89,525 results

  • Effect of cultivation on maize response to nitrogen fertilizer : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Applied Science in Soil Science, Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Munir, Sulhadiana

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Continuous cultivation of arable soils results in the decline of 'soil quality' in terms of structural degradation and nutrient depletion. It decreases soil organic matter content, induces the leaching and gaseous losses of N through enhanced nitrification and denitrification, resulting in the depletion of nitrogen content of the soils. This will affect N availability, soil moisture retention, soil aeration and the activity of soil microorganisms. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of cultivation on the response of maize to N fertiliser. A glass house experiment was conducted using four soils. The soils included a permanent pasture soil and three maize / barley grown soils which have been cultivated for 6, 17 and 34 years. Maize plants were grown at six levels of N applied as urea (0 - 500 kg N/ha). The dry matter yield response to N application indicated higher maize growth for the pasture soil than for the cultivated soils at all levels of N application. Even at the highest level of N application (500 kg N/ha) the maize dry matter yield for the cultivated soil did not reach that for the unfertilised pasture soil. This indicates that N alone was not limiting the dry matter yield among the cultivated soils. It was hypothesised that the differences in the physical conditions among these soils may also be responsible for differences in dry matter yield. In the second experiment, pasture and the 34 year cultivated soils were incubated with poultry manure for eight weeks. The addition of poultry manure was to improve the physical conditions of the soil. A glasshouse experiment was then conducted to examine the effect of poultry manure addition on the growth of maize at five levels of N (0-400 kg N/ha) applied as urea. There was a clear visual indication of an improvement in the structure of the cultivated soil due to the incorporation of poultry manure. Addition of poultry manure increased the dry matter yields of maize plants both in the cultivated and the pasture soils. The dry matter yield of plants in the cultivated soils (in the presence of manure addition) was higher than the pasture soils at low levels of N application and similar yields were obtained at the higher rates of N application. Oxygen diffusion rate (ODR) values were higher for the pasture soil than the cultivated soil. The addition of poultry manure in the initial stages, however, decreased the ODR values in both soils which is attributed to the increased consumption of oxygen by the easily decomposable organic carbon in the poultry manure. With increasing time after incubation the ODR values slowly increased in the poultry manure treated soils indicating an improvement in soil structure. The study clearly demonstrated that the impact of cultivation on maize yield was partly due to poor soil physical conditions.

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  • Dynamic modelling and validation of a commercial scale geothermal organic rankine cycle power plant

    Proctor, MJ; Yu, Wei; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Young, Brent (2016-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The organic rankine cycle (ORC) is a heat recovery technology used for renewable energy generation such as the large-scale production of electricity from geothermal resources. In this paper a dynamic model of a commercial-scale geothermal ORC is developed in process simulation software and validated against plant data. The difference in power output between the model and plant was found to be 0.24% with a standard deviation of 1.40% of the average power output. The results from model validation are used to suggest improvements to the model, which is intended to be used for further investigation of optimisation and process control.

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  • Froth regime point efficiency for gas-film controlled mass transfer on a two-dimensional sieve tray

    Lockett, MJ; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Uddin, MS (1979)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Side draw optimisation of a high-purity, multi-component distillation column

    Kraller, MA; Udugama, IA; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Yu, Wei; Young, Brent (2016-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Distillation columns with side draws are widely used in the process industry to refine crude methanol into high-purity methanol. Historically, industrial methanol manufacturers have concentrated on meeting strict product specifications, while methanol yield and reboiler duty optimisation has often been neglected. In this work, a steady-state model of an industrial high-purity multi-component methanol distillation column was developed using a commercial process simulator. To achieve higher recovery at optimal reboiler duty, the side draw location and side draw mass flow rates were identified as two important factors. It was determined that a combination of lowering the side draw location while reducing the side draw mass flow rate will lead to the most optimal outcome. A design of experiment was also carried out to evaluate the stability of the column at recovery rates of 97.7% (current recovery) and 99.5% (proposed high recovery). Disturbances in the feed stream were identified as having the greatest effect, while the product purity was observed to become more sensitive towards all disturbances when operating at an enhanced recovery.

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  • A texture-processing model of the 'visual sense of number'

    Morgan, M; Raphael, S; Tibber, M; Dakin, Steven (2014-09-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    It has been suggested that numerosity is an elementary quality of perception, similar to colour. If so (and despite considerable investigation), its mechanism remains unknown. Here, we show that observers require on average a massive difference of approximately 40% to detect a change in the number of objects that vary irrelevantly in blur, contrast and spatial separation, and that some naive observers require even more than this. We suggest that relative numerosity is a type of texture discrimination and that a simple model computing the contrast energy at fine spatial scales in the image can perform at least as well as human observers. Like some human observers, this mechanism finds it harder to discriminate relative numerosity in two patterns with different degrees of blur, but it still outpaces the human. We propose energy discrimination as a benchmark model against which more complex models and new data can be tested.

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  • The influence of approach velocity on bubble coalescence

    Kirkpatrick, Robert; Lockett, MJ (1974-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Experiments have been carried out in which a cloud of air bubbles has been prevented from rising by downflowing water in a tube. High speed photography revealed an almost complete absence of bubble coalescence. This has been attributed to the large approach velocities of bubbles in the cloud. Further experiments in which a single bubble has been allowed to coalesce with a plane air???water interface have demonstrated the effect more clearly. Two basic types of bubble coalescence have been recognised depending on the approach velocity of the bubbles. At a low approach velocity, bubble coalescence is rapid, but coalescence times are considerably increased at large approach velocities. For pure liquids, a theory is put forward which shows that at low approach velocities film rupture can occur before the approaching bubbles are brought to rest. At large approach velocities the bubbles are brought to rest before rupture occurs. In the latter case bubble bounce can occur and the total coalescence time is thereby considerably increased. Based on observed approach velocities in a stationary bubble cloud, it is suggested that large approach velocities in a bubble column may be an important factor in limiting bubble coalescence.

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  • Number and density discrimination rely on a common metric: Similar psychophysical effects of size, contrast, and divided attention

    Tibber, MS; Greenwood, JA; Dakin, Steven (2012-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    While observers are adept at judging the density of elements (e.g., in a random-dot image), it has recently been proposed that they also have an independent visual sense of number. To test the independence of number and density discrimination, we examined the effects of manipulating stimulus structure (patch size, element size, contrast, and contrast-polarity) and available attentional resources on both judgments. Five observers made a series of two-alternative, forced-choice discriminations based on the relative numerosity/density of two simultaneously presented patches containing 16???1,024 Gaussian blobs. Mismatches of patch size and element size (across reference and test) led to bias and reduced sensitivity in both tasks, whereas manipulations of contrast and contrast-polarity had varied effects on observers, implying differing strategies. Nonetheless, the effects reported were consistent across density and number judgments, the only exception being when luminance cues were made available. Finally, density and number judgment were similarly impaired by attentional load in a dual-task experiment. These results are consistent with a common underlying metric to density and number judgments, with the caveat that additional cues may be exploited when they are available.

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  • A comparison of a novel robust decentralised control strategy and MPC for industrial high purity, high recovery, multicomponent distillation

    Udugama, IA; Wolfenstetter, F; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Yu, Wei; Young, Brent (2017-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this work we have developed a novel, robust practical control structure to regulate an industrial methanol distillation column. This proposed control scheme is based on a override control framework and can manage a non-key trace ethanol product impurity specification while maintaining high product recovery. For comparison purposes, a MPC with a discrete process model (based on step tests) was also developed and tested. The results from process disturbance testing shows that, both the MPC and the proposed controller were capable of maintaining both the trace level ethanol specification in the distillate (XD) and high product recovery (??). Closer analysis revealed that the MPC controller has a tighter XD control, while the proposed controller was tighter in ?? control. The tight XD control allowed the MPC to operate at a higher XD set point (closer to the 10ppm AA grade methanol standard), allowing for savings in energy usage. Despite the energy savings of the MPC, the proposed control scheme has lower installation and running costs. An economic analysis revealed a multitude of other external economic and plant design factors, that should be considered when making a decision between the two controllers. In general, we found relatively high energy costs favour MPC.

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  • Ideal bubbly flow and actual flow in bubble column

    Lockett, MJ; Kirkpatrick, Robert (1975)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • A template for change? De-risking the transition to CDIO

    Robinson, K; Friedrich, Heide; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Nicholas, C; Rowe, G (2013)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper provides a case study on how an established, mature engineering faculty, with a large population of students can make the successful, high risk, step change transition towards the delivery of CDIO objectives: ???Graduating engineers who can conceive-design-implement-operate complex value-added engineering systems in a modern team-based environment??? (Crawley et al, 2011). The successful results of the project demonstrated the effectiveness of the systems thinking and CDIO approach, and endorsed this as the basis for a major change strategy. Not only did it demonstrate the quality of all the students on the course, their potential and commitment to engineering, but it also demonstrated willingness of the faculty to take a risk and to embrace change. The project scenario opened up an otherwise overlooked teaching resource: that of practitioner lecturers with many years of experience of implementation and operation of major projects. These skills were essential to the scoping, design, planning and implementation of the project as well as giving the backdrop of best practice from industry. Auckland???s experience of introducing a major step change may be used as a template for other universities who may wish to follow Auckland???s example. This project shows the value of a hearts and minds approach to change as it brought together students, staff and best practice under a multidisciplinary systems thinking and CDIO approach; all united in the interests of reconstructing Christchurch.

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  • Synthesis of tunichrome Sp-1

    Pullar, MA; Barker, David; Copp, Brent (2015-10-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The first total synthesis of the ascidian blood pigment tunichrome Sp-1 is reported, with the modified pentapeptide prepared in a convergent manner using a combination of solid-phase peptide synthesis, Hunsdiecker decarboxylative iodination and Buchwald amidation reaction chemistry. The natural product was shown to exist as a mixture of trans- and cis-prolyl conformers, with the former dominating in a 5:1 ratio.

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  • Testing for new physics: Neutrinos and the primordial power spectrum

    Canac, N; Aslanyan, G; Abazajian, KN; Easther, Richard; Price, LC (2016-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We test the sensitivity of neutrino parameter constraints from combinations of CMB and LSS data sets to the assumed form of the primordial power spectrum (PPS) using Bayesian model selection. Significantly, none of the tested combinations, including recent high-precision local measurements of H0 and cluster abundances, indicate a signal for massive neutrinos or extra relativistic degrees of freedom. For PPS models with a large, but fixed number of degrees of freedom, neutrino parameter constraints do not change significantly if the location of any features in the PPS are allowed to vary, although neutrino constraints are more sensitive to PPS features if they are known a priori to exist at fixed intervals in log k. Although there is no support for a non-standard neutrino sector from constraints on both neutrino mass and relativistic energy density, we see surprisingly strong evidence for features in the PPS when it is constrained with data from Planck 2015, SZ cluster counts, and recent high-precision local measurements of H0. Conversely combining Planck with matter power spectrum and BAO measurements yields a much weaker constraint. Given that this result is sensitive to the choice of data this tension between SZ cluster counts, Planck and H0 measurements is likely an indication of unmodeled systematic bias that mimics PPS features, rather than new physics in the PPS or neutrino sector.

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  • Ontogeny and control of the heart rate power spectrum in the last third of gestation in fetal sheep

    Koome, ME; Bennet, Laura; Booth, LC; Davidson, Joanne; Wassink, Guido; Gunn, Alistair (2014-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Power spectral analysis of fetal heart rate variability has been proposed to provide a non-invasive estimate of autonomic balance. However, there are few systematic data before birth. We therefore examined developmental changes in the frequency power spectrum at very low (0-0.04 Hz), low (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high (0.15-0.4 Hz) frequencies, and the ratio of low- to high-frequency power (LF/HF) in chronically catheterised, healthy fetal sheep at 0.6 (n = 8), 0.7 (n = 7) and 0.8 gestation age (ga, n = 11). In a second study, 0.8 ga fetuses received either atropine (4.8 mg bolus, then 4.8 mg/h for 30 minutes, n = 6) or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 20 mg/ml at 2.5 ml/h for 3 h, n = 9). Data were analysed by sleep state defined by low voltage-high frequency (LV) or high voltage-low frequency (HV) EEG. Total spectral power increased with gestational age (P < 0.05), while LF/HF decreased from 0.6 to 0.7 ga. At 0.8 ga, heart rate and LF/HF were significantly higher during HV than LV sleep (P < 0.05). Consistent with this, although total spectral power was not significantly greater during HV sleep, there was a significant interaction between sleep state and frequency band (P = 0.02). Both atropine (P = 0.05) and 6-OHDA (P < 0.05) were associated with an overall reduction in spectral power but no significant effect on the LF/HF ratio. This study does not support substantial, consistent differences between the frequencies of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity in late gestation fetal sheep.

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  • Intelligent condition assessment of power transformers

    Peimankar, Abdolrahman (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis begins by providing an introduction to different transformer failures and the most effective condition monitoring techniques. Different failures are introduced and their corresponding fault diagnosis methods are listed to have a better understanding of failure modes and their consequence effects. An investigation into monitoring major failures of transformers using dissolved gas analysis is then presented. Various conventional, dissolved gas analysis based, fault diagnosis techniques are presented and the drawbacks of these methods are discussed. Intelligent fault diagnosis methods are introduced to overcome the problems of the conventional techniques. An overview of statistical and machine learning algorithms applied in this research is also described. Preliminary research results on transformer load tap changers fault classification are reported. A hierarchical fault diagnosis algorithm for transformer load tap changers using support vector machines is used, in which, for each fault class, a unique single support vector machine algorithm is employed. However, while the developed algorithm is reasonably accurate, the shortcomings of applying single learning algorithms are discussed and a proposal for developing a more robust and generalised transformers condition assessment algorithm is made. An intelligent power transformer fault diagnosis algorithm is then developed to classify faults of transformers. The proposed fault diagnosis algorithm is an ensemble-based approach which uses different statistical and machine learning algorithms. In the first phase of the proposed algorithm the most relevant features (dissolved gases) corresponding to each fault class are first determined. Then, selected features are used to classify transformer faults. The results of this algorithm show a significant improvement, in terms of classification. A time-series forecasting algorithm is developed to predict future values of dissolved gases in transformers. The dataset for this algorithm was collected from a transformer for a period of six months which consisted of seven dissolved gases, a loading history, and three measured, ambient, oil, and winding, temperatures of transformer. The correlation coefficients between these 11 time series are then calculated and a nonlinear principle component analysis is used to extract an effective time series from highly correlated variables. The proposed multi-objective evolutionary time series forecasting algorithm selects the most accurate and diverse group of forecasting methods among various implemented time series forecasting algorithms. The proposed method is also compared with other conventional time series forecasting algorithms and the results show the improvements over the different forecasting horizons.

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  • Genetic factors associated with orthodontic pain in children and adolescents: a pilot study

    Sew Hoy, William Hugh (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Introduction: Pain is often reported as being the worst aspect of orthodontic treatment. Nearly all patients experience pain and discomfort at their teeth at some point during orthodontic treatment. Little information exists on the severity of pain in the latter stages of orthodontic treatment. In addition, no studies have investigated the role of genetic factors on pain caused by fixed appliances. Objectives: To investigate whether demographic, clinical or genetic factors are associated with the severity of pain experienced following adjustment of fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods: Eighty-two participants undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment were recruited. Baseline DNA was collected via blood or saliva samples. Immediately after bond-up or an adjustment of the fixed appliances, the participants used a smartphone app to record regular pain scores at their teeth over the following three days. Results: Pain peaked approximately 19 hours after the orthodontic adjustment, then gradually returned toward baseline levels by day three. Pain on chewing was significantly greater than the resting pain at the teeth at all time points concerned. There was a significant difference in the total amount of pain at the teeth over the three days when comparing bond-ups to no arch wire changes (with or without bends placed). Gender, age, and time in treatment were not associated with the severity of pain experienced after an orthodontic adjustment. The rs931233 SNP of the HTR2A and the rs4646310 SNP of the COMT genes were significantly associated with pain severity. Haplotypes of the COMT gene also showed promising, although non-significant associations with pain severity. Conclusions: Pain on chewing is significantly more painful compared to resting pain at the teeth after adjustment of fixed appliances. SNPs of the HTR2A and COMT gene were associated with the severity of pain following adjustment of fixed appliances. Therefore, it seems that genetic factors have a modifying effect on orthodontic pain (as is the case with many other pain conditions such as TMD, fibromyalgia, and experimental pain). Larger samples are required to investigate these associations further.

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  • Exploring the Different CaMKII Isoforms in the Vasculature

    Jagau, Kevin (2017)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Coronary artery disease continues to be the leading cause of mortality in the world and a major source of disability, particularly for the aged population. The presence of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis is a predisposition to life threatening events such as acute myocardial infarctions and strokes. Whilst the current best treatment is the use of statins, they still hold a significant residual cardiovascular risk. 1 in 4 people on statins still die as a result of cardiovascular disease, therefore there is much potential for supplementary treatments. Previous work in the Heather Lab has shown that the inhibition of the enzyme calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase 2 (CaMKII) through the administration of KN-93 reduces the atherosclerotic lesion size in ApoE-/- mice. The results of this study show the involvement of CaMKII in atherosclerosis, and thereby a potential target for treatment. Pathologies occurring in the vasculature such as atherosclerosis are characterised by endothelial dysfunction and increased migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Different isoforms of CaMKII has emerged to play a role in the regulation of vascular homeostasis, namely the delta and gamma isoforms. Studies in rats using balloon angioplasty have shown that the CaMKII delta isoform is associated with adverse migration and proliferation of VSMC, whilst CaMKII gamma isoform is associated with decreased VSMC migration and proliferation. Determining which CaMKII isoforms are present in ApoE-/- mice, and their expression pattern during the development of atherosclerosis remains an active field of research, and will lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of atherosclerosis. It was hypothesised that as atherosclerosis progresses, the CaMKII delta isoform would both increase at the mRNA and protein level, whilst the CaMKII gamma isoform would decrease in the mouse aorta. To test this hypothesis, 13, 16 and 20 week old ApoE-/- mice had their whole aorta extracted and analysed for CaMKII protein and mRNA expression. The expression of protein and mRNA of both CaMKII delta and CaMKII gamma was also explored in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) and human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC). It was hypothesised that there are differences in CaMKII isoform expression among the different human cell types of HUVEC, HCAEC and HCASMC.

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  • Determining the best combination of TLR Agonist and Tumour Peptide for Cancer Vaccination

    Gaskarth, Douglas (2017)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Immunotherapy has revolutionised the treatment of cancer in recent years; significantly improving patient response and long-term survival. Though many immunotherapies focus on increasing the effector function of immune cells, the ability to generate and stimulate new tumour-specific immune cells has become an important topic for patients who do not respond to first line therapy. Previous work in our laboratory identified that intracellularly reversible conjugation of mode antigen ‘Ovalbumin’(OVA) to CpG B adjuvant improves the tumour specific response both in terms of immune cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine release, leading to complete tumour clearance in mice. This year I aimed to repeat this using the clinically significant melanoma antigen ‘gp100’ instead of OVA and to compare the use of CpG B adjuvant to CpG C adjuvant, which stimulates additional cytokine release, in the conjugate vaccine model. Using a combination of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and cell culture, conjugates were produced and tested on their ability to activate Dendritic cells, induce their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and induce T cell response in co-culture. Purification of gp100 conjugates was unsuccessful via RP-HPLC and testing reverted to the OVA model when comparing CpG conjugates. In antigen presenting cells, both conjugates induced similar levels of activation and antigen presentation but had unique cytokine profiles, with both conjugates trending towards higher levels of IL-1β and IL-12p70. Both CpG B-OVA and CpG C-OVA conjugates also induced a strong tumour-specific response with increased CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation and significantly increased CD8+ T cell IFN-γ secretion. With these results in mind, both conjugates appear as strong candidates for therapeutic vaccination trials as either a monotherapy or a combined therapy with Checkpoint Blockade or Adoptive T Cell Therapy. In vivo testing using the CpG C construct is needed to assess its efficacy over CpG B.

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  • Seallagain: Gaelic Grammar at a Glance

    Parsons, Catrìona NicÌomhair (2016)

    Book
    University of Otago

    A native Gaelic speaker born in the Isle of Lewis and a graduate of Edinburgh University, Scotland, Catrìona NicÌomhair Parsons has been involved in the teaching of Gaelic language and song in North America for decades. For thirty summers, she taught Scottish Gaelic at the Gaelic College, St. Ann’s, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, where she was commissioned to prepare Gàidhlig troimh Chòmhradh, a Gaelic course in three volumes with recorded text. For many years, she taught in the Celtic Studies Department of St. Francis Xavier University, Nova Scotia; after retiring, she spent six years working for the newly constituted Nova Scotia Office of Gaelic Affairs. She has written well over a hundred Gaelic-English articles for local newspapers. Her poetry has been published in Scottish Gaelic periodicals GAIRM and GATH, and she has produced her solo CD of Gaelic songs entitled “Eileanan mo Ghaoil” in tribute both to Cape Breton and Lewis. From Seattle, Washington, to Grandfather Mountain, North Carolina; from Toronto to Nova Scotia, Canada; from Sydney, Australia, to Dunedin, New Zealand, Catrìona has been privileged to share her beloved language and culture with motivated students, many of whom are now instructors themselves. This, her most recent work, is a synthesis of all of the grammatical insights garnered from decades of experience teaching Scottish Gaelic to learners around the world. It clearly demonstrates in easy-to-read chapters, tables, and examples how the Gaelic language is structured. Rules, forms, pronunciation, and a host of other issues are all logically and systematically explained. Furthermore, this book can act as a handy reference for either the beginner or native speaker.

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  • The effect of a diet moderately high in protein and fiber on insulin sensitivity measured using the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST)

    Te Morenga, Lisa; Docherty, Paul; Williams, Sheila; Mann, Jim (2017-11-08)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This paper is a version chapter from a PhD thesis (Te Morenga, L. A. (2010). The effects of altering macronutrient composition on diabetes risk (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy). University of Otago. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10523/439) and as such has been externally reviewed by experts in the field. It is currently under peer review.

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  • Herr Daniel Bandmann and Shakespeare vs the World

    Warrington, Lisa (2016-12-27)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    German actor Daniel Bandmann played his first Hamlet at the age of 20, and made his English language debut as Shylock in New York, 1863. In his prime, he performed extensively in America, Great Britain, Australia, and New Zealand, amongst other countries. Though he played roles which ranged from Narcisse and the Corsican twins to Jekyll and Hyde, he was perhaps most closely identified with a handful of Shakespearean roles: Hamlet, Shylock, Macbeth, Othello, Iago. His apparently ungovernable temper led to a love/hate relationship with the critics, played out in public through the newspapers. His responses to criticism open a window into his playing of these roles. This paper examines Bandmann’s acting in the role of Hamlet and the critical interchanges he engaged in around the world, as an exemplar of the interaction of theatre and the global media.

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