89,483 results

  • Happiness, subjective well-being and quality of life

    Medvedev, Oleg; Landhuis, E (8 Jun 2013)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Existing definitions of happiness, subjective well-being, and quality of life suggest conceptual overlap between these constructs. The current paper addresses the call for empirical data initiated by Camfield & Skevington (2008) in order to verify these relationships. In the study 180 university students completed the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, the World Health Organisation Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Satisfaction with Life and the Positive and Negative Affect Scales. The results show that all well-being measures have high loadings on the single well-being factor that explains 83% of variance in both the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire and the psychological domain of Quality of Life. Strong correlations were found between happiness, psychological and health domains of quality of life, life satisfaction, and positive affect. Together these data suggest a general well-being factor that can be measured using different approaches and support interchangeable use of terms happiness, subjective well-being and psychological well-being.

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  • Distribution of the likelihood ratio in fermi gamma ray models

    Roberts, Benjamin (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Gamma rays, the highest frequency component of the electromagnetic spectrum, are produced by the highest energy objects in the universe. The list of sources includes pulsars, active galactic nuclei, cosmic ray interactions, and as some have suggested dark matter. The Fermi Large Area Telescope was launched into orbit in 2008 to collect all-sky gamma ray data to investigate the mechanisms and sources that generate these particles. Models are fit to the data through the use of the maximum likelihood method, in which a statistical algorithm finds the most likely model parameters that generated the data. When comparing two models to the same data, the likelihood ratio is developed that gives an indication as to how well the models explain the data. In some problems, particularly in the detection of point sources against a background, it is of interest to compare the best fitting model to data with and without a point source present. In this case, the likelihood ratio that is used will determine whether there is a statistically significant source present. This study will motivate the use of the test statistic and examine the asymptotic distribution of the statistic when comparing models. This will then be extended to consider a multiband analysis of data, and how the test statistic used is distributed in these cases. Using Monte Carlo techniques, the asymptotic distributions of the test statistic will be validated. This will be achieved within the FermiTools suite using the Fermi Science Support Center recommended procedures in fitting models to gamma ray data.

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  • Planning for resilient communities: and every other day: learning from the Canterbury 2010-2012 earthquake sequence

    Banwell, Karen (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    After a disaster, cities experience profound social and environmental upheaval. Current research on disasters describes this social disruption along with collective community action to provide support. Pre-existing social capital is recognised as fundamental to this observed support. This research examines the relationship between sense of place for neighbourhood, social connectedness and resilience. Canterbury residents experienced considerable and continued disruption following a large and protracted sequence of earthquakes starting in September 2010. A major aftershock on 22 February 2011 caused significant loss of life, destruction of buildings and infrastructure. Following this earthquake some suburbs of Christchurch showed strong collective action. This research examines the features of the built environment that helped to form this cooperative support. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 20 key informants followed by 38 participants from four case study suburbs. The objectives were to describe the community response of suburbs, to identify the key features of the built environment and the role of social infrastructure in fostering social connectedness. The last objective was to contribute to future planning for community resilience. The findings from this research indicated that social capital and community competence are significant resources to be called upon after a disaster. Features of the local environment facilitated the formation of neighbourhood connections that enabled participants to cope, manage and to collectively solve problems. These features also strengthened a sense of belonging and attachment to the home territory. Propinquity was important; the bumping and gathering places such as schools, small local shops and parks provided the common ground for meaningful pre-existing local interaction. Well-defined geography, intimate street typology, access to quality natural space and social infrastructure helped to build the local social connections and develop a sense of place. Resourceful individuals and groups were also a factor, and many are drawn to live near the inner city or more natural places. The features are the same well understood attributes that contribute to health and wellbeing. The policy and planning framework needs to consider broader social outcomes, including resilience in new and existing urban developments. The socio-political structures that provide access to secure and stable housing and local education should also be recognised and incorporated into local planning for resilience and the everyday.

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  • Respiratory mechanics and patient effort in mechanical ventilation

    Redmond, Daniel Paul (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Positive pressure mechanical ventilation is a crucial therapy for patients with respiratory failure in the intensive care unit. The progression of disease and condition of the lung both influence mechanical behaviour of the respiratory system. Guiding mechanical ventilation treatment with respiratory mechanics allows a patient-specific approach to treatment, which can lead to improved alveolar recruitment, less ventilator induced lung injury and improved patient outcomes. Mathematical models of respiratory mechanics that can integrate this data into real-time, patient-specific respiratory mechanics parameters to monitor and guide treatment. Thus mathematical models can play an increasingly necessary role in implementing patient-specific mechanical ventilation therapy. This research tests and optimises respiratory mechanics models across a range of clinical data, predominantly from the pilot phase of the Clinical Utilisation of Respiratory Elastance (CURE) trials. A key issues in any such models is the trade-off of elastance and resistance, where poor models of resistance skew the results and utility of elastance and estimate and make the model unusable. This research presents a model that allows resistance to vary linearly with pressure. It offers similar performance to a more complex viscoelastic model in increasingly common pressure support modes, and improvements in volume control modes of ventilation. The variable resistance model suggests that resistance increases with pressure during inspiration. Existing models for respiratory mechanics do not perform well in the presence of patient effort. However, patient effort is increasingly common in the increasingly preferred ventilation support modes. Patient effort can be measured, but adds significant invasiveness and cost, and this is not clinically feasible. This research explores the impact of patient effort on respiratory mechanics, and how to maintain stable and accurate estimations of respiratory mechanics when patient effort is unknown, variable in time and effort, and significantly affects identified model results. A pressure reconstruction algorithm, and a polynomial model of patient effort are developed to allow stable estimations of respiratory mechanics in the presence of patient effort. A comparison of five different models and reconstruction methods tests their ability to provide consistent and correct estimates of respiratory mechanics in different volume control datasets with and without patient effort. An iterative pressure reconstruction method combined with stacking of small groups of reconstructed breaths in moving windows is shown to be the best method for consistent and accurate respiratory mechanics estimation. Methods are also presented for automated asynchrony detection, and while they achieve promising results, there is need for more accuracy before they are clinically useful. In particular it is difficult for automated methods of monitoring asynchronous patient effort to be highly accurate, and there is a need for a broader set of patient data to further develop any such methods. Overall, this thesis evaluates the ability of mathematical models to assess respiratory mechanics for monitoring and clinical decision support in mechanical ventilation, and especially addresses this issue in the presence of patient effort.

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  • Photo-Fenton catalysts supported on microporous materials for industrial pollutant oxidation

    MacDonald, Matthew (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Industrial pollution remains an issue in many parts of the world. While the problem is localised to certain areas with high densities of heavy industries, the worldwide demand for the products produced means that there is a worldwide responsibility for dealing with the pollution. As some compounds in the wastewater are difficult to treat with traditional methods, new processes must be developed to remove or degrade these pollutants. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are a promising method of wastewater treatment that utilize in situ generation of the powerful hydroxyl radical to oxidize pollutants with little to no secondary waste. A significant disadvantage to AOPs is cost, which is compounded by the need for specific reaction conditions, especially pH. Therefore, any catalyst that can widen the range of reaction conditions will help to reduce the cost and improve adoption of AOPs for recalcitrant wastewater treatment. In this work, a novel heterogenous photocatalyst was synthesized by the loading of iron onto the metal-organic framework MIL-47 to create Fe/MIL-47. An iron-zeolite Y catalyst was also synthesized following methods previously reported. These catalysts were then tested for the photo-oxidation of methylene blue, a common model pollutant dye, under UV irradiation. The Fe/MIL-47 catalyst was found to be very effective for both the decolourisation and total organic carbon (TOC) removal at low pH when compared with the iron-zeolite catalyst, with 94% colour removal and 52% TOC removal after 180 minutes for the Fe/MIL-47 catalyst and only 74% colour removal and 8% TOC removal for the Fe-zeolite Y catalyst at the same catalyst loading. The base MIL-47(V) catalyst was also tested and was found to be active for the decolourisation of methylene blue, a result in agreement with previous research that found that other metal-carboxylate frameworks were also photocatalytically active. The Fe/MIL-47 catalyst was found to only be effective over a limited pH range, and therefore a copper MIL-47 catalyst was also synthesized, with a goal of possibly creating a bimetallic catalyst with a wide effective pH range. While the Cu/MIL-47 was indeed found to be active at the higher pH that the Fe/MIL-47 was less active at, the stability of the MIL-47 support was determined to be less than what was necessary for a durable catalyst, and therefore the focus of the remaining studies was shifted to the zeolite based catalyst. While iron-zeolite Y catalysts have been used as heterogenous photocatalysts before, the potential effect of the BrØnsted acid sites on the reaction rate has not been researched. In this section of work, the effect of NH4+, Na+ and H+ in zeolite Y on photo-Fenton oxidation of formaldehyde in a batch reactor was examined. The model pollutant was changed to formaldehyde, as unlike methylene blue, formaldehyde can diffuse within the pore structure of the zeolite, helping to illuminate any effect on the oxidation reaction by the internal pore environment The catalysts were prepared by partial exchange of Fe3+, in the zeolite Y. The charge balancing cations were found to play a vital role in the photo-Fenton oxidation of formaldehyde, with the Fe/zeolite Y catalyst prepared with BrØnsted acid sites (H+) exhibiting three times the reaction rate of the NH4+ or Na+ containing catalysts at pH 7 (TOF are 10.3, 2.7 and 3.4 μmol [mol Fe s]-1, for Fe/H-Y, Fe/NH4-Y and Fe/Na-Y respectively). The results of the study into the charge balancing cations in zeolite Y, did yield an effective photocatalyst at high pH, however the effect was only observable at low catalyst loading (0.5 g L-1), and low iron loading on the catalyst (50% exchanged), limiting the maximum concentration of pollutant that could be treated. Therefore, a bimetallic copper-iron catalyst was synthesized by incipient wetness ion impregnation of zeolite Y with iron and copper ions. This FeCu-zeolite Y catalyst was then tested for the photo-oxidation of methylene blue over a range of pHs. It was found to be effective at both low pH, with 98% colour removal and 89% TOC removal, and high pH, with 99% colour removal and 79% TOC removal. The FeCu-zeolite Y catalyst was also tested under recycle and found to remain effective after 3 runs. The XRD results also showed no loss in crystallinity, indicating the catalyst support continued to be stable throughout the recycle. Collectively, these results present the attempt to create a pH insensitive heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyst. The MIL-47 based catalyst unfortunately did not have the required stability to fulfil this, however the partially exchanged zeolite Y and the bimetallic zeolite Y catalysts did allow for wider pH range photo-Fenton reactions.

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  • Mapping identity and connection : how first-time mothers make sense of premature birth

    Porter, Lauren Lindsey (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    First time motherhood in the context of premature birth is a specific experience of motherhood that has been relatively unexplored in the literature. This research examined the phenomena of meaning-making, identity formation, and relationship creation by first time mothers following “low risk” premature births. Low risk premature births are moderate and late preterm births associated with a lack of serious, persistent medical concern alongside well understood and effective medical responses. The vast majority of premature births in New Zealand occur in this category and, as with elsewhere in the world, such births are on the rise. While understudied, this subset of premature infants carry significantly more risk factors than their full term peers. Women who become mothers for the first time via the experience of premature birth must negotiate associated stresses, separations, and medical uncertainties in order to come to understand their lived experiences and evolve their identities as mothers. As with their low risk infants, exploration of the processes and perceptions of this group of mothers is underinvestigated. The research employed the qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) to analyse semi-structured interviews with 15 participant mothers. Findings were generated in response to research questions that focussed on how participants made meaning of the event of premature birth, the relationship with their infants, and their nascent identities as mothers. Three unifying superordinate themes emerged and centred upon the mothers’ unique perspectives of their maternal experience (“Little things are big things”), the maternal distress associated with premature birth (“Maternal experience”), the particular obstacles mothers faced, and the avenues they pursued in an attempt to create a sense of themselves as mothers (“How do I become a mother?”). Findings demonstrated that the identification of mothers and babies as low risk, created a paradoxical situation in which the perception that the babies were healthy and the mothers where healthy and competent actually increased the overall risk for the dyad. Furthermore, the findings suggested that mothers made meaning from within an ecological framework that was dyadic in nature. When mothers were considered outside of this dyadic maternal context—or when their infants were—surplus suffering occurred. Findings have important implications for approaches to psychosocial interventions in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), including psychological support and social work practice. When professionals are better able to see mothers’ needs where they have been previously concealed, mothers and their infants can be better served. Similarly, when professionals can understand, embrace, and respond to mothers from an awareness of dyadic ecology—what this thesis terms the “dyad-in-context”—approaches to support, advocacy, and treatment can move beyond compartmentalised medicalised approaches to more relational, responsive, authentic ways of being with mothers and their infants.

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  • A Robust Algorithm for Automated HER2 Scoring in Breast Cancer Histology Slides Using Characteristic Curves

    Mukundan R (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper presents a novel feature descriptor and classification algorithms for automated scoring of HER2 in Whole Slide Images (WSI). Since a large amount of processing is involved in analyzing WSI images, the primary design goal has been to keep the computational complexity to the minimum possible level. We propose an efficient method based on characteristic curves which encode all relevant information in a smooth polynomial curve with the percentage of stained membranes plotted against variations in intensity/saturation of the colour thresholds used for segmentation. Our algorithm performed exceedingly well at a recent online contest held by the University of Warwick [1], obtaining the second best points score of 390 out of 420 and the overall seventh position in the combined leaderboard [2]. The paper describes three classification algorithms with features extracted from characteristic curves and provides experimental results and comparative analysis

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  • Global justice awareness? The journey towards transformational learning through international volunteering

    Atkinson, Arthur Laird (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The opportunity to engage in international volunteering (IV) is a markedly privileged one that this thesis explores through the consideration of a complex range of factors and influences from the global to the personal in an effort to understand how volunteers make meaning of their experiences. IV encompasses a large range of organizations, many of which market volunteering abroad as a mutually beneficial experience for both the volunteer and the host community receiving the volunteers. Links to neocolonialism and neoliberalism, however, have illuminated ethical concerns about how transformation is experienced if host communities are used for the benefit of volunteers. This thesis undertook a mixed methods approach and analysis of three groups of volunteers: those who are currently volunteering, those who have recently returned, and those who have volunteered in years past. Through in-depth interviews and an open-ended survey, this thesis identified four phases of transformation that suggest IV can foster an awareness about global in/justice and that critical self-reflection plays a significant role. Using Mezirow’s theory of transformational learning compliments Bourdieu’s concept of habitus and embodied experience, which implies that volunteers need to be aware of their own habitus, recognizing they may contribute to both systems of injustice and justice. Using this theoretical strategy generated an account of IV as a doubled-edged sword, which signals that there is tension between personal transformation and social justice. Studying IV within a sociological context can contribute to knowledge about how IV programs are situated within a framework of service, influenced by tourism and development, and how they could be better operated within this framework to better foster volunteers’ awareness of inequality and global justice.

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  • Modelling, Speckle Simulation and Quality Evaluation of Synthetic Ultrasound Images

    Singh P; Mukundan R; de Ryke R (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Speckle noise reduction is an important area of research in the field of ultrasound image processing. Several algorithms for speckle noise characterization and analysis have been recently proposed in the area. Synthetic ultrasound images can play a key role in noise evaluation methods as they can be used to generate a variety of speckle noise models under different interpolation and sampling schemes, and can also provide valuable ground truth data for estimating the accuracy of the chosen methods. However, not much work has been done in the area of modelling synthetic ultrasound images, and in simulating speckle noise generation to get images that are as close as possible to real ultrasound images. This paper discusses these aspects, presents novel algorithms for speckle simulation and modelling based on three sampling schemes, and also evaluates the quality of the outputs using image quality metrics. Detailed experimental analysis including both quantitative and subjective assessments are also presented.

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  • Transport infrastructure performance and management in the South Island of New Zealand, during the first 100 days following the 2016 Mw 7.8 “Kaikōura” Earthquake

    Davies AJ; Sadashiva V; Aghababaei M; Barnhill D; Costello SB; Fanslow B; Headifen D; Hughes MW; Kotze R; Mackie J; Ranjitkar P; Thompson J; Troitino DR; Wilson TM; Woods S; Wotherspoon LM (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    At 00:02 on 14th November 2016, a Mw 7.8 earthquake occurred in and offshore of the northeast of the South Island of New Zealand. Fault rupture, ground shaking, liquefaction, and co-seismic landslides caused severe damage to distributed infrastructure, and particularly transportation networks; large segments of the country’s main highway, State Highway 1 (SH1), and the Main North Line (MNL) railway line, were damaged between Picton and Christchurch. The damage caused direct local impacts, including isolation of communities, and wider regional impacts, including disruption of supply chains. Adaptive measures have ensured immediate continued regional transport of goods and people. Air and sea transport increased quickly, both for emergency response and to ensure routine transport of goods. Road diversions have also allowed critical connections to remain operable. This effective response to regional transport challenges allowed Civil Defence Emergency Management to quickly prioritise access to isolated settlements, all of which had road access 23 days after the earthquake. However, 100 days after the earthquake, critical segments of SH1 and the MNL remain closed and their ongoing repairs are a serious national strategic, as well as local, concern. This paper presents the impacts on South Island transport infrastructure, and subsequent management through the emergency response and early recovery phases, during the first 100 days following the initial earthquake, and highlights lessons for transportation system resilience.

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  • What is meant by "Replication" and why does it encounter resistance in economics?

    Duvendack M; Palmer-Jones R; Reed WR (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Kids'Cam: An Objective Methodology to Study the World in Which Children Live

    Signal, LN; Smith, MB; Barr, M; Stanley, J; Chambers, TJ; Zhou, J; Duane, A; Jenkin, GLS; Pearson, AL; Gurrin, C; Smeaton, AF; Hoek, J; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona (2017-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper reports on a new methodology to objectively study the world in which children live. The primary research study (Kids'Cam Food Marketing) illustrates the method; numerous ancillary studies include exploration of children's exposure to alcohol, smoking, "blue" space and gambling, and their use of "green" space, transport, and sun protection.One hundred sixty-eight randomly selected children (aged 11-13 years) recruited from 16 randomly selected schools in Wellington, New Zealand used wearable cameras and GPS units for 4 days, recording imagery every 7 seconds and longitude/latitude locations every 5 seconds. Data were collected from July 2014 to June 2015. Analysis commenced in 2015 and is ongoing. Bespoke software was used to manually code images for variables of interest including setting, marketing media, and product category to produce variables for statistical analysis. GPS data were extracted and cleaned in ArcGIS, version 10.3 for exposure spatial analysis.Approximately 1.4 million images and 2.2 million GPS coordinates were generated (most were usable) from many settings including the difficult to measure aspects of exposures in the home, at school, and during leisure time. The method is ethical, legal, and acceptable to children and the wider community.This methodology enabled objective analysis of the world in which children live. The main arm examined the frequency and nature of children's exposure to food and beverage marketing and provided data on difficult to measure settings. The methodology will likely generate robust evidence facilitating more effective policymaking to address numerous public health concerns.

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  • Effect of a price discount and consumer education strategy on food and beverage purchases in remote Indigenous Australia: a stepped-wedge randomised controlled trial

    Brimblecombe, J; Ferguson, M; Chatfield, MD; Liberato, SC; Gunther, A; Ball, K; Moodie, M; Miles, E; Magnus, A; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Leach, AJ; Bailie, R (2017-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Evidence is mounting that price discounts can be effective in improving diet. This study examined the effectiveness of a 20% price discount on food and drink purchases with and without consumer education in remote Indigenous Australia. Methods A 20% discount on fruit, vegetables, water, and artificially sweetened soft drinks was applied for 24 weeks in 20 communities in remote Indigenous Australia where the community store was managed by the Arnhem Land Progress Aboriginal Corporation (ALPA) or Outback Stores (OBS) in a stepped-wedge randomised trial. Communities were randomly allocated to a fixed framework of five sets of four stratified by store association; ten stores (two in each set) were randomly assigned to receive consumer education. A store from each of the ALPA and OBS store groups (contained in separate opaque envelopes) was selected, and stores in turn continued to be consecutively allocated to the fixed store set framework, starting with the first store slot in the first store set, until all stores had been allocated. The effect of the discount on the weight of fruit and vegetables purchased (the primary endpoint) was assessed using weekly store sales data and mixed models per protocol. We did sensitivity analyses by repeating the analyses with the outliers included and repeating the analyses for the primary outcome measure removing each store one at a time. This trial was registered with Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12613000694718. Findings Weekly store sales data on all food and drink products sold in 20 stores were collected from July 1, 2012, to Dec 28, 2014. Price discount alone was associated with a 12??7% (95% CI 4??1???22??1) increase in purchases in grams of fruit and vegetables combined (primary outcome), and a 19??8% (6??2???35??1) increase post discount (after vs before); an effect of 12 g and 18 g per capita per day. Sensitivity analyses did not modify the results for the primary outcome measure. Interpretation A 20% discount can only increase fruit and vegetable purchases to help protect against obesity and diet related disease to a certain extent. Large discounts might have a greater impact than small discounts. Creative merchandising approaches to consumer education could also be considered alongside fiscal interventions to achieve marked improvements in diet.

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  • Know Your Noodles! Assessing Variations in Sodium Content of Instant Noodles across Countries

    Farrand, C; Charlton, K; Crino, M; Santos, J; Rodriguez-Fernandez, R; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Webster, J (2017-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Reducing salt intake is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs). Ultra-processed foods contribute ~80% of dietary salt in high income countries, and are becoming prominent in low-middle income countries. Instant noodle consumption is particularly high in the Asia Pacific region. The aim of this study was to compare the sodium content of instant noodles sold worldwide to identify potential for reformulation. Analysis was undertaken for 765 instant noodle products from 10 countries using packaged food composition databases of ultra-processed foods compiled by the Global Food Monitoring Group (GFMG) and national shop survey data. Sodium levels were high and variable, within and between countries. Instant noodles in China had the highest mean sodium content (1944 mg/100 g; range: 397-3678/100 g) compared to New Zealand (798 mg/100 g; range: 249-2380 mg/100 g). Average pack size ranged from 57 g (Costa Rica) to 98 g (China). The average packet contributed 35% to 95% of the World Health Organization recommended daily salt intake of <5 g. Forty-one percent of products met the Pacific Island (PICs) regional sodium targets, 37% met the South Africa 2016 targets, and 62% met the UK 2017 targets. This study emphasises a need for stronger regulation and closer monitoring to drive rigorous reformulation of salt in ultra-processed foods.

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  • Evaluating ELT multimedia courseware from the perspective of cognitive theory of multimedia learning

    Jiang, D; Renandya, WA; Zhang, Lawrence (2017)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Using the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, this study aimed to evaluate the design of one multimedia courseware used for teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in China and to compare the attitudinal differences in the teachers??? and students??? evaluation of the courseware. A questionnaire was developed and validated. Results indicated that the design of the courseware generally complied with the coherence principle, the signalling principle, the spatial contiguity principle, and the temporal contiguity principle but slightly violated the redundancy principle. The results of the independent sample t-tests on the questionnaires and the further analyses of the interviews revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the teachers??? and students??? evaluation concerning the coherence principle, the redundancy principle, and the spatial contiguity principle. Findings of this study suggested that the cognitive theory of multimedia learning can be a useful tool for evaluating multimedia courseware for teaching and learning EFL, as the theory is firmly grounded on the characteristics of human cognitive architecture and places the users in the centre of courseware design and evaluation. KEYWORDS: Cognitive theory of multimedia learning, multimedia courseware evaluation, Chinese EFL learners, English language teaching

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  • Dietary guidelines on trial: the charges are not evidence based

    Mann, J; Morenga, LT; McLean, R; Swinburn, Boyd; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jackson, Rodney; Kennedy, J; Beaglehole, R (2016-08-27)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Indicators of the relative availability of healthy versus unhealthy foods in supermarkets: a validation study

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Mackenzie, T; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona (2017-04-26)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In-store availability of healthy and unhealthy foods may influence consumer purchases. Methods used to measure food availability, however, vary widely. A simple, valid, and reliable indicator to collect comparable data on in-store food availability is needed.Cumulative linear shelf length of and variety within 22 healthy and 28 unhealthy food groups, determined based on a comparison of three nutrient profiling systems, were measured in 15 New Zealand supermarkets. Inter-rater reliability was tested in one supermarket by a second researcher. The construct validity of five simple indicators of relative availability of healthy versus unhealthy foods was assessed against this 'gold standard'.Cumulative linear shelf length was a more sensitive and feasible measure of food availability than variety. Four out of five shelf length ratio indicators were significantly associated with the gold standard (?????=???0.70-0.75). Based on a non-significant difference from the 'gold standard' (d???=???0.053????????0.040) and feasibility, the ratio of cumulative linear shelf length of fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables versus soft and energy drinks, crisps and snacks, sweet biscuits and confectionery performed best for use in New Zealand supermarkets.Four out of the five shelf length ratio indicators of the relative availability of healthy versus unhealthy foods in-store tested could be used for future research and monitoring, but additional validation studies in other settings and countries are recommended. Consistent use of those shelf length ratio indicators could enhance comparability of supermarket food availability between studies, and help inform policies to create healthy consumer food retail environments.

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  • Weak commitments, empty pockets and no direction

    Taylor, Prudence; Knight-Lenihan, Stephen (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Estimating population food and nutrient exposure: a comparison of store survey data with household panel food purchases

    Eyles, Helen; Neal, B; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona (2016-05-28)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Population exposure to food and nutrients can be estimated from household food purchases, but store surveys of foods and their composition are more available, less costly and might provide similar information. Our aim was to compare estimates of nutrient exposure from a store survey of packaged food with those from household panel food purchases. A cross-sectional store survey of all packaged foods for sale in two major supermarkets was undertaken in Auckland, New Zealand, between February and May 2012. Longitudinal household food purchase data (November 2011 to October 2012) were obtained from the nationally representative, population-weighted New Zealand Nielsen HomeScan?? panel. Data on 8440 packaged food and non-alcoholic beverage products were collected in the store survey. Food purchase data were available for 1229 households and 16 812 products. Store survey data alone produced higher estimates of exposure to Na and sugar compared with estimates from household panel food purchases. The estimated mean difference in exposure to Na was 94 (95 % CI 72, 115) mg/100 g (20 % relative difference; P<0??01), to SFA -0??3 (95 % CI -0??8, 0??3) g/100 g (6 %; P=0??3) and to energy -18 (-71, 35) kJ/100 g (2 %; P=0??51). Compared with household panel food purchases, store survey data provided a reasonable estimate of average population exposure to key nutrients from packaged foods. However, caution should be exercised in using such data to estimate population exposure to Na and sugar and in generalising these findings to other countries, as well as over time.

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  • Achieving the WHO sodium target: estimation of reductions required in the sodium content of packaged foods and other sources of dietary sodium

    Eyles, Helen; Shields, E; Webster, J; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona (2016-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Excess sodium intake is one of the top 2 dietary risk factors contributing to the global burden of disease. As such, many countries are now developing national sodium reduction strategies, a key component of which is a sodium reduction model that includes sodium targets for packaged foods and other sources of dietary sodium.We sought to develop a sodium reduction model to determine the reductions required in the sodium content of packaged foods and other dietary sources of sodium to reduce adult population salt intake by ???30% toward the optimal WHO target of 5 g/d.Nationally representative household food-purchasing data for New Zealand were linked with branded food composition information to determine the mean contribution of major packaged food categories to total population sodium consumption. Discretionary salt use and the contribution of sodium from fresh foods and foods consumed away from the home were estimated with the use of national nutrition survey data. Reductions required in the sodium content of packaged foods and other dietary sources of sodium to achieve a 30% reduction in dietary sodium intakes were estimated.A 36% reduction (1.6 g salt or 628 mg Na) in the sodium content of packaged foods in conjunction with a 40% reduction in discretionary salt use and the sodium content of foods consumed away from the home would reduce total population salt intake in New Zealand by 35% (from 8.4 to 5.5 g/d) and thus meet the WHO 2025 30% relative reduction target. Key reductions required include a decrease of 21% in the sodium content of white bread, 27% for hard cheese, 42% for sausages, and 54% for ready-to-eat breakfast cereals.Achieving the WHO sodium target in New Zealand will take considerable efforts by both food manufacturers and consumers and will likely require a national government-led sodium reduction strategy.

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