). As these three studies employ cross-sectional data where causality cannot be inferred, the last study involves an experimental design. Study 4 (N = 93) manipulates active versus passive engagement with nature and examines the mediating impact of connectedness with nature on the link between outdoor activities and divergentthinking creativity. Some theoretical explanations as to how nature might affect our creativity are proposed. Potential limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed. The findings are intended to provide supporting evidence for the relationship between nature and creativity, and hopefully inform educational pedagogy and lifestyle choices likely to enhance creativity.

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  • The relationship between spatial ability and mathematical ability : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University

    Flynn, Peter M

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between spatial ability and general mathematical ability. Many researchers have assumed that a positive correlational relationship exists between mathematics and spatial ability. However, a review of the literature shows that the relationship is not as simple as thought, partly because there is disagreement among researchers on a definition of spatial ability. In the present study general mathematical ability was indexed by the Progressive Achievement Test: Mathematics. A group of 50 high ability and a group of 50 low ability children completed five tests relating to spatial ability from the Kit of factor Related Cognitive Tests. Results from a discriminant function analysis supported the hypothesis that a positive correlational relationship exists between spatial ability and general mathematical ability. This result is important because it provides new evidence to support the argument that there is a relationship between spatial ability and general mathematical ability. The potential for spatial ability tasks to aid in the understanding of mathematics is discussed. However, it is argued that there is a need for greater refinement of the spatial ability construct before more research using it as a factor is conducted.

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  • The recovery of nickel from hyperaccumulator plant ash : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Chemistry at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Kirk, Anthony Hans Peter

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Nickel hyperaccumulator plants have the unusual ability to absorb nickel from the soil they grow in and incorporate it into their structure, to concentrations greater than 1% dry weight. This selective accumulation process occurs with the relevant exclusion of most other metals from the plant material. Combustion of this material then results in a nickel-rich ash (10-15%) of relatively high purity when compared to commercially mined ore (1-4% Ni). Much work has focused on the plants themselves, with suggestions of them being applied to the commercial extraction of nickel from soil, with yields up to 200 kg per hectare. However, little work has been undertaken on the recovery of nickel from the plant material. Given the refined nature of nickel hyperaccumulator ash and that any commercial enterprise is governed by economics, it was thought that a more specific nickel recovery process could be determined for the ash than simply smelting with nickel ore. Such a process should produce an end product of greater worth than smelted nickel. To this end nickel electrowinning and nickel salt crystallisation were investigated. Ashing of the plant material by open flame combustion was found to produce a bio- ore suitable for nickel solubilisation, with the energy produced by the process possibly being of economic benefit if applied to the generation of electricity. Leaching of the nickel from the ash was investigated using a variety of acids with sulfuric acid primarily used, owing to the common usage of a sulfate medium in both nickel electrowinning and crystallisation. A 96% solubilisation of the nickel from the ash was achieved using 4M H₂SO₄, with resulting extracts containing nickel at approximately 0.35 mol/l concentrations. The addition of nitric acid to aid in nickel leaching while successful, also solubilised greater quantities of impurities and caused complications in later processing. Electrowinning of nickel from an ash extract solution, once neutralised to pH values of 4-6, required the balancing of sulfate and nitrate concentrations. Excesses or indeed the absence of either, proved to inhibit metallic nickel electrodeposition, instead two different hydroxide products were observed. However, once balanced a metallic nickel deposit was produced with a current efficiency for the electrowinning period of 94%. From solutions containing a range of potassium and nickel sulfate concentrations it is found that the double salt K₂Ni(S0₄)₂.6H₂O will crystallise. The ash extract, being of hyperaccumulator origin, contains both Ni and K in high concentrations, with SO₄²- being added during the leaching process. It was found that double salt crystals formed without chemical aid even in a highly acidic solution, but with the addition of KOH and/or K₂SO₄ could be crystallised to the extent where as little as 1.5 g/l Ni remained in solution. The blue/green cubic crystals are easily recovered in good yield, corresponding to a 98% recovery of nickel from the ash extract. While no large market exists for the material at present, there are possibilities for its use and given a theoretical yield of 690 kg K₂Ni(SO₄)₂.6H₂O per hectare, there is potential for substantial monetary return.

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  • Response of short rotation forestry to dairy farm-pond effluent irrigation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Agricultural Engineering at Massey University

    Peña Obando-Tungcul, Rebecca dela

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A growing concern to protect the environment has prompted Regional Councils in New Zealand to monitor compliance under the Resource Management Act (1991) covering the discharge of wastewater into waterways. To meet the desired standards, application of wastewater onto high dry matter producing short vegetation forests offers opportunity for the beneficial use of nutrients while renovating the wastewater. A field trial was established near Palmerston North to determine the response of nine Salix clones and one Eucalyptus short rotation forest (SRF) species to dairy farm effluent irrigation and to determine their water and nutrient uptake potential. A micro sprinkler irrigation system was designed to operate at 100 kPa and supply each plot of 16 trees with either 7.5 mm. 15 mm, or 30 mm of dairy farm effluent every two weeks. Twenty-four applications were made covering two growing seasons with a break over winter. A control treatment of 7.5 mm of water + 187.5 kg N haˉ¹ yearˉ¹ was included, being equivalent to the nitrogen addition from the lowest effluent application rate. The three SRF species, Salix matsudana x alba (NZ 1295). Salix kinuyanagi (PN 386) and Eucalyptus nitens were selected for more detailed analysis than the other seven Salix clones. This included the measurement of evapotranspiration rates and a pot trial to determine the tolerance level of seedlings to higher levels of effluent application. Application of up to 90 mm of effluent per fortnight increased the biomass production and nutrient accumulation of potted PN 386 and E. nitens. whereas the NZ 1295 produced optimum biomass and accumulation of nutrients at 60 mm of effluent application per fortnight. At the end of the first growing season, the above ground biomass of the ten tree species in the field trial was assessed using a non-destructive method followed by a destructive harvest at the end of the second growing season. Dry matter production in these short rotation forest crops varied with species and clones and with the amount of dairy farm-pond effluent applied. Salix NZ 1296. PN 386 and NZ 1295 irrigated with the highest application rate of 30 mm of effluent per fortnight produced the highest biomass yields of 37.91, 37.87 and 37.58 ODt haˉ¹ yearˉ¹ respectively. NZ 1296 irrigated with 30 mm of effluent per fortnight accumulated 196 kg N haˉ¹ yearˉ¹, 37.6 kg P haˉ¹ yearˉ¹, and 103.6 kg Mg haˉ¹ yearˉ¹ in its above ground biomass. E. nitens irrigated with 15 mm of effluent per fortnight produced a comparable above ground oven dry biomass yield of 36.33 ODt haˉ¹ yearˉ¹ and accumulated the highest amount of potassium and calcium in its above ground biomass giving 145.4 and 148.1 kg haˉ1 yearˉ¹, respectively. Transpiration monitoring during the second growing season using a heat pulse technique showed that under the highest application rate (30 mm per fortnight) on a cloud-free day. 15 month old NZ 1295 trees each transpired the highest cumulative amount of 6.38 mm day ˉ¹ compared to 2.71 mm dayˉ¹ for trees irrigated at the lowest rate (7.5 mm per fortnight). Results of this study overall suggest that increasing the rate of effluent irrigation will increase the soil pH. nitrates and exchangeable potassium, calcium and magnesium concentrations throughout the soil profile. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus levels decreased throughout the soil profile after the second growing season. The cation exchange capacity of the soil decreased with increased rate of effluent after the second growing season. The soil-SRF treatment system renovated the nutrients in the effluent. The soil-E. nitens treatment system renovated the highest percentage of total nitrogen (17.21t haˉ¹ mˉ¹ depth) equivalent to 96.45% of total nitrogen supplied by both the soil and the 30 mm of effluent applied per fortnight. The soil-PN 386 treatment system renovated the highest percentage of total phosphorus (6.4 t haˉ¹ mˉ¹ depth) equivalent to 92.72% of the total phosphorus available in the soil and supplied by the 7.5 mm of effluent treatment. The soil-NZ 1295 treatment system renovated the highest percentage of potassium (99.5%). calcium (98.74%) and magnesium (95.63%) supplied by both the soil and the 30 mm of effluent treatment. The capacity of the three SRF species to renovate total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium from the effluent decreased with increasing rates of application. PN 386 irrigated at 7.5 mm of effluent renovated the highest percentage of 99.45% of total nitrogen (114.25 kg haˉ¹ over two growing seasons) and 79.18% of total phosphorus (35.60 kg haˉ¹ over two growing seasons). The amounts of calcium and magnesium renovated by the SRF species were more than the amount supplied by even the highest rate of effluent (30 mm per fortnight). Salix PN 386. NZ 1295 and E. nitens are recommended SRF species to grow in a land treatment scheme for dairy farm pond-effluent when applied at a rate of 30 mm per fortnight over the growing period on to a silt loam soil. Pot trials showed higher volumes of effluent renovation on to PN 386 and E. nitens may be applicable when applied up to 90 mm of effluent per fortnight but further evaluation is needed before this can be recommended.

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  • Self-esteem, anxiety and assertiveness : a theoretical and empirical approach to the effects of assertion training : submitted as part of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts (Clinical Psychology)

    Smee, Juliana Majella

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study was conducted as a tentative investigation of the effect of Assertiveness Training on "normal to pre-clinical" outpatients attending a small psychological clinic. A full evaluation using an acceptable research design had been planned, however particular difficulties arose to obstruct this aim. Employing data from the subjects who had already been tested, further modifications of the major testing instruments (the Gambrill and Richey [1975] Assertion Inventory and Kelly's [1955] Role Construct Repertory Grid) were made as part of the present study. Since an extensive literature survey had indicated that structured theoretical or empirical reports are dwarfed by "popular" publications in the Assertion Training area, it was decided to use the data obtained through further testing to produce a theoretical paper based on the quasi- evaluation that remained. Three levels of subjects, two being sub-samples of the major sample, were put forward to structure the data analysis which then proceeded in three stages to test five basic hypotheses. Comparative and correlational procedures were used in Stages I and II to examine the data firstly on 110 and then on 50 sets of pre-tests. Subjects at Stage III (N = 36) belonged to two training groups and a waiting-list control group. At this level, the experimenter was interested to ascertain whether or not there were significant changes between pre and post-test in subjects' scores on three main variables (Self-Esteem, Discomfort/Interpersonal Anxiety, and Response Probability) . Such changes were found but only for subjects in the training groups and, in particular, the Discomfort variable appeared to take an important part in this preliminary "training effect". Whereas self-esteem and response probability ratings remained relatively consistent on average across the short testing interval, anxiety/discomfort levels decreased significantly among the trainees. This pointed to the benefit of AT as an anxiety-reducing procedure and stimulated comments on the importance of client/patient-oriented diagnostic and therapeutic media. In brief, the results provided some interesting catalysts for theoretical integration and, in addition, a discussion of the testing instruments and their prospects for future use supplied a functional approach to round off the study.

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  • The regulation of bovine ATP citrate lyase promoter : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry, Massey University, 2006

    Yosaatmadja, Yuliana

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The synthesis of fatty acids is important for many house keeping functions such as the formation of cell membranes and as energy storage This process occurs mostly in the adipose tissues and liver of monogastric animals. The regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis in monogastric animals such as human and rat have been studied intensively. Several lines of experimental evidences have shown that fatty acid biosynthesis is dependent on the nutritional state of the animal and other hormonal influences, such as insulin and glucagon. However the molecular regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis is relatively unknown in ruminants. Ruminants are large mammals that have a predominantly herbivorous diet and therefore have a very different metabolism to monogastric animals. Although a large percentage of ruminant feed is carbohydrate, very little of these dietary carbohydrates are available for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis and therefore many of the enzymes involved in the conversion of glucose to fat such as ATP citrate lyase may be down-regulated as a mean of physiological adaptation for glucose conservation. ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) is a lipogenic enzyme that catalyses the cleavage of cytosolic citrate into acetyl CoA and oxaloacetate and it is unique to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway The molecular regulation of the bovine ACLY gene is unknown, however approximately 10 Kb of bovine ACLY gene has been sequenced and characterised. To investigate the molecular regulation of the bovine ATP citrate lyase gene, several experimental methods were used in this study such as reporter gene assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays.

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  • Resurgence and convergence : religion and development, with a focus on social capital among Akha in North Thailand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North Campus, New Zealand

    Pennington, Philip J

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This Masters thesis research aims to contribute to the fledgling body of development industry literature that seriously considers the intersect of science, religion, and development. Religion is gaining recognition as an important aspect of development processes; previous neglect of it has been cited as one reason for the failure of many development efforts. An evolutionary framework would suggest the interaction of the large human movements of religion and the development industry would inevitably include resurgence of religion, sometimes in unfamiliar forms, along with religion's convergence with development, both among societies generally as they evolve into multiple modernities, and through interactions specific to the development industry and religion. This thesis identifies and discusses these trends and interactions with reference to improving development research and practice. Having demonstrated that religion does matter for development, I go on to show how it matters in one instance. This thesis assesses the potentials and limitations of one indigenous religion's ritual practices for creating and maintaining social capital among an indicative sample group of people who have experienced dislocation resulting from development. Fieldwork using primarily qualitative methods was among Akha hilltribe people living in Chiang Mai, in northern Thailand, with a focus, though not exclusively, on those living in slums. Findings indicate that among city Akha. their religious ritual has lost the primary role it previously occupied in Akha villages as a social capital generator. However, further analysis suggests Akhas' religious experience predisposes them to conversion to access the social capital evident among Christian Akha in Chiang Mai, and that through this process is occurring a negotiation of convergence between Akha religion and modernising forces which will affect all Akha. I conclude that both the identified wider trends and context-specific example of religion- development interaction demonstrate the value in development practitioners and theorists moving towards understanding and applying a non-instrumental valuing of religion.

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  • The shape of New zealand's regimental system : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Defence and Strategic Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Phillips, Carol J

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Unit cohesion has been identified as a strong factor in the way soldiers overcome their fear of death in battle. Imperial Roman soldiers felt loyalty to the legion and its standard was more than a signal to rally towards in battle; British soldiers show similar loyalty to their regiment and Colours. Historians of a strong military background often write of the British regimental system as particularly effective in maintaining ethos and fighting spirit. Yet, reading any one of their descriptions of the regimental system offers only a vague insight of the structures and character of a uniquely military organisation. Identifying a regimental system is a particularly difficult task, even for those who are part of one. Although New Zealand has inherited the idea of regimental system from the British, it is a much smaller nation with a correspondingly smaller all-volunteer armed force and a more egalitarian society. The size of the New Zealand Army, with fewer regiments, seems to suggest that it has escaped both the benefits of regimental cohesion and the damaging effects of aggressive tribalism between its units. This thesis will challenge that assumption by showing that the New Zealand Army has a strong cultural history with definite characteristics of a regimental system. It will be seen that the New Zealand Army's regimental system adapts its values according to its own particular cultural pressures and legacies.

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  • Rethinking teacher education : a mentoring model : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    Norsworthy, Beverley Elizabeth

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis explores concerns about the quality of traditional teacher training particularly in relation to preparation of teachers for schools committed to the provision of a coherent world and life view1. Examples of such schools in New Zealand would include Kura Kaupapa, Fundamental Christian, Catholic, Seventh Day Adventist, Rudolph Steiner, Montessori. A consideration of the nature of the teaching task provides an understanding of the importance placed on the development of a coherent world and life view and the concept of educator as role model. These understandings are seen to apply to lecturers and associate teachers in the pre-service programme as well as to the trainee teacher involved the school classroom. The current image of teacher education programmes is shown to be negative and the clear call to change in areas of content, emphasis, and setting is presented. Areas of concern are identified and the conclusion is reached that this 'call for change' is not something to be ignored, but rather, to be considered and responded to with implementation of appropriate changes. It is suggested that the best way in which to respond to the call for change is through a teacher preparation programme which has a much increased component in the school. In consideration of the literature about school-based teacher preparation it becomes very clear that one key component is the role and training of the Associate Teacher. Models of preparation which are based on concepts such as Mentor, Lead Teacher and Coach are compared and important characteristics are subsequently identified. Other factors deemed to be important to training are relationships, critical and reflective thinking, and experience in the classroom setting. The thesis concludes that while a more effective teacher preparation programme would not be solely conducted or based in a school, major changes to the role of initial training, philosophy, the importance of meaning and the provision of role models must be considered. Support is given for a training programme based on a coherent philosophical foundation with significantly increased time in schools, in which Associate Teachers are involved as key players. Such a course provides experience in the 'real world' of teaching as a base to which the trainees, with the help of teacher educators, can bring theory. Combined with critical and reflective thinking, this process will enable them to develop as skilled and perceptive teachers. The conclusion of this thesis is that there is potential for training excellent teachers within a model of teacher training which has significant school based components with an increased role and responsibility for the associate teacher and school. Such training is seen to simultaneously enhance the existing school staff and community. This is seen to be most appropriate for special character schools where the concept of role modelling is a key to effectiveness.

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  • Sharing our stories : celebrating critically reflective psychological textual practice : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Soennichsen, Susan Marie

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study involves my engaging with ideas through three interweaving, storied strands: some personal experiences of my own, the historical development of the academic discipline of psychology, and the pivotal autobiographical vignettes in five psychological articles. Ethical considerations permeate the overlapping theoretical, metaphorical and analytical processes of this work. I consider how writers and readers can engage together through the reflexive sharing of personal narratives, working toward interpretations of experiences in terms of subject positionings within powerful cultural discourses. A metaphorical perspective is integrated into my research process to help me in my attempts to articulate and evoke some fleeting traces of meaning through the elusive symbolic system of language. My analyses of the five focus pieces of writing attend to their skilfully metaphorical, critically reflective use of language within a supportive, nurturing discursive space. This thesis celebrates the transformational possibilities inherent in these pieces of psychological counter-practice. I believe these writers usefully address social sciences' 'crisis' concerns around the relationship of psychology with 'real' people, enabling re-interpretations of experiences in terms of gender and social power relationships and the fashioning of different, more useful meanings for our storied, culturally directed experiences.

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  • The refolding of recombinant human liver methylmalonyl-CoA mutase from inclusion bodies produced in Escherichia coli : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Hayes, Michelle Marie

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Human methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (hMCM) is an adenosylcobalamin-dependent enzyme that catalyses the structural rearrangement of (R)-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA as pan of the catabolism of the branched chain amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine, odd chain fatty acids and intermediates of cholesterol metabolism. Reactions that require adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) have been intensively studied, and the first step in the catalysis is widely agreed to involve homolytic cleavage of the unusual carbon-cobalt bond in the cofactor. A reliable source of recombinant hMCM would be useful in defining more fully the mechanistic pathway of AdoCbl-dependent enzymes. Recombinant hMCM overexpressed in E. coli forms insoluble aggregates of inactive protein known as inclusion bodies. hMCM inclusion bodies were purified, solubilised and then several different in vitro refolding techniques were tested in attempts to produce active recombinant hMCM from purified solubilised inclusion body material. These methods included refolding by rapid dilution, refolding by dialysis, detergent-assisted refolding, refolding by gel filtration chromatography and chaperonin-assisted refolding. Chaperonin-assisted refolding necessitated the purification of recombinant E. coli chaperonins GroES and GroEL from the E. coli strain DH1/pGroESL. Refolding by rapid dilution of the GdmHCl-solubilised inclusion bodies into a refolding buffer was judged to be the simplest and most effective method, however the refolding process was extremely inefficient. Refolding by rapid dilution was scaled up to 2 litres to produce as much active hMCM as possible. The refolded protein was concentrated by batch adsorption to and stepwise elution from hydroxyapatite, and further purified using a synthesised 5'adenosylcobalamin- agarose 'affinity' chromatography column. The final refolded hMCM preparation contained a single ~29 kDa contaminant protein, tentatively identified as E. coli branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.42), present in approximately equal amounts to the hMCM, and had a specific activity of ~3.11 units/mg.

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  • Old age, retirement villages and New Zealand society : a critical narrative analysis of the experiences of retirement village residents : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctorate in Clinical Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Dodds, Antonia Tiffany

    Thesis
    Massey University

    There is a paucity of critical research that examines the experiences of retirement village residents in New Zealand. The research objective was to critically analyse how retirement village residents in New Zealand made sense of their experience of living in a retirement village and to locate these experiences within the wider socio-political context. Multiple interviews were carried out individually with fourteen retirement village residents from one retirement village in Auckland, New Zealand. Their personal narratives, about their experience of moving to and living in a retirement village, were analysed using a critical narrative analytical approach, based on a social constructionist perspective. The way that the participants made sense of old age drew on ageist societal narratives that depict old age as a time of physical decline and loss of ability, mobility, social supports, independence and autonomy. These loss narratives devalue older adults and so undermined the participants’ ability to locate themselves positively in the interview. Consequently, they drew on a young-old subject position in order to resist loss narratives. This research considers the socially constructed nature of loss narratives, by discussing the Western cultural values and assumptions that underpin them. The participants made sense of their move to the retirement village as a solution to decline and loss in old age. Analysis of the solutions that the participants sought at the village highlights that societal practices in New Zealand contribute to losses in old age. Yet, the participants indicated that the retirement village did not always provide the solutions they had hoped for and presented them with additional problems. Therefore, the retirement village represents an imperfect solution to problems in old age that are partly created by current societal practices. This study explores how retirement villages are a culturally specific solution that reflects dominant political ideologies, cultural values, and societal narratives that exist in New Zealand society. Overall, this study argues that alternative societal narratives that ascribe value to the ageing process will better promote the interests of older people. Furthermore, the problems that older adults face will be better solved by directly addressing the societal practices that create them.

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