96,661 results

  • Mining and development : examining the effectiveness of mining company community development intervention in New Ireland Province, Papua New Guinea : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Richardson, Emma

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis explores the effectiveness of mining company contributions to development within the gold mining communities of Lihir and Simberi islands, in New Ireland Province, Papua New Guinea (PNG). More specifically, it analyses the extent to which forms of community development intervention undertaken on Lihir Island by Newcrest Mining Ltd, and on Simberi Island by St Barbara Ltd, actually support meaningful forms of development. This has been achieved through the use of development ethics (Goulet 1995) as a conceptual research framework, which when applied in research practice, gives priority to the wellbeing of those whose realities may be ignored, misread or marginalised within the neoliberal realm of development. This research is based on a total of four months of fieldwork undertaken on Lihir and Simberi islands. It draws on community narratives to frame the relevance of human wellbeing, human rights and inclusive development as development ethics within the research context. This development ethics research lens facilitates discussion about the meaningfulness of development intervention from a morally-informed community development perspective. Underpinned by a locally contextualised appreciation of what human wellbeing and meaningful development means on Lihir and Simberi islands (which results in the exposition of a set of local Community Wellbeing and Development Rights), a critical review of the practice and governance of development intervention within each Island community is then detailed. The analysis of development interventions then proceeds using firstly an evaluation of practices within a human rights lens, and secondly consideration of inclusive development outcomes relative to Newcrest's and St Barbara’s development related rhetoric. The resulting account of mining company community development intervention is critical, but ultimately hopeful. This hopefulness reflects the hope of customary landowners that mining will one day lead to meaningful development benefits. The analysis from this development ethics lens reveals insights into the promotion of social justice through the delivery of mining company development interventions. It is argued that mining companies have the opportunity to enhance a set of locally significant and internationally recognised human rights that are important to the wellbeing and development of customary landowners. Although, in some instances, mining company performance is falling short with respect to the enhancement of these human rights, it is argued that the enhancement of Community Wellbeing and Development Rights exists as a potential means for mining companies to add value to host communities. However, if such a development programme is to be meaningful to customary landowners, it must also advance equity and fairness. If mining companies fail to navigate such complexities, this thesis contends that mining, and forms of mining company community development intervention, will likely do more harm to communities than good.

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  • Neoliberalization, media, and union resistance : identity struggles in New Zealand education 1984-2014 : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree in Doctor of Philosophy in Communication and Journalism at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Salter, Leon Alick

    Thesis
    Massey University

    On 13 April 2013, New Zealand’s primary teachers union the New Zealand Educational Institute (NZEI) organized protests across the country, attended by approximately 10,000 members and sympathisers. Protesters held aloft two-sided placards – on one side read “Stand Up For Kids, Save Our Schools” and on the other a grotesque cartoon figure accompanied “Fight the GERM”. The GERM stood for the Global Education Reform Movement and was intended to represent the policy programme of the Government as a threat to New Zealand’s “world class” public education system. Following the launch of their flagship National Standards policy in October 2009, the governing National Party had become involved in a series of struggles with teachers, schools and their unions, contributing to the splitting of the discursive landscape into two antagonistically opposed sides. This situation was then intensified by the introduction of two more controversial policies without sector-consultation: charter schools and an increase to class size ratios. This thesis aims to investigate the underlying discursive ground structuring the three policies. By doing so, it aims to uncover the logics behind them, addressing such questions as why would the National Party, already scarred by previous battles with a powerful and relatively unified education sector, seek to implement policies on the premise that schools were failing the nation and that many teachers were not doing their jobs properly? And, conversely, why would the NZEI seek to represent the Government’s policy agenda through this combative frame? I demonstrate that the three policies, while divergent from each other, are distinctly neoliberal; each emphasizing diverse, overlapping facets of education within neoliberal governance, by setting them within a context of two previous decades of the neoliberalization of education in Aotearoa New Zealand. By employing the discourse theory of Ernesto Laclau, the Government’s and the union’s mediated framings of the policies are understood as a series of interlinked but contingent discursive struggles to fix meaning. Both sides employ a populist articulatory logic, which constructs different symbolic enemies, in order to attempt to make their version of events hegemonic. Through an analysis of diverse texts such as policy documents, speeches, newspaper editorials, blogs and interviews with activists, I argue that definitions of three subject-positions, together with the relations between them, were integral to this struggle: the teacher, the parent and the student. While neoliberal discourse progressively colonized these identities with individualistic, self-centred traits that emphasised entrepreneurial capacities, articulations of a holistic educational ethos contested these meanings, instead emphasising an ethics of care, humanism, democracy, justice, fairness and collectivity. In other words, the level of the subject provided the limits to neoliberal discourse, providing a place of continuous disconnect.

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  • "Please Sir, can we play a game?" : transforming games teaching and coaching: a practitioner's perspective : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Slade, Dennis George

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Over the last 30 years, traditional skill-based game teaching models have gradually been supplemented by instruction under an inclusive banner of Game Centred Learning (GCL) but more specifically, Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU). This thesis uniquely examines from a practitioner’s perspective how the development of GCL and its dissemination occurred in New Zealand (NZ) 1945- 2015. The multi-method approach establishes through a triangulation of data sources utilising a bricolage approach that the development was not mandated by educational policy but evolved through various combinations of insights from early luminaries in the field and visits to NZ by a key figure in the field (Rod Thorpe). Additionally, a new guard of Physical Educators in pre-service teacher education colleges in NZ were also significantly influential in the dissemination of GCL strategies as was a new socio-ecological perspective in PE syllabi (1999; 2007). An emergent autoethnographic documentation of the author’s role further informs this evolution of GCL and TGfU practices in NZ. Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus, practice and field are used as markers to signal change and record tensions that ultimately led to adoption of GCL practice in PE teaching and sport coaching in NZ. The thesis findings present implications for PE practitioners through innovative GCL approaches, associated with play, mastery learning and TGfU, that involves transforming play. It is concluded that at a practical and theoretical level, TGfU should be seen in a holistic experiential sense and integrated into PE programmes acknowledging its potential to contribute to and enhance citizenship. The final contribution to knowledge of this research is the presentation of a model of GCL designed to transform play.

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  • Expanding financial communication: Investor relations, crowdfunding, and democracy in the time of fintech

    Doan, Mai Anh (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis studied financial communication in the context of a globalised, technologized, and financialised world. It arose from two seemingly opposite trends in practice and in academia. In practice, not only are technology and finance becoming more pervasive on their own, they are also merging as fintech, which is further disrupting financial and social practices. In academia, financial communication, more commonly, if incorrectly, known as investor relations, does not connect with these realities. While the trends in practice hold the promise of making profound impacts in democratising finance and promoting egalitarianism, their neglect in academia not only does a disservice to the practice but also threatens to further segregate and lower the poor reputation of public relations, which is the umbrella discipline that contains financial communication. Accordingly, the thesis attempted to bring financial communication closer to practice and to make an original contribution to knowledge by examining financial communication in the context of fintech. Specifically, it sought answers to the following two research questions: (1) What is the current state of academic research on investor relations and financial communication? and (2) In what ways could investor relations and financial communication integrate crowdfunding to their practice and research to further democratise finance and contribute to a fully functioning society? The thesis with publication includes four publications – three published journal articles and one book chapter (in press) – and each arose from a research project relevant to the overall theme. These projects identified how financial communication continues to be academically insular and disconnected from technology. Their findings also suggested how individually and in concert, by incorporating fintech and crowdfunding, financial communication can open up ways that benefit both practice and research. The thesis also found evidence that crowdfunding has the potential to improve financial democracy across the globe. For it to harness that potential, however, the thesis proposes that financial communicators become advocates for increasing financial literacy and inclusiveness for individuals and for the greater good of the society. The function should not only provide tangible results for businesses but also expand and re-focus on building communities and on re-balancing power. The thesis argues that the online environment of crowdfunding and fintech with new players and rules needs researchers to change. The change means researchers need to re-examine the nature, characteristics, scope and impact of communication, to look outside of their own discipline to add resources, to diversify their approaches, and to go beyond the traditional organisation-centric orientation of investor relations and public relations. In so doing so, financial communication will also be advancing the movement for improving the academic and social reputation of public relations. The thesis concludes that what financial communication has not been able to accomplish today can also serve as a fertile ground for future research directions.

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  • Kia kāpuia te reo o Tāmaki ki te Tonga: Tāmaki Makaurau ki te Tonga

    Lee-Morgan, Jenny Bol Jun; Lee-Morgan, Eruera (2017)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Mai i te Papakuratanga o Mataoho tae noa ki tona Ipu. Mai i Pukaki Tapu o Poutiikeka ki Te Puketapapatanga a Hape. Mai i te tahuna o Torea i nga wai o Mokoia, mawhiti atu ki Te Arapueru e karekare mai na ko Te Manukanuka a Hoturoa, kei reira a Taramainuku raua ko Kaiwhare. Ka kawea ki nga.hau o Mangere, e topa ai taku manuhokahoka ki Te Manurewatanga a Tamapahore. Whakaterawhiti taku haere ki Otara-a-nuku, ki Otara-a-rangi koia te tikapatanga o toku tiipuna o Marutuahu. Hoki whenei mai au ki Te Pane o Mataoho, tiro kau ake au ki aku pa whakairo ko Matatukutureia, ko Matukurua nga nohoanga tapu o Huakaiwaka, o Nga Tini-o-toitehuatahi, o Maruiwi kua ngaro katoa ki te reinga.

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  • Beyond the Screen: Emerging Cinema and Engaging Audiences. [Book Review]

    Zalipour, Arezou (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book “Beyond the Screen: Emerging Cinema and Engaging Audiences”, by Sarah Atkinson.

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  • Socioeconomic impacts of public forest policies on heterogeneous agricultural households

    Dhakal, Bhubaneswor; Bigsby, Hugh R.; Cullen, Ross

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Nepal has a long history of returning public forests to local people as part of its community forestry programme. In principle the community forestry programme is designed to address both environmental quality and poverty alleviation. However, concern has been expressed that forest policies emphasise environmental conservation, and that this has a detrimental impact on the use of community forests in rural Nepal where households require access to public forest products to sustain livelihoods. To study the effect of government policies on forest use, an economic model of a typical small community of economically heterogeneous households in Nepal was developed. The model incorporates a link between private agriculture and public forest resources, and uses this link to assess the socioeconomic impacts of forest policies on the use of public forests. Socioeconomic impacts were measured in terms of household income, employment and income inequality. The results show that some forest policies have a negative economic impact, and the impacts are more serious than those reported by other studies. This study shows that existing forest policies reduce household income and employment, and widen income inequalities within communities, compared to alternative policies. Certain forest policies even constrain the poorest households’ ability to meet survival needs. The findings indicate that the socioeconomic impacts of public forest policies may be underestimated in developing countries unless household economic heterogeneity and forestry’s contribution to production are accounted for. The study also demonstrates that alternative policies for managing common property resources would reduce income inequalities in rural Nepalese communities and lift incomes and employment to a level where even the poorest households could meet their basic needs.

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  • You can't see it if you???re not looking: Sex trafficking in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Thorburn, Natalie (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Domestic sex trafficking in Aotearoa has received little contemporary focus due to widespread ambiguity about its nature and prevalence, and discussion on the topic is made difficult by frequent and problematic conflation of ???sex work??? with ???trafficking???. This thesis aimed to explore the experiences of Aotearoa victims of sex trafficking, using a narrative approach underpinned by a feminist and social constructionist epistemology in order to ethically navigate methodological issues presented by the lieklihood of participants??? past experiences of trauma and gender-based violence. I interviewed 16 victims of trafficking and six key informants, and surveyed 70 medical and 61 social service practitioners. I found that vulnerability to exploitation was catalysed through the intersection of youthfulness, social marginality, and disrupted attachment relationships, which abusers then capitalised on by being perceived as a source of protective love (a phenomenon I label the ???love-illusion???). Victims??? experiences and attempts to disclose these were often implicitly forbidden within both formal and social contexts. Accordingly, respondents indicated that unfamiliar disclosures were precluded by knowledge gaps or practitioners??? attempts to consign victims??? experiences into subjectively more familiar categories of violence. This thesis provides two layers of analysis. Firstly, it argues for the viability of the feminist concepts of voice and silencing to theorise the experiences of story suppression threaded throughout the findings. Secondly, by applying Bourdieusian concepts of field, habitus, and capital to victims??? experiences, the thesis constructs an explanatory framework for participants??? vulnerability to abuse, their recruitment into and exploitation through trafficking, and their pathways to escape and recovery. This thesis sets out the implications emerging from the two-tier analysis, including practice imperatives regarding prevention, intervention, and support. Ultimately, this thesis argues that these practice imperatives cannot be progressed without the establishment of a shared definitional clarity and a cohesive understanding of the nature of trafficking, and consequent support and intervention needs across and between agencies. This thesis therefore creates an impetus for implementing a feminist and social constructionist understanding of domestic trafficking in order to recognise the manifestations of harm of this social phenomenon in Aotearoa.

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  • Regulation of NMDA receptor surface distribution in a neuronal model of Huntington???s disease

    Ambroziak, Wojciech (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Huntington???s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative genetic disorder caused by an expansion of the CAG repeat tract in the HTT gene, leading to a triad of motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) that underlie excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity were previously shown to be upregulated at extrasynaptic locations in HD. While activity of synaptic NMDARs promotes neuronal survival, activation of extrasynaptic NMDARs (ex-NMDARs) triggers cell death signalling pathways. Therefore, ex-NMDARs are currently thought to drive HD neurodegeneration. The first aim of this thesis was to determine whether the distribution of ??-amino-3-hydroxy-5- methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) or NMDA receptors is altered at synapses in a cellular model of HD. Subsequently, we sought to determine whether synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97) is a causative agent of HD synaptic dysfunction, as the ?? isoform was shown to direct glutamate receptors to extrasynaptic locations. Finally, we aimed to specifically target ??- and ??SAP97 isoforms in order to rescue normal receptor distribution in HD model neurons. A combination of super-resolution imaging and whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology techniques allowed us to determine that in HD model neurons expressing the mutant HTT gene, NMDAR distribution is shifted towards extrasynaptic sites, whereas AMPARs are largely unaltered. Endogenous SAP97 expression was unaffected both in the model neurons and in the YAC128 HD mouse model striatum. An overall increase in SAP97 expression could be detected in the YAC128 hippocampus, however, as it was not specific to ??SAP97, this isoform is unlikely to be a part of the HD pathomechanism. Intriguingly, overexpression of either SAP97 isoform was found to maintain the normal NMDAR distribution in HD model neurons and prevent NMDAR drift to extrasynaptic sites. Together, the data presented in this thesis suggest that the number of ex-NMDARs is indeed elevated in mutant HTT expressing neurons. Furthermore, although ??SAP97 does not appear to play a role in HD pathomechanism, both ?? and ?? isoforms of SAP97 were identified in this thesis as potential therapeutic targets for HD. In conclusion, our results add to the evidence for synaptic dysfunction in HD neurons and provide new clues towards designing an effective HD therapy.

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  • He P??k??k?? Uenuku I T?? Ai: A Quantitative Exploration of M??ori Identity, Political Attitudes, and Behaviour

    Greaves, Lara (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    To be M??ori is to be political. Our history is filled with political struggles and victories. These struggles, originating from experiences of colonisation and assimilation, have greatly influenced what it is to be M??ori today. This thesis explores the relationship between M??ori ethnic identity, and political attitudes and outcomes. In this thesis, I present five studies (across four published papers and one full manuscript) which validate the Multidimensional Model of M??ori Identity and Cultural Engagement (MMM-ICE2). I focus particular attention on the scale???s Socio- Political Consciousness dimension, and illustrate the links between identity and politics for M??ori. The MMM-ICE2 is a seven-dimension scaled designed with M??ori, by M??ori, and for M??ori to measure M??ori ethnic identity (Houkamau & Sibley, 2010, 2015a). In the first two studies, I focus on using psychometric techniques to further validate the MMM-ICE2 as a measurement tool. Firstly, I use random intercept exploratory factor analysis to show that the scale is not vulnerable to acquiescent responding (yea-saying; Greaves, Houkamau, & Sibley, 2017). The second study uses multigroup confirmatory factor analysis to illustrate that the MMM-ICE2 shows reasonable measurement equivalence across diverse M??ori groups (Greaves, Manuela et al., 2017). In the third study of the thesis, I demonstrate that M??ori, broadly defined, are more likely to vote for the political left ??? the Labour, Green, and New Zealand First parties ??? over the centre-right National Party (Greaves, Robertson et al., 2017). The results lay the groundwork for two further studies, which demonstrate the construct validity of the Socio-Political Consciousness dimension of the scale by predicting a range of political attitudes and behaviours. Study Four shows that, above and beyond the effects of demographics, M??ori enrolled to vote on the M??ori electoral roll were higher on the Socio-Political Consciousness and Group Membership Evaluation dimensions (Greaves, Osborne, Houkamau, & Sibley, 2017). Additionally, in Study Five, I demonstrate that higher Socio-Political Consciousness for M??ori is related to higher levels of support for M??ori rights protests, the left-wing Green Party, and the M??ori-issue focussed, M??ori and Mana political parties (Greaves, Sengupta et al., 2017). Yet, lower levels of Socio-Political Consciousness were related to higher support for the right-wing National Party. Taken together, these studies show that the MMM-ICE2 scale and the Socio-Political Consciousness dimension can predict important, realworld political outcomes and attitudes for M??ori. Finally, I discuss the contributions that the papers in this thesis have made to the literature, and the inevitable limitations of the research. I then provide future research directions for the study of quantitative M??ori identity and for M??ori political participation more generally. I finish with reflections on the process of writing this thesis and on being an emerging M??ori quantitative researcher.

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  • Utilising Movement Planning to Improve Computer Accessibility for People with Cerebral Palsy: Potential, Benefits, and Costs

    Payne, Alexander (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common physical disability that results in activity limitation and reduced participation in society. Computer mouse accessibility is important for participation in work and educational settings. This thesis investigates making use of movement planning ability to improve mouse-based target acquisition for people with CP. Initial experiments studied CP???s effects on movement planning. For reaching tasks across different planning conditions, temporal coordination (eye-hand movement onset asynchrony) was generally similar between participants with and without CP. Notably, movement durations were significantly longer for the group with CP. This suggests that movement execution difficulties are making a greater contribution to activity limitation than any movement planning deficits. A mouse-based target acquisition method (the expansion cursor) was then devised that aimed to allow users to plan around difficult movements and improve small target acquisition. To make use of planning ability, users must have choice when planning an interaction. The expansion cursor is a zoom lens that users can choose to utilise or ignore at every individual click. The zoom can be utilised by holding down the mouse button for an extended period when clicking. The zoom function can also be ignored by clicking quickly as per typical computer use. In a user evaluation, using the zoom functionality improved accuracy for small targets. The expansion cursor effectively allowed users to replace one movement to a small target with two movements to larger targets, but this increased acquisition times. In the final experiment, the potential for two movements to larger targets to be more efficient than a single movement was evaluated. Results suggested that two movements are only faster when the smaller single target requires many corrective movements. In conclusion, using movement planning ability has great potential to improve accessibility of acquiring small targets without segregating users. However, introducing choice is unlikely to improve speed, and it is difficult for this choice to be readily available to the user without affecting typical use in some small way.

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  • Exploration of the 3D world on the internet using commodity virtual reality devices

    Tran, Huy Quang

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This thesis describes the development of a graphically interactive and online Virtual Reality (VR) application. Based on keywords provided by users, it automatically retrieves and display stereoscopic contents from the Internet. The system also includes a state-of-the-art feature matching algorithm which can filter stereoscopic contents from “normal” 2D contents. With the main goal of delivering an affordable way of viewing 3D VR contents, the application is designed to be specifically compatible with the low-cost smartphone VR platforms such as Google Cardboard, Google Daydream, and Samsung Gear VR. The experiment results show that the current application prototype is portable, easy-to-use, and effective in retrieving and displaying stereoscopic contents. With this application, users all over the world could easily experience millions of stereoscopic contents on the Internet. It also has a huge potential of becoming a great tool for both VR testing and learning purposes.

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  • Monitoring the countermovement jump throughout a netball season: Potential implications for performance

    Gibbs, Megan

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Netball is a sport which demands high intensity locomotion across the court. As a result, athletes must be physically resilient. While there has been a lot of research on fatigue monitoring and perceived risk of injury, few studies have investigated fatigue in netball and how it influences performance capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between acute chronic workload (ACWL) ratios and the capacity to perform. Eight provincial representative athletes (age = 20 ± 3 years, body mass = 76.2 ± 9.9 kg, height = 179 ± 7cm) volunteered to complete countermovement jump (CMJ) testing twice a week throughout the season, while also monitoring their physical exertion using session rating of perceived exertion (RPE). All data was analysed using R-Studio software. Pearson correlation coefficients, ANCOVA and paired sample t-tests were calculated. The results indicated that relative mean power output significantly increased across the season (p<0.001) both inside and outside the identified 0.8-1.3 ACWL zone. A relationship between each individual’s perceived capacity for performance based on quantifiable fatigue was identified. Practitioner’s should look to implement affordable, and efficient monitoring if it helps to inform future strength and conditioning delivery ultimately improving performances.

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  • New Perspectives on the Chronostratigraphy and Magmatic Evolution of the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    Hopkins, Jenni L. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Understanding the eruptive history of a volcanically active region is critical in assessing the hazard and risk posed by future eruptions. In regions where surface deposits are poorly preserved, and ambiguously sourced, tephrostratigraphy is a powerful tool to assess the characteristics of past eruptions. The city of Auckland, New Zealand’s largest urban centre and home to ca. 1.4 million people, is built on top of the active Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF). The AVF is an intraplate monogenetic basaltic volcanic field, with ca. 53 eruptive centres located in an area of ca. 360 km2. Little is known however, about the evolution of the field because the numerical and relative ages of the eruptions are only loosely constrained, and therefore the precise order of many eruptions is unknown. Here I apply tephrostratigraphic and geochemical techniques to investigate the chronology and magmatic evolution of the AVF eruptions. First, I present an improved methodology for in-situ analysis of lacustrine maar cores from the AVF by employing magnetic susceptibility and X-ray density scanning on intact cores. These techniques are coupled with geochemical microanalysis of the tephra-derived glass shards to reveal details of reworking within the cores. These details not only allow assessment of the deposit relationships within cores (e.g. primary vs. reworked horizons), but also to correlate tephra horizons between cores. Through the correlation of tephra units across cores from a variety of locations across the field, an improved regional tephrostratigraphic framework for the AVF deposits has been established. Following on from this, I detail the methods developed in this study to correlate tephra horizons within the maar cores back to their eruptive source. This technique uses geochemical fingerprinting to link the glass analyses from tephra samples to whole rock compositions. Such an approach has not been previously attempted due to the complications caused by fractional crystallisation, which affects concentrations of certain key elements in whole rock analyses. My method resolves these issues by using incompatible trace elements, which are preferentially retained in melt over crystals, and therefore retain comparable concentrations and concentration ratios between these two types of sample. Because of the primitive nature of the AVF magmas, their trace element signature is largely controlled by the involvement of several distinct mantle sources. This leads to significant variability between the volcanic centres that thus can be used for individually fingerprinting, and correlating tephra to whole rocks. Nevertheless, in some cases geochemistry cannot provide an unambiguous correlation, and a multifaceted approach is required to allow the correlation of the tephra horizons to source. The other criteria used to correlate tephra deposits to their source centre include, Ar-Ar ages of the centres, modelled and calculated ages of the tephra deposits, the scale of eruption, and the deposit locations and thicknesses. The results of this research outline the methodology for assessing occurrence and characteristics of basaltic tephra horizons within lacustrine maar cores, and the methodology for correlating these horizons to their eruptive source. In doing this the relative eruption order of the AVF is accurately determined for the first time. Temporal trends suggest acceleration of eruption repose periods to 21 ka followed by deceleration to present. Although no spatial evolution is observed, coupling of some centres is seen when spatial and temporal evolution are combined. The geochemical signature of the magmas appears to evolve in a cyclic manner with time, incorporating increasing amount of a shallow source. This evolution is seen both during a single eruption sequence and throughout the lifespan of the AVF. Finally, pre-eruptive processes are assessed as part of the study of the magmatic evolution of the AVF. The effects of contamination from the crust and lithosphere through which the magma ascends are evaluated using the Re-Os isotope system. The results show there are variable inputs from crustal sources, which have previously not been identified by traditional isotope systems (e.g. Pb-Sr-Nd isotopes). Two sources of contamination are identified based on their Os systematics relating to two terranes beneath the AVF: the metasedimentary crust and the Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt. The identification of this process suggests there is interaction of ascending melt with the crust, contrary to what previous studies have concluded. This body of research has provided a detailed reconstruction of the chronostratigraphy and magmatic evolution of the AVF to aid accurate and detailed risk assessment of the threat posed by a future eruption from the Auckland Volcanic Field.

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  • Electrical Bioimpedance Measurement as a Tool for Dysphagia Visualization

    Chester CJ; Gaynor PT; Jones RD; Huckabee ML (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    A non-invasive and portable bioimpedance method and a device for detecting superior to inferior closure of the pharynx during swallowing have been developed. The 2-channel device measures electric impedance across the neck at two levels of the pharynx via injected currents at 40 and 70 kHz. The device has been trialled on both healthy and dysphagic subjects. Results from these trials revealed a relationship (r = 0.59) between the temporal separation of the second peaks in the bioimpedance waveforms and descending pressure sequence in the pharynx as measured by pharyngeal manometry. However, these features were only clearly visible in the bioimpedance waveforms for 64% of swallows. Further research is underway to improve the bioimpedance measurement reliability and validate waveform feature correlation to swallowing to maximise the device's efficacy in dysphagia rehabilitation.

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  • Natural hazards, climate change and sea level rise : development strategies for low-lying coastal land in New Zealand : proactive or reactive

    Murphy, Chris (2017-12-29T13:30:14Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Policy 26 of The New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement 2010 requires New Zealand’s central and local government to provide where appropriate for the protection, restoration or enhancement of natural defences that protect coastal land uses from coastal hazards. This includes sites of significant biodiversity, cultural or historic heritage and geological value. With 65% of its inhabitants living within five kilometres of the sea, the country’s well-being remains vulnerable to coastal hazard events including flooding, land instability, tsunami and coastal inundation caused by tidal surges exacerbated by rising sea levels. This paper will research and compare aspects of climate adaptation policies for two such municipal authorities, the Auckland city and the Western Bay of Plenty District Council, as outlined in the natural hazard section of their respective Municipal Planning documents. The former is the largest city within New Zealand, the latter a northern coastal district made up of coastal residential properties and rural farmland. Both jurisdictions share significant challenges from sea level rise bordering low lying coastal land.

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  • Social work and social investment : cutting the connection between cause and consequence

    Kenkel, David (2017-12-28T13:30:32Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    As a profession, social work has always been concerned with both the features of society that cause social deprivation and the consequences of that deprivation; particularly in light of what is known about the impact of poverty and iniquity on measures of well-being that include the capacity to easily do right by one’s children. The art of effective social work is relational; combining skilled intervention at an individual level with acute awareness of, and willingness to challenge, inequitable social forces that can push families to the kinds of dangerous margins that threaten children’s well-being. The International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW), 2016, has this to say about what social work is: Structural barriers contribute to the perpetuation of inequalities, discrimination, exploitation and oppression. The development of critical consciousness through reflecting on structural sources of oppression and/or privilege, on the basis of criteria such as race, class, language, religion, gender, disability, culture and sexual orientation, and developing action strategies towards addressing structural and personal barriers are central to emancipatory practice where the goals are the empowerment and liberation of people. In solidarity with those who are disadvantaged, the profession strives to alleviate poverty, liberate the vulnerable and oppressed, and promote social inclusion and social cohesion As can be seen – an awareness of the impacts of structural inequity and willingness to act on both the impacts and the causes of structural inequity are central to the social work identity. This Summit was proudly supported by Child Poverty Action Group, and the University of Auckland’s Centre for Applied Research in Economics and Retirement Policy and Research Centre

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  • Innovation - How Much Do We Want, or The Tension Between the Demand for Innovation and an Effective Development Process in a Sustainable Business - Goba 2017

    Alexander KV (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • The Internet of Things : implications for learning beyond the classroom

    Reinders, Hayo; Romova, Zina (2017-12-29T13:30:05Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    It is estimated that by 2020 there will be over 50 billion connected devices. This will go beyond cellphones and computers, to include objects such as cars, household appliances, and – as the technology improves – clothes, utensils and all manner of everyday items. What does this have to do with language learning? As with computers and mobile technologies, the implications and uses of these developments for educators and learners may not be obvious, but they are likely to be significant. In this talk I will describe the Internet of Things from a pedagogical point of view, give some examples of emerging implementations and research, and propose three areas of potential impact on our field clustered around affordances relating to mobility, augmentation and ubiquity. I will conclude by identifying possible benefits and drawbacks for teachers and learners, in particular for supporting learning beyond the classroom and its impact on the development of learner autonomy.

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  • Is it working? New Zealand's coastal policy statement and the Auckland Unitary Plan

    Murphy, Chris (2018-01-04T13:30:15Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This paper uses the objectives and policies inherent in the New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement 2010 as a template for benchmarking the adaptation strategies contained in the natural hazards section of the Unitary Plan for Auckland City, New Zealand's largest coastal municipal area. The research assesses through selected criteria and a rating system developed in conjunction with literature studies and stakeholder contribution, the degree to which the coastal hazards section of the plan aligns with the appropriate adaptation policies required by the Coastal Policy Stat ement. A case study tests the effectiveness of the adaptation requirements. Results indicate an appropriate degree of compl iance with the relevant adaptation criteria, but that, in order to minimise future disruption, more attention should be given to the long-term planned withdrawal of housing from hazardous coastal situations.

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