85,985 results

  • Aspects of the quantitative separation and estimation of thiamine and its phosphate esters : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Scott, Paul Noel

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Methods for the separation and estimation of thiamine, thiamine monophosphate and thiamine diphosphate which would be applicable to biological extracts were investigated. Two methods for the estimation of thiamine were compared, the acid dye method and the thiochrome method. The thiochrome method was preferred as the acid dye method was more difficult to perform and some interference by certain amino acids was indicated. As both methods only estimate free thiamine, the optimum conditions for hydrolysis of thiamine phosphate esters by wheat germ acid phosphatase were also investigated. High phosphatase concentrations in the digestion mixture interfered with the extraction of thiochrome, by isobutanol, after oxidation of the free thiamine produced. Variation of the buffer in which the digestion was performed also affected the recoveries obtained. The inclusion of magnesium ions in the digestion mixture increased the activity of the enzyme so that it was possible to use an amount of phosphatase which was low enough to avoid interference with the extraction of thiochrome but which was sufficient to completely hydrolyse thiamine phosphate esters. The presence of magnesium ions also prevented the interference observed when formate rather than acetate buffers were used in the digestion mixture. A variety of separation techniques were investigated. Compared to paper and thin layer chromatography, high voltage paper electrophoresis (at 3kV in pH 3.5 buffer) gave the best and quickest separations. However only a 60% recovery was obtained after samples were eluted from the paper with 0.1M hydrochloric acid. Separation was achieved by elution of the thiochrome derivatives of thiamine, TMP and TDP from Sephadex G10 gel. Recoveries, estimated spectrophotometrically, indicated that this method could be used for the quantitative separation of thiamine and its phosphate esters. However since the method does not allow concentration of samples, it would be unsuitable for the estimation of biological extracts. Separation of thiamine and its esters using three ion exchange resins was also investigated. Partial separation of thiamine and its phosphate esters was obtained with Amberlite GC50 resin, the separation being determined by the form of the resin used. The hydrogen form of the resin allowed separation between TDP and thiamine-TMP while the sodium form separated thiamine from TMP-TDP. Neither form of the resin bound TDP firmly even when water was used as the eluent, so that separation of TDP and TTP would not be possible. Separation was attempted by eluting samples from Dowex 1-X8 resin with formate buffers of increasing ionic strength or pH. While the separation of thiamine, TMP and TDP appeared to be complete, by the elution profile, it was found that sample breakdown occurred. Electrophoresis of the eluted samples showed that the only peak which contained a single component was that corresponding to thiamine. Sample break-down was further indicated by a low recovery obtained when a sample containing only TDP was eluted. Identification of the peak contaminants was attempted using high voltage electrophoresis but proved difficult due to salt retardation affecting the positions of the peak components after electrophoresis. With Dowex 50 resin TDP and TMP were easily separated and eluted with ammonium acetate buffer of varying pH and ionic strength but the elution of thiamine required high pH or ionic strength solutions. Sample breakdown also appeared to occur on elution of samples from the resin. When TMP and TDP were eluted, separation appeared to be complete but a recovery of greater than 100% was obtained for TMP and both eluted compounds exhibited a progressive breakdown after elution. Sample breakdown was particularly notable when thiamine alone was eluted as 2 peaks were eluted and, after oxidation, yellow fluorescent material as well as the usual blue (characteristic of thiochrome) was observed. Characterisation of the yellow fluorescent compound(s) was attempted using electrophoresis, ultra-violet spectra and fluorescent spectra and it was found to be similar, but not identical, to thiamine.

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  • Best practices in rewarding and recognising employee achievements : submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Philosophy, Institute of Technology and Engineering, College of Sciences, Massey University

    Campbell-Allen, Nicola

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Managers and Human Resource professionals are constantly seeking answers to the issue of how best to reward and recognise (R & R)their employees. Whilst there is a raft of international information the need for New Zealand-based research has been identified. The focus of this study is on Reward and Recognition (R & R) practices in New Zealand organisations so that key findings, best practices and/or recommendations in this important area can be identified and shared with other New Zealand organisations. This study involved a three phase methodology (1) a review of international and national literature on R & R, (2) the collection and analysis of quantitative data using an electronic e-mail survey, and (3) the collection and analysis of qualitative data using a structured interview process with eight organisations considered to be best practice. This thesis provides discussion on: • The impetus for this study; • Key themes from the literature; • The development of a model for rewarding and recognising employees; • Quantitative results from the survey. • Qualitative findings from the interview process; and • Key findings for organisations wishing to implement a R & R strategy.

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  • Antibacterial properties of diterpenes and their derivatives : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Microbiology at Massey University

    Nicolson, Kirsty

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Totarol is a diterpene isolated in large quantities from P. totara and a range of other plants, that has been shown to possess significant antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria. It has not been possible to unequivocally determine the mode of action by which this activity occurs. This research aimed to determine the mode of action of the diterpene and study a range of derivatives to elucidate a structure-function relationship for the diterpene to enable directional synthesis of future derivatives possessing increased activity and bioavailability. The antibacterial activity of totarol and 29 derivatives was tested against H.pylori and S. aureus, two significant human pathogens,as representative Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Four compounds were found to possess significant activity against S. aureus, both MRSA and MSSA, although no significant activity was observed against H. pylori. The ability of the derivatives to potentiate the activity of existing β-lactam antibiotics such as methicillin was also investigated for MRSA and E. coli. Seven compounds including totarol were found to potentiate methicillin, one 256-fold, although no potentiation activity was exhibited against E .coli. The incorporation of radiolabelled precursors was used to investigate the effect of totarol on the synthesis of three macromolecules, DNA, protein and peptidoglycan, in MRSA. No primary inhibition was detected, indicating that the mode of action of the diterpene was not inhibition of synthesis of any of these macromolecules. The effect of totarol on the cellular respiration of MRSA was also investigated, showing 70 % inhibition of respiration at MIC levels, and complete inhibition of respiration at five times that concentration. It was therefore concluded that this was the most likely primary antibacterial effect of the compound. The effect of totarol on the production of PBP 2a, an important protein in theβ- lactam resistance mechanism of MRSA, was also investigated using a novel, non-radioactive labelling procedure to detect the protein. However, although a variety of strategies were employed to detect the protein, none were successful, and the experiment set aside until the arrival of anti-PBP 2a antibody for use in another strategy. Future work on this project that could be undertaken includes determination of the effect of the derivatives on cellular respiration under potentiation conditions, determination of the component(s) of the respiratory chain affected by totarol, and the investigation of the effect of the diterpene on PBP 2a production and function using antibody to detect the protein.

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  • The [beta]-lactamases of the marine genus Photobacterium : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Microbiology at Massey University

    Lamb, Susan Elizabeth

    Thesis
    Massey University

    All naturally occurring isolates of all five species of the marine genus Photobacterium have β-lactamase activity. In this study, the β-lactamase from the laboratory strain P. leiognathi 206 is fully characterised. The enzyme is constitutive and is released from the cell by osmotic shocking techniques, suggesting a periplasmic location. The enzyme is maximally active at pH 6.2 and has over 90% maximum activity at pH 7.0. The hydrolytic activity of the β-lactamase is independent of zinc ion presence. On the basis of substrate profile and inhibition studies the β-lactamase is classified as a Richmond and Sykes Class II enzyme. Crypticity tests indicated that there is no outer membrane permeability barrier to β-lactam substrates. Comparative substrate profiles performed with the β-lactamases from three strains of each species of Photobacterium, indicate that the enzymes from strains of P. leiognathi, P. angustum and P. phosphoreum are active only on penicillins, whereas those from P. fischeri and P. logei also hydrolyze cephalosporins. This division is in agreement with an imminent taxonomic change for the latter two species. Analytical iso-electric focusing of the β-lactamases from 45 Photobacterium strains resulted in pI values which were not necessarily species specific and there was little correlation between the pI of the β-lactamase and its substrate profile, excepting the enzymes from P. angustum and P. logei. Although plasmid DNA is present in many Photobacterium strains, conjugative transfer of β-lactamase activity from six different Photobacterium donors to a restrictionless Escherichia coli mutant was not observed. All attempts to 'cure' the bacteria of β-lactamase activity with five different curing agents, were also unsuccessful. A chromosomal location for the β1a+ gene is postulated.

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  • [Beta]-hydroxy-[beta]-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation of resistance trained men : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Nutritional Science at Massey University

    Thomson, Jasmine Sarah

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A randomised double-blind placebo controlled study design was used to investigate the effects of supplementing 34 resistance trained men (RTM) with 3g/d of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate or a cornstarch placebo on strength and body composition over a 9 week supplementation period. At the beginning of the study period, questionnaires were given to each participant. Prior to and following the period of supplementation; anthropometric measurements were taken, including 8 skinfold sites, height, and body weight; body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis: strength was assessed using 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing on the leg extension, bench press, and preacher curl apparatus; and food intakes were assessed using 3-day dietary records. During the supplementation period, all participants completed the same resistance training programme and physical activity was assessed using training log book records. Prior to the supplementation period, a significant difference was found between the two supplementation groups for initial body mass indices (BMI: HMB 26.2 ± 0.8; Placebo 22.8 ± 0.9, P=0.0I4). There was no significant difference found between the HMB and Placebo supplemented groups for any other baseline anthropometric (P>0.056). or strength measurements (P>0.583). Over the study duration there was no significant difference found in number of training sessions between the two supplemented groups (P>0.056). Following the supplementation period there was no significant change in anthropometric measurements (P>0.095). nor actual strength (P>0.086) over the study duration. However, percent change in leg extension strength increased significantly more for the HMB-supplemented group than the placebo group (LE: HMB 14.7 ± 3.69% Placebo 4.84 ± 2.8%, P=0.04l). During the supplementation period there was a significant difference found between the dietary intakes of some nutrients between the supplementation groups.The HMB group tended to consume a greater percent of energy from carbohydrates, and had a higher maltose intake. The HMB group had a lower percent of energy from fats in the diet, and consumed lower average cholesterol intake than the placebo group (P <0.047). Several study participants failed to meet the recommended dietary intakes for adult New Zealanders of certain nutrients. The average intakes of energy front carbohydrates, intakes of vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin B6. potassium, magnesium, calcium, and selenium were low for some participants. The conclusion of this study was that there was no beneficial effect of HMB supplementation on body composition in resistance trained humans, however there was a significant increase found in leg extension strength with HMB supplementation in response to resistance exercise over the 9 week supplementation period.

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  • Bending creep of corrugated fibreboard in cycling relative humidity : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Agricultural Engineering at Massey University

    McKenzie, Andrew David

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Packaging of fresh fruit for export is a major use for corrugated fibreboard manufactured in New Zealand. However the cold and humid conditions used to preserve fruit quality are particularly detrimental to the strength of corrugated packaging. The main objective of this study was to develop a method to measure the performance of corrugated fibreboard in high and cycling relative humidity environments. This method was then used to compare the performance of three corrugated fibre-boards 1 For commercial reasons these will be referred to as 'CB1', 'CB2'and 'CB3' The creep performance of corrugated fibreboard was measured by subjecting samples to four point bending stress under controlled cyclic relative humidity conditions using a computer controlled testing apparatus. A mathematical model by Urbanik (1995) and an empirical exponential model were reviewed before selecting a three term model developed by Pecht (1985) to describe the deflection of the corrugated board. Cyclic relative humidity accelerated the rate of creep compared to a static high humidity environment. The rate of creep in the machine direction was found to be considerably lower than that in the cross machine direction. It was also found that increasing the peak relative humidity from 80% to 90% RH dramatically changed the deflection response. This provides a solution to conflicting data in the literature on relative humidity cycling effects. Isochronous deflection curves were used to compare the creep performance of the corrugated fibreboard samples in an environment cycling between 50% and 90% RH. Corrugated fibreboard sample CB1 had a slightly lower creep stiffness than corrugated boards CB2 (p=0.0580, n=8) and CB3 (p=0.0398, n=8). However a greater number of tests would be required on a wider range of samples to conclusively determine if there were differences in board performance.

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  • The alternative uses of disused dairy factories in Taranaki : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    O'Donnell, Christine Anne

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Small local dairy factories have long been a part of New Zealand's dairying heritage. No longer profitable in their original use, subsequent redundancy and abandonment has seen the appearance of the "disused dairy factory" in the rural landscape. In disuse these buildings find their greatest asset for potential reuse. As existing capital stock, these disused dairy factories manifest potential opportunities for enterprises other than dairying, to establish alternative uses. As a product of the past, the phenomenon of dairy factory reuse represents a change in use to meet the demands of the present. The extent to which this has been achieved, and how this pattern can be explained, evidences the interaction of past and present forces in effecting a potential future for these buildings.

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  • An approach to the "terrible sonnets" of Gerard Manley Hopkins : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English at Massey University

    McKenzie, John L

    Thesis
    Massey University

    In contrast to those critics who examine Hopkins primarily in terms of the Exercise of St. Ignatius Loyola, this thesis proposes that Hopkins can usefully be examined in terms of certain Greek and Victorian contexts. The drive for unity, fruitfulness and wholeness which seems to characterize much of Hopkins' poetry may be represented as a Victorian phenomenon as well as Greek. Hopkins' early poetry seems to capture the unique experience whereby multitudinousness (the tendency to fragmentation) is "held fast" in the instressing of God in Nature. It is the world of "Pied Beauty", where dappled complexity is united in the One whose "beauty is past change". The perception of this Being is the act of instress. This concept of reality, it is proposed, derives from Parmenidean epistemology. Unity for Parmenides is indivisible, timeless, motionless and complete, fixed in the present world. The "hurrahing" side of Hopkins' poetry derives from this notion. However, in the "terrible sonnets" one can observe the horror of disintegration, both personal and universal. The most complete statement of this fear is the sonnet "The Nature is a Heraditean Fire and of the Comfort of the Resurrection" where change, as opposed to permanence, is inscaped for us. Through imaginary of fire, drowning and death, Hopkins expresses the anguished realization that God is outside nature, beyond the present. This reorientation is appropriately expressed in terms of Heraclitean epistemology. Hence it is useful to examine the development of Hopkins' poetry as a movement from a Parmenidean to a Heraclitean view of reality (mindful of certain qualifications.) Appropriately, in terms of the Greek analogy, the pathway in this transition is the pathway of self-examination. At this point we are confronted by the Victorian parallel as concern about a meaningful, coherent universe is projected into an uncertainty about the value of the self. In the "terrible sonnets" there is recorded the self-examination of the poet Hopkins, the despair of "inscaping" the self : "I am gall, I am heartburn". Indeed, the sonnets can be seen to trace the classic descent/ascent pattern. The whole development of Hopkins' poetry in these terms is structurally reflected in the Heraclitean sonnet, such that the vision of the poem may indeed be Hopkins' final stance. Hope for permanence and unity can only be found in the future : the Resurrection is not a comfort for the present. The final dilemma for Hopkins then is the problem of Time and the significance of Man. The "significant moment" for Hopkins was the Resurrection; the now was a world of impermanence, night, flux and conflict, both personal and universal.

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  • The amino acid sequence of the tryptic peptides of the f1 bacteriophage coat protein : a thesis submitted to Massey University of the Manawatu in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry

    Richardson, Barry Charles

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Five major peptides were isolated by paper electrophoresis from a tryptic digestion of purified fl bacteriophage coat protein. The amino acid composition of the peptides was determined and shown to be:- T1 Ala2, Glu1, Asp2, Pro1, G1yl, Lys1. T2 Al1, Ser1.T3 Phe1, Thr1, Ser1, Lys1. T4 Leu1, Phe1, Lys1. T5 Lys1. Sequential degradation of the intact fl coat protein using the Edman technique showed the N-terminal sequence to be:- Ala - Glu - Gly - Asp - Asp - T1:- The sequence of the tryptic peptide T1 indicated it was derived from the N-terminal of the protein and was assigned the sequence:- Ala - Glu - Gly - Asp - Asp - (Pro1,Ala1) - Lys. T2:- After two cycles of the Edman degradation reaction the sequence of T2 was shown to be:- Ala - Ser Digestion of the intact f1 coat protein with carboxypeptidase A indicated T2 was the C-terminal peptide since carboxypeptidase A showed the C-terminal sequence to be:- - Lys - Ala - Ser T3:- Thin peptide was shown to have the sequence:- Phe - Thr - Ser - Lys T4:- This peptide was assigned the sequence Leu - Phe - Lys T5:- T5was shown be a free Lys residue.

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  • An appraisal of the SMART Board for collaborative learning : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Computer Science at Massey University

    Mohanarajah, Thevalojinie

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Being a potential learning paradigm for the current decade, Computer Supported Collaborative Learning will blossom with the support of hardware technologies such as digital whiteboards along with suitable software. We investigated the effectiveness of a kind of digital whiteboard (SMART Board) for supporting collaborative learning. Our study reveals that the key features necessary for group learning such as floor control mechanism and interaction guidance are not supported by the current SMART board software We designed and implemented software to overcome the important drawbacks of the existing systems which includes facilities to guide written and verbal contribution during the learning with the help of mini-vocabulary and to manage floor control.

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  • Developing graduate employability skills and attributes: Curriculum enhancement through work-integrated learning

    Rowe, Anna D.; Zegwaard, Karsten E. (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Work-integrated learning (WIL) is considered a key strategy for promoting graduate employability. Graduate employability is a complex concept, one which has broadened in recent years to encapsulate a diverse range of skills, attributes, and other measures such as networks, professional-identity and active citizenship. This special issue presents recent scholarship on WIL and employability, addressing the question of how WIL contributes to enhancing employability outcomes for students and graduates. The importance of embedding WIL experiences in the curriculum so they are effectively supported by appropriate pedagogical strategies is emphasized, as well as the provision of quality assessment to support employability outcomes. Such supports, while critical, have resourcing implications for higher education, including impacts on staff workload which also need to be considered. Employability is considered in relation to the related construct of employment outcomes, pointing to ways in which these two perspectives can be better integrated. Recommendations are made for future research.

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  • Large-scale automatic species identification

    Mo, Jeff; Frank, Eibe; Vetrova, Varvara (2017)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    The crowd-sourced Naturewatch GBIF dataset is used to obtain a species classification dataset containing approximately 1.2 million photos of nearly 20 thousand different species of biological organisms observed in their natural habitat. We present a general hierarchical species identification system based on deep convolutional neural networks trained on the NatureWatch dataset. The dataset contains images taken under a wide variety of conditions and is heavily imbalanced, with most species associated with only few images. We apply multi-view classification as a way to lend more influence to high frequency details, hierarchical fine-tuning to help with class imbalance and provide regularisation, and automatic specificity control for optimising classification depth. Our system achieves 55.8% accuracy when identifying individual species and around 90% accuracy at an average taxonomy depth of 5.1—equivalent to the taxonomic rank of “family”—when applying automatic specificity control.

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  • The "Paradox of Diversity": economic evidence from US cities 1980-2010

    Ratna, Nazmun N.; Grafton, R. Q.; To, H.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    We evaluate the economic significance of linguistic barriers to communication in 226 US cities from 1980 to 2010. We address the question: to what extent to linguistic across social groups inhibit the benefits of knowledge exchange? The empirical results show that linguistic, racial and composite diversity increase the average income of working age population in American cities. This positive effect of diversity, however, diminishes the higher is the proportion of foreign-born population who lack English fluency. We call this the "paradox of diversity". Overall, our findings provide important policy insights about how social diversity may enhance economic performance within cities.

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  • Connectionist methods for data analysis and modelling of human motion in sporting activities

    Bačić, Boris (2013-06-07)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research concerns automation of qualitative analysis of human motion in sports, using a novel approach related to assessment and diagnostics, which is required to provide a general user with coaching experience in next generations of motion capture video games or sport coaching software. The research comprises a framework hereinafter referred to as augmented coaching systems (ACS) and its critical components. In contrast to formative assessing of knowledge of results, which is based on predefined objective criteria, a qualitative approach to assessing knowledge of performance is linked to the questions: (1) Can qualitative assessment be automated?; (2) If so, how can such assessment be communicated from a machine to a human?; and (3) Can qualitative assessment automation be similar to human implicit, multifaceted, empirical, evolving and subjective criteria? An investigative development approach was used for automating human motion assessment. The assessment of qualitative nature incorporated a mix of objectives – such as subjective, objective, and flexible pre-defined criteria similar to a domain expert or coach. The methods of analysis and machine learning techniques included: learning-by-example from expert’s data; integrative visualisation/replay functionality for qualitative analysis and machine learning modelling; modelling and analysis utilising relatively small and larger unbalanced motion data sets; modular implementation of common-sense descriptive rules mapped to diagnostic outputs; and sub-space modelling and temporal and spatial feature extraction techniques. The introduced ACS framework is generic and it includes a critical analysis applicable to more than one sport discipline. The ACS architecture is modular, extendible and its machine learning system supports global, coaching scenario specific, personalised, evolving, and life-long learning. Using captured motion data sets representing novices towards advanced skill levels in two case studies (golf and tennis), a series of experimental modelling systems integral to ACS were developed for testing and validation using empirical, subjective, and flexible criteria. The results achieved on small and on relatively large unbalanced data sets produced human- intelligible diagnostic outputs in a qualitative fashion. The machine learning diagnostic outputs were similar to those produced by visual assessment of a tennis coach (81% ... 99.9%) and to those produced by objective measures from an embedded motion capture system in a golf club, resulting in 89.5 ±2.6%. Flexible assessment criteria were demonstrated by comparing the two different assessments for tennis swing stances that were based on different subjective criteria operating on the same motion data set using the same assessment system. The ACS framework, and developed software components for the next generation of intelligent ACS using subjective and flexible criteria, is novel in the field. This thesis has demonstrated that qualitative assessment can be automated, that assessment diagnostics can be communicated from a machine to human and that coaching insights as implicit knowledge can be modelled using connectionist and evolving connectionist approaches.

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  • The Elephant in the Room: The Accidental Prostitution of Hospitality Service Workers

    Waudy, B; Poulston, J

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    This study investigates sexual harassment in hospitality work, by interviewing women working in customer service roles. It explores their experiences and views on sexual harassment in hospitality service work. Semi-structured interviews were used to understand the relationship between women's experiences and their views of harassing behaviours, as well as influences on the incidence of harassment. Findings showed that participants cooperated with harassing behaviours because of their role view, and that older women were less prone to harassment, mostly because they were more skilled at rejecting unwanted advances. The study concludes by outlining management's responsibility to prevent harassment by recognising the assumptions implicit in servers' roles. These assumptions effectively prostitute the innate skills of young women who are keen to please management and customers, but not at the risk of assault and abuse.

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  • On the Economics of Trade Agreements: Who Gains and Who Loses?

    Sen, R

    Unclassified
    Auckland University of Technology

    No abstract.

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  • Applications of near-surface geophysics in the search for graves in Maori urupa

    Bateman, Leah (2003)

    Bachelors with Honours thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Maori urupa (burial grounds) are culturally significant sites that demand appropriate sensitivity and respect. Due to the loss of oral records some locations of the older graves are no longer known. Therefore, non-invasive, non-destructive, near-surface geophysical techniques have been applied at two urupa on Banks Peninsula in an attempt to delineate the position of the unmarked graves. Prior knowledge that Maori graves are traditionally aligned facing east aided in survey design. The sites were surveyed using shallow electromagnetic (EM), magnetometer/gradiometer and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) techniques. There was some data processing carried out. Geological factors and cultural noise (such as fences, trees and reinforced concrete) degraded the quality of some of the individual data sets. However, conducting a multi-parameter geophysical survey enabled the objectives to be achieved. It is believed that this method was successful in delineating the likely positions of the unmarked graves at Koukourarata and Wairewa. However, due to the sensitive nature of the site excavations to confirm geophysical findings are not appropriate. There were clusters of graves identified in one area at Koukourarata. A further area of interest was highlighted as a possible locality for graves at this site. At Wairewa, anomalies were present in clear rows, indicating the probable positions of unmarked graves.

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  • Transition engineering: Adaptation of complex systems for survival

    Krumdieck S (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper puts forward a simple idea describing the time, space and relationship scales of survival. The proposed survival spectrum concept represents a new way to think about sustainability that has clear implications for influencing engineering projects in all fields. The argument for the survival spectrum is developed sequentially, building on theory, definition, examples and history. The key idea is that sustainability will be effectively addressed in engineering as a further development of the field of safety engineering with longer time scale, broader space scale, and more complex relationship scale. The implication is that the past 100-year development of safety engineering can be leveraged to fast track the inclusion of sustainability risk management across the engineering professions. The conclusion is that a new, all-disciplinary field, transition engineering, will emerge as the way our society will realise reduction in fossil fuel use and reduction in detrimental social and environmental impacts of industrialisation. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

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  • The storied experience of foster carers’ own children.

    Smith, Morgan A. (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Foster carer’s own children (FCOC) have proven to be contributing members of the foster care team that can affect the success of placements, yet there is limited research on their experience. This thesis describes a study that explores how foster carers’ own children narrate their experience of foster care using a qualitative approach. Two female and two male participants aged 20-24 were recruited by self-selection through fostering support agencies from the Canterbury region, and interviewed about their retrospective fostering experiences. Narrative analysis informed the method and the interviews were analysed using narrative performance analysis with thematic underpinnings. The themes that emerged within and across the narratives were consistent with the existing literature, yet the narrative analysis discovered nuances that have previously been overlooked. Seven overarching narrative themes were present across the four interviews: ‘fostering was the carer’s altruistic choice’, perspectives of FCOC change over time, ‘fostering became the family’s main focus’, foster children were perceived as active agents by FCOC, ‘foster agencies still have work to do’ in order to improve the experience for families, FCOC believe that their parents deserve to be treated better by society and the system, and lastly that fostering is not a vocation any of the participants will be choosing in the future. The performance analysis additionally discovered three roles performed by FCOC during the interviews, the ‘objecting’ role, ‘parental child’ role, and ‘good person’ role. Implications of the findings and recommendations for the future are suggested in the discussion, including providing more support for FCOC and consideration of their needs to improve their experience and contribute further to the care that they provide foster children.

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  • Quantitative susceptibility mapping and cognitive impairment in Parkinson ’s disease.

    Small, James (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Excess iron deposition in the substantia nigra (SN) has been linked to Parkinson’s disease (PD). Increased iron deposition may also be associated with PD duration and worsening motor impairment. Iron deposition in the SN and the almost inevitable progression to dementia in PD has not yet been investigated. Furthermore the link between PD with normal cognition (PD-N), those with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and dementia (PDD) and excess iron deposition in key grey matter nuclei of the basal ganglia (BG) other than the SN may be even more pertinent. In this thesis, I use a non-invasive, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methodology called quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) to indirectly estimate iron deposition in these grey matter nuclei and determine whether QSM values are associated with cognitive impairments in PD. A total of 121 subjects were recruited for this study. Extensive neuropsychological testing was used to characterize participants. Of these 31 were PD-N, 56 were PD-MCI, 10 were PDD and 24 were age and sex matched healthy controls (HCs). Subjects were imaged using a multi-echo spoiled gradient echo. QSM was reconstructed from the raw images using non-linear morphology enabled dipole inversion and Laplacian boundary value background field removal. QSM values were extracted from the BG and red nucleus (RN) using two separate segmentations. Bayesian multi-level regression models were used to (1) test for differences between HCs and PD as a whole in each region of interest (ROI), and (2) to investigate any association between QSM values and cognitive impairment. Finally a whole brain analysis was performed to assess group differences on a voxel-by-voxel association between QSM values and cognitive score. Relative to controls, the PD group showed significantly higher QSM values in the SNc. There were no significant group differences in QSM values across the other basal ganglia structures investigated. For the category analysis the left SNc for PD-N was the only significant difference observed. There was a weak positive correlation between the right RN and cognitive score with no other nuclei having any significant correlation. Whole brain analyses revealed no significant differences between the groups or association with cognition. In this thesis, I confirmed that increased QSM, and hence iron accumulation, in SNc in PD is a robust finding, consistent with previous imaging and pathological studies on PD, however this finding was limited to the ROI analysis. It appears from the evidence we have gathered that iron deposition does not affect cognitive functioning. In conclusion, this thesis established QSM in a population of PD patients. While the group association agreed with past studies this thesis hints a number of possible improvements and new directions to further investigate cognition and QSM.

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