88,788 results

  • Using pregnant sheep to model developmental brain damage

    van den Heuij, LG; Wassink, Guido; Gunn, Alistair; Bennet, Laura (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    In order to develop more effective ways of identifying, managing, and treating preterm asphyxial brain injury, stable experimental models are essential. The present review describes the key experimental factors that determine the pattern and severity of brain injury in chronically instrumented fetal sheep, including the depth (???severity???) and duration of asphyxia, and the maturity, and condition of the fetus. These models are valuable to dissect the pathogenesis of key clinical patterns of brain injury in a stable thermal and biochemical environment, and to test therapeutic interventions.

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  • A Study of Chinese University English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) Teachers' Beliefs, Practices and Identities

    Chen, Shan (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The 21st century has seen the Chinese government initiating multiple nationwide reforms to improve the efficiency of its English education at all educational levels, which promotes a shift from teaching discrete linguistic knowledge to emphasizing the development of students??? communicative competence. Against this backdrop, teachers and their cognitions have been placed at the center of attention because they are the key decision makers in the classrooms, and their beliefs about how English should be learned and taught as a foreign language are one of the most influential constructs in shaping teaching behaviors and practices. With a holistic interest in understanding English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teaching within the Chinese tertiary context, focusing on the mental lives of Chinese tertiary English teachers of non-English majors, or College English (CE) teachers, this study set out to investigate the intersection between CE teachers??? beliefs, practices and identities, which has not been addressed adequately in the existing literature. Adopting a mixed-methods research design, this study involved collecting both questionnaire data to identify dimensions of Chinese tertiary EFL teachers??? collective cognitions and practices, and interview and observation data to elucidate the complex interrelationships between them. Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) results of the questionnaire data suggested that the collective beliefs of this cohort of teachers are a hybridity of a communicative orientation and sporadic traditional conceptions on the pedagogical level. Correspondingly, their practices demonstrated a mixture of both student-centered activities fostering communicative abilities and language-based didactic teaching activities. In terms of identities, teachers were found to identify strongly with the roles as the motivator/advocate for English learning, the facilitator for English learning, and the reflective practitioner and researcher, but generally resisted being recognized as textbook-centered scripted teachers. The in-depth multiple case study, drawing on narrative interviews and classroom observations, further probed into individual teachers??? beliefs systems, practices and identity formations. In spite of the intention to engage in communicative language teaching, the plural contextual discourses of social heteroglossia embedded in CE teachers??? working environments made teachers swing between the orientations of traditional approaches and communicative language teaching. Within this conflictive context, teachers drew on multiple I-positions which involved a dynamic range of positioning and repositioning activities as a strategy to cope with the dilemmas. Conceptualizing the CE teacher???s mind as a polyphony containing multiple discourses and voices, three patterns of identity formation were identified: (a) the active identity resolver referred to the teachers who did not allow themselves to be crippled by the unfavorable contextual discourses but chose to confront challenges by exercising agency to resolve the conflicts and tensions; (b) the passive identity resolver referred to those who were sensitive to disrupting discourses and developed emotional blocks giving rise to adoption of a passive, safe strategy by returning to the traditional teaching approach; (c) the identity seeker referred to the CE teachers who were aware of the competing discourses and were striving to define their own positions to create meaningful learning conditions for students in tertiary settings. The stories and experiences of the participants indicated the complex, dynamic, dialogic interplay between beliefs and practices, and crafting a teacher self or an identity mediating both cognitions and behaviors as sense-making mechanisms. The study has contributed to our current understanding of CE teacher???s cognitions about English language teaching and learning after ten years of a nation-wide College English reform, which is expected to inform the ongoing CE teaching and teacher development programs. It is argued that top-down reforms which neglect teachers??? subjectivities, internally persuasive discourses, and identification with the promoted teaching methodology can be hardly effective. Supporting teachers in situated identity construction and investing in the identity capital is essential for future reform initiatives. Implications of the study and recommendations for further research are also offered.

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  • Window to the central nervous system - Retinal examination for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Chang, Yu-Li; Acosta Etchebarne, Monica; Black, Joanna (2016)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with functional limb weakness

    Chen, BS; Alan Barber, P; Stinear, Cathy (2017-05)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Intravenous thrombolysis and clot retrieval following reversal of dabigatran with idarucizumab

    Tse, DMY; Young, L; Ranta, AM; Barber, Peter (2017-05)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Sound/Site: Sound as Articulation of Form and Event

    Morrison, Sam

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This project is a performance based exploration of the interaction between site and sound. It has aimed to use a focus on sound production as a catalyst for opening up alternate ways of reading, mapping and experiencing the physical environment. Within this research, sound is perceived as a sonic representation of form, mass, volume and event - an articulation of space, material and their activation. Through a series of installations/ events this project has looked to exploit resonances inherent within chosen sites, as well as introduce sound to otherwise inert environments in order to communicate the potentials of sound and materials. Another key focus has been upon the dynamics between artist/ work and audience, experimenting with ways in which to explore these roles.

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  • Analysis of Data Collected From Right and Left Limbs: Accounting for Dependence and Improving Statistical Efficiency in Musculoskeletal Research

    Stewart, S; Pearson, J; Rome, K; Dalbeth, N; Vandal, A

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Objectives Statistical techniques currently used in musculoskeletal research often inefficiently account for paired-limb measurements or the relationship between measurements taken from multiple regions within limbs. This study compared three commonly used analysis methods with a mixed-models approach that appropriately accounted for the association between limbs, regions, and trials and that utilised all information available from repeated trials. Method Four analysis were applied to an existing data set containing plantar pressure data, which was collected for seven masked regions on right and left feet, over three trials, across three participant groups. Methods 1–3 averaged data over trials and analysed right foot data (Method 1), data from a randomly selected foot (Method 2), and averaged right and left foot data (Method 3). Method 4 used all available data in a mixed-effects regression that accounted for repeated measures taken for each foot, foot region and trial. Confidence interval widths for the mean differences between groups for each foot region were used as a criterion for comparison of statistical efficiency. Results Mean differences in pressure between groups were similar across methods for each foot region, while the confidence interval widths were consistently smaller for Method 4. Method 4 also revealed significant between-group differences that were not detected by Methods 1–3. Conclusion A mixed effects linear model approach generates improved efficiency and power by producing more precise estimates compared to alternative approaches that discard information in the process of accounting for paired-limb measurements. This approach is recommended in generating more clinically sound and statistically efficient research outputs.

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  • Te Waka Kuaka, Rasch Analysis of a Cultural Assessment Tool in Traumatic Brain Injury in Māori

    Elder, H; Czuba, K; Kersten, P; Caracuel, A; McPherson, K

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: The aim was to examine the validity of a new measure, Te Waka Kuaka, in assessing the cultural needs of Māori with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Māori from around Aotearoa, New Zealand were recruited. 319 people with a history of TBI, their whānau (extended family members), friends, work associates, and interested community members participated. All completed the 46-item measure. Rasch analysis of the data was undertaken. Results: All four subscales; Wā (time), Wāhi (place), Tangata (people) and Wairua practices (activities that strengthen spiritual connection) were unidimensional. Ten items were deleted because they did not fit the model, due to statistically significant disordered thresholds, non-uniform differential item functioning (DIF) and local dependence. Five items were re-scored in the fourth subscale resulting in ordered thresholds. Conclusions: Rasch analysis facilitated a robust validation process of Te Waka Kuaka.

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  • An Examination of International Employees' Use of Native Language in Service Encounters in the Hospitality Industry

    Chen, Tingting

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    In the modern globalised context, it is commonplace in the hospitality industry for international employees to serve customers in their native language when they share the same ethnicity. Many studies have been conducted to explore the use of native language between employees and customers, but most of these studies have investigated customers’ attitudes from the perspective of customer service. Thus, how service employees perceive serving customers with the same ethnicity using their native language is still under-researched in the hospitality industry. This study addresses this gap by examining service employees’ perceptions of native language use in intercultural service encounters. By employing semi-structured interviews as the research method, this study interviewed international hospitality employees from five-star hotels in Auckland. All the employees spoke English as second language and had experiences of speaking their native language in customer service. The findings of this study reveal that international hospitality employees have the willingness and awareness to accommodate customers of shared ethnicity with their native language. While in specific service encounters, the shared ethnicity has the potential to constrain employees’ adoption of their native language use when serving customers from the same country. Main factors contributing to the avoidance of native language include ambiguous positions, lack of respect, extra workload, and excessive intimacy from customers. In consideration of the scarcity of research into employees’ attitudes towards the adoption of native language in customer service, this study is the first attempt to investigate native language use in intercultural service encounters from the perspective of service employees in the hospitality context. Results of this study contribute to the literature on intercultural service encounters and work stress regarding international employees’ native language use. Also, for hotel practitioners, findings of this study may offer them valuable managerial implications in establishing applicable and effective language policy concerning native language use in intercultural service encounters.

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  • Measuring Gambling Reinforcers, Over Consumption and Fallacies: The Psychometric Properties and Predictive Validity of the Jonsson-Abbott Scale

    Jonsson, J; Abbott, MW; Sjőberg, A; Carlbring, P

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Traditionally, gambling and problem gambling research relies on cross-sectional and retrospective designs. This has compromised identification of temporal relationships and causal inference. To overcome these problems a new questionnaire, the Jonsson-Abbott Scale (JAS), was developed and used in a large, prospective, general population study, The Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study (Swelogs). The JAS has 11 items and seeks to identify early indicators, examine relationships between indicators and assess their capacity to predict future problem progression. The aims of the study were to examine psychometric properties of the JAS (internal consistency and dimensionality) and predictive validity with respect to increased gambling risk and problem gambling onset. The results are based on repeated interviews with 3818 participants. The response rate from the initial baseline wave was 74%. The original sample consisted of a random, stratified selection from the Swedish population register aged between 16 and 84. The results indicate an acceptable fit of a three-factor solution in a confirmatory factor analysis with ‘Over consumption,’ ‘Gambling fallacies,’ and ‘Reinforcers’ as factors. Reinforcers, Over consumption and Gambling fallacies were significant predictors of gambling risk potential and Gambling fallacies and Over consumption were significant predictors of problem gambling onset (incident cases) at 12 month follow up. When controlled for risk potential measured at baseline, the predictor Over consumption was not significant for gambling risk potential at follow up. For incident cases, Gambling fallacies and Over consumption remained significant when controlled for risk potential. Implications of the results for the development of problem gambling, early detection, prevention, and future research are discussed.

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  • Illustrating Income Mobility: Two New Measures*

    Creedy, John; Gemmell, Norman (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Jenkins and Lambert (1997) demonstrated that a number of measures of poverty could be combined and compared using the "Three Is of Poverty" (TIP) curve; the ‘three Is’ being the incidence, intensity and inequality of poverty. This paper takes the insights from the TIP curve and applies them to income growth based measures of mobility, proposing a "Three Is of Mobility", or TIM, curve. Similar analysis is then applied to re-ranking measures of mobility to yield a re-ranking ratio (RRR) curve. Illustrations are provided using income data from random samples of New Zealand income taxpayers over the period 1998 to 2010. It is argued that both curves represent simple graphical devices that nevertheless conveniently illustrate the "Three Is" properties of income mobility.

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  • Making Connections 3D printing, Libraries and augmenting their reality

    Hughes-Ward, Dylan (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Digital technologies have initiated a global shift in the way we conceive, configure, and exchange information. This shift is occurring on many levels and is impacting the way many organisations operate; including Libraries. “Individuals and organizations now have many sources alternative to those provided by libraries, which would suggest that the role of libraries is shrinking. However, libraries are expanding to include a wider array of services, such as providing digital libraries and support for distance learning” (Borgman, 2003, p. 653). As they continue to re-examining their role, many libraries are currently exploring 3D printing in the form of “makerspaces” in an attempt to engage people in the library environment. Doing this raises the question “But why exactly is it appropriate for a library service to provide 3D printing?” (Rundle, 2013). In response to the question, this thesis explores the role that 3D printing may take in making connections between collections and people in new and interesting ways, beyond the typical application as a “makerspace” (Cavalcanti, 2013). In doing so it acknowledges that 3D printing does not exist in isolation and that its real potential to enhance both content and collections might best be realised in combination with the many other forms of 3D and 4D digital media and systems that are emerging at an exponential rate. This thesis speculates on what that potential may be, through a series of design scenarios that simulate future possibilities of 3D printing and Augmented Reality. The National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa provides the context for this exploration and the opportunity to demonstrate how revisiting their collections with reference to these new technologies can empower its mandate to “collect, connect and co-create knowledge to power New Zealand” (National Library of New Zealand, 2015).

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  • Income Dynamics, Pro-Poor Mobility And Poverty Persistence Curves*

    Creedy, John; Gemmell, Norman (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper explores poverty income dynamics in the form of income mobility by the poor and poverty persistence, making use of simple diagrams. It seeks to illustrate (a) the extent to which income mobility is pro-poor; and (b) when mobility is associated with persistence below, or movement across, a povery line over a specified time period. While statistical measures can be used to examine detailed characteristics of income dynamics, two simple diagrams are shown to capture the extent of pro-poor mobility and poverty persistence respectively in ways that allow convenient comparisons. These are referred to as a ‘three I’s of mobility’ (or TIM) curve, and a ‘poverty persistence curve’, The curves are illustrated using anonymised Inland Revenue longitudinal individual income data for New Zealand over 2006-10.

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  • Creating social change : the ultimate goal of education for sustainability

    Sharma, Rashika; Monteiro, Sylila (2017-07-11T00:08:04Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Education is the vital link that brings about social change and generates synergies to address the interconnectedness between sustainability, society and the environment. Education empowers society to assume responsibility for sustainable living. This implies that educational processes and systems can transform perspectives and behaviour patterns, which in turn inculcates sustainable practices in all aspects of human life. Education is a precursor of change therefore educators are responsible for transforming communities and initiating social change. Developing and encouraging an awareness of sustainability in local communities further establishes patterns globally in communities' worldwide. Consequently ‘glocal' synergies are created that ensure future graduates become citizens of the world with an ingrained consciousness of guardianship of the finite world. Contemporary education ought to embed core principles of sustainability which incorporates environmental, economic as well as social literacy into the curriculum. Through education, learners are creatively and critically stimulated into exploring the role of sustainable practice in all areas of human activity in society. This paper expounds the current sustainability strategy developed within a course at an institute of technology based in New Zealand. The course is designed to introduce the concepts and application of sustainability at entry level for a Bachelor's degree. In this paper an attempt is made to showcase the effectiveness of education in re-orienting student thinking to engage and instigate social change for our globalized world.

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  • The rise and fall (and rise) of Winston Island

    Mead, S.; Atkin, E.; Phillips, David (2017-05-10T05:38:38Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    On 20th February 2016, the most energetic cyclone in recorded history, the category 5 Tropical Cyclone (TC) Winston, tracked through central Fiji causing widespread damage and loss of life. At its peak, ten-minute sustained wind speeds of 230 kph were recorded, with wind gusts of over 300 kph. The eye of the cyclone passed within 25 km of Qamea Island in northeastern Fiji, with the strongest winds occurring from the northwest. After the cyclone had passed, a cay had formed on the southern fringing reef system ~1 km offshore of Qamea Island. The initial survey of the new cay (given the name Winston Island), found a mound of broken coral, sand and other debris some 1.8 m high by 105 m long and 15 m wide. Six weeks later the cay had reduced to only a fraction of the initial size (<30 m by 0.6 m high). It was expected that the cay was fated to disappear completely and the barrier reef flat to return to the pre-cyclone condition. However, 4 months later Winston Island had increased in size to be 126 m long and 2.0 m high, and has continued to slowly grow in size. While the formative mechanism was confidently determined (i.e. 2.5-3.0 m waves generated by TC Winston), and the initial chronic reduction in material was also intuitive, the mechanism which led to the subsequent rebuilding of Winston Island warranted investigation. This paper investigates the formative mechanisms that resulted in Winston Island and documents the subsequent changes to its morphology over the following year.

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  • Lyall Bay coastal remediation

    Phillips, David; Mead, S.; Emeny, M. (2017-05-10T05:38:37Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    An investigation has been undertaken at Lyall Bay in Wellington to propose options with regard to protecting the natural and built coastal infrastructure and reinstating a functional dune. Lyall Bay is an important recreational asset for Wellington as it is popular with the community for many activities both in the water and on the beach, as well as scenic drives, visiting cafes, and plane watching with the nearby airport. The project has specifically included investigating options for: 1) dune restoration to maximize their effectiveness in absorbing wave energy and protecting natural and built infrastructure 2) protect the rocky shoreline, grassed area and trees on the western side of the bay 3) the shifting of sand around the bay and dealing with current infrastructure within the beach environment. Lyall Bay is a highly modified beach environment that has been developed since early last century, leading to a number of constraints and changes when coastal processes are considered. The dune field has been replaced with people/houses/buildings; the bay has been contained within walls, roads and parking; stormwater discharges into the bay through 20 different outfalls; the eastern third of the bay has been reclaimed for the airport, and a further 350m of reclamation is proposed in the near future. These constraints prevent the beach from responding naturally to extreme events and mean it requires on-going management and maintenance. The main driver of beach change in Lyall Bay is wave-energy with refraction aligning the waves to the seabed contours, resulting in very little alongshore sediment transport. Bay-wide remediation options have been proposed and consultation undertaken with the community and stakeholders to seek input to the best options. The beach has been divided into 4 zones and specific intervention and management options have been designed for each, however the entire beach requires holistic management for long-term outcomes.

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  • Teacher aides in special education

    Clegg, Jacky (1987)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

    The role of teacher aides, in particular, and ancillary staff, in general, is emerging as a topic of considerable debate in our changing education system. It is not surprising, perhaps, that so much controversy and misunderstanding surrounds their deployment. This paper will attempt to clarify some of the central issues regarding teacher aides in Special Education.

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  • Decolonisation starts in a name : moving on from the colonial pretence that 'Maori' or 'indigenous peoples' are explanatory frames

    MacDonald LTAOT (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    This article examines why and how scholars should acknowledge and name each of the diverse political actors and institutions that typically are objectified as 'indigenous peoples' on the global stage, or 'Maori' in New Zealand. For instance, rather than suggesting a political relationship or conflict exists between 'Maori and the Crown', political scientists and theorists should name the political actors and political institutions for which Maori is a shorthand, for example, 'Te Runanga o Ngai Tahu (the corporate entity of the Ngai Tahu whanui) and the Committee of Tuahiwi Marae disagreed with the Crown'. A variety of reasons are discussed as to why this objectification of Maori (and any other indigenous population) as a single political actor has occurred, the problems are pointed out, and a range of examples are given. Not every use of the terms 'Maori', 'indigenous peoples' or similar descriptors in political science stands in for a specific political actor (e.g. sometimes, it is suggesting a cleavage or a group at whom a policy is directed), but where scholars are describing or suggesting political action, they should be careful in their use of ethnic labels. I suggest that it would be more productive to study the specific contexts, intentions and actions of individuals and institutions that might consider indigeneity as being part of their identity.

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  • Modifiable lifestyle risk factors that could reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer in New Zealand

    Richardson AK; Hayes J; Frampton C; Potter JD (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    AIM: To estimate population attributable fractions for modifiable lifestyle factors and colorectal cancer in New Zealand. METHOD: Relative risks for lifestyle risk factors for colorectal cancer, and population data on the prevalence of exposure in New Zealand, were used to estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) for each risk factor. RESULTS: Six modifiable lifestyle risk factors were identified. The PAFs for these risk factors were 9% for obesity, 7% for alcohol, 4% for physical inactivity, 3% for smoking, 5% for consumption of red meat and 3% for processed meat. PAFs di ered by ethnic group and sex. In women, the highest PAFs were 19% for obesity in Pacific women, 14% for obesity in Māori women, 7% for physical inactivity in Asian women, and 8% for obesity in European/other women. In men, the highest PAFs were 17% for obesity in Pacific men, 14% for high alcohol consumption in Māori men, 5% for physical inactivity in Asian men and 9% for high alcohol consumption in European/other men. CONCLUSION: If obesity, alcohol consumption, smoking and consumption of red and processed meats could be reduced, and physical activity could be increased among New Zealanders, it would reduce the risk of colorectal cancer considerably.

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  • Death as the Ideal Playground? Dark Tourism, Tour Guide and Tourist Performances and Empathic Concerns at the Buried Village of Te Wairoa, Rotorua, New Zealand.

    Foster-Bell, Alyse (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis explores tour guide and tourist performances and interactions at a ‘Dark Tourism’ site. The work is important because ‘Dark Tourism’ presents with more questions than answers; the trope of the ‘dark’ is itself under-examined, and previous studies are deemed ‘theoretically fragile’. Rather than the pursuing of ‘why’/motivational questions which underpin many previous studies, and/or the inclination towards ‘strait jacket’ approaches emanating from typologies, this thesis instead offers a new coherence and approach in a performance study which is concerned with the ‘doing of’ tourism at a Dark Tourism site. The thesis is based upon an ethnographic study of The Buried Village of Te Wairoa, Rotorua, New Zealand, the site that suffered the loss of some 150 lives, and livelihoods of its survivors, in the eruption of Mt Tarawera in 1886. In participant observation, sensing the ‘live’ physicality of a ‘being there’ (one cannot just read about it) allows for both the silences (of what is ‘not said’) and the affordances of the body - all those cognitive, sensual, somatic, visceral propensities - in that which is ‘felt’, to emerge. The study utilises paradigms of performance, and emotion, to examine that ‘how’ or ‘doing of’ (rather than the ‘why’ with its sticky morality subtexts and hints of ‘deviant leisure’). Emotion in general has largely been denied, avoided, suppressed, or downplayed in this field; empathy, in particular, has also been paid insufficient attention in both anthropology and tourism studies to date. Consequently, empathy is an emotion of particular interest here; empathic concerns are scrutinised, alongside the vicissitudes of ‘empathy’ itself. The findings show that tour guides engender at least the possibility of empathy. Tourists need to personalise the site in some way (in that they are ‘sold’ their own emotion), to experience empathic attunement. Humour, (both black, and comic) is also a surprising reveal. Black humour is used to negotiate the light/dark dichotomy of a currently regenerated parkland site, a site that is at once about eruption, death and destruction, on the one hand - and colonial ‘life and living’, on the other. Whilst matters of ‘motivation’ are not foregrounded here, questions of ‘death as the ideal playground?’ and ‘what is the attraction of Dark Tourism?’ do find an answer in this thesis: that it is one’s own emotion, rather than death per se, that matters at Dark Tourism sites. Humour, regarding those ‘lighter’ aspects presenting in Dark Tourism, needs further investigation. Emotion must also be allowed a standing of greater significance in tourism studies, and cultural studies more generally. Tuhourangi’s plight – not just a loss of life, of land, of an economic base and livelihood, but also of a critical loss of identity – is also discussed, and a renaissance noted.

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