86,506 results

  • Working Towards a Sustainable Urban Community

    Dale, Mary-Camillus (2002)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This document Offers general guidance for those wishing to undertake new building and public space development at MCMurd0 station situated at 77050'53"S, 166040'06'E. It establishes some principles for the design of public space within the built environment at McMurdo. The aim is to ensure that all future development at McMurdo contributes positively to the quality of the public environment at the station. McMurdo Station offers a unique opportunity to create a sustainable urban community within the built environment especially by creating public spaces where none previously existed as well as refining others already developed within the existing urban layout of the station. This vision has only recently been recognised by the National science Foundation (NSF). The qualities Of the open spaces formed and their relationship to adjacent buildings are critical issues to be considered in the design of every development. The intention of this proposal is to ensure the sustainability of the community at McMurdo Station. To plan better living conditions and a sense Of community for the transient population there, and create a new public space, essentially a new centre for the city. The ideas in this proposal seek to encourage a reduction in the footprint of the built environment and produce a more compact centre and communal core of social and public space. This creates a public environment that provides a context in which activity can flourish. This document Offers general guidance for those wishing to undertake new building and public space development at MCMurd0 station situated at 77050'53"S, 166040'06'E. It establishes some principles for the design of public space within the built environment at McMurdo. The aim is to ensure that all future development at McMurdo contributes positively to the quality of the public environment at the station. McMurdo Station offers a unique opportunity to create a sustainable urban community within the built environment especially by creating public spaces where none previously existed as well as refining others already developed within the existing urban layout of the station. This vision has only recently been recognised by the National science Foundation (NSF). The qualities Of the open spaces formed and their relationship to adjacent buildings are critical issues to be considered in the design of every development. The intention of this proposal is to ensure the sustainability of the community at McMurdo Station. To plan better living conditions and a sense Of community for the transient population there, and create a new public space, essentially a new centre for the city. The ideas in this proposal seek to encourage a reduction in the footprint of the built environment and produce a more compact centre and communal core of social and public space. This creates a public environment that provides a context in which activity can flourish.

    View record details
  • Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Applications for the Victoria Land, Antarctic, Latitudinal Gradient Initiative

    Braybn, Lars (2002)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are a useful tool for presenting and analysing scientitic and management information. GIS is often seen as just a cartographic tool, however, this is just a small part of its functionality. It is envisaged that GIS could be an important tool for a proposed international latitudinal gradient reseawh initiative along Victoria Land, Antarctica, coordinated by the New Zealand, Italian and United States Antarctic programs. There are a large number of GIS data sets available for Victoria Land and these are described online through the Antarctic Master Directory. The Antarctic Digital Database contains several important topographical layers. These data sets are displayed in this paper so that the detail of them can be assessed. These data sets are of "general purpose" quality and could provide a geo-spatial "backbone" for additional scientific information. Another important data set is the 50-m interval elevation contours of the Dry Valleys, which are archived by Gateway Antarctica at the University of Canterbury. In preparing for the Victoria Land latitudinal gradient initiative, this paper assesses: (a) GIS data availability and accessibility for Victoria Land; (b) examples of adding information to the Antarctic Digital Database using ArcView; and (c) examples of topographic and terrain data analyses using Digital Elevation Model manipulations for biodiversity mapping. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are a useful tool for presenting and analysing scientitic and management information. GIS is often seen as just a cartographic tool, however, this is just a small part of its functionality. It is envisaged that GIS could be an important tool for a proposed international latitudinal gradient reseawh initiative along Victoria Land, Antarctica, coordinated by the New Zealand, Italian and United States Antarctic programs. There are a large number of GIS data sets available for Victoria Land and these are described online through the Antarctic Master Directory. The Antarctic Digital Database contains several important topographical layers. These data sets are displayed in this paper so that the detail of them can be assessed. These data sets are of "general purpose" quality and could provide a geo-spatial "backbone" for additional scientific information. Another important data set is the 50-m interval elevation contours of the Dry Valleys, which are archived by Gateway Antarctica at the University of Canterbury. In preparing for the Victoria Land latitudinal gradient initiative, this paper assesses: (a) GIS data availability and accessibility for Victoria Land; (b) examples of adding information to the Antarctic Digital Database using ArcView; and (c) examples of topographic and terrain data analyses using Digital Elevation Model manipulations for biodiversity mapping.

    View record details
  • Antarctic adventures: A preliminary investigation into the personal implications of trips by adventurous New Zealanders to Antarctic, between the years 1956 and 2001.

    Elliott, Tui (2001)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report undertakes a preliminary investigation into the personal implications of Antarctic adventures. It attempts to identify the factors that attract adventurers to Antarctica, and the implications or personal 'costs' and impacts of their trip, on such things as their families, partners and employment. It also inquires into whether changes in societal attitudes have impacted on the perception of personal 'cost', by comparing the experiences of an earlier group of adventurers and their partners, with a more recent group. Face-to-face and telephone interviewing of the adventurers and their partners was the method chosen to collect the required information for the study. Interviewees were selected to represent adventures occurring in two different time periods: 1950s/60s and 1980s/90s The study found that there were differences between the men and their partners in how they perceived the impacts of the Antarctic adventures. The men, in most cases, had decided that it was appropriate for them to participate in the adventure at that time in their lives, and accepted that the trip away would mean that their partners would have increased responsibilities. The women supported their partner's decisions to be involved in the adventure, and they felt that it was in their best interests, to have their adventurous partners fulfil their dream of a lifetime. They realised that this would mean increased responsibilities for them, but they were confident that they would manage and survive and develop a life for themselves. The premise that there would be some change in the implications of the adventure, over time, was found to be true in some situations, but not in others. The changes that occurred in the role of women in the 1960s and 1970s, had an influence on those women whose partners went to Antarctica in thel 980s and 1990s. These women were more pro- active in decision making and often had their own careers, whereas the women from the earlier group were more prepared to accept the family situation they found themselves in. The attitudes towards raising children also changed, but the impacts Of single parenting were just as great over both time periods. Other factors that were thought to cause change, such as improved transport and faster communications between Scott Base and New Zealand, were found to have little significance in this study. The study found that not only were there differences between the views of the adventurers who spent time in Antarctica, and their partners, but that these differences also changed over time. This report undertakes a preliminary investigation into the personal implications of Antarctic adventures. It attempts to identify the factors that attract adventurers to Antarctica, and the implications or personal 'costs' and impacts of their trip, on such things as their families, partners and employment. It also inquires into whether changes in societal attitudes have impacted on the perception of personal 'cost', by comparing the experiences of an earlier group of adventurers and their partners, with a more recent group. Face-to-face and telephone interviewing of the adventurers and their partners was the method chosen to collect the required information for the study. Interviewees were selected to represent adventures occurring in two different time periods: 1950s/60s and 1980s/90s The study found that there were differences between the men and their partners in how they perceived the impacts of the Antarctic adventures. The men, in most cases, had decided that it was appropriate for them to participate in the adventure at that time in their lives, and accepted that the trip away would mean that their partners would have increased responsibilities. The women supported their partner's decisions to be involved in the adventure, and they felt that it was in their best interests, to have their adventurous partners fulfil their dream of a lifetime. They realised that this would mean increased responsibilities for them, but they were confident that they would manage and survive and develop a life for themselves. The premise that there would be some change in the implications of the adventure, over time, was found to be true in some situations, but not in others. The changes that occurred in the role of women in the 1960s and 1970s, had an influence on those women whose partners went to Antarctica in thel 980s and 1990s. These women were more pro- active in decision making and often had their own careers, whereas the women from the earlier group were more prepared to accept the family situation they found themselves in. The attitudes towards raising children also changed, but the impacts Of single parenting were just as great over both time periods. Other factors that were thought to cause change, such as improved transport and faster communications between Scott Base and New Zealand, were found to have little significance in this study. The study found that not only were there differences between the views of the adventurers who spent time in Antarctica, and their partners, but that these differences also changed over time.

    View record details
  • Destination Antarctica: A Meteorological Perspective on the Logistics of Air Transport to McMurdo Sound

    Henshaw, Jenny (2002)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A flight to the Antarctic from the 'gateway' at Christchurch is quite different from any flight elsewhere in the world. Firstly, it is different in that nearly all of the flight occurs over water, therefore there is no option for an emergency landing between Christchurch and Antarctica. Secondly, the weather in Antarctica is likely to be more adverse and more severe than any other continent in the world. Thirdly, the availability of alternative landing sites is likely to be more limited than in most other regions. Fourthly, most of the aircraft used can not carry enough fuel to return from Antarctica without landing, therefore once past the point of safe return (PSR), an aircraft must land on the continent. Together, these factors require than an Antarctic flight have particularly tight forward planning to Succeed safely. One of the major considerations for southbound flights is of the forecast weather conditions for the estimated time of arrival (ETA) at the runways of McMurdo Sound (see Figures I and 2). The principal purpose of the United States Antarctic Program's (USAP) McMurdo Weather Program is to provide support to aviation activity in the region. This team of observers and forecasters provide advice to pilots prior to take off in Christchurch and throughout the flight, about the conditions at the various airfields. The pilot must make a decision about whether to take off (or, if already in flight and before the PSR, whether to turn around) based on these forecasts. These decisions impact of the safety of the passengers, the efficiency and costs to the respective national Antarctic programs, and also on the ability for the programs to carry out research in Antarctica. A flight to the Antarctic from the 'gateway' at Christchurch is quite different from any flight elsewhere in the world. Firstly, it is different in that nearly all of the flight occurs over water, therefore there is no option for an emergency landing between Christchurch and Antarctica. Secondly, the weather in Antarctica is likely to be more adverse and more severe than any other continent in the world. Thirdly, the availability of alternative landing sites is likely to be more limited than in most other regions. Fourthly, most of the aircraft used can not carry enough fuel to return from Antarctica without landing, therefore once past the point of safe return (PSR), an aircraft must land on the continent. Together, these factors require than an Antarctic flight have particularly tight forward planning to Succeed safely. One of the major considerations for southbound flights is of the forecast weather conditions for the estimated time of arrival (ETA) at the runways of McMurdo Sound (see Figures I and 2). The principal purpose of the United States Antarctic Program's (USAP) McMurdo Weather Program is to provide support to aviation activity in the region. This team of observers and forecasters provide advice to pilots prior to take off in Christchurch and throughout the flight, about the conditions at the various airfields. The pilot must make a decision about whether to take off (or, if already in flight and before the PSR, whether to turn around) based on these forecasts. These decisions impact of the safety of the passengers, the efficiency and costs to the respective national Antarctic programs, and also on the ability for the programs to carry out research in Antarctica.

    View record details
  • Commercialisation: Not Necessarily a Default Future for Antarctica

    Lowe, Sarah (2002)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Antarctica—the huge southern continent surrounded by isolating and defining polar oceans—is highly complex in terms of human politics and governance. Antarctica is extreme, and provides no kind of living for humans without technology; fuel is needed even to produce drinking water. Throughout history, there has been a range of attitudes towards this remote part of the globe. These attitudes span from Captain James Cook's proclamation that nobody would want to explore any further than he had, (and that if they did, they would find nothing of use), to current perceptions of potential economic return—and thus decades Of disagreement about what should be done With it, by whom, and how. Since Cook, exploration of the continent has advanced little by little, with sightings and first landings throughout the nineteenth century, and then with initial expeditions and overwinterings at the turn of the twentieth century. Many of these expeditions became the basis for national claims of sovereignty. At the start of the twenty-first century, many different nations are involved with governing and regulating human use of Antarctica. Many more again hold the perception that they fhould be involved, and these are mostly motivated not by intrinsic interest in the continent, but by a fear of losing out on potential future developments. In all cases, it seems that national Interests are paramount, and tempered only recently with a growing understanding of the scale of human influence on global biological and geochemical cycles and thus an appreciation of what remains unaltered. National interests are expressed in terms of opportunities for national economic gain. But whilst our economic activity was historically developed as a mechanism for the freeing up of human creativity, time and exploration, it has now become a driving force and often an end in itself— subordinate to no other values. Profit and commercialisation are recognised as being forces that may institute undesired change; those who control resources and means of production hold a great deal of power over others. "Ille wielding and manipulation of this power should be carefully considered. The commercialisation paradigm is being spread across the globe, especially by the export of business and values from western nations such as the USA Other nations also have populations that are seeking higher standards of living, employment, and fulfillment, and so many of the commercial paradigms can be applied, even if this act is arguably culturally inappropriate. Whether or not this is so, I argue that Antarctica is different. There is no indigenous population. There seems to be a default assumption that such a commercialising framework, being applied to the rest of the world, should just as well be applied in Antarctica. This paper argues that this is not necessarily so. Antarctica—the huge southern continent surrounded by isolating and defining polar oceans—is highly complex in terms of human politics and governance. Antarctica is extreme, and provides no kind of living for humans without technology; fuel is needed even to produce drinking water. Throughout history, there has been a range of attitudes towards this remote part of the globe. These attitudes span from Captain James Cook's proclamation that nobody would want to explore any further than he had, (and that if they did, they would find nothing of use), to current perceptions of potential economic return—and thus decades Of disagreement about what should be done With it, by whom, and how. Since Cook, exploration of the continent has advanced little by little, with sightings and first landings throughout the nineteenth century, and then with initial expeditions and overwinterings at the turn of the twentieth century. Many of these expeditions became the basis for national claims of sovereignty. At the start of the twenty-first century, many different nations are involved with governing and regulating human use of Antarctica. Many more again hold the perception that they fhould be involved, and these are mostly motivated not by intrinsic interest in the continent, but by a fear of losing out on potential future developments. In all cases, it seems that national Interests are paramount, and tempered only recently with a growing understanding of the scale of human influence on global biological and geochemical cycles and thus an appreciation of what remains unaltered. National interests are expressed in terms of opportunities for national economic gain. But whilst our economic activity was historically developed as a mechanism for the freeing up of human creativity, time and exploration, it has now become a driving force and often an end in itself— subordinate to no other values. Profit and commercialisation are recognised as being forces that may institute undesired change; those who control resources and means of production hold a great deal of power over others. "Ille wielding and manipulation of this power should be carefully considered. The commercialisation paradigm is being spread across the globe, especially by the export of business and values from western nations such as the USA Other nations also have populations that are seeking higher standards of living, employment, and fulfillment, and so many of the commercial paradigms can be applied, even if this act is arguably culturally inappropriate. Whether or not this is so, I argue that Antarctica is different. There is no indigenous population. There seems to be a default assumption that such a commercialising framework, being applied to the rest of the world, should just as well be applied in Antarctica. This paper argues that this is not necessarily so.

    View record details
  • Space to Place: The Cultural Landscape of Ross Island, Antarctica; A preliminary investigation

    Bennetts, Bron (2002)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Cultural landscapes are the landscapes that people have modified or altered in some way, usually through settlement. The changes humans make to the landscape can be physical, (roads, buildings) or the changes can be perceptual. The way we interpret our landscapes reflects our values of it. Our perceptions are often expressed through our art.(paintings, poetry). Cultural landscapes tell the stories of people, events and places through time, they are a dynamic history of the interaction between human and nature, Cultural landscapes reflect the human values and ideologies that have created them, as well as the physical technologies that created them. Cultural landscapes may be iconic, famous places, or the everyday places that we live in. It is easy to understand the significance of special well-known places that are symbols Of our culture (Parliament Buildings and the Beehive in Wellington). These places give us a sense of national identity and feeling of belonging. Iconic landscapes, have obvious significance to people, and are valued by the community who care about their management. Conversely the landscapes that we live in everyday may appear so familiar and Ordinary' to us that they are 'invisible' and seem to have little significance. These taken for granted places are just as significant to our cultural heritage and sense of who we are, To be valued by the community, these landscapes need first to be understood. In land use planning terms we tend not to think about cultural landscapes until they are either under threat or have been already altered or lost.2 To appreciate the value of a cultural landscape serves as a foundation on which to build informed comment on future change and land management. Cultural landscapes are the landscapes that people have modified or altered in some way, usually through settlement. The changes humans make to the landscape can be physical, (roads, buildings) or the changes can be perceptual. The way we interpret our landscapes reflects our values of it. Our perceptions are often expressed through our art.(paintings, poetry). Cultural landscapes tell the stories of people, events and places through time, they are a dynamic history of the interaction between human and nature, Cultural landscapes reflect the human values and ideologies that have created them, as well as the physical technologies that created them. Cultural landscapes may be iconic, famous places, or the everyday places that we live in. It is easy to understand the significance of special well-known places that are symbols Of our culture (Parliament Buildings and the Beehive in Wellington). These places give us a sense of national identity and feeling of belonging. Iconic landscapes, have obvious significance to people, and are valued by the community who care about their management. Conversely the landscapes that we live in everyday may appear so familiar and Ordinary' to us that they are 'invisible' and seem to have little significance. These taken for granted places are just as significant to our cultural heritage and sense of who we are, To be valued by the community, these landscapes need first to be understood. In land use planning terms we tend not to think about cultural landscapes until they are either under threat or have been already altered or lost.2 To appreciate the value of a cultural landscape serves as a foundation on which to build informed comment on future change and land management.

    View record details
  • Volcanic Hazard Assessment of Mount Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica

    Poirot, Ceisha (2002)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Mount Erebus was discovered by James Clark Ross and his crew on the 27th of January 1841 and was named after the ship he was travelling on, Erebus (Kyle et al., 1982). Mount Erebus is located at 77.58 os, 167.17 OE on Ross Island, Antarctica and is the world's most southerly active volcano (Figure l). It sits within a tectonic plate in an area known as the Erebus Volcanic Province in McMurdo Sound. It is estimated that approximately 40 million years ago volcanism started in the region and has persisted until today, giving rise to land features such as Black Island, White Island, Mount Terror, Mount Discovery and Mount Erebus (Ross Sea Region Report, 2001). Mount Erebus is one of two active volcanoes in the Ross Sea Region, the other being Mount Melbourne on the coast of North Victoria Land, which has weak thermal activity (Kyle et al., 1982). Erebus is the largest of three volcanoes that make up Ross Island and is distinctive in that it is predominantly composed of anorthoclase phonolite lavas, whereas Mount Byrd and Mount Terror are basaltic lavas. It is a strato-volcano reaching 3,794 m high and is estimated to be between 0.93 - 0.2 million years old. It is one of four active volcanoes in the world with a persistent lava lake within the summit crater. The summit crater is approximately 600 m north-south long by about 500 m eæst-west. Within the crater there is a nearly flat floor about 160 m below the summit and another inner crater at the north end of the main crater. This inner crater is about 250 m in diameter and about 100 m deep and is divided by an east west ridge. The south section is covered with snow and is the site of several noisy fumaroles, whereas in the northern half is the lava lake and an active vent where most of the explosive activity occurs (Kyle et al., 1982; Dibble et al., 1984). Mount Erebus was discovered by James Clark Ross and his crew on the 27th of January 1841 and was named after the ship he was travelling on, Erebus (Kyle et al., 1982). Mount Erebus is located at 77.58 os, 167.17 OE on Ross Island, Antarctica and is the world's most southerly active volcano (Figure l). It sits within a tectonic plate in an area known as the Erebus Volcanic Province in McMurdo Sound. It is estimated that approximately 40 million years ago volcanism started in the region and has persisted until today, giving rise to land features such as Black Island, White Island, Mount Terror, Mount Discovery and Mount Erebus (Ross Sea Region Report, 2001). Mount Erebus is one of two active volcanoes in the Ross Sea Region, the other being Mount Melbourne on the coast of North Victoria Land, which has weak thermal activity (Kyle et al., 1982). Erebus is the largest of three volcanoes that make up Ross Island and is distinctive in that it is predominantly composed of anorthoclase phonolite lavas, whereas Mount Byrd and Mount Terror are basaltic lavas. It is a strato-volcano reaching 3,794 m high and is estimated to be between 0.93 - 0.2 million years old. It is one of four active volcanoes in the world with a persistent lava lake within the summit crater. The summit crater is approximately 600 m north-south long by about 500 m eæst-west. Within the crater there is a nearly flat floor about 160 m below the summit and another inner crater at the north end of the main crater. This inner crater is about 250 m in diameter and about 100 m deep and is divided by an east west ridge. The south section is covered with snow and is the site of several noisy fumaroles, whereas in the northern half is the lava lake and an active vent where most of the explosive activity occurs (Kyle et al., 1982; Dibble et al., 1984).

    View record details
  • The Love of the Thing

    Henderson, Scott (2002)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Southern Cross Antarctic Expedition 1898-1900 is a largely forgotten chapter in Antarctic history. It departed St. Katharine's Dock, London in August 1898 amidst great public excitement and speculation, which was repeated when the ship left Hobart for Cape Adare in December. A brief flurry of interest greeted them on their return in May 1900, but the public attention was now focused on the Boer War, the Boxer rebellion and the preparations for Scott's Discovery expedition. Borchgrevink's men had reached the farthest point but Inade no major discoveries, reached no pole, made no epic journeys, found no mineral wealth or lost tribe or polar bears. Their real achievements in the painstaking scientific accumulation Of a wealth Of meteorological and magnetic data, their charts, and biological collections were not 'sexy' enough to capture the public eye. Even the scientific community through the Royal Geographical Society, was prejudiced against this upstart venture that was funded by a publishing magnate and had beaten their own attempt to establish a national expedition. Interest was rekindled in 1902, but not in the way Borchgrevink wanted. He was involved in an acrimonious debate in The Times with Professor Ray Lankester Of the Natural History Museum over the loss of Hanson's biological notebooks. But this dragged on for months without any resolution. Borchgrevink returned to Norway, a disappointed man, without the recognition he had craved. Carsten Egeberg Borchgrevink was a part of Bull' s Antarctic expedition Of 1895. They landed briefly at Cape Adare, an event which was to galvanise Borchgrevink into action. He was a charismatic figure, energetic and not backward about self-promotion (he claimed to be the first to set foot on the Antarctic continent). He travelled between Australia and England, lecturing in each country and trying to get backing for his own Antarctic expedition. His endeavours were finally and unexpectedly rewarded when Sir George Newnes, a newspaper and magazine baron, agreed to fund the entire venture, perhaps recognising a kindred entrepreneurial spirit in Borchgrevink. The Southern Cross Antarctic Expedition 1898-1900 is a largely forgotten chapter in Antarctic history. It departed St. Katharine's Dock, London in August 1898 amidst great public excitement and speculation, which was repeated when the ship left Hobart for Cape Adare in December. A brief flurry of interest greeted them on their return in May 1900, but the public attention was now focused on the Boer War, the Boxer rebellion and the preparations for Scott's Discovery expedition. Borchgrevink's men had reached the farthest point but Inade no major discoveries, reached no pole, made no epic journeys, found no mineral wealth or lost tribe or polar bears. Their real achievements in the painstaking scientific accumulation Of a wealth Of meteorological and magnetic data, their charts, and biological collections were not 'sexy' enough to capture the public eye. Even the scientific community through the Royal Geographical Society, was prejudiced against this upstart venture that was funded by a publishing magnate and had beaten their own attempt to establish a national expedition. Interest was rekindled in 1902, but not in the way Borchgrevink wanted. He was involved in an acrimonious debate in The Times with Professor Ray Lankester Of the Natural History Museum over the loss of Hanson's biological notebooks. But this dragged on for months without any resolution. Borchgrevink returned to Norway, a disappointed man, without the recognition he had craved. Carsten Egeberg Borchgrevink was a part of Bull' s Antarctic expedition Of 1895. They landed briefly at Cape Adare, an event which was to galvanise Borchgrevink into action. He was a charismatic figure, energetic and not backward about self-promotion (he claimed to be the first to set foot on the Antarctic continent). He travelled between Australia and England, lecturing in each country and trying to get backing for his own Antarctic expedition. His endeavours were finally and unexpectedly rewarded when Sir George Newnes, a newspaper and magazine baron, agreed to fund the entire venture, perhaps recognising a kindred entrepreneurial spirit in Borchgrevink.

    View record details
  • Developing useful environmental indicators to assess tourism impacts in the Ross Sea Region: A recommended approach

    Revfem, Calum (2001)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    —This paper addresses the issue of environmental impacts of tourism in Antarctica, specifically examining the Ross Sea region. Since the first tourist visit by ship in 1966, tourist numbers have steadily risen to the 15000 visitors received by Antarctica last year. Most travel is concentrated in the Antarctic peninsula, although there are approximately 1000 visitors each season to the Ross Sea region. Flying to the continent is now an option, but is severely limited by climate and logistical constraints. Antarctic tourism is expensive, but given changes in technology and in other constraining areas, the potential for sudden and substantial growth exists — as has taken place in the Norwegian Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. The Antarctic Treaty System, through A TCP adoption of its Environmental Protocol, uses Environmental Impact Assessment to monitor tourist activities. New Zealand companies or any vessels departing out of New Zealand for Antarctica, are regulated by New Zealand's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. A Compulsory Environmental Evaluation has not been required for tourist activities. Instead an Initial Environmental Evaluation (less rigorous) is completed and independent Observers (government officials) are placed on all vessels to verify monitoring. Most tourist operators belong to the International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators (IAATO), which is a self-regulating body that abides by the Environmental Protocol. IAATO members also undertake environmental monitoring outside of their EIA requirements. The EIA process presents a number of issues: Assessment is made on a case by case basis, monitoring indicators are developed for each case and there is no systematic or standardised approach to their development. These shortfalls are compounded by the focus on in-situ monitoring (lack of post activity monitoring) and obvious conflict-of-interest implications presented by self-monitoring. Defining the outputs and environmental exposure of tourist activities is necessary in understanding and identifying the types Of tourist impacts. Indirect and cumulative impacts, which may be operating on variable spatial and temporal scales are inherently difficult to assess. The use of environmental indicators has limitations, but evidence in this paper strongly suggests that their use provides benefits which outweigh them. The use Of indicators to assess the environmental impacts of tourism provides an information base that can be used in effective environmental management. This paper examines what information is currently available, identifying gaps and considering responses where appropriate. Defining what constitutes an environmental impact is fundamental to any approaches to monitoring such impacts. —This paper addresses the issue of environmental impacts of tourism in Antarctica, specifically examining the Ross Sea region. Since the first tourist visit by ship in 1966, tourist numbers have steadily risen to the 15000 visitors received by Antarctica last year. Most travel is concentrated in the Antarctic peninsula, although there are approximately 1000 visitors each season to the Ross Sea region. Flying to the continent is now an option, but is severely limited by climate and logistical constraints. Antarctic tourism is expensive, but given changes in technology and in other constraining areas, the potential for sudden and substantial growth exists — as has taken place in the Norwegian Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. The Antarctic Treaty System, through A TCP adoption of its Environmental Protocol, uses Environmental Impact Assessment to monitor tourist activities. New Zealand companies or any vessels departing out of New Zealand for Antarctica, are regulated by New Zealand's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. A Compulsory Environmental Evaluation has not been required for tourist activities. Instead an Initial Environmental Evaluation (less rigorous) is completed and independent Observers (government officials) are placed on all vessels to verify monitoring. Most tourist operators belong to the International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators (IAATO), which is a self-regulating body that abides by the Environmental Protocol. IAATO members also undertake environmental monitoring outside of their EIA requirements. The EIA process presents a number of issues: Assessment is made on a case by case basis, monitoring indicators are developed for each case and there is no systematic or standardised approach to their development. These shortfalls are compounded by the focus on in-situ monitoring (lack of post activity monitoring) and obvious conflict-of-interest implications presented by self-monitoring. Defining the outputs and environmental exposure of tourist activities is necessary in understanding and identifying the types Of tourist impacts. Indirect and cumulative impacts, which may be operating on variable spatial and temporal scales are inherently difficult to assess. The use of environmental indicators has limitations, but evidence in this paper strongly suggests that their use provides benefits which outweigh them. The use Of indicators to assess the environmental impacts of tourism provides an information base that can be used in effective environmental management. This paper examines what information is currently available, identifying gaps and considering responses where appropriate. Defining what constitutes an environmental impact is fundamental to any approaches to monitoring such impacts.

    View record details
  • The Big Eye: First Experiences in Antarctica

    Hyde, Peter (2002)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A first visit to the Antarctic is likely to be a significant experience, especially for those who have had a long-term interest in the region and hence are highly motivated to be there. This study sought to address scientific, artistic and pragmatic objectives relating to the visit of 20 GCAS 2001 students, of whom just under half completed questionnaires and video interviews about their expectations and experiences. The data gathered allowed testing of the theory that our response expectancies shape our experiences (Kirsch, 1985). This theory was generally confirmed. However, the small sample size and uniformity of the participants' expectations and experiences does not permit rigorous conclusions to be drawn about the theory that the level of satisfaction we feel about an experience is, part, determined by how closely aligns with our expectations of it. prior to the trip, few participants felt strongly that they were about to have a life-changing experience, and most seemed to be actively managing their expectations to ensure they were not disappointed. As a result of this, and also perhaps as a reflection on both the accuracy of the information being conveyed in the GCAS course and the actual impact which Antarctica has on people, all seem to have found that their expectations were met fairly closely, or exceeded. GCAS coordinators can use suggestions drawn from some of the interview comments to enhance the experiences of future students. Major pluses included maximising "camping' time and group cohesion, drawbacks included trying to cram everythlng a very limited amount of time. A first visit to the Antarctic is likely to be a significant experience, especially for those who have had a long-term interest in the region and hence are highly motivated to be there. This study sought to address scientific, artistic and pragmatic objectives relating to the visit of 20 GCAS 2001 students, of whom just under half completed questionnaires and video interviews about their expectations and experiences. The data gathered allowed testing of the theory that our response expectancies shape our experiences (Kirsch, 1985). This theory was generally confirmed. However, the small sample size and uniformity of the participants' expectations and experiences does not permit rigorous conclusions to be drawn about the theory that the level of satisfaction we feel about an experience is, part, determined by how closely aligns with our expectations of it. prior to the trip, few participants felt strongly that they were about to have a life-changing experience, and most seemed to be actively managing their expectations to ensure they were not disappointed. As a result of this, and also perhaps as a reflection on both the accuracy of the information being conveyed in the GCAS course and the actual impact which Antarctica has on people, all seem to have found that their expectations were met fairly closely, or exceeded. GCAS coordinators can use suggestions drawn from some of the interview comments to enhance the experiences of future students. Major pluses included maximising "camping' time and group cohesion, drawbacks included trying to cram everythlng a very limited amount of time.

    View record details
  • Feasible and Viable Human Waste Alternatives for Cape Bird, Ross Island

    Stirnemann, Ingrid (2003)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The environmental organisation Greenpeace with the help from the public, created the World park base, and reported on environmental problems occulTing in the Antarctic. It is the hope of GP that Antarctica will become a wilderness park the refusal of the mineral convention framework (CRAMRA) and the signing of the Protocol on environmental protection is making the Antarctic more environmentally acceptable though the change is slow. The environmental organisation Greenpeace with the help from the public, created the World park base, and reported on environmental problems occulTing in the Antarctic. It is the hope of GP that Antarctica will become a wilderness park the refusal of the mineral convention framework (CRAMRA) and the signing of the Protocol on environmental protection is making the Antarctic more environmentally acceptable though the change is slow.

    View record details
  • An Investigation into Fuel Utilisation and Energy Generation in Antarctica

    Mason, Anna (2006)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Fossil fuels are the predominant source of energy in Antarctica. Most Antarctic stations, including Scott Base, are powered by conventional generator units and diesel boilers. In addition to the atmospheric pollution produced by the burning of fossil fuels, there are a number of environmental risks associated with transporting, distributing and storing fuels in the Antarctic. Fuel usage is also becoming increasingly expensive as fuel prices and transportation costs continue to increase. Energy efficiency practices can help reduce fuel usage but serious reductions can only really be achieved through the use of renewable energy. The potential for renewable energy use in Antarctica is high, but further technological advancements are needed to make large-scale renewable energy generation more practical for the Antarctic environment. Renewable sources such as wind and solar radiation, when used in combination with conventional energy generation, can significantly reduce a station’s energy requirements. For small-scale applications out in the field, renewable energy can sometimes provide almost all of the energy needs. Successful application of renewable energy on a large scale has been achieved by the wind farm at Australia’s Mawson station, following a long investigation process. The success of this application will hopefully encourage other Antarctic Treaty Nations to invest more time and money in renewable energy research.

    View record details
  • Water Project

    Wood, Ann (2003)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The difficulties in obtaining drinking water for humans in Antarctica are explored and methods used in the past, present and future described. Melting of snow in the Heroic Age required large investments in fuel and time. Drinking Of iced water rather than boiled 'Miter requires only half as much fuel. This was recognised by Amundsen and Shackleton. Starting temperature of the snow is less important. Dehydration may have contributed to poor decision making by Scott on his fatal polar expedition. The amount of fuel used, and time taken to melt snow, using The Primus stove, white spirit stove and propane/butane gas stove were compared. Times and fuel consumption wele similar. The gas stove and white spirit stove were more convenient to use, however, the Primus stove burning kerosene was the only one that proved reliable at temperatures below — 20 oc. An efficiency of 37% was achieved experimentally. Melting of snow using solar energy is exp101ed and a design proposed for a solar box for field panies. Desalination of seawater is an energy efficient and environmentally clean method of obtaining drinking water at the modern bases along the Antarctic Coast. South Pole Station uses the Rodriguez well method to melt ice for drinking water. Hydll)gen and fuel cells, and wind thermal energy are possible technologies that could be incotporated into futule water and electrical generating systems at the bases. The difficulties in obtaining drinking water for humans in Antarctica are explored and methods used in the past, present and future described. Melting of snow in the Heroic Age required large investments in fuel and time. Drinking Of iced water rather than boiled 'Miter requires only half as much fuel. This was recognised by Amundsen and Shackleton. Starting temperature of the snow is less important. Dehydration may have contributed to poor decision making by Scott on his fatal polar expedition. The amount of fuel used, and time taken to melt snow, using The Primus stove, white spirit stove and propane/butane gas stove were compared. Times and fuel consumption wele similar. The gas stove and white spirit stove were more convenient to use, however, the Primus stove burning kerosene was the only one that proved reliable at temperatures below — 20 oc. An efficiency of 37% was achieved experimentally. Melting of snow using solar energy is exp101ed and a design proposed for a solar box for field panies. Desalination of seawater is an energy efficient and environmentally clean method of obtaining drinking water at the modern bases along the Antarctic Coast. South Pole Station uses the Rodriguez well method to melt ice for drinking water. Hydll)gen and fuel cells, and wind thermal energy are possible technologies that could be incotporated into futule water and electrical generating systems at the bases.

    View record details
  • Packing items that are Bound for the Antarctic

    Rooney, Nadia (2003)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    All items used in Antarctica are imported, and the responsibility for removal of such items when their usefulness is complete falls on the source country. Appropriate packaging is important in managing waste, and packaging is therefore a potentially major area for cost reduction. Programme operators are bound by domestic and international legislation that prohibits specific products from Antarctica and discourages the use of others. It is a prioritythat only necessary packaging materials are exported to Antarctica, and that the majority of those have the ability to be reused or recycled. Strict purchasing procedures, extensive education of staff and suppliers, and the employment of packaging innovations can reduce packaging at its source. In addition, formal cooperation arrangements can enable programmes to share ideas and develop workable processes. All items used in Antarctica are imported, and the responsibility for removal of such items when their usefulness is complete falls on the source country. Appropriate packaging is important in managing waste, and packaging is therefore a potentially major area for cost reduction. Programme operators are bound by domestic and international legislation that prohibits specific products from Antarctica and discourages the use of others. It is a prioritythat only necessary packaging materials are exported to Antarctica, and that the majority of those have the ability to be reused or recycled. Strict purchasing procedures, extensive education of staff and suppliers, and the employment of packaging innovations can reduce packaging at its source. In addition, formal cooperation arrangements can enable programmes to share ideas and develop workable processes.

    View record details
  • T.A.E - The Last Great Journey of Antarctic Exploration ‘Before the Tractors Rolled'

    Hicks, Stephen (2006)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    “ It may have been about our year 750 that the astonishing Hui-te-Rangiora, in his canoe Te Iwi-o-Atea, sailed from Rarotonga on a voyage of wonders in that direction (South): he saw the bare white rocks that towered into the sky from out the monstrous seas, the long tresses of the woman that dwelt therein, which waved about under the waters and on their surface, the frozen sea covered with pia or arrowroot, the deceitful animal that dived to great depths – ‘a foggy, misty dark place not shone on by the sun’. Icebergs, the fifty foot long leaves of the bull-kelp, the walrus or sea-elephant, the snowy ice fields of a clime very different from Hui-teRangiora’s own warm islands – all these he had seen”1 Over the past two years as I read more about the Antarctic, I have become interested in the decade of the 1950’s and in the Trans-Antarctic Expedition in particular. I consider the Expedition to have been the single event that caused New Zealand to move from disinterested nation, reluctantly carrying a responsibility given to it by its Commonwealth elder, to become a major player in the Antarctic today. In reading the various accounts of the Expedition it appeared to me that in no one place did I find all the interesting and often important pieces of the story. This paper is my attempt to bring those pieces together and to shed a bit more light on one of the great achievements of the twentieth century.

    View record details
  • Antarctic Maps and their Reason for Existence

    Rae, Andrew (2003)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The reasons for the Antarctic mapping have changed over time. By studying these reasons, it can be seen that mapping and surveying are strongly dependant on what resources Antarctica is perceived to have. Five reasons for Antarctic mapping were concluded. 1. NO economic resources Of value therefore there is little money from Governments mapping and surveying. 2. Antarctica has potential resources therefore, there are government funds available for surveying and mapping for territories. 3. Antarctica is seen as a scientific resource and therefore mapping and surveying focuses protecting the environment and science. 4. Antarctica is seen as a political resource as it provides stability and therefore mapping is encouraged at an international level to prevent nationalism. Since technology is changing new resources are becoming available these will ultimately determine the activities in area of Mapping and Surveying occur. The reasons for the Antarctic mapping have changed over time. By studying these reasons, it can be seen that mapping and surveying are strongly dependant on what resources Antarctica is perceived to have. Five reasons for Antarctic mapping were concluded. 1. NO economic resources Of value therefore there is little money from Governments mapping and surveying. 2. Antarctica has potential resources therefore, there are government funds available for surveying and mapping for territories. 3. Antarctica is seen as a scientific resource and therefore mapping and surveying focuses protecting the environment and science. 4. Antarctica is seen as a political resource as it provides stability and therefore mapping is encouraged at an international level to prevent nationalism. Since technology is changing new resources are becoming available these will ultimately determine the activities in area of Mapping and Surveying occur.

    View record details
  • The Legality of Marine Mining in the Antarctic Treaty Area

    Pallesen, Ana (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Application of international law in Antarctica is so very complex and unworkable that the expert legal commentators assert with confidence that there are no real solutions in the law to provide. It is in this legal climate that this paper discusses the legal rights of different parties, should mining activity begin in the Antarctic. It will outline the legal rights and implications for the different parties who could be involved in mining activities in the future. In 1972 a member at the meeting of Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties is reported to have said, ‘This Treaty will last till a big mineral discovery is made – then it will be every man for himself.’ 1 The right to mine in Antarctica is intricately tied to international law. As the different states in Antarctica have differing and disputed status under international law, the legality of mining becomes complicated. The “frozen” claims, while practicable in terms of running a harmonious system, leaves a lot to be desired for legal clarity, as the legal status of the maritime area is subject to a multitude of different interpretations. The over lapping claims of Argentina, Chile and United Kingdom, and the unclaimed area of Marie Byrd Land Only adds to the difficulty of applying the typical international rules to the Antarctic. The seven Antarctic claimant states are party to UNCLOS. The United States helped draft the Convention, but has not signed it. The US has not made a claim in Antarctica, however, and in the event of the claims being tried, the US could feasibly attempt claim the entire continent, as could Russia. The rights of these parties will be discussed in a later section. The rights and duties surrounding the mining of the deep seabed will also be discussed in later paragraphs, but the question of whether the law of the sea zoning is applicable in Antarctica must first be canvassed.

    View record details
  • Nest site selection and egg laying behaviour in seabirds.

    McKellar, Alison (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Seabirds are described as birds that rely on the marine environment for food resources, they spend a substantial part of their lives foraging in the marine environment. Foraging is generally done alone and they feed on krill, squid and fish. Seabirds make up 3% of the worlds bird species. There are 328 species of seabirds in four orders. Spenisciformes is the penguins and there is 17 species in one family. Procellariiformes is the albatrosses, shearwaters, petrels, diving petrels, and storm petrels and there are 125 species in four families. Pelecaniformes is the pelicans, tropicbirds, frigatebirds, gannets and cormorants and there are 61 species in five families. Charadriiformes is the gulls, terns, skuas, skimmers and auks, and there are 128 species in four families. Seabirds live longer and breed later than the other bird types. Some albatross and petrel species live for more than 60 years. Mortality rates are low in adults and offspring. Many seabird species are threatened by human activities. This is mostly as seabird bycatch through commercial and private fishing. Many of these species are at risk of extinction, particularly the albatross, petrels and shearwaters. They are attracted to the bait used by boats and get caught in the fishing hooks and lines. They are then dragged down into the ocean where they drown. Seabird breeding sites are all threatened by human activities. They are lost through increased human settlement and through human degradation such as oil spills. Humans have introduced invasive animals such as rats to offshore islands which predate on seabirds while they are on land breeding.

    View record details
  • Permanent land based tourism in Antarctica: Nightmare on the horizon or unfeasible?

    Lamers, Machiel (2006)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Tourism in Antarctica has increased steadily over the last two decades and established itself as a legitimate Antarctic activity. Tour operations in the Antarctic are predominantly ship based but other market segments have developed as well, including land-based tourism using aircraft. The development of permanent land-based infrastructures and facilities for the accommodation of tourists in Antarctica has concerned academics for decades. Permanent tourist facilities are believed to start a completely new chapter in Antarctic tourism, especially in combination with an air link (Lovering & Prescott 1979: 99). Hotels, casinos, theme parks and other forms of permanent land based tourism facilities often portray in the media as a nightmare glooming at the horizon of near future in Antarctica (Mercopress 2004, Guardian 2006). However, apart from tourist accommodation at selected scientific stations and a number of tented camps, no permanent, purpose built tourist facilities have been established over the past half-century. Recently the issue of permanent land based tourism has caught the attention of policy makers within the Antarctic Treaty System. At the Antarctic Treaty Meeting of Experts (ATME) on tourism and non-governmental activities in Tromso in 2004 New Zealand proposed a prohibition of permanent land based tourism facilities, because it launches questions on user rights, property rights and legal jurisdiction (Bastmeijer & Roura 2004: 780). During the last Antarctic Treaty Consultancy Meeting in Stockholm, June 2005, land based tourism was on top of the list of issues to be discussed during the tourism-working group. Countries such as New Zealand, Australia and Germany tabled working papers and argued for a precautionary approach and the adoption of a prohibiting measure against the establishment of land-based tourism in Antarctica. Other Consultative Parties did not share their views and no consensus could be reached at this point (ASOC 2005b).

    View record details
  • Natural Foraging and Breeding Behaviours of the Little Blue Penguin Eudyptula minor Including Recommendations for a Captive Population.

    Newton, Nadine (2006)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Blue Penguin (Eudyptula minor) belongs to the family Spheniscidae, a distinctive group of flightless, pelagic seabirds that inhabit the Southern hemisphere. The smallest of the penguin species, the Blue Penguin weighs approximately one kilogram, stands around 40 centimetres tall (Stonehouse, 1975), and occurs naturally in southern areas of cooler waters off Australia and New Zealand. Blue Penguins are covered in dense waterproof plumage that ranges in colour from pale power-blue to dark slaty blue-grey on the dorsal side, and white on the ventral side acting as a form of counteractive camouflage. There is ongoing debate as to the number of sub-species that occur within the extents of E. minor. Some experts believe that the White-flippered penguin (E. minor ablosignata) can be considered as a different species, not just as sub-species. These penguins are characterised by the presence of a white margin on both the front and rear sides of the flippers and paler plumage on their backs (Reilly, 1994). The total population of Blue Penguins in Australia and New Zealand has been estimated to be somewhere between 350 000 and 600 000 breeding pairs (Dann, 2006). Although numbers are believed to be stable, there are concerns of decreasing numbers of breeding pairs in certain locations (Dann, 1992). The White-flippered penguin in New Zealand has recently been listed as ‘endangered’ by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), as the breeding population is measured to be only 2,200 pairs (Davis & Renner, 2003) and is restricted to parts of Banks Peninsula and Motunau Island off the eastern coast of Canterbury, New Zealand. Threats to the Blue Penguin include predation by introduced species (predominantly foxes and dogs but also cats and stoats in New Zealand) and, locally, human disturbance through residential and farming developments (Reilly, 1994; Williams 1995). Perhaps the most detrimental influences however come from fluctuations in natural oceanic changes. Reilly (1994), states that if large-scale oceanic changes take place, there will be corresponding changes to fish populations, something that we can not deter, especially if the commercial fisheries continue to target the main prey species of Blue Penguins and exploit areas in which they forage. In order to gain an accurate understanding of the long-term viability of the Blue Penguin, it is necessary to look at the breeding biology and foraging behaviours exhibited by this species. By investigating these aspects of the Blue Penguin, we can also make detailed choices in regard to the captive management of the species. This paper aims to detail the breeding biology and foraging behaviours of Eyduptula minor, in Australia and New Zealand, with a more indepth coverage of the subspecies E. minor albosignata. The information highlighted will be used to construct some guidelines that may be considered when housing and breeding the Blue Penguin in a captive situation.

    View record details