89,525 results

  • The effects of different forms of exercise on body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in previously sedentary females : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Exercise Physiology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Barr, Amy Catherine

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Thirty-five healthy females between the ages of 18 and 45 who had not undertaken any training for at least two months prior to the experiment were studied to determine the effects of six weeks of 'Pump It' aerobics or walking training on body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness, expressed as estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Twelve of the volunteers participated in 'Pump It' aerobics while eleven took part in walking training. The remaining twelve subjects served as controls. Prior to the training programme, subjects were assessed for their current levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition (fitness test 1). Testing was repeated at the conclusion of the training period (fitness test 2). Estimated VO2max was determined from heart rate and oxygen uptake during a submaximal treadmill-walking test. This method was validated in a preliminary experiment. Oxygen consumption during 'Pump It' was overestimated by approximately 0.38L/min using the HR/VO2 relationship obtained during treadmill walking. This was taken into account for the calculation of VO2 in Experiment 2. Body composition was evaluated from the sum of five skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, abdomen, thigh) and the sum of six circumferences (forearm, upper arm, waist, hips, thigh and calf). Data were analysed using one factor ANOVA and regression analysis. The training programmmes consisted of three 55-60 minute sessions a week. Massey University 'Pump It' aerobics consisted of a variety of traditional weight training exercises performed using light weights and high repetitions to music. Walking training involved brisk walking as a group, in and around the Massey University, Turitea Campus. Six weeks of 'Pump It' and Walking training failed to produce significant improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition compared with the Control group. There were no significant changes in body mass, the sum of skinfolds or the sum of circumferences. It was concluded that the length of the fitness programmes were too short to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and the training intensity of 'Pump It' and Walking were insufficient to improve body composition.

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  • The effect of leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) on bovine embryo development in vitro : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Animal Science at Massey University

    Margawati, Endang Tri

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) either during in vitro maturation (IVM) or in vitro culture (IVC) on bovine embryo development. Three main experiments were conducted using oocytes aspirated from 2-8 mm diameter follicles collected from cows slaughtered at local abattoirs, Hamilton. The oocytes were matured in a modified TCM-199 containing 10 µ/ml of FSH and LH, and 1 µg/ml E2, fertilised in TALP and cultured in SOF/AA/BSA. Experiment 1 examined the effect of LIF (0, 500, 1000 or 2000 U/ml) and various time periods of IVM (18, 22 or 28 h), in a 4 × 3 factorial design on oocyte maturation. Following maturation, oocytes were stripped out of cumulus cells, then denuded oocytes were stained in 1% lacmoid for determination of maturation stage while the cumulus cells were examined for the incidence of apoptosis by observation of DNA fragmentation using gel electrophoresis procedures. Experiment 2 comprised two parts, (a) the effect of LIF (0, 500, 1000 or 2000 U/ml) at 24 h IVM in a randomised block design on in vitro development of embryos, (b) comparison of 20 vs 24 h IVM in the presence of LIF (0, 500, 1000 or 2000 U/ml) in a 2 × 4 factorial experiment on embryo development. In the two studies, the proportion of bovine oocytes that cleaved and developed to blastocyst stage was recorded. In addition, cell numbers of blastocysts after Giemsa staining were counted. Experiment 3 examined the effect of LIF during IVM (0 vs 1000 U/ml) or IVC (0, 500, 1000 or 2000 U/ml) in a 2 × 4 factorial design on development of embryos. The incidence of cleavage and blastocyst development and cell numbers of blastocysts were recorded. In addition, blastocysts were further categorised into early, expanded and hatched blastocyst stages and cell numbers of blastocyst inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) after differential staining with Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide were determined. In Experiment One, an interaction of LIF concentration and duration of IVM was not observed for the proportion of immature oocytes reaching metaphase II (P>0.05). The presence of LIF (500, 1000 or 2000 U/ml) increased the proportion of oocytes at metaphase II at 18 h (50%, 52% or 58%, respectively, compared to without LIF= 27%), indication that LIF may accelerate the maturation process in vitro. Supplementation of LIF during IVM did not affect the incidence of apoptosis of the cumulus cells. In Experiment Two, compared to 24 h IVM in the presence of LIF, 20 h IVM significantly increased blastocyst rates (Σ blastocysts : Σ cleaved, P0.05), however the data show that treatment groups of 20 h IVM in LIF resulted in higher cell numbers of blastocysts than achieved by 24 h IVM. In Experiment Three, there was a correlation between LIF during IVM and LIF during IVC in the proportion of blastocysts (P0.05). However, blastocysts derived from oocytes matured without LIF had significantly increased cell numbers (121 cells) compared to those matured in 1000 U/ml LIF (109 cells, P0.05). However, a concentration of 2000 U/ml LIF during IVC accelerated blastocyst development with more blastocysts hatching (60%, P0.05). A concentration of 1000 U/ml LEF during IVC resulted in higher cell numbers of ICM (P<0.05). This study suggests that LIF of 500, 1000 or 2000 U/ml increased the proportion of metaphase II bovine oocytes and even reduced the time course of IVM. Supplementation of LIF during IVM may suppress the incidence of apoptosis of the cumulus cells. IVM for 20 h in the presence of LIF resulted in a higher number of blastocysts and 1000 U/ml LIF during IVM and culture in LIF increased the proportion of blastocysts. A higher concentration of LIF is required for reaching the hatched blastocyst stage. A level of 1000 U/ml LIF during IVC promoted higher cell numbers of ICM.

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  • A database with enterprise application for mining astronomical data obtained by MOA : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of the Master of Information Science in Computer Science, Massey University at Albany, Auckland, New Zealand

    Xu, Huawei

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The MOA (Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics) Project is one of a new generation of modern astronomy endeavours that generates huge volumes of data. These have enormous scientific data mining potential. However, it is common for astronomers to deal with millions and even billions of records. The challenge of how to manage these large data sets is an important case for researchers. A good database management system is vital for the research. With the modern observation equipments used, MOA suffers from the growing volume of the data and a database management solution is needed. This study analyzed the modern technology for database and enterprise application. After analysing the data mining requirements of MOA, a prototype data management system based on MVC pattern was developed. Furthermore, the application supports sharing MOA findings and scientific data on the Internet. It was tested on a 7GB subset of achieved MOA data set. After testing, it was found that the application could query data in an efficient time and support data mining.

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  • Effects of genotype and environment on the sprouting propensity and other grain characters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Plant Science at Massey University

    Cross, Richard J.

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Sprouting damage nay occur when wet weather initiates germination processes in unharvested grain, with subsequent deterioration in breadmaking quality. It is a potential hazard to wheat growing regions throughout the world, e.g. Europe (Olered, 1967; Belderok, 1968), Australia (Moss, et al., 1972) and New Zealand (Sanders, 1974; McEwan, 1976a). Seed dormancy is usually accepted as being related in some way to resistance to sprouting damage (e.g. Belderok, 1968a); that is, dormancy may be associated with lack of catabolic processes in the endosperm (Ching, 1972; Leshem, 1973; Villiers, 1972). Several enzymes initiated during the germination process are involved in the degradation of the starch and protein of the endosperm. These enzymes include alpha-amylase, which break the branch chain amylopectin starch molecules to dextrins and amylases, and beta-amylase which degrade these smaller compounds to low molecular weight dextrins and maltose (Kent-Jones and Amos, 1967; Pyler, 1969). Beta-amylase is present in the sound grain but its activity is restricted, as there are relatively few exo-groups at which this enzyme is capable of hydrolysing (Kent-Jones and Amos, 1967; Pyler, 1969). Alpha-amylase appears a major factor in starch dextrinisation, and levels of this enzyme relate to the degree of sprout damage (Johansson, 1976; Olered, 1967; Moss et al., 1972). Other enzymes may also be involved in early germination, such as proteolytic enzymes (Gordon, 1975; Kruger, 1976). In sprout damaged wheat, the increased level of starch dextrinisation results in an inferior loaf (Olered, 1967; Pyler, 1967; Moss et al., 1972). The loaf is reduced in volume, has a grey and sticky crumb, and a dark crust colour (Olered, 1967; Kent-Jones and Amos, 1968; Pyler, 1969; McDermott, 1971). Sprout damaged grain may also have a lighter bushel or test weight (Ghaderi and Everson, 1971; Fouler and de la Roche, 1975), and lowered milling yield (Belderok, 1968; McEwan, 1959). [From Introduction]

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  • Effects of a 50 Hz magnetic field on human visual duration discrimination and recognition memory : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Abbott, Jeana D

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the direct and delayed effects of a sinusoidal 100 μ;T, 50 Hz intermittent magnetic field on human performance measures. Eighty participants (aged 19-53) completed the experiment which involved a visual duration discrimination task and a recognition memory task. Initially all participants completed the study phase of the recognition memory task in which 40 abstract shapes were presented in a random order. A two alternative forced choice visual duration discrimination task followed in which participants had to decide which of two consecutive light flashes was longer in duration. The duration discrimination task had only one hard level of difficulty over the 200 trials with a standard flash duration of 50 ms paired with an alternative hard flash duration of 65 ms. During the duration discrimination task, 40 participants were sham exposed while the remaining 40 were exposed to a 100 μT, 50 Hz magnetic field. Participants were randomly assigned to either the sham or exposure groups and the study was conducted under double-blind procedures. Reaction time and percentage of correct decisions were recorded during a total exposure time lasting approximately 11 minutes. The two alternative forced choice recognition memory testing phase was then conducted in which participants viewed 40 pairs of abstract shapes, each pair presented for six seconds. Participants had to decide which of the two shapes (left or right) they had previously seen during the study phase. In addition, participants had to rate their confidence in each of the 40 decisions on a four point rating scale (1 = very sure to 4 = unsure). Both percentage of correct decisions and confidence ratings were recorded for each participant Participants were only exposed to the magnetic field during the visual duration discrimination task. The results of an earlier investigation were unsupported as the present results found no field-effects between sham and exposure groups on both measures of reaction time and percentage of correct decisions during the visual duration discrimination task. However, a reduction in the percentage of correct decisions and confidence during the recognition memory task was observed for participants who had been previously exposed to a magnetic field. Differences in experimental parameters and insufficient power render comparisons with other human magnetic field studies impossible. The need for exact replication studies with maximum design sensitivity was discussed within the context of a research field that is to produce small effect sizes.

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  • The effect of nitrogen management and paddock history on growth and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Plant Science at Massey University

    Shuhaimen bin Ismail

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A field experiment was conducted during spring 1983/1984 at four adjacent sites on marginal the cropping soil Tokomaru silt loam to study the effect of nitrogen management and paddock history on growth and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. Magnum. Six nitrogen treatments were tested in three replications in a randomised complete block design at each site. The treatments were no-N (control), 60 kg N/ha either applied at sowing, growth stage (G.S.) 3, G.S.6 or equally split between G.S.3 and G.S.6 and a higher rate based on soil test results (70-90 kg N/ha depending on site) applied at sowing. Site histories were immediately out of pasture and previously cropped with barley for 1 , 2 and 3 years. Crop nitrogen status was monitored by nitrate sap test and plant analysis. Control plot yield decreased almost linearly from 5.78t/ha directly out of pasture to 3.55 t/ha on the site previously cropped for three years. This indicated that regular cropping without fertiliser nitrogen on this soil could substantially reduce the yield of barley. Application of nitrogen significantly increased yield over control at all sites. The response in the first year of cropping was probably because of the low accumulation of nitrogen during the pasture phase on this soil. Average yield of plots receiving nitrogen were similar for the first two year of cropping (7.09 and 6.86 t/ha respectively) but declined rapidly for the third and fourth year of cropping (5.90 and 5.94 t/ha respectively). Plots receiving the high nitrogen rate were also unable to maintain yield as cropping increased. The yield decline could have been caused by deteriorated soil physical conditions under continuous cropping. Maintaining adequate nitrogen toward later stages of growth by late or split application was found to be as effective as applying the higher nitrogen rate at sowing especially as soil fertility reduced. Ear density was the main component affecting yield. Grain number/ear was also an important yield component for crop grown under lower fertility and was increased when nitrogen was applied at sites cropped for 3 and 4 years. There was differences between predicted yield based on soil test results and actual yield of control plots across the sites. Sap nitrate concentration showed a good relationship with total nitrogen analysis. Both measurements of plant nitrogen at earlier stages of growth were related to the yield. Highest yield (7t/ha) was found to be associated with 4.5% total nitrogen and >6000ppm sap nitrate concentration at about G.S.3.

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  • The effect of increased part-charges on the health-seeking behaviours of Group 3 workers and their families : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Arts (social policy) at Massey University

    Haas, M. Beth

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is about health, change and user charges. In 1991 New Zealand embarked in a new direction for the funding of health services, including extensive use of a targeting regime in which 'those that can afford' social services were paying more so that those who could not were paying less. For the 'high-income' families classified as Group 3, this meant that part charges at point of service were increased at all levels of health services. Concerns immediately arose that the income levels had been set too low and would create financial barriers for some 'high-income' families, particularly those on the margin. This thesis explores the demand response of 129 families in Group 3 to the new charges imposed by the Interim Targeting Regime. The survey population is characterised by high incomes and insurance coverage across income levels. Through a nonrandom survey methodology based on the opinions and perceptions of the user community (Group 3 workers and their families), over one-quarter of the survey families reported health services demand being diverted from allopathic medical services. However, even though 25% reported demand diversion, only 11% of families reporting lowered health status. The study also looked at diversion from conventional medicine to alternatives including self-treatment, seeking advice from a chemist, complementary therapies or changing lifestyle habits. The data did not suggest diversion to alternatives equal to the reduction of conventional medical services. Through the use of nonparametric statistical techniques, characteristics of the survey population were analysed in an attempt to begin untangling a complex web of factors affecting the survey population's health services demand when faced with increases in price. Factors included in this study were income level, insurance coverage, health status, gender, family size and composition . Various subsamples of the survey population reported different effects and different magnitudes of demand diversion. The differences between insured and uninsured families were particularly marked. Evidence provided by the user community implicates a high degree of moral hazard within the insured subsample. The study suggests further research on the influence on moral hazard in meeting the stated goals of the reforms. Because the study is nonrandom and exploratory, any claim of representativeness would be unwarranted. However, the study suggests that the attributes of high incomes and insurance coverage may be inherent to Group 3. To more accurately assess the representativeness of any research on the effects of the increase in part charges on Group 3, the study proposes a further clarification of the specific attributes of the families belonging in the Group 3 category is necessary. Finally, the study questions the adequacy of the targeting regime and the increase in part charges for meeting the objectives set out by the health reformers, particularly in respect to the objectives of cost containment and individuals becoming more responsible for their own health.

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  • Effects of intensity and frequency of defoliation on a mixture of guinea grass (Panicum maximum cv. Coloniao) and Verano stylo (Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Plant Science at Massey University

    Pichet Sukpituksakul

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A study was conducted in a glasshouse to determine the effect of defoliation treatments comprising combinations of two intensities (7.5 cm and 15.0 cm cutting height) and three frequencies (2, 3 and 6 weeks) on production, botanical composition and crude protein of a Guinea grass (Panicum maximum cv. Coloniao) / Verano stylo (Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano) sward. Total cumulative yield was reduced with more intense defoliation and decreased as the sward was defoliated more frequently. A similar response was observed for cumulative grass yield. In legume, cumulative yield was reduced at hard intensity but was not influenced by defoliation frequency. The proportion of the legume component in the sward was not influenced by defoliation intensity but increased with increasing defoliation frequency due more to depressed grass growth rather than a promotion in legume growth. Defoliation intensity and defoliation frequency had no effect on legume branch number. Similarly, branch size was not influenced by defoliation frequency but increased with less intense defoliation. Both defoliation intensity and defoliation frequency influenced grass tiller number. It was increased with more intense defoliation. The sward defoliated at moderate frequency resulted in the highest tiller number. Tiller number was not different between very frequent and infrequent defoliation. Intensity and frequency of defoliation also influenced average tiller size. It was reduced with more intense defoliation and decreased with increasing defoliation frequency. Percent crude protein content of both grass and legume was not influenced by defoliation intensity but was reduced with less frequent defoliation. The percent crude protein content in the legume which was more than double that in the grass indicates that Verano stylo has important contributions in the development and management of a legume-based tropical pasture.

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  • Effect of whey protein isolate on the oxidative stability of Vitamin A : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Nutrition Science, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health,Massey University, Palmerston North

    Herath, Thanuja

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of whey protein isolate (WPI) on the oxidative stability of vitamin A in an aqueous phase. The first part of the study focused on the development of a reliable method to extract retinol from the samples for analysis. Direct solvent extraction and saponification were both tested, with saponification, which converts retinol acetate into retinol, chosen for the experimental work. Extracted retinol was quantified using reversed phase HPLC, to obtain the degradation trends of the samples that had been subjected to various conditions. During the second part of the study, the degradation trends were obtained for the samples of retinol acetate in the presence and absence of WPI, when subjected to fluorescent light, pasteurisation, UHT treatment or storage at 5 or 40 °C. Samples exposed to fluorescent light at 4 °C showed exponential degradation of retinol acetate. Within 48 hours of light exposure, almost 60% of the retinol acetate had degraded regardless of the initial concentration. However, samples containing WPI retained slightly more retinol acetate at initial retinol acetate concentrations >25 μg/ml. The presence of WPI had a protective effect on retinol acetate during pasteurisation at 72 °C for 15 seconds. This protective effect appeared to be associated with the WPI concentration. However, there was no difference between samples with or without WPI after UHT treatment at 144 °C for 3-4 seconds, presumably due to the denaturation of the whey proteins. The effect of WPI on retinol acetate during storage was minimal at 40 °C, where total degradation of retinol occurred within 48 hours of storage regardless of the initial retinol acetate concentration. In contrast, WPI showed a significant protective effect on retinol acetate at 5 °C, especially when the initial retinol acetate concentration was >25mg/ml. Overall, the presence of WPI and higher initial retinol acetate concentrations showed better stability than the control samples when exposed to light, stored at 5 °C or during pasteurisation.

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  • Decision style, ability and the effectiveness of a careers intervention : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Williams, Janet Mary

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a career decision-making exercise on decision-making skills in groups with different academic ability and career decision style. The study was conducted in a single sex female school using four classes (90 students in total) of Fourth Formers. Three separate phases were carried out within a two week period as part of the careers program. Phase one involved pretesting students using measures of knowledge of sources of careers information and actions to be used when making a careers decision. Career decision style, logical reasoning and demographic details were also obtained at this stage. During phase two students were either taught a specific decision-making exercise (Experimental intervention) or an exercise on women in the workforce (Placebo intervention). The final phase involved a post test and follow up career exercises. Results were analysed using 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 (type of intervention, career decision style, academic ability and pre/post test) way ANOVAs for each dependent measure. The group exposed to the career decision-making exercise did not show the predicted improved performance over those exposed to the placebo intervention. Gains were evident in the knowledge of career information sources but this was the same for both interventions. Academic ability and career decision style did influence the intervention outcomes but not in the predicted directions. Results are discussed in terms of the adequacy of the measures of career decision-making skills and the unexpected impact of the placebo activity. The importance of taking into account decision style and academic ability in designing careers interventions is high-lighted.

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  • The effect of fructose and maltodextrin vs glucose and maltodextrin formulated sports beverages on mountain-bike race performance : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Sport and Exercise Science at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Swift, Marilla

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Background: Exogenous carbohydrate improves performance during prolonged high-intensity exercise. When ingested together, fructose and glucose polymers are oxidised at rates 1.5-1.7 higher than isocaloric glucose solutions. As fructose and glucose are transported across the intestine via different mechanisms, the capacity for exogenous-carbohydrate absorption is greater with composite carbohydrate mixtures. Therefore, since the effect of ingesting multi-transportable carbohydrate on field-based performance has to our knowledge not been investigated, we examined their effect on mountain bike race performance. Finishing time was expected to be substantially reduced when multi-transportable carbohydrates were ingested. Method: Ten; male (7) and female (3), mountain bikers aged 32.9 ± 8.7 years, weighing 68.8 ± 9.4 kg and training for at least 8 hours per week and racing regularly participated in a double-blind crossover study. Following a standardised training and diet regimen cyclists completed two Olympic-distance (target winning time of 2h 15m), cross-country mountain bike races during which they ingested either a 11.25% maltodextrin and fructose solution (MF) or an isocaloric, equi-volumetric, isosmotic control solution containing maltodextrin and glucose (MG). Performance times, ratings of perceived exertion, gastrointestinal discomfort and measurements of hydration status were recorded and compared. Data was analysed using appropriate mixed models in SAS. Results: Cyclists were 1.8% (2mins 31s) faster in MF compared to MG (90% confidence interval:±1.8%; 72% likelihood of a substantial benefit) The effect solution composition on the increase in time from the first the final lap (fatigue) was 9.7% (±2.8%) in MF and 10.7% (±2.8%) in MG; which corresponded to a 0.9% reduction (±3.5%; unclear) in the fatigue in MF. Abdominal cramps were reduced by 8.1% in MF relative to MG (±6.6%; likely benefit) and for every 1% change in abdominal cramp rating, lap time increased by 0.14% (±0.10%). There were no clear effects of MF on ratings of perceived exertion and hydration status compared with MG. Conclusion: Cross-country mountain bike race performance was substantially enhanced following ingestion of a maltodextrin and fructose solution. This outcome was related to reduced gastro-intestinal distress supporting the theory that solutions containing multiple-transportable carbohydrates increase the availability of carbohydrate for metabolism. Further investigation with a larger sample size is recommended to establish whether the performance effect is genuinely beneficial or trivial.

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  • The effect of rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus cuniculus) (Linnaeus, 1758) browsing on seedling survival : a thesis presented in part fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Zoology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Doyle, Paul Andrew

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus 1758) is a small 2-4 kg cutherian mammal introduced into New Zealand from the United Kingdom in the mid 1800's. By the 1950's the range of the rabbit had covered nearly 95% of the available land resulting in millions of dollars of damage. It was noticed by the 1970's that some populations were stable without any control measures being applied, and with increasing research and a changing attitude towards pest management away from extermination to control, it became policy that the status of this pest was downgraded to a regional pest rather than a pest of national importance. Control became the responsibly of the landowner rather than a national body except where populations occurred in high densities. However, even rabbit numbers at low densities do exert a pressure on vegetation, and in some bush remnants rabbits are blamed for the lack of regeneration that occurs even when larger herbivores are excluded. Four bush remnants within the Manawatu-Rangitikei region of New Zealand, two in the coastal sand country and two inland at Marton, were studied for the causes of seedling mortality over five seasons from August 1999 to December 2000. One hundred and fifty seedlings were identified and numbered to species level and were placed in five treatments and controls at each site, except Legg Estate bush remnant where ninety seedlings were used in unbalanced numbers in each replicate The data were analysed using logistic regression with scores for rabbit densities and deaths of seedlings per bush remnant within the treatments and controls. The analysis suggests that there is a seasonal effect (Ps and Fulleton-Smith bush remnants, treatments survived better than in the controls. Overall the treatment (protecting seedlings against rabbits by fencing) improves seedling survivability. This trial was conducted at a time of regionally low pest numbers because of the prior introduction of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD), and treatment results should be interpreted with this in mind. Key Words: Rabbit, Treatment effect, Bush remnant, RHD, Exclosure, Seedling survival.

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  • Correspondence education for teachers : a survey of teachers studying with the Advanced studies for teachers unit : a thesis presented to fulfil the requirements for the degree in Master in Education at Massey University

    McLellan, J. E

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines reasons for student persistence in and withdrawal from correspondence courses offered by the Department of Education Advanced Studies for Teachers Unit. The 1979 course members who completed a mailed questionnaire provided demographic, educational and attitudinal data. Student reaction to the A.S.T. Unit programme and Continuing Teacher Education were investigated. Reported advantages and disadvantages of this form of teacher training were analysed and the relationships between demands of work and study commitments were examined. The findings tended to indicate four variables that contributed to the probability of persistence. They were: (i) prior educational experience; (ii) the amount of support given; (iii) the number of papers taken; and (iv) the present teaching position. Although factors related to job circumstances and characteristics of teachers caused students to withdraw, many course members withdrew because of reasons that the A.S.T. Unit might have been able to counter. Course members attributed reasons for withdrawal to insufficient communication, a restrictive teaching method and insufficient time to meet assignment dates. A general conclusion was that A.S.T. course members were seeking a more open form of learning able to provide a freedom of pace and an element of control by the learner over the learning process.

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  • Effects of structured preoperative teaching upon postoperative physical recovery and psychological welfare : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Nursing at Massey University

    Eopapong-Thongkrajai, Earmporn

    Thesis
    Massey University

    An experimental study to test the effects of structured pre-operative teaching on the physical recovery and psychological welfare of patients admitted for elective surgery was conducted in a 600 bed general hospital. The 30 experimental subjects, 16 women and 14 men, received pre-operative instruction by means of a booklet issued shortly after arrival in hospital, and a group teaching and discussion session conducted on the evening prior to surgery. A variety of general and specific information about surgery and hospitalization was provided, including instructions for self-assessment after discharge. Teaching in the group was by means of slide and tape presentation. An equal number of control patients received only the preparation routinely provided in the ward. Comparisons were made between the two groups of patients according to criterion measures in three categories: physical recovery, psychological welfare, and complex criteria. The latter used subjective evaluation by independent nurse observers of physical, sensory, cognitive, psycho-social and communication aspects of the patient's condition. Measures of physical recovery were complaint of pain, analgesic consumption, nausea and vomiting, post-operative complications, time to resumption of various normal body functions, sleep pattern and sedative consumption, and length of hospital stay. For psychological welfare criterion measures included scores on a specially constructed Surgical Patient Anxiety Scale; physiological indicators in the form of systolic blood pressure and pulse: patient postoperative psychological state as observed by independent nurse observers and patients' own assessment of their feelings after discharge. The overall results supported the general hypothesis that the structured pre-operative teaching reduced patient anxiety and aided recovery. Although few direct relationships were identified between level of pre-operative anxiety and specific aspects of post-operative recovery, there was evidence suggesting a more complex set of relationships. Analysis of group interaction in the teaching sessions showed that the teaching session had served its purpose well, and also that group composition, particularly in terms of sex, had influenced both the content and structure of patient interaction. Implications for nursing practice, derived from these findings have been suggested, and recommendations for further study are included.

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  • Dairy waste treatment by high-rate trickling filtration, with particular reference to nitrogen : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Biotechnology

    Bennett, Rodney Jack

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The effective disposal of dairy factory waste is becoming increasingly important in New Zealand. Treatment by high-rate trickling filtration is a successful method in use overseas. For New Zealand conditions, a 'roughing' treatment removing 60 - 90% of the BOD of the waste should be adequate. One objective of this research was the development of a filter capable of providing this treatment. Another objective was the resolution of the controversies between the theoretical and empirical performance-prediction relationships available for trickling filtration. Because nitrogen is receiving a greater emphasis as a pollutant, a third objective was the study of nitrogen removal in dairy waste trickling filtration. The experimental work primarily involved the use of a pilot-scale trickling filter. This was designed using conventional parameters. The filter column was an 18" diameter, 8' long concrete pipe, filled with river stone. An artificial waste compounded from whey and water was fed to the plant at a controlled rate, being diluted with flow from a 25 gallon recirculation tank prior to application to the column. The treated waste overflowed from the recirculation tank and was discharged. The plant was operated at the high organic loading intensities of 1.3 - 2.7 lb BOD/yd 3 day, and at the high recirculation ratios of 20 - 55 : 1. The levels of BOD and organic, ammoniacal, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen were measured in the feed and settled effluent at different recirculation ratios. Aqueous suspensions of biomass collected from the plant were incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, in the presence of a variety of carbonaceous and nitrogenous additives. The nitrogen balance of these suspensions was studied. The plant fulfilled its design function of providing a 'roughing' treatment, as it removed 60 - 85% of the feed BOD. The experimental data did not support the available performance- prediction relationships, and hence the controversies between these relationships were not resolved. The pilot plant performance could be described by the equation Y = 17.778 + 3.079X - 0.0342 X2 where Y = % removal of applied BOD X = recirculation ratio This equation, specific to the pilot plant, predicts an optimum recirculation ratio of 45 : 1, which is considerably higher than the 10 : 1 ratio commonly used. Successful operation of the plant was achieved at BOD : nitrogen ratios in the feed of 21 - 27 : 1, which are higher than the 20 : 1 maximum generally recommended. Despite this high ratio, typically 30% of the feed organic nitrogen was present in the effluent. There was no evidence of nitrification. The nitrogen balance experiments provided evidence of net nitrogen loss from the suspensions, under aerobic conditions. Denitrification under anaerobic conditions followed normal routes.

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  • Assessing Depression Among New Fathers-Reply

    Underwood, Lisa; Morton, Susan; Waldie, Karen (2017-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Parallel scheduling of task trees with limited memory

    Eyraud-Dubois, L; Marchal, L; Sinnen, Oliver; Vivien, F (2014-10-01)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper investigates the execution of tree-shaped task graphs using multiple processors. Each edge of such a tree represents some large data. A task can only be executed if all input and output data fit into memory, and a data can only be removed from memory after the completion of the task that uses it as an input data. Such trees arise, for instance, in the multifrontal method of sparse matrix factorization. The peak memory needed for the processing of the entire tree depends on the execution order of the tasks. With one processor the objective of the tree traversal is to minimize the required memory. This problem was well studied and optimal polynomial algorithms were proposed. Here, we extend the problem by considering multiple processors, which is of obvious interest in the application area of matrix factorization. With multiple processors comes the additional objective to minimize the time needed to traverse the tree, i.e., to minimize the makespan. Not surprisingly, this problem proves to be much harder than the sequential one. We study the computational complexity of this problem and provide inapproximability results even for unit weight trees. We design a series of practical heuristics achieving different trade-offs between the minimization of peak memory usage and makespan. Some of these heuristics are able to process a tree while keeping the memory usage under a given memory limit. The different heuristics are evaluated in an extensive experimental evaluation using realistic trees.

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  • Scheduling tree-shaped task graphs to minimize memory and makespan

    Marchal, L; Sinnen, Oliver; Vivien, F (2017-10)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper investigates the execution of tree-shaped task graphs using multiple processors. Each edge of such a tree represents a large IO file. A task can only be executed if all input and output files fit into memory, and a file can only be removed from memory after it has been consumed. Such trees arise, for instance, in the multifrontal method of sparse matrix factorization. The maximum amount of memory needed depends on the execution order of the tasks. With one processor the objective of the tree traversal is to minimize the required memory. This problem was well studied and optimal polynomial algorithms were proposed. Here, we extend the problem by considering multiple processors, which is of obvious interest in the application area of matrix factorization. With the multiple processors comes the additional objective to minimize the time needed to traverse the tree, i.e., to minimize the makespan. Not surprisingly, this problem proves to be much harder than the sequential one. We study the computational complexity of this problem and provide an inapproximability result even for unit weight trees. Several heuristics are proposed, each with a different optimization focus, and they are analyzed in an extensive experimental evaluation using realistic trees.

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  • The path to MetalSVM: Shared virtual memory for the SCC

    Lankes, S; Reble, P; Clauss, C; Sinnen, Oliver (2012)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this paper, we present first successes with building an SCC-related shared virtual memory management system, called MetalSVM, that is implemented using a bare-metal hypervisor, located within a virtualization layer between the SCC's hardware and the operating system. The basic concept is based on a small kernel developed from scratch by the authors: A separate kernel instance runs on each core and together they build the virtualization layer. High performance is reached by the realization of a scalable inter-kernel communication layer for MetalSVM. In this paper we present the employed concepts and technologies. We briefly describe the current state of the developed components and their interactions leading to the realization of a Shared Virtual Memory system on top of our kernels. First performance results of the SVM system are presented in this work.

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  • Scheduling tree-shaped task graphs to minimize memory and makespan

    Marchal, L; Sinnen, Oliver; Vivien, F (2013)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper investigates the execution of tree-shaped task graphs using multiple processors. Each edge of such a tree represents a large IO file. A task can only be executed if all input and output files fit into memory, and a file can only be removed from memory after it has been consumed. Such trees arise, for instance, in the multifrontal method of sparse matrix factorization. The maximum amount of memory needed depends on the execution order of the tasks. With one processor the objective of the tree traversal is to minimize the required memory. This problem was well studied and optimal polynomial algorithms were proposed. Here, we extend the problem by considering multiple processors, which is of obvious interest in the application area of matrix factorization. With the multiple processors comes the additional objective to minimize the time needed to traverse the tree, i.e., to minimize the make span. Not surprisingly, this problem proves to be much harder than the sequential one. We study the computational complexity of this problem and provide an inapproximability result even for unit weight trees. Several heuristics are proposed, each with a different optimization focus, and they are analyzed in an extensive experimental evaluation using realistic trees.

    View record details