91,714 results

  • Doing and being: How psychotherapists balance the impact of trauma: A grounded theory study

    Wacker, Anita

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The psychological trauma from a traumatic event is known to be ‘contagious’ for a witness. Psychotherapists who work with traumatised clients can potentially experience terror, anger and despair; causing secondary traumatic stress that can lead to compassion fatigue and burnout. So, how do psychotherapists, who often carry their own trauma histories, bear such fear and pain when being with and listening empathically to traumatised clients without feeling overwhelmed or losing a sense of hope? The purpose of this grounded theory study was to identify the main concerns of psychotherapists when working with traumatised clients and to describe and generate a conceptual model that explains the processes therapists use to continually manage these concerns. Over a period of ten months, eleven psychotherapists with a minimum of five years work experience were recruited from the New Zealand Association of Psychotherapists (NZAP). Constant comparative analysis of eleven interviews generated through open-ended questions was carried out. A total of twenty-one drawings obtained at different stages of the participant interviews, were used to fully capture the inner world of the traumatic impact. The emerging theory, whose development is grounded in the data, shows that psychotherapists grow through three main psychosocial developmental stages of balancing the impact of trauma: DOING to protect from pain and fear, BALANCING doing with being, and BEING with trust, pain and joy. The participants, however, were likely to involuntarily recycle the three stages when experiencing personal traumatic stress or organisational stressors, in addition to holding clients’ trauma. The intention of this research was to raise awareness of work-related traumatic stress, and to provide an educational conceptual model to assist psychotherapists’ understanding of how to positively manage secondary traumatic stress and its impact on the physical, emotional and spiritual, before it manifests in burnout, disillusionment or illness.

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  • The incidence, aetiology, and treatment of achilles tendon injuries in army recruits: A pilot study

    Wilkinson, Janet

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Achilles tendon injuries are common overuse injuries in military populations. However, limited research has been undertaken looking specifically at the incidence and aetiology in army recruits. A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the incidence and aetiology of achilles tendinopathy in a group of 384 army recruits undertaking 12 weeks of intensive training. A descriptive questionnaire design was used to gather information. From this a total of 16 achilles tendon injuries were recorded during four intakes of recruits from the period January to August, 2003. An incident rate of 4.2% was recorded and a significant relationship (p<0.05) was shown between achilles tendon injury incidence, the female gender and footwear, indicating a problem with footwear in New Zealand Army recruits. A further aim of the study was to review the current literature with respect to achilles tendinopathy, the anatomy and function, biomechanics, histopathology and management. A systematic review was also undertaken looking at eccentrictype loading programs for achilles tendinopathy. A search of Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, PEDro physiotherapy System, Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group, MEDLINE and CINAHL were used to identify studies from January, 1990 to August, 2003. The methodological quality of the papers was assessed using The Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group generic evaluation tool. Following the evaluation it was concluded that the papers scored from poor to moderate indicating that the overall clinical efficacy of eccentrictype loading programs for the treatment of achilles tendinopathy may be questionable and that further more robust trials are required before strong conclusions can be drawn.

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  • The efficacy of arcuate dynamic traction splintage in the treatment of intra-articular fractures of the proximal interphalangeal joints of the hand: A retrospective descriptive review

    van Essen, Ellen

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Intra-articular fractures involving the proximal interphalangeal joint of the hand present both the surgeon and hand therapist with one of the most challenging problems in which to achieve an acceptable functional outcome. The main aim of this study was to document the outcomes of patients treated with dynamic traction splintage treatment. Secondly, the study aimed to compare the results of patients treated with dynamic traction splintage with those of patients treated with similar or different treatment regimes as documented in the literature. Results from 21 patients treated with Dynamic Traction Splinting are presented. Average follow-up was 16.5 months (5 weeks – 36 months) with a mean TAROM outcome of 78o as compared to 95o on the uninjured side. Mean patient age was 36 years (16 – 74 years). Imaging documented an average articular surface involvement of 53%. The average time between injury and splintage was 3.1 days in 19 patients and 14.5 days in 2 patients - these later two were defined as chronic injuries. The majority of patients injured their finger at sport, the most common of these being cricket. The splint was worn for an average of 4 weeks (3 –7 weeks). All patients were fully employed at the time of injury and returned to work within 3 months. Pin site infection was the main early complication, whereas mild coronal angular deformity was the only late complication noted. Patient feedback related to the cumbersome nature of the splint in two thirds of the group, with intermittent pain, stiffness and cold intolerance being equally shared by a third of the group. The majority of patients stated that they were satisfied with their final functional outcome at the time of follow-up.

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  • The lived experience of being pregnant for women under the age of nineteen: Young and pregnant

    Payne, Julie

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The purpose of this hermeneutic phenomenological research is to ‘show’ the lived experience of young pregnant women. The research question asks, “What is the experience of ‘being pregnant’ for women under the age of nineteen”? The method used is described by van Manen (1990). The data analysis draws on notions from Heidegger (1962). This research was set in the context of South Auckland, New Zealand where eleven young women were interviewed. They experience ‘being pregnant’ in the context of their ethnicity, religious beliefs and socio-economic status. Further, they face the opinions and judgments of a societal view that they are too young to be pregnant. This research revealed that young pregnant women experience many paradoxes and tensions in ‘being pregnant’. These are reflected in all the changes they go through as they ‘come to accept’ being pregnant and as they ‘become’ significantly changed. It has highlighted that young pregnant women ‘need others’ in their lives to provide them with necessary support and care during pregnancy. Knowing that they are pregnant throws their lives into disarray. These young women talked of a sense that it was ‘right’ to keep on with the pregnancy, even in the face of many difficulties. They are pulled by the social forces of peers to continue behaviours that put their fetus at risk. It is only when it hits them that they really are going to have a baby that they begin to take responsibility for safe, healthy living. This research has exposed the need for midwives to ‘work along side’ young pregnant women assisting them in making the experience of ‘being pregnant’ easier. It is vital that midwives earn the trust of the young women if their care is to be effective. This is done by midwives providing continuity of care, making home visits and giving appropriate information in a sensitive manner. Midwifery care needs to be flexible, tailored to the individual needs of each young pregnant woman.

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  • Young adults' experiences of day surgery: Feeling safe : A qualitative descriptive study

    Neely, Kaye L. (Kaye Louise)

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The number of procedures being undertaken as day surgery is increasing. Understanding the young adults’ experiences of day surgery in the New Zealand context is central to providing appropriate nursing care. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive pilot study was to explore and describe the perioperative experience of young adults undergoing a day surgery procedure using a semi structured interview format six to eight weeks post surgery. Five young adults, aged between 18-25 years, who had undergone a general anaesthetic as day surgery patients in a small, private oral surgery unit in New Zealand, were interviewed. The data was analysed thematically. The overall findings of this study are the perceptions of feeling safe through a positive nurse-patient partnership that is interwoven in the themes. Safety is both physical and psychological. Themes identified were ‘not knowing’, ‘feeling reassured’, ‘confusion and disorientation’, ‘surprise’, ‘pain and discomfort’, and ‘being good’. Some of the themes identified in this study occurred in more than one time frame of the young adults’ day surgery experience. The results indicated that even though the participants felt well informed, they did not know what to expect and were surprised with some aspects of their experience. The participants said they needed to feel the presence of the nurse or family immediately post operatively and needed to be cared for. Recommendations for practice include encouraging perioperative nurses to practice in a positive nurse-patient partnership and ensure information provision is provided in an appropriate manner that they are able to understand and comprehend. Suggested areas for further research include regional and national studies in private and public settings; studies using a diverse range of surgery; studies of nursing practice in various surgery settings in the New Zealand context; and studies looking at interprofessional practice in day surgery settings.

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  • Nonverbal therapy techniques emphasising art in psychotherapy with abuse and trauma clients: A modified systematic literature review with clinical illustrations of a research question related to the psychotherapeutic relationship

    Alexis, Norma

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This dissertation is a modified systematic literature review exploring selected nonverbal therapy techniques. The aim is to explore nonverbal creative therapy techniques and examine the types of nonverbal creative therapy being used within psychotherapy, as well as the usefulness of working with these techniques with abuse and trauma clients. Also explored are the dynamics of the therapeutic relationship when using nonverbal therapy techniques. This information was gathered from a number of sources, including electronic databases, books and journals. Clinical vignettes and artwork from two female clients who had experienced sexual abuse were used to illustrate the use of art therapy in clinical practice. There are many nonverbal therapy techniques and some are used within psychotherapy practice with an eclectic approach. The abuse and trauma client group has been identified as having difficulty verbalizing and expressing their thoughts and feelings. Nonverbal therapy technique appears to be effective for this client group as another way of accessing unconscious material. The therapeutic relationship when using nonverbal techniques, remains the same as when using verbal psychotherapy. Nonverbal technique can be a powerful interpreting tool for the client’s and therapist’s use.

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  • Sibling transference and tele in the peer group: The road less travelled

    Brinsden, Raywyn

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This dissertation explores sibling relationships, and relating in adult peer groups. It hypothesises that sibling relationships are important and influential to peer relationships. The sibling bond is usually the child’s first experience of a peer group. A review of the sibling literature indicates that siblings provide important experiences for each other such as recognition and approval, conflict and competition, cooperation, solidarity, and loyalty. Siblings may be crucial to the formation of identity. Whereas the relationship of group members to the group leader has been extensively researched, the sibling qualities of member-to-member interactions in groups have been relatively neglected. In attempting to ‘fill the gap’, this dissertation makes a significant contribution to our understanding of psychosocial behaviour. Participants in this study were members of mental health trainee supervision groups. I interviewed individual members about their sibling and peer relationships, and recorded group supervision meetings. These data were transcribed. Using a grounded theory research approach, I observed strong similarities between both past and present sibling relating, and current relating in adult peer groups. I developed a set of hypotheses to explain these observed similarities. The dissertation suggests that sibling relating provides a framework for our adult peer relating. The theoretical concepts of tele and transference are used to explain how patterns of relating with original siblings influence patterns of relating in adult peer groups. I hypothesise that through tele and transference, group members relate to their peers as “as-if” siblings. Tele and transference are hypothesised to structure relationships in terms of concordance and complementarity. Findings indicate that the interaction of tele and transference, and the concordance and complementarity which they help to organise, have value as an interpretive framework in furthering our understanding of the developmental movement from the original family of origin to our relating in adult peer groups.

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  • The changing place of 'holding': From Winnicott to contemporary relational psychoanalytically informed psychotherapy

    Idoine, Malcolm (Malcolm Robert)

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Therapeutic ‘holding’ is a key concept that emerges from the psychoanalytic school of British Object Relations in mid 20th century. It is centred on the maternal metaphor in which Winnicott’s ‘good enough mother’ provides a safe yet responsive environment attuned to the infant’s nurture and development needs. While a ‘holding’ stance is often seen as the bedrock of the therapeutic relationship, the concept has been interpreted, extended, reconceptualised and critiqued by subsequent psychoanalytic thinkers. This thinking includes significant challenges from contemporary relational, feminist, intersubjectivist and postmodernist perspectives. This dissertation is a chronologically structured systematic literature review considering both the theory and practice of ‘holding’ with focused consideration of the contemporary debates. It clarifies the place of ‘holding’ in the therapeutic relationship, providing a basis to inform and reflect on practice. It argues that holding remains a useful and valid psychoanalytic concept, proposing that a developmental perspective allows reconciliation between holding and intersubjectivist positions.

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  • Narratives of people's everyday occupational lives following long term psychiatric hospitalisation

    Phare, Janet

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This narrative study examines the stories of the everyday occupational lives of eight people with a serious mental illness who had been subject to the policies of psychiatric institutionalisation and deinstitutionalisation in New Zealand. The participants, who ranged in age from 35 to 66 years at the time of the interview, had spent at least five years living in psychiatric hospitals. Seven were now living either on their own, with spouses, or sharing a flat. One person was living in a mental health group home in which non-clinical staff were available to provide minimal supervision. A semi-structured interview format facilitated responses to the question: What, from the participants’ perspectives, had influenced their everyday occupational lives in the community since leaving hospital? A review of the literature highlighted the need for people to have a balance and variety of occupations in their lives. There does not appear to have been any research undertaken into the longer term effects of the institutionalisation and deinstitutionalisation polices on people’s everyday lives. In this study, a narrative methodology was selected to enable some of this group of people to tell their stories of living in the community since their deinstitutionalisation in the 1980s and early 1990s. The interviews were audiotaped and all participants were given the opportunity to comment on their own transcripts. A thematic analysis was undertaken, and the major influences which emerged were the effects which illness, lengthy hospitalisation and psychiatric medications had had on the participants’ everyday lives. The consequences of these influences were that the participants continued to pursue a limited range of roles and occupations. In particular, five of the participants did not appear to participate in the roles of family member, friend, or paid worker, despite these roles being highly valued by them. In addition, an exploration of the narrative typologies revealed that a number of the participants framed their stories in a restitution narrative. Their past experience, shaped by the health system, has given them the understanding that it is the role of health workers to restore them to positive health and well-being. There is a need to undertake research into how and where people in New Zealand find friends, to enable this knowledge to inform the support which is provided to people with a mental illness who have been socially isolated. Recommendations have also been made for further research into people who have been subject to deinstitutionalisation policies. It is argued that some people will require long term support from health workers, perhaps for the rest of their lives.

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  • Effects of customers’ café experience on their perceptions of value for money, satisfaction, and loyalty intentions: A case of the Auckland café industry

    Zhang, Miao

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The main purposes of this study are to explore the important café attributes that contribute to customer’s café experience and to test the relationship between their café experience and the perceptions of value for money, satisfaction, and loyalty intentions. This study extended the consumption system approach (CSA) as the theoretical framework to evaluate customers' experience, value for money, customer satisfaction, and loyalty intentions at an attribute level. Both online and paper-pencil questionnaires were employed as research methods. Data was collected from almost 200 participants from social networking sites (Facebook and WeChat) as well as two cafés in Auckland. A series of multiple regression analyses were used to test research hypotheses. Importance-performance analysis (IPA) was applied to provide practical implications for the cafés industry in Auckland in general. This study found that service quality, ambience, and food quality positively influence customer perceptions of value for money, whereas service quality, ambience, and coffee quality are significant predictors of customer satisfaction. Customer loyalty intentions were successfully predicted by food quality, coffee quality, and service quality. Amongst five major experience attributes, service quality was found to be the strongest predictor of all outcome variables. IPA results suggest that in relation to customers’ evaluation of café experience, service quality was considered the most important attribute and ambience was considered the best performed attribute. The IPA grid further implied that service quality may need more attention and investment from café managers in Auckland, as service quality had strong importance scores, yet relatively low performance scores in Auckland cafés when compared to food quality and ambience. The findings of this study matter to understanding key experience attributes considered by café customers in Auckland, New Zealand. While the attribute-level approach has been often applied in hospitality marketing research, the categorisation of attributes and effects of such attributes on customer satisfaction and loyalty intentions have yet to reach consistency in the literature. Furthermore, future studies are needed to develop a more comprehensive theoretical model to systematically investigate customer experience in various contexts at the attribute level within the hospitality industry.

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  • Exploring constraints in projects : a construction case study

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Mabin, V.J. (2018-02-02T13:30:01Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Theory of Constraints (TOC) suggests managing a system according to its constraints. Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM), as an application of TOC to project management, defines a project as a chain of activities with duration as its core constraint. However, the project success literature implies that projects have different characteristics and require different approaches. This study is part of broader research that attempts to re-examine CCPM assumptions and identify constraints in different types of projects. This paper presents a case study from the construction industry. Multiple semi-structured interviews and project documents have been used as sources of data. TOC Thinking Process logic tools were used to identify the core constraint . Further investigations are made to examine other CCPM assumptions in the context of the case. CCPM assumes that projects are plagued by uncertainty, that task times are overestimated as an attempt to avoid the undesirable effects of such uncertainty (including project lateness), but that such added safety time is actually wasted. These issues, assumed by CCPM to exist, were found to exist in this case project.The CCPM’s solution requires the establishment of centralized priorities for the project and elimination of deterministic start dates. These requirements were found to be challenging in the case project.

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  • TOCICO resources at your service : using, sharing, and developing the TOC body of knowledge

    Cox, J.F.; Mabin, V.J.; Banks, J.; Mirzaei, Maryam (2018-02-03T13:30:05Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    In this workshop we describe: 1. The TOCICO website 2. The TOCICO presentation video & webinar database & how it might be used in consulting / teaching / research. 3. The TOCICO portals. 4. The TOCICO white paper process and series 5. The TOC book list 6. The TOC journal article database

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  • Is your Moodle course out of date?

    Liu, Yong (2018-02-06T13:30:05Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Contents: Teaching and learning in 2015 Challenge of the current courses Moodle philosophy Conclusion

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  • Moodle course : what is wrong with it?

    Liu, Yong (2018-02-06T13:30:07Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Contents: Introduction Teaching strategy Content management Six principles of effective e-learning Conclusion

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  • The human kinases mTOR, PKC-α, and their substrate Filamin A promote infection of human cells by Listeria monocytogenes

    Bhalla, Manmeet Pal Singh (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a food borne intracellular pathogen capable of causing gastroenteritis, abortions, or meningitis with a high mortality rate. Listeria is a facultative intracellular pathogen that is internalized into human cells, replicates inside cells, and spreads within host tissues. Listeria actively induces its internalisation (also known as “entry”) into cell types generally thought as non-phagocytic, such as intestinal epithelial cells, hepatocytes, trophoblast cells, and endothelial cells. One of the major pathways of Listeria entry into human cells is mediated by interaction of the bacterial surface protein Internalin B (InlB) with its host receptor, the Met tyrosine kinase. At least two host physiological processes are stimulated downstream of Met and contribute to internalisation of Listeria. One of these processes is actin polymerization, which is thought to provide a protrusive force that remodels the host plasma membrane, allowing the membrane to enwrap bacteria during entry. The second host process involved in InlB-mediated entry is exocytosis, the fusion of intracellular vesicles with the plasma membrane. Exocytosis controls internalisation of Listeria by delivering the human GTPase Dynamin2, and perhaps other host signalling proteins, to sites in the plasma membrane interacting with bacteria. The host type IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) pathway is activated downstream of the Met receptor and plays a critical role in actin polymerization during entry of Listeria. Recent RNA interference (RNAi)-based screens targeting components of the PI3-K pathway identified the serine/threonine kinase Mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) as a host signalling protein needed for efficient internalisation of Listeria. mTOR is present in two distinct complexes, termed mTORC1 or mTORC2. These complexes have different substrates and biological functions. The molecular mechanism by which mTORC1 or mTORC2 might control Listeria entry was not known and thus, formed the starting point of this dissertation. In Chapter 3 of this thesis, I present evidence indicating that mTOR acts together with PKC-α to promote exocytosis during InlB-mediated entry of Listeria into the human epithelial cell line HeLa. The specific findings in this chapter are as follows. First, Listeria was demonstrated to activate both mTORC1 and mTORC2, as assessed by phosphorylation of the substrates p70S6K or Akt, respectively. Activation of mTORC1 or mTORC2 was also caused by purified soluble InlB protein or InlB coupled to inert particles (latex beads). These InlB-coated beads were used as a model for Listeria entry in several experiments in this thesis. I also found that RNAi-mediated depletion of components specific to mTORC1 or mTORC2 (Raptor or Rictor) inhibited internalisation of Listeria. These results demonstrated important roles for both mTOR complexes in InlB-mediated entry. Further RNAi studies indicated that entry of Listeria is controlled by the mTORC1 effectors 4E-BP1 and HIF-1α, and the mTORC2 substrate PKC-α. The remaining studies in this chapter 3 focused on the mechanisms by which mTOR and PKC-α promote InlB-dependent internalisation. Infection of host cells with Listeria or treatment with InlB protein stimulated mTOR-dependent phosphorylation of PKC-α, suggesting that mTOR and PKC-α act together to control bacteria entry. Work with chemical inhibitors or a kinase dead form of PKC-α indicated that InlB-mediated entry requires the kinase activity of PKC-α. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to investigate the roles of mTOR and PKC-α in actin polymerization and exocytosis during InlB-mediated internalisation. Actin polymerization was assessed using fluorescently labeled phalloidin, whereas exocytosis was detected using a probe consisting of the vesicular SNARE protein VAMP3 fused to a GFP tag. The GFP moiety becomes surface-exposed upon fusion of exocytic vesicles with the plasma membrane. The effect of RNAi-mediated depletion of mTOR or PKC-α on exocytosis or actin polymerization during InlB-dependent entry was examined. My results indicate that both mTOR and PKC-α are required for efficient exocytosis during InlB-dependent entry. PKC-α also impacted actin polymerization during entry, whereas mTOR had no measurable effect on this process. In Chapter 4, I show that the human scaffolding protein Filamin A (FlnA) is regulated by mTOR and has an important role in InlB-dependent entry of Listeria into HeLa cells. Evidence is also presented suggesting that mTOR, PKC-α, FlnA, and a GTPase known as RalA may form a pathway that controls exocytosis during InlB-mediate uptake. The specific results are as follows. Results involving RNAi-mediated depletion of FlnA indicated an important role for this host protein in InlB-mediated entry and exocytosis in HeLa cells. In addition, phosphorylation of FlnA on Ser-2152 was stimulated during entry of InlB-coated beads into HeLa cells. Experiments with FlnA mutant protein unable to be phosphorylated on Ser-2152 indicated that phosphorylation at this site contributes to InlB-dependent entry. The GTPase RalA is a known binding partner of FlnA. Experiments involving RNAi-mediated depletion of RalA indicated an important role for this host protein in InlB-dependent entry and exocytosis. Using RNAi and confocal microscopy analysis, it was found that both RalA and mTOR are needed for recruitment of FlnA to areas in the plasma membrane surrounding InlB-coated beads. These latter results suggest that mTOR and RalA might control exocytosis, in part, by localizing FlnA to plasma membrane sites where InlB-dependent entry occurs. Collectively, my findings identify mTOR, PKC-α, FlnA and RalA as host signalling factors exploited by Listeria to promote its internalisation into host cells. These results also suggest that mTOR, PKC-α, FlnA and RalA may act together in a pathway to control host exocytosis during InlB-mediated entry.

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  • Removal of invasive fish and exclusion of koi carp from Lake Ohinewai

    Tempero, Grant Wayne; Ling, Nicholas; Daniel, Adam Joshua; Morgan, Dai K.J. (2015)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    The lower Waikato River floodplain contains many shallow lakes. The floodplain has been highly developed for pastoral agriculture, primarily dairy farming, resulting in extensive drainage and flood control measures to regulate river and lake levels. Most lakes have degraded water quality as a result of nutrient and sediment enrichment, and the additional impacts of pest fish such as koi carp, goldfish, catfish and rudd have generally contribute9 to the total collapse of submerged macrophytes and progression to a highly eutrophic state. Of all New Zealand lakes monitored regularly for water quality, around 25% of those categorised as supertrophic or hypertrophic are on the Waikato River floodplain (Verburg et al. 2010). Lake Ohinewai is a shallow (4.5 m depth), 16.8 ha lake on the floodplain. The lake has a 331 ha catchment that is primarily flat and dominated by intensive pastoral farming with several inlet drains. A single outlet drain leads to Lake Waikare via Lake Rotokawau and passes through a circular road culvert 930 m from the lake outlet. Lake Ohinewai deteriorated from a stable oligotrophic (macrophyte-dominated) state to a stable eutrophic (algal-dominated) state during the early 1990s, and now lacks aquatic macrophytes. In 1981, 80% of the lake was covered in aquatic macrophytes but by 1991 none remained (Edwards et al. 2005). Invasion by koi carp over this period was implicated in this change of state.

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  • The relationship between lean meat yield and birth weight in New Zealand Romney sheep

    Brooks, Caitlin

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Over recent years sheep numbers in New Zealand have steadily declined due to increased expansion of dairying. This has caused not only reduced ewe breeding flock numbers but also pushed lamb production to less productive areas. New Zealand lamb exports were worth $3 billion in 2016 (MIA, 2016) therefore a significant contributor to the red meat industry which is the second highest export earner behind dairy products. Another challenge to the industry is to meet expectations of the consumer who want leaner carcasses with less fat. Lean meat makes up 50-60% of total carcass weight, therefore selecting for increases in lean muscle is of benefit to increase carcass value and financial return. Birth weight has been observed to influence lean meat production through muscle mass and growth rates, but little is known about its effect on lamb final weight and carcass traits such as lean meat production. Could emphasising the importance of ewe nutrition be of financial gain to farmers if resulting lambs have production benefits over and above improved survival rates due to increased lamb birth weights. 2521 NZ Romney ram lambs from 2009-2016 were investigated for an association between birth weight and subsequent weaning weight and final weight with carcass traits (lean meat, leg, loin and shoulder yield). SPSS v24.0 was used for calculating correlations between birth weight, weaning weight and final lamb weight with carcass yield traits and between subject effects (sire, birth weight, weaning weight and final lamb weight). Excel 2013 was used for basic statistical analysis (means and standard deviations). Birth weight was found to have a positive correlation with weaning weight and final lamb weight (0.467 and 0.152 respectively) and this was highly significant (p 0.005). Final lamb weight was positively correlated with loin, shoulder and total yield (0.189, 0.151 and 0.055 respectively) and these were all highly significant (p<0.001). These results suggest that birth weight is important for maximising yield as it influences growth rates of lambs and is strongly correlated with lamb weaning weight. Weaning weight is strongly correlated with lamb final weight which had the greatest influence on carcass yield traits, as expected due to a strong genetic correlation with live weight and carcass weight. Overall these results reemphasise the importance of maximising lamb birth weight and reducing the factors which influence it negatively such as inadequate ewe nutrition in order to have lambs which have high yielding carcasses.

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  • A modeling framework for the establishment and spread of invasive species in heterogeneous environments

    Lustig, Audrey; Worner, Susan P.; Pitt, Joel P. W.; Doscher, Crile; Stouffer, D. B.; Senay, Senait Dereje

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Natural and human-induced events are continuously altering the structure of our landscapes and as a result impacting the spatial relationships between individual landscape elements and the species living in the area. Yet, only recently has the influence of the surrounding landscape on invasive species spread started to be considered. The scientific community increasingly recognizes the need for broader modeling framework that focuses on cross-study comparisons at different spatiotemporal scales. Using two illustrative examples, we introduce a general modeling framework that allows for a systematic investigation of the effect of habitat change on invasive species establishment and spread. The essential parts of the framework are (i) a mechanistic spatially explicit model (a modular dispersal framework—MDIG) that allows population dynamics and dispersal to be modeled in a geographical information system (GIS), (ii) a landscape generator that allows replicated landscape patterns with partially controllable spatial properties to be generated, and (iii) landscape metrics that depict the essential aspects of landscape with which dispersal and demographic processes interact. The modeling framework provides functionality for a wide variety of applications ranging from predictions of the spatiotemporal spread of real species and comparison of potential management strategies, to theoretical investigation of the effect of habitat change on population dynamics. Such a framework allows to quantify how small-grain landscape characteristics, such as habitat size and habitat connectivity, interact with life-history traits to determine the dynamics of invasive species spread in fragmented landscape. As such, it will give deeper insights into species traits and landscape features that lead to establishment and spread success and may be key to preventing new incursions and the development of efficient monitoring, surveillance, control or eradication programs.

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  • Nitrogen loading from urine patches of lactating dairy cows fed ryegrass and plantain as forage and silage

    Beatson, Christopher

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The intensification of New Zealand pastoral agriculture has led to the use of irrigation, fertiliser and legumes to increase quality and yield of pastures. In order to attain these yields, nitrogen (N) content of pasture has increased beyond animal requirement. This excess to requirement N intake leads to large quantities of N excreted in urine resulting in high levels of N loading per urine patch. Plants cannot uptake all of this N therefore large quantities are lost from the system. N loading from the urine patch is a function of urine volume, urinary N concentration and urine patch area. Plantain (plantago lanceolata) has been identified as a plant species that when fed as forage reduces urinary N concentration without reducing N intake of animals and without reducing production. There is no information on the effect plantain silage has when fed to lactating dairy cows. There is little information on urine volume from cows fed plantain as forage or supplement, no data on the expected urine patch area when urine is excreted to plantain pastures, and little information on urine patch area when urine is excreted to ryegrass pastures. This trial investigated the effect plantain fed as forage and supplement had on urinary N excretion (total N excretion and urinary N concentration), urine volume and simulated the expected urine patch area of ryegrass and plantain forage at different grazing heights and different application volumes. Feeding plantain silage to cows grazing ryegrass reduced urinary N concentration by 1 gN/L compared with ryegrass silage with ryegrass pasture. N intake was 109.5 gN/cow/day lower in plantain forage treatments compared to pasture forage treatments making the ryegrass – plantain urinary N excretion comparison invalid. Diurnal variation in urine volume was evident with 1800-hour urine averaging 2.25L/urination less than 0600 hour urinations between silage treatments. Lower pasture heights increased urine patch area due to lower sward density. Lower pasture height was due to grazing severity. Plantain pasture increased urine patch area due to increased bare ground after defoliation and increased splash. Modelling of N loading per urine patch found reductions (206 kgN/ha at 0600 hours and 321 kgN/ha at 1800 hours) for cows with a primary diet of ryegrass pasture and supplemented with plantain silage compared with ryegrass silage. Cows grazing plantain pasture had N loading reductions per urine patch of 400-500 kgN/ha compared with ryegrass pasture due to increasing urine patch area and reduced urinary N concentration.

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  • Sprout development of seed potato tuber after different storage conditions

    Salgado de Oliveira, Juliano; Moot, Derrick J.; Brown, H. E.; Gash, Alan; Sinton, S.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Sprout growth and development of 'Fraser' seed potato tubers were quantified after a period of 'Early storage (5-16 weeks from crop defoliation) of tubers in the 'ground', 'shed' or 'cooler' (storage at approximately 4°C) in mid-Canterbury, New Zealand. 'Late' storage treatments exposed the tubers to either one or three months further warm-up prior to planting (mid-October). The seed potato tubers stored at the lowest temperature ('cooler') required 760±17.2°C days (°Cd)(T b=0°C) to sprout compared with 1,614 °Cd for 'shed' and 1,791 °Cd for 'ground' stored potatoes. The number of major sprouts on a tuber and the number of nodes formed on the main sprout were both affected by the 'Late' storage treatment. Tubers with three months warm up produced fewer sprouts (approximately 3.5) with more nodes (approximately 5.0) and longer sprouts than those warmed up for one month. There was an inverse relationship between dominant sprout number and warm up duration, with fewer dominant sprouts from a longer warm up duration. These results show that storage treatments can be used to manipulate vegetative development in tubers in anticipation of planting.

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