85,985 results

  • What people think about medicines : the relationship between medication beliefs and adherence to antidepressant therapy : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University

    Russell, Judith Catherine

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Major depressive disorder is a common mental disorder seen in primary care and treatment with antidepressant medication has been shown to be an effective treatment. Non-adherence to treatment regimens is considered by many to be the most serious challenge facing medical practice today. Research on medication adherence has more recently shifted its focus to the cognitive factors (i.e., patient beliefs) that determine adherence. Prior research has shown that pre-treatment perception of benefits and barriers to medication predict initial medication adherence. To contribute to this emerging literature, the present study assessed 85 depressed primary care patients about their beliefs in the necessity for and concerns about antidepressant therapy, and reported adherence using validated questionnaires (BMQ, Home, Weinman, & Hankins, 1999; MARS. Home & Weinman, 2002). The results of the present study showed no relationship between patient beliefs about the necessity of antidepressant therapy for their health and reported adherence. As predicted, participants holding stronger concerns about the potential adverse effects of the medication and stronger necessity beliefs, compared to concerns beliefs, reported increased rates of adherence. Depression severity was found to be associated with reported adherence, but was independent of the relationship between medication concerns and adherence. The present study replicated previous research and added further support for the theoretical basis of medication adherence by showing that there are similar theoretically based, determinants of adherence among patients with chronic physical health issues and those with mental health issues.

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  • Why is there an athema in mathematics? : a philosophical investigation in mathematics education : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Education at Massey University

    Barton, William David

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Original Copy has markings

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  • What nurses understand by the term evidence-based practice, and how it shapes their clinical decision making : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education in Adult Education at Massey University

    Wilson, Mary Anne Thomson

    Thesis
    Massey University

    There are professional and legislative expectations that nurses deliver care to their patients' that is evidence-based. Previous research findings have indicated nurses do not value research in the clinical setting, yet believed they deliver evidence-based practice. This study explores what practising nurses understand by the term evidence-based practice and how it shapes their clinical decision making. There was interest in the individual nurses' experiences and interpretations, as well as their preparation for practice. Contextual influences were also a focus, to give insight into influences that might affect the delivery of evidence-based practice. A qualitative interpretive research approach was used, and implemented using a naturalistic paradigm. Case Study methodology, using complexity theory, provided the theoretical framework to explore contextual variables that might affect the delivery of evidence-based practice. Relationships, interdependencies and interconnections became the focus to allow a depth to the inquiry and understanding of the case. A review of the literature, focus group and semi-structured interviews (n=10). provided the source of data collection, and were completed during 2006. Despite evidence-based practice being a professional and legislative requirement of the practising nurse, there remains a significant gap between what the professional and legislative documents state and the reality of clinical practice. The extent to which evidence-based practice is delivered within the case is based on the extent to which evidence is incorporated in policy statements. There are concerns associated with education, organisational culture, and contextual variables which impede the delivery of evidence-based practice. Existing skill levels are variable, and there is potential to encourage individual creativity and contribution, but there are significant skill deficits which need to be addressed Findings confirm progress is being made, but also reinforce the need for further education review and support, and a culture 'makeover' in some contexts within the case to advance the evidence-based practice agenda.

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  • Adaptation to an MCFA-rich diet : effect on gastric tolerance, the capacity for MCFA oxidation, and performance while ingesting exogenous carbohydrate and structured oils during endurance exercise : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Sport Science at Massey University

    Thorburn, Megan

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Introduction: Elevating the availability of fatty-acids to the muscle can potentially benefit endurance exercise performance by reducing intramuscular-glycogen utilisation. Digestion of triglycerides containing long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) is slow, and fatty acids must pass through the carnitine palmityl transferase (CPT) transport system to enter the mitochondria, which potentially limits fat oxidation during prolonged-heavy exercise. Conversely, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are rapidly digested and their constituent fatty acids (MCFAs) by-pass the CPT transport system. Ingestion of MCFAs may therefore supply mitochondrial acetyl-CoA, potentially reducing the requirement for glycolytic flux during exercise. However, studies comparing carbohydrate (CHO) with CHO-containing MCFA-rich exercise supplements have revealed inconsistent results, probably because of the variation in gastrointestinal (GI) distress suffered by participants associated with MCT ingestion. Purpose: To investigate whether 2-weeks of dietary adaptation to MCFA-rich supplements reduces the severity of gastrointestinal (Gl) distress, or increases the rate of MCFA oxidation during endurance exercise. A decrease in ratings of GI distress, or an increase in MCFA oxidation was anticipated to lead to performance benefits. Method: Nine well-trained male endurance cyclists participated in a double-blind, pseudo-randomised. triple-crossover protocol. Participants were 37 ± 7.26 years, 81.36 ± 7.67 kg. training at least 8-10 h per week and riding competitively. Mean VO2 max and peak power output (PPO) were 4.84 ± 0.46 L-min-1 and 357.33 ± 20.55 W respectively. The effects of a 2-week MCFA-rich diet +13 C-enriched MCFA+CHO exercise supplement (MC-MC) on GI distress, MCFA-oxidation rate and sprint performance variables were compared against a 2-week LCFA-rich diet with either: (a) a13 C-enriched MCFA+CHO exercise supplement (LC-MC), or (b) a CMO-only supplement (LC-CHO). Dietary and exercise MCFA-rich supplements were consumed in the form of randomised-structured triacylglycerols made with a 3:1 molar ratio of MC- and LCFAs randomly esterified to glycerol backbones. Participants followed a controlled training regime whilst on the diets. The performance test consisted of a 3-h ride at 50% PPO followed by 10 maximal sprints. At rest and every 20-min throughout the ride, participant ratings of GI and exertion sensations were recorded, followed by external respiratory-gas analysis, collection of a breath sample for breathl3 C-enrichment analysis, a venous blood sample and ingestion of a supplement. Similarly, after sprints 1, 4, 7 and 10 participants recorded their GI ratings followed by a blood sample. Results: Peak MCFA-oxidation rates were 0.38 g-min-1(95% Cl 0.31-0.47) and 0.43 g-min-1(0.30-0.61, p-value = 0.21) in the MC-MC and LC-MC conditions respectively, but there was no evidence for CHO sparing following MCFA adaptation. Participant ratings of GI distress decreased slightly during exercise with 2-weeks of a diet high in MCFAs relative to LCFAs. Ratings of reflux, bloatedness, nausea, and urge to vomit were, respectively, 1.34 (0.88-3.14), 1.03 (0.74-2.27), 0.81 (0.62-1.69) and 0.93 (0.64-245) scale units lower in the MC-MC condition relative to LC-MC. The attenuation in GI distress corresponded with a tendency toward increased sprint mean power, which was 3.4% (± 5.9%, 0.25) higher in the MC-MC condition relative to LC-MC. However, sprint mean power was still lower in both the MC-MC (6.8% ± 2.8%, <0.0001) and LC-MC (10.4% ± 5.5%, 0.0004) conditions relative to LC-CHO. Mechanism covariate analysis illustrated a negative effect of the GI distress marker nausea on sprint performance. For every 1 unit increase in nausea for the MC-MC and LC- MC conditions, sprint power decreased by 6 W (± 3.8,0.004) relative to LC-CHO. Conclusion: No clear metabolic adaptation was evident with high dietary MCFA relative to LCFA. In addition, MCFA-rich exercise supplements caused a decrement in performance relative to CHO ingestion in both MC-MC and LC-MC conditions, suggesting that light- moderate GI distress still causes substantial performance detriments. There was little evidence to support the ingestion of randomised structured triglycerides high in MCFA with the intention of enhancing endurance performance.

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  • Autonomous anthromorphic robotic system with low-cost colour sensors to monitor plant growth in a laboratory

    Sen Gupta, G; Seelye, M; Seelye, J; Bailey, D

    Book item
    Massey University

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  • Agriculture modern apprentices : factors affecting completion : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education in Adult Education at Massey University

    Jackson, Bev

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The Modern Apprentice Programme was introduced in 2001 to help target employment opportunities for young people in positions within industries giving them opportunities to gain industry-recognised national qualifications in a supported environment. This Programme was targeted at young people aged 16 to 21 years with guidance and support being provided by Modern Apprenticeships Coordinators (MAC) appointed by the different industries they represented. This research set out to identify the ways this scheme has assisted trainees within the Dairy Industry to achieve their goals, to identify what worked and what didn't, from the Modern Apprentices' (MA) point of view, the Employers and the Training Advisers (TA).

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  • An analysis of the factors affecting customer commitment in a New Zealand financial institution : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Statistics at Massey University

    Blayney, Helen

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis presents the results of the analysis of data collected in a postal and email survey of personal customers of the financial institution. The objective of the research is to identify various variables, which are significant in predicting commitment of a customer to their principal financial institution and to ascertain if the life stage variables contribute to the level of commitment. Two surveys to groups of personal customers a year apart provided data for analysis. The results indicate that the variables that contribute most to predicting commitment include the life stage variables. The results also point to the existence of quite different affective response rates for those customers who received an email questionnaire. No significant difference in commitment level was identified for customers common to both surveys. Although these results represent a somewhat preliminary analysis of the influence of life stage on commitment level, they do indicate that there is much to be learned about this relationship.

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  • Adaptability of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes to some New Zealand environments : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Plant Science at Massey University

    De Silva, Handunnethi Nihal

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Seven safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes were grown at three sites (Massey, Aorangi and Flockhouse) in the Manawatu area in years 1978 and 1979. Three additional genotypes from the world germplasm collection were included in the study in 1979. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. The safflower genotypes were evaluated with respect to several morphological traits, and some important agronomic traits, such as yield, % oil content, % hull content and susceptibility to head rot disease. Data collected on seven safflower genotypes were analysed as a combined experiment with 3 sites and 2 years (Expt. I). The data available on 10 genotypes in 1979 were analysed separately with respect to ten important characters (Expt. II). Of the 23 characters studied in Expt. I, the genotypic variance component (σ2G) was significant only for the following 6 characters: mid stem leaf length, primary head diameter, involucral bract length and length/width, bract spine index and susceptibility to head rot disease. The addition of 3 genotypes in Expt. II had a marked effect on the magnitude σ2G component. Of the environmental components, site x year interaction effect was the most significant for the majority of traits. Most of the characters studied in Expt. I showed significant genotype x environment interactions, and in most instances the second order interaction of genotype x site x year being highly significant. Adaptation analyses were performed following procedures of Finlay and Wilkinson (1963). The genotypes Leed and Dart with adaptation coefficients 1.52 and 1.75 respectively were specifically adapted to favourable environments with respect to yield. Cultivar 0-22 and Rio showed general adaptability to the same trait. For % oil content all genotypes except Rio showed general adaptability. Cultivar Rio was slightly specifically adapted to favourable environments. Two forms of broad sense heritabilities (full and restricted) were estimated. In Expt. I, relatively high restricted heritability estimates were obtained for the following traits: leaf length, primary head diameter, bract length and length/width, spine index and susceptibility to head rot disease. The heritability estimates obtained in Expt. II were higher than Expt. I, due to the additional genetic variability in the population. Of the additional traits studied in Expt. II, lodging and susceptibility to leaf spot disease, showed high heritability estimates. Resistances to two fungal diseases - head rot (Botrytis cinerea Pers.) and leaf spot (Stemphylium/Alternaria species) - were assessed in field conditions. The leaf spot disease was detected only in the second year of this study. The cultivars VFSTP-1 and Partial-hull were highly susceptible to head rot disease. The two genotypes from safflower germplasm collection, PI 262437 and PI 306684 had considerable tolerance to leaf spot disease. The optimum plot allocation study indicated that, disregarding costs, an allocation of 2 years, 4 sites and 2 replications would be more efficient than the present allocation. There was no significant correlation between spininess and bird damage. The % oil content and % hull content were negatively correlated at both phenotypic and genotypic levels. Susceptibility to the two diseases were negatively correlated with yield. The susceptibility to head rot disease also showed a significant negative correlation with the % oil content.

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  • Confiscation of Terrorist Funds: Can the EU Be a Useful Model for ASEAN?

    Tofangsaz, Hamed (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The counter-terrorist financing regime has been developed and diffused rapidly since the 9/11 attacks. The two central components of the regime are criminalization of acts of financing and confiscation of terrorist funds. These measures, which duplicate US laws on terrorist financing, have been designed to impose liability on, and confiscate assets and property of, those who finance or associate with terrorism regardless of whether there is a link between their act of financing or associating and a terrorist act. In the absence of such connection between the offense of terrorist financing and its subsequent crime of terrorism, a question arises: What is the legal basis for imposing liability on suspected financers and confiscating their assets and property? This ambiguity has never been properly addressed by the creators of the regime or by those who promote the regime. This paper explores whether and how this ambiguity has been addressed at the regional level among the Member States of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) where the agenda of countering terrorism has been largely shaped by external actors, mainly the Western states and international organizations established and controlled by them. Considering the fact that counter-terrorism has entered the agenda in the political dialogue between the EU and ASEAN, it is worth examining whether EU laws and policies on terrorist financing offer themselves as a model for ASEAN to emulate. The paper concludes that the EU, a value-based community, has failed to deal with the issue of terrorist financing effectively. This has resulted in draconian and unjustified overreach of the forfeiture laws and policies which, in many ways, are inconsistent with the rule of law, human rights, democratic values and good governance.

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  • Converting community knowledge into catchment nutrient limits: A constructivist analysis of a New Zealand collaborative approach to water management

    Duncan, Ronlyn

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The question posed in this article is how shifts in governance ushered in by the sustainability paradigm are reshaping knowledge governance. Drawing on constructivist theories of knowledge, I examine the tension between the sustainability mandate to open up knowledge making to local knowledge, and conventional science policy practice that would see it excluded. I present a water management case study from New Zealand's South Island region of Canterbury, where communities are involved in establishing catchment nutrient limits to manage land use and water quality. It is concluded that although local knowledge was embraced within the knowledge-making process, the pursuit of epistemic authority led to its recalibration, aggregation, and standardization. As such, it was stripped of its complexity. This research highlights the role of politics in anchoring the linear knowledge governance model in place and the challenge for supplanting it.

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  • Investigating the consequences of trimming and crop removal on soluble solids and titratable acidity for Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir

    Parker, Amber; Hofmann, Rainer; van Leeuwen, C.; McLachlan, A. R. G.; Trought, M. C. T.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Trimming vines and crop removal are vineyard management practices grapegrowers use to manage yield, control vegetative growth and vigour. However, these techniques may impact on berry composition at harvest. Trimming and crop removal alter the source-sink balance of the vine: trimming removes leaves, reduces the source of photosynthates needed for berry ripening, while removing crop reduces the sink demand for photosynthates and other assimilates. Grape composition at harvest is a result of an accumulation or decrease in berry components throughout the ripening phase. It is important, therefore, to understand how trimming and crop removal alter the development of berry ripening. The time of trimming or crop removal may also influence the outcome. For example, lower total soluble solids (TSS) at harvest may be due to a slower rate of TSS accumulation, a delay in the start of ripening or both. Would trimming at veraison have the same effect and are other components such as titratable acidity also altered in the berry?

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  • Interlocking directorship in New Zealand

    Roudaki, Jamal; Bhuiyan, M. B. U.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The aim of this research is to identify the determinants and consequences of interlocking board membership in New Zealand and whether this interlocking affects the firm performance. This research used a sample of 276 firm years and 1,783 directors from New Zealand listed companies. A two-fold approach analysing the overlap of directors’ names, boards, and company levels was used. This research finds that New Zealand firms are highly interlocked. While concentrated ownership firms react negatively to interlocking, this research finds that interlocking is negatively impacting firm performance in New Zealand. This research also finds that New Zealand firms were significantly interlocked under both approaches, which resulted in negative firm performance. This study has wide application to the New Zealand Financial Market Authority and Institute of Directors New Zealand to evidence the possible effects of directors of being involved (“busy”) in more than one company at the same time. This is the first paper on firm and board interlocking based on New Zealand stock exchange data following the corporate governance best practice code 2004 regime which identified both the determinants and consequences of interlocking.

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  • Responses to pest control in Nelson beech forests.

    Whitau, Kelly Rebecca (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Being responsible for some of the greatest losses to native biodiversity in New Zealand, brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), stoats (Mustela erminea) and ship rats (Rattus rattus) are the main targets of predator control. The common methods used to control these species include trapping, poison bait stations, and aerially applied sodium fluoroacetate (1080). In New Zealand beech (Nothofagus spp.) forests, the outcome of predator control operations can be difficult to predict due to species interactions, variation in beech seedfall, and altitude. The objective of my study was to determine the effect of different pest control methods (trapping, and poisoning with diphacinone, pindone or 1080, both ground based and aerial) on ship rat and common forest bird populations, particularly how these effects are influenced by altitudinal gradients and beech masting events. This study used long-term tracking tunnel and five-minute bird count (5MBC) data from areas of beech forest at six treatment and one non-treatment sites in Kahurangi and Nelson Lakes National Parks, South Island, New Zealand. The monitoring data were collected at a range of altitudes and time spans over the course of 14 years (2002-2015), spanning a range in beech seedfall levels including several high-seed years, and an altitudinal range of 600-1450 m a.s.l. The only pest control method analysed here that effectively reduced ship rat abundance was 1080 application. The efficacy of 1080 was not affected by beech seedfall levels but was reduced with altitude since ship rat abundance is greatly reduced above 1000 m a.s.l. The 12 most common bird species detected across all sites included four introduced and eight native species. Most native bird species showed significant declines in response to increased ship rat abundance, and the effect of this was reduced with altitude, indicating that high altitude is a refuge for native birds to escape predation. This study also found evidence for mesopredator release of ship rats following stoat control, and for competition between native and introduced bird species; however both of these findings require further study. Analysis of the long-term data sets confirmed some findings from previous studies but found contrary results to others, which indicated important avenues for future research. This study also highlights the importance of long-term data sets and applying pest control treatments in a standardized way that allows us to optimize methods to manage introduced species for native species conservation.

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  • Trace elements in Christchurch road dust

    Sampson, Christopher (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Trace elements in road dust were measured from 30 sites across Christchurch over a 7 month sampling programme. Concentrations of all trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn) in road dust were lower than previously reported in New Zealand or international studies. For most elements there was no relationship between road dust concentration and traffic, age or weather, nor any temporal trends. Most trace elements were identified as being largely vehicle-derived. Zinc concentrations were greater in industrial/commercial sites compared to residential sites (p<0.05). Trace element concentrations were significantly greater in the 63 μm fraction compared to the 2 mm fraction. Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations were all significantly enriched compared to background soil concentrations. Four methods for extracting platinum group elements were trialled, with the aqua regia digestion the most successful are determining platinum concentrations. Platinum is emitted as relatively large particulates into road dust, resulting in poor homogeneity. Rainwater and stream water leaches identified limited solubility for trace elements in road dust, leaving accumulation in waterway sediments as the most likely environmental fate. Copper, lead and zinc concentrations in road dust from the majority of sites were high enough to result in sediment exceeding ANZECC guidelines. These elements were also the most bioavailable as assessed using a 1 M HCl leach. Copper, lead and zinc concentrations in road dust therefore could pose a risk to benthic organisms in Christchurch waterways.

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  • Regulation of the CD36 scavenger receptor by the antioxidant 7,8-dihydroneopterin.

    Yeandle, Anthony (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    OxLDL uptake via the CD36 scavenger receptor leads to foam cell formation and is at the core of the development of atherosclerosis. One potential protective mechanism against this process involves the human macrophage derived anti-oxidant 7,8-dihydroneopterin (7,8-NP) down regulating CD36. This study characterised CD36 down regulation in the U937 monocyte-like cell line, and examined a mechanism of action involving MAP kinase mediated control of the PPARγ transcription factor. Western blot analysis showed that in U937 cells 7,8-NP concentrations up to 150μM down regulated CD36 to ~40% of basal levels over 24 hours. The effect seen here was stronger than that previously observed with human monocyte derived macrophages (HMDM). The oxidised product of 7,8-NP, neopterin, had no significant effect. CD36 levels were able to recover after down regulation and neared control levels 24 hours after 7,8-NP removal. CD36 protein levels were found to be under control of PPARγ and it was shown that 7,8-NP likely only has its effect at the transcriptional level, and did not enhance the proteolytic removal of CD36. PPARγ contains a MAP kinase binding site which when phosphorylated prevents the transcription of CD36. Co-incubation of selective MAP kinase inhibitors SP600125 (JNK) and PD98059 (ERK1/2) with 7,8-NP failed to block CD36 down regulation. The effect of p38 and NF-κB signalling in CD36 down regulation was additionally explored using their inhibitors (SB202190 and BAY 11-7082 respectively), but likewise did not block 7,8-NP’s effect. The results confirm that in the U937 cell line 7,8-NP can decrease the levels of CD36, and that a regulatory pathway involving PPARγ is likely. It is also shown that 7,8-NPs mechanism of action does not involve the activation of a MAP kinase cascade phosphorylating PPARγ. This points towards a different mechanism of action, possibly involving PPARγ’s lipid ligand binding site.

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  • "Once you move, it's a different story" : the meaning of home for 1.5 generation Afghan women of refuge background living in Christchurch, New Zealand..

    Habte, Miron Tsehaye (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    While some scholarship on refugee youth has focussed on leaving a place that is typically considered ‘home,’ there has been little attention to what ‘home’ means to them and how this is negotiated in the country of (re)settlement. This is particularly the case for girls and women. New Zealand research on refugee settlement has largely focussed on the economic integration of refugees. Although this research is essential, it runs the risk of overlooking the socio-cultural aspects of the resettlement experiences and renders partial our understanding of how particular generations and ethnic groups develop a sense of belonging to their adopted homeland. In order to address these research gaps, this thesis explores the experiences of 12 Afghan women, aged 19-29 years, of refugee background who relocated to Christchurch, New Zealand, during their childhood and early teenage years. This study employed semi-structured, one-to-one, in-depth interviews and photo-elicitation to encourage talk about participants’ experiences of leaving Afghanistan, often living in countries of protracted displacement (Iran and/or Pakistan) and making- and being-at-home in New Zealand. In this thesis, I explore the ways in which they frame Afghanistan, and the ways in which their experiences in Iran and Pakistan disrupt the dichotomisation of belonging in terms of ‘here’ (ancestral land) and ‘there’ (country of residence). Furthermore, I use affect theorising to analyse the participants’ expressions of resettlement and home in New Zealand. Feeling at home is as much about negotiating cultural and gendered identities in Western secular societies as it is about belonging to a particular community. Through their experiences of ‘living in two worlds’, the participants are able to strategically challenge cultural expectations without undermining their reputations as Muslims and as Afghan women. The participants discussed their emotional responses to double-displacement: one as a result of war and the other as a result of 2011 Canterbury earthquakes. Therefore, I suggest that for young Afghan women, Afghanistan was among several markers of home in a long embodied journey of (re)settlement.

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  • Eutrophication in Ugandan crater lakes: a case study of six crater lakes located in Kabarole district Western Uganda

    Busobozi, Emmanuel (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Volcanic crater lakes in Western Uganda are a significant natural resource to different societal segments. To the local people, the crater lakes provide a source of livelihood, to the Ugandan government the lakes are a boost to the tourism industry, to researchers, the crater lakes play an important role in studies of comparative limnology and, on a global scale, the Western Uganda volcanic crater lakes are heritage sites to be preserved. Despite their numerous values, the crater lakes continue to experience eutrophication challenges largely due to ecosystem disturbance from human activities around the crater lakes themselves and in their entire catchments, but also due to some natural causes. The rationale for this study was to evaluate eutrophication in the crater lakes through water quality assessment of six freshwater crater lakes. The evaluation is based on the common trophic state variables; chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), and Secchi depth (SD). Other related physicochemical variables were measured both on site and through laboratory experiments. Eutrophication is associated with phytoplankton growth, especially blue-green algae, and as a result, cyanobacterial compositions were also examined. Trophic state evaluation of the crater lakes was based on the trophic level index (TLI) approach, using the New Zealand TLI system as a base example. The use of the New Zealand TLI system was primarily aimed at testing whether TLI systems developed from other regions can be used to monitor Ugandan crater lakes and, secondly to gain an insight of the systematic similarities and differences between Ugandan crater lakes and New Zealand lakes. Linear relationships between log-transformed chlorophyll-a and other TLI variables suggested that in the Ugandan crater lakes, total nitrogen and Secchi depth are good proxies for chlorophyll-a whereas total phosphorus is less, suggesting that crater lakes may be nitrogen limited. When the variables were converted into TLI sub-indices, using the New Zealand system, linear regressions of TLc (Chl-a) against TLs (Secchi depth) showed the same relationship between chlorophyll-a and Secchi depth in the crater lakes as in New Zealand model. However, TLn consistently under-predicted TLc with the New Zealand model suggesting that Ugandan crater lakes produce chlorophyll-a for less nitrogen. TLc and TLp (TP) showed a weak relationship. Generally, the New Zealand TLI system characterises Ugandan crater lakes from a mesotrophic to hypertrophic state, but, the results are not accurate due to lack of similarity among calculated parametric sub-indices. The inaccuracy is attributed to differences in the systematic functioning between Ugandan crater lakes and New Zealand lakes noted above such as predominant nitrogen limitation, high chlorophyll-a synthesis, and a low Chl-a: TN ratio in the crater lakes. To address the mismatch in the parametric sub-indices, the New Zealand TLI model has been used to formulate a TLI system that is specific to Ugandan crater lakes which increased the similarity in computed TLI sub-indices. The new TLI system improved on the accuracy trophic state estimations and showed that crater lakes range from mesotrophic to hypertrophic state. Crater lakes with a trophic state above mesotrophic are characterised by extensive catchment modification through agriculture and human settlement. Modified catchments generate nutrients from agricultural activities, such as fertiliser use and farm waste, in addition to household and institutional faecal treatment systems, such as unlined pit latrines and septic tanks. All nutrients generated have the potential to be transported into crater lakes through various pathways. To address the challenge of eutrophication in Ugandan crater lakes, a suitable monitoring programme, such as trophic level index system, should be adopted as the foundation for effective crater lake management. This will also provide a baseline to develop effective nutrient control strategies for craters lakes catchments.

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  • A case study on the impacts of lawn maintenance activities on Christchurch’s urban forest

    Morgenroth JA; Cadwallader, B; Santos, B (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Effect of a cement-lignin agent on the shear behavior of Shanghai dredged marine soils

    Liu W; Chen Q; Chiaro G; Jiang H (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    With the rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China, suitable fill materials have been reported to be in great shortage in recent years. A prospective solution to these issues is to convert the huge amount of existing dredged marine soils to construction materials via solidification. However, there have been no studies on the shear behavior of the SDMs from Shanghai region so far, while it has been reported by many other researchers that the available data obtained from certain types of clay cannot be confidently and readily applied to other types of soils. To address this challenging issue, in this paper, samples of Shanghai marine dredged soils were retrieved from the world’s largest reclamation project in Shanghai Lin-gang New City. A series of laboratory tests have been conducted to investigate the shear behavior of Shanghai dredged marine soils solidified using a new composite curing agent (PM) made of cement and lignin. The test results and the effect of this cement-lignin agent on the shear behaviour of Shanghai marine soils, including the stress-strain behavior, shear strength properties and failure characteristics has been presented and discussed, which can provide valuable reference for the use of dredged soils as construction materials in the Shanghai region.

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  • Relayer-Enabled Retransmission Scheduling in 802.15.4e LLDN -- Exploring a Reinforcement Learning Approach

    Willig A; Matusovsky Y; Kind A (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    We consider the scheduling of retransmissions in the low-latency deterministic network (LLDN) extension to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. We propose a number of retransmission schemes with varying degrees of required changes to the LLDN specification. In particular, we propose a retransmission scheme that uses cooperative relayers and where the best relayer for a source node is learned using a reinforcement-learning method. The method allows for adapting relayer selections in the face of time-varying channels. Our results show that the relayer-based methods achieve a much better reliability over the other methods, both over static (but unknown) and over time-varying channels.

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