317,205 results

  • Simple guilt and cooperation

    Peeters, Ronald; Vorsatz, Marc (2018-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We introduce simple guilt into a generic prisoner’s dilemma (PD) game and solve for the equilibria of the resulting psychological game. It is shown that for all guilt parameters, it is a pure strategy equilibrium that both players defect. But, if the guilt parameter surpasses a threshold, a mixed strategy equilibrium and a pure strategy equilibrium in which both players cooperate emerge. We implement three payoff constellations of the PD game in a laboratory experiment and find in line with our equilibrium analysis that first- and second-order beliefs are highly correlated and that the probability of cooperation depends positively on these beliefs. Finally, we provide numerical evidence on the degree of guilt cooperators experience.

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  • Algorithms to process data from the MARS molecular imaging system

    de Ruiter, Niels (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The MARS molecular imaging project aims to research, develop, and commercialize a spectral computed tomography (CT) system. My thesis describes the work I performed to reconstruct volumes from the MARS prototypes. The challenge was to develop the algorithms while maintaining image processing software that met the immediate needs of the MARS team. Using the Medipix detector, the current prototype is capable of simultaneously scanning up to 8 energy bins. Every additional energy bin improves the potential for material discrimination at the molecular level. Data acquired from the MARS prototypes are a collection of exposures over various geometric transformations of the source, detector, and subject. To process these, I developed two applications, mPPC (MARS Preprocessing Chain) and mART (MARS Algebraic Reconstruction). The application mPPC prepares data for reconstruction while also improving the image quality. In particular, various issues that result from the Medipix detector are addressed in the preprocessing software. The application mART reconstructs the preprocessed data into volumes. It adopts a variation of SART to simultaneously reconstruct all the energy bins. The results are a good balance between quality and performance. To link the components of the data processing chain, all the software adopts the stable and popular DICOM standard. The DICOM standard provides formats to package the data while also providing protocols for both storing (and backup) and transferring the data. To summarize, the outcomes of my thesis are two applications which, together, perform all the necessary steps to reconstruct high quality volumes from the MARS system. With the addition of the DICOM standard to store and transfer the data, the result is a data processing chain which fulfils the needs of the MARS team.

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  • The impact of high and low-intensity transcranial magnetic stimulation on measures of cortical excitability

    Sykes, Matthew John (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    In recent decades, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has emerged as one of the most promising techniques for clinical therapies. It has been proposed for use in a wide number of neurophysiological disorders including Alzheimer’s, depression and stroke rehabilitation. The technique produces a heterogeneous magnetic field, which induces a suprathreshold electric field in a small focal zone of underlying cortical tissue, depolarising a population of neurons. When these pulses are applied in a repetitive fashion, known as repetitive TMS (rTMS), the excitability of the cortex can be altered. Outside of the small focal zone, broad areas of cortex are subject to much weaker induced current intensities, below the threshold for action potential generation, however, increasing evidence suggests they may have a measurable physiological impact. Despite great initial promise, clinical results for various rTMS treatment paradigms have been mixed, with response rates between and within patients showing high-variability. One potential source of this variability may be unintended effects of the low-intensity fields outside of the targeted population. The aim of the experiments in this thesis were to investigate the impact of rTMS at high- and low-intensities on measures of cortical excitability in the neocortex, using rodent models. The first study explored the effects of two separate anaesthetics on rTMS-induced changes in cortical excitability, using a high-intensity coil and measured using motor evoked potentials. Animals were anaesthetised with either a xylazine/zoletil combination or urethane. In contrast to previously reported success, high-intensity excitatory rTMS here was unable to increase MEP amplitudes, under either anaesthetic. The xylazine/zoletil combination however, was found to increase measures of excitability in the baseline recording, compared to animals anaesthetised with urethane. To investigate low-intensity rTMS, an 8-mm rodent specific coil was used for all subsequent experiments. This produced a magnetic field strength of 120 milliTesla, an order of magnitude below the 1-2 Tesla for human coils. Magnetic fields this powerful are comparable to those emitted by human coils outside of the focal zone. In the final two studies, the ability of low-intensity rTMS to depress or facilitate cortical excitability was measured directly using both local field potentials (LFPs) in vivo and calcium imaging of cortical neurons in vitro. Local field potentials were measured as contralaterally evoked waveforms in anaesthetised rats, recorded from layer V of the motor cortex. Brain slices of juvenile mice were prepared to measure the somatic levels of calcium in layer V neurons, as well as the amplitude of electrically evoked calcium transients. In both cases, rats or mouse brain slices were treated with low-intensity rTMS in the form of theta-burst stimulation or quadripulse stimulation. Overall, no significant effect of low-intensity rTMS was found in LFPs or somatic calcium levels. These data suggest that the effects of low-intensity rTMS, if any, may be subtle changes and as such, the population based techniques used here lacked the required sensitivity to detect these alterations. Consequently, it is unlikely that low-intensity magnetic fields during human application of rTMS are able to significantly influence electrophysiological outcomes and thus contribute to the variability observed.

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  • Screening the Stage: Film Adaptations of Shakespeare that Originate on Stage 1995-2015

    Stone, Alison Kempthorne (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis re-examines the relationship between stage and screen in film adaptations of Shakespeare. The dynamic field of Shakespeare on screen has paid relatively little critical attention to the specific antecedent stage productions that inform the film adaptations in this study as adapted texts. This study questions some of the assumptions in adaptation scholarship about the primacy of the cinematic in film adaptations of Shakespeare and, conversely, some assumptions about the power of co-presence in creating a sense of liveness in theatrical performance. The two mediums of film and theatre inflect each other as these films reproduce, deny, work with, or substitute for their theatrical origins through the process of adaptation. The structure of this project tells a story of increasing proximity to the stage, that is, from films that I term ‘cinematic’ to ‘archival’ films that seek to preserve a specific stage production, and finally to the emerging intermedial form of livecasting that broadcasts live theatrical performance to cinemas. The cinematic films, Richard Loncraine’s Richard III (1995) [Richard Eyre’s National Theatre Richard III (1990)] and Ralph Fiennes’s Coriolanus (2011) [Jonathan Kent’s Almeida Theatre Coriolanus (2000)], apparently leave the stage behind to engage with all the affordances of film. The two films I term archival, Gregory Doran’s Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) Hamlet (2009) [Doran’s RSC Hamlet (2008)] and Rupert Goold’s Macbeth (2010) [Goold’s Minerva Theatre Macbeth (2007)], move much closer to the stage, on the spectrum between the cinematic and the theatrical, because they seek to preserve a specific, very successful, stage production after its theatrical run. Finally, the livecasting case studies are the closest of all to the stage. Two major livecasting theatre companies, the Royal National Theatre (NT Live 2009-) and the RSC (RSC Live from Stratford-upon-Avon 2013-), present their live broadcasts as if they were transparently theatrical, allowing the cinema audience to ‘look through’ the screen at the live performance. While this project tells a story of increasing proximity to the stage, each chapter also resists and complicates that narrative. The cinematic films, which apparently seek to efface their stage origins, retain significant theatrical elements. The mediums of film and performance can be at work in each other. The films I call archival experiment, perhaps inadvertently, with the contradiction in terms of filming theatrically. While Doran wanted to capture his stage production on film, Goold’s stage production was heavily influenced by the cinematic. Each of the livecasting case studies examines a different aspect of the contradiction between announced transparency and actual intermediality in the NT Live Timon of Athens (2012), the NT Live Othello (2013), and the RSC Live The Two Gentlemen of Verona (2014). Those aspects are, respectively, text and paratext, film grammar, and the “myth of non-mediation” (Wyver 2014b, 109). Despite the apparent novelty, livecasting is not entirely new. An almost forgotten technology called the electrophone used telephone lines to broadcast live theatre in London starting in 1895. Both livecasting technologies remake liveness in conditions of reception that are shared and ephemeral. Livecasting is changing not only the ‘ecology’ of theatre, but also of film. Livecasting will shape the future prospects for adaptation of films that originate on stage.

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  • Stereological analysis of the normal red nucleus, and the effect of delayed treatment with adult-sourced adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and motor skills, in the rat

    Aghoghovwia, Benjamin Emoefe (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The red nucleus (RN) was investigated first to provide important data for the transfer of information through the RN and to learn key stereological methods that were then applied to the stem cell study. Six male rats, and a set of serial 40µm glycolmethacrylate sections for each rat, were used to quantify the absolute number, N, within the RN. A systematic sample of sections was obtained to estimate the total volume of the RN. The sampled sections were used to estimate the numerical density Nv using the optical disector method. It was found that the RN consisted, on average, of 8,400 parvicellular neurons and 7,000 magnocellular neurons. Exposure to hypoxia and ischemia (or hypoxia-ischemia, HI) in the brain neonatally can lead to cerebral palsy. Due to difficulties regarding the early diagnosis and treatment of HI injury, there is an increasing need to find effective therapies. This research investigates the long- and short-term effects of delayed treatment with stem cells, derived from adult fatty tissue, on neuronal restoration in the brain, and motor skills. On postnatal day (PN) 7, male Sprague-Dawley rat pups were weight-matched, exposed to either HI brain injury or no HI injury, and assigned to groups (n = 8/group for long-term study, and 4/group for the short-term study) - untreated (HI+Dil), normal controls (Normal+Dil), single- and double stem cell-treated (HI+MSCs×1, HI+MSCs×2). On PN14 and 16, all groups were treated with either diluent or stem cells. For the long-term study, all animals were then tested repeatedly on the cylinder and staircase tests for their motor skill ability and perfused on PN107-109. However for the short-term study, the animals were perfused on PN21. Serial 5µm frozen sections were cut and stained for striatal dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-(DARPP)-32-positive spiny projection neurons. The N of these neurons was estimated using the Cavalieri’s, physical disector and Abercrombie/unfolding methods for the long-term study, and Cavalieri’s and Abercrombie/unfolding methods for the short-term study. For the long-term study, the HI groups were impaired on left- versus right-sided motor skills on the staircase test, but the control animals were not. However, this promising outcome was not observed on the cylinder test which revealed no significant difference for L% - R% use among all groups (p>.05). A one-way ANOVA revealed no significant difference (p>.05) across all groups. The N of DARPP-32-positive neurons was also not significantly greater (Mann-Whitney test, p > 0.05) in the Normal+Dil compared to all HI groups. For the short-term study, there was a significant difference in the N of DARPP-32-positive neurons when all groups were compared (p.05). These results suggest that double treatment with adipose-derived MSCs has therapeutic potential for rescuing striatal neurons after neonatal HI.

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  • The dose individualisation of oral anticoagulants

    Mohd Saffian, Shamin (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Oral anticoagulants are used to treat and prevent blood clots. All anticoagulants carry the risk of bleeding if the systemic exposure is too high, while inadequate exposure will increase the risk of thrombosis. Therefore, the safe and effective use of all oral anticoagulants will require dose individualisation and monitoring. The overarching goal of this thesis is to critically evaluate and explore dose individualisation methods for warfarin and dabigatran therapy to improve patient outcomes. For warfarin, methods for predicting the maintenance dose were investigated. Specifically, Chapter 2 investigates the predictive performance of a Bayesian dose individualisation tool for warfarin. It was found that the maintenance dose was over-predicted especially in patients requiring higher daily doses and further studies into the source of bias were conducted. Chapter 3 further evaluates whether published warfarin maintenance dose prediction algorithms can accurately predict the observed maintenance dose in patients who require ≥7 mg daily (the upper quartile of dose requirements). A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to answer this question. It was found that all warfarin dosing algorithms included in the study under-predicted the maintenance dose in this group of patients. One common metric to measure predictive performance of a model is the mean prediction error, which is a measure of bias. The work conducted in Chapter 2 and 3 suggests that the mean prediction error may not capture non-constant bias. This is when the predictions systematically deviate away from the line of identity in one direction in relation to the observed data. Chapter 4 proposes new method to assess predictive performance to analyse non-constant systematic deviation from the line of identity. The proposed method is not specific to warfarin, but can be applied to the analysis of predictive performance in general. For dabigatran dosing, aspects of concentration monitoring as a means of determining a suitable dosing rate were explored. In Chapter 5, an assay using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed to measure all active entities of dabigatran concentrations in human plasma. The assay was used to measure dabigatran concentrations collected from a previous study. A de novo population pharmacokinetic model was not pursued in the first instance as the data were fairly sparse. Instead, the measured concentrations were used in Chapter 6 in a simulation based study to select an appropriate prior population pharmacokinetic model that might be used in a future Bayesian dose individualisation method for dabigatran. The overall intention of Chapter 6 was to develop a Bayesian dose individualisation method for dabigatran. In conclusion, this thesis has identified the limitations of current methods for predicting warfarin maintenance dose and has explored dabigatran concentration monitoring as a means of improving dabigatran dosing. Models for predicting warfarin maintenance dose were critically evaluated and it was found that all existing models can not accurately predict the maintenance dose in patients requiring higher daily doses. An improvement in the method to assess predictive performance was proposed. The work conducted in this thesis on dabigatran dosing provides the basis for future research to individualise dosing and monitoring using population pharmacokinetic models.

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  • Glycerol production by various strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Microbiology at Massey University

    Munster, Rosalind Evelyn Gordon

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The influence of yeast strain, fermentation procedure and media on cell growth and the production of glycerol and ethanol was studied. Two fermentation procedures were compared (a) fermentation at a constant temperature of 15°C and (b) fermentation at higher temperatures (15–20°C) maintaining a constant rate of sugar utilization. Three wine-making yeasts and three high glycerol producing hybrid yeasts were fermented on two types of grape juice and a synthetic [control] media. The effect of the fermentation procedure on glycerol, ethanol production and cell growth was variable and appeared to depend on the yeast strain. Comparison of the yeast strains showed glycerol production to vary considerably depending on the yeast this effect was also dependent on the media. The yeast strain is important for maximum fermentation efficiency in a specific grape juice. Selective hybridisation of pure culture wine yeasts was employed to develop yeast strains capable of maximum glycerol yield, without jeopardising ethanol production in Muller Thurgau and in Chenin Blanc grape juices. Improved yields were achieved, but those yeasts selected for fermentation in one type of grape juice did not give outstanding yields when fermented in the other type of grape juice. This suggests that for wine-making it is possible to tailor yeasts for fermentation in specific grape juices. The addition of sulphur dioxide [0–300 ppm] and its influence on glycerol and ethanol production was studied using a wine-making yeast and a high glycerol producing hybrid. The effect was strain dependent and as expected, the addition of sulphur dioxide to the wine-making yeast showed enhanced glycerol production and depressed ethanol production. However, the converse was apparent with the high glycerol producing hybrid. The addition of glycerol to the media prior to fermentation at levels of 0 to 20 g/1 was tested in an attempt to simulate the conditions of grapes attacked by the fungus Botrytis cinerea [noble rot]. No inhibition or stimulation of glycerol or ethanol production was apparent by either the wine-making yeast or the high glycerol producing hybrid yeast tested.

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  • Framing "reality" : an exploration of how events become news items on television : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Media Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Slater, Graham

    Thesis
    Massey University

    "CD is unreadable"

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  • Fostering self-regulation and deep approaches to learning : end-user computing courses in higher education : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education (Special Education) at Massey University, New Zealand

    O'Connor, Maureen Jennifer

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines student approaches to learning and self-regulation within a higher education computing environment. Traditional end-user computing teaching methods emphasise a skills approach that does not encourage effective use of information technology as it evolves and does not consider how students approach their learning. This research was designed to promote student use of self-regulated learning to see if it would encourage deep approaches to learning. The revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) was used to measure approaches to learning, at the beginning and end of a semester, to see if students' learning had shifted towards a deeper approach. The sample was taken from two end-user computing classes in a diploma programme. The teaching of strategies to foster self-regulatory practices was introduced. Focus group discussions were held at the beginning, middle and end of the study to record student perceptions of learning. Academic journals, recording student reflection, were collected. The results from the R-SPQ-2F questionnaire showed no shift had occurred. The participants began the semester with a tendency toward a deeper learning approach, leaving little room for change. There was no difference found between approaches to learning of ethnic groupings. Qualitative results revealed deep and surface learning approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive and may overlap, suggesting a combined approach. The course grades suggested that the adoption of teaching strategies fostering self-regulation helped student learning in the researched classes. A link was suggested between strategy use and student approaches to learning.

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  • Fostering inter institutional knowledge sharing among students : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Smestad, Øyvind

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of this research was to develop a system to allow students from various tertiary educational institutions, taking similar courses, to share common discussion forums. This was seen as important to enable larger communities of learners which could help each other, encourage discussion and give exposure to a more diverse range of opinions. In general to create a system that would make it easier to find knowledge in large networks of information and people. For this purpose a special discussion forum system was developed that can easily be integrated with institutions existing software systems for course management. The system handles the inter-institutional communications transparently, and was developed to be flexible in how it can be installed on various server configurations. The special features of the system allow students to specify the type of message they are contributing, and the system then uses this information to adapt the user interface. For instance, when a question is added, the system searches for possible answers in the existing knowledge base and displays them. An evaluation of the system in three tertiary educational institutions in New Zealand showed positive feedback from students, indicating they would use a system like this if it was made available to them in their future studies. An evaluation among teachers also showed a generally positive response. In the evaluation of the system's automatic answer finding capabilities, it was identified that this functionality should be improved to increase the effectiveness of how the system identified and highlighted possible answers.

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  • From the outside looking in : identity in selected Fijian short stories written in English : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of a Master of Arts at Massey University

    Tuvuki, Sandra Dawn

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Construction of colonial identities in Fiji were built upon the premise of British superiority and difference from others, as they were in other parts of the colonised world. Colonial discourse regularly employed stereotypes to reduce other communities into simple and therefore controllable concepts. Fiji's post-colonial voices have had to write their ways out of these reduced roles and clear a space for representations of life in Fiji that differ from earlier elucidations. The body of writing which began to emerge in the 1960s is represented here by a selection of short stories by a number of authors writing from and about Fiji. The main focus here is on the ways identities which emerge from these stories pull the texts together into a definable body of writing, despite the diversity of writing positions, and despite some gender-based distinctions highlighted by Arlene Griffen and Shiasta Shameem. It is concluded that identities are more difficult to negotiate when outside opinions or forces are powerful. This observation is discussed in relation to the movement of characters from innocence to experience, the affect of progress on communities and individuals, the representation of women in the texts, and the position of individuals who travel to or from Fiji or who are descendants of migrants.

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  • From confrontation to civil war : conflict management in the Satsuma Rebellion, 1877 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Japanese at Massey University

    Tuffley, Peter

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The orthodox view of the outbreak of the 1877 Satsuma Rebellion characterises those actions of Japan's central government which provoked the insurrection as mistakes made in an effort to defuse the confrontational relationship that had developed between the government and Kagoshima prefecture. This thesis offers a critical reappraisal of this view, and examines the hypothesis—suggested by the Japanese historians Inoue Kiyoshi and Môri Toshihiko, as well as by the historical novelist Shiba Ryôtarô—that those actions were intentionally provocative, with the aim of promoting a military resolution of the confrontation. Rather than an accidental outbreak of violence, the Rebellion and the ensuing civil war are considered, in Clausewitzian terms, as "a continuation of (domestic) politics, with the addition of other means", in which the transition from non-violent to military confrontation was, arguably, engineered by the government leadership (in particular by the de-facto leader of the Meiji oligarchy, Ôkubo Toshimichi), just as Bismarck engineered the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War by means of the Ems Telegram, in order to bring about armed conflict without taking the role of aggressor. The thesis also examines the influence of unforced strategic error on the course of the civil war in its early stages. This leads to a reappraisal of the orthodox view that the imperial forces were never in danger of defeat, and to the conclusion that the Rebellion could well have succeeded but for major strategic error on the part of the rebel leaders.

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  • Ethnodevelopment within the Bolivian Aymara : a case study in Laja : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Rapson, Brent Timothy

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The Aymaran people have lived on the Andean altiplano between the valley where today's city of La Paz sits and Lake Titicaca for over 800 years. During that time they have been conquered by the Inca Kingdom, the Spanish Crown and the mestizo governors of the Republic of Bolivia. Despite this history of submission the Aymara have maintained their unique cultural identity strong and pure. Life on the altiplano has always been a challenge and today is no exception. Harsh weather conditions and isolation from mainstream Bolivian society have limited the possibility of economic development for the thousands of Aymaran communities spread across the altiplano. One such rural community is Laja, the original location of the city of La Paz, today home to an Aymaran population of 707. For decades, authors within the discipline of development studies have been seeking sustainable solutions for rural communities like Laja. The introduction of the theories of alternative development in the 1980s helped focus development studies on the issues that would truly impact on world poverty after the weaknesses of mainstream development theories became evident. Arising from the alternative development paradigm came the theory of ethnodevelopment. [From Introduction]

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  • A geographical study of the New Zealand textile manufacturing industry, with particular reference to the Wellington region

    Vickery, Evan Wakefield

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is a study of the New Zealand textile manufacturing industry and its components. It investigates the nature of location patterns, the changes within the components of the industry and the changes in industrial organisation which have occurred since 1950. The location of factories engaged in manufacturing textiles is detailed, shifts in components of the industry are analysed and early location factors in the industry are discussed. It is argued that technological advances in various facets of the industry have been influential in determining the present day location of the factories in the industry. The impact of technology and its requirements within the industry are examined specifically in terms of process product and organisational adjustments. The resulting developments, particularly the form of intra- and inter- industry linkages are outlined. In addition the form of industry intra-urban linkages are explored with particular reference to the Wellington Region.

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  • Free Methodists in colonial Christchurch : the church, community and commercial lives of some immigrants from Sunderland : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Thomas, William F. F

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis tells the story of a small group of immigrants to Canterbury from Sunderland, England in 1858 and follows their lives and the events in their community up to the time of the First World War. John Thompson Brown and his fellow-settlers belonged to an off-shoot of the Wesleyan Methodist Church – the Free Methodists. Their commitment to this denomination and its ethos and the influence of religion on their lives is a central theme in their story. Life in pioneer society was hard. The environment made it so as much as anything and there were many privations. The sacrifices made by the early settlers and the generation of colonials that followed them were invariably perceived from the perspective of both material conditions and social values. A new community cannot be built without a vision of what that community should be like. This blend of the visionary and the pragmatic co-existed in the beliefs and actions of the early settlers and the colonials, and probably to the generations beyond. The values of the Free Methodists emphasised self-improvement and self-reliance and were supportive of the development of New Zealand as a Christian community As with other denominations their church was a central part of their community which they fostered both spiritually and materially - a considerable commitment of heart and mind in the demanding colonial environment. [FROM INTRODUCTION]

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  • Extraction and structural study of hemicellulose B from tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Chemistry at Massey University

    Hensanghongs, Patana

    Thesis
    Massey University

    1.1 Hemicellulose The structural carbohydrates are mixtures of polysaccharides which together with lignin, constitute the cell wall. Usually they are divided into three fractions: pectic substances, hemicellulose and cellulose.1 Pectins, widely distributed in land plants are characterised by a main chain of 1 – 4 linked galacturonic acid units. They may also contain rhamnose, galactose, xylose, arabinose and fucose in varying amounts. These sugars form part the main chain in some pectins and branch chains in others.2 The pectic triad consists of galacturonan, araban and galactan. Pectic substances occur without exception in all higher plants. It is possible that pectic substances may serve as protective agents for natural rubber particles and may be important food reserve for the plant.3 They are found most abundantly in the primary cell walls and in the intercellular layer.4 [From Introduction]

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  • Frederick Pirani, M.H.R. Palmerston North, 1893-1902 : a study of his political career : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Symondson, Bruce

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is concerned with the political career of F. Pirani, who represented the Palmerston North electorate from 1894 to 1902. Pirani entered the House a liberal, but within a few years was in strong disagreement with the Liberal government on several issues, so in 1896 he stood as an independent liberal. From 1898 Pirani believed a change of government would be to New Zealand's advantage, and in 1902 he was an opposition candidate. Despite this transformation in political colours only on the land question was there a major change in Pirani's views in the years he was in the House. This at first sight is contradictory, and this thesis, by a detailed study of Pirani's political career and beliefs, is intended to clarify this situation. It is also hoped that the thesis would be a first step in the analysis of local Manawatu politics in the latter part of the nineteenth-century. Other regions, for example Canterbury, Taranaki and the Waikato, have been studied in depth, but the Manawatu's timing and pattern of development was, it is suggested, unique, and this alone suggests that a study of its local politics would prove fruitful to those considering the wider picture. The value, and the limitation, of a thesis are considerably determined by the methodology and the sources used. Sources are to an extent independent of methodology, but methodology frequently determines both the way and the extent to which different sources are used. The politics of the Canterbury region for the period 1870-1890 has been studied in detail in a number of theses. In all cases the theses were concerned with local politics usually with only a single election and hence a heavy reliance was placed upon local newspapers, and a booth-by-booth analysis of election results. This led Bohan, 1 in particular, to the conclusion that party played no role in the politics of the period. Millar 2 believed that the polling-booth method did not allow issues their due, and Evans pointed out that "there is no getting away from the fact that on some issues a two-party division existed, and in parliament with much more certainty than in the electorates." 3 I believe the comments of Millar and Evans to be very important, and I have therefore attempted to explain in detail Pirani's career at both the national and local level, and also the influence that each had on the other. 4 Because of this I believe the result is a better building block towards a more complete understanding of the politics of the period than would otherwise be the case. [FROM INTRODUCTION]

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  • Growth and competition studies with snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for a Master of Horticultural Science at Massey University

    Lallu, Pramda

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Overseas work suggests that substantial yield increases can occur when the density is increased and the rectangularity is changed to unity. Two trials were carried out to examine some effects of growing snap beans at four densities. The R.G.R. fell with time until pod swell where it showed a slight increase and then fell again. The N.A.R. followed a similar pattern whereas the L.A.R. increased and then fell earlier than either the N.A.R. or the R.G.R., indicating the dependence of the R.G.R. on the N.A.R. The L.A.R. appears to be dependent on the L.W.R. component rather than the S.L.A. component. Fertilizer had no effect on the R.G.R. or the N.A.R. As the level of fertilizer increases, the S.L.A. decreases and the L.W.R. increases, indicating that more leaves are produced and the leaves are 'thicker'. Both the L.W.R. and the L.A.R. are maintained at a higher level with increasing amounts of fertilizer. As density increases, the R.G.R., N.A.R. and L.W.R. fall whereas the L.A.R., S.L.A. and L.A.I. all increase. This shows that at the higher densities, more leaves are produced but they are less efficient at producing and/or utilizing assimilates. As density increases, the maturity of the beans tend to be delayed, yield/plant at high density is decreased through fewer flowers/plant, higher flower and pod abortion rate and a lower bean weight, all probably due to the lower N.A.R. There is also a negative correlation between the number of pods and pod size. The recipricol yield density relationships showed fertilizer to have no effect on the A and B parameters for either total plant dry matter or bean dry matter. The allometric log plant weight to log bean weight showed the ratio of beans to total plant weight decreases with increasing density. Fertilizer had no effect on the yield of beans. Density was also shown to have no effect on the yield of beans when the yields were compared at the same seed length. When yields were compared at the same chronological time, density did have an effect. The mean mature bean yield was 13.95 tonnes/ha but the mean harvestable yield was 18.6 tonnes/ha.

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  • Global game, local goals : football and the global-local nexus : a thesis in partial fulfilment of the degree of Master of Arts in Social Anthropology, Massey University, Albany

    McAdam, Stuart Graeme

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Association football is the most popular sport in the world with massive numbers of players and supporters, both male and female. The global spread of football coupled with its projection through mass media to global audiences suggests an analysis based on the discourse of globalisation. However. 'Global Games. Local Goals' shows that football is also highly-localised. with football clubs and national teams having great significance as centres of community and identity. Thus an anthropological analysis of football necessitates a dialectical approach that addresses the inter- relationship between the global and the local. 'Global Game, Local Goals' also argues that while the 'big picture' of globalisation studies offers relevant macro-analytical possibilities, the particularism of highly-localised ethnographic studies that have been part of the anthropological tradition should not be lost in the rush to larger scale studies of globalisation'. Thus the anthropological tradition of particularism is preserved but is also blended with the universalism of globalisation and theorisation.

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  • Job desire and response distortion in personality assessments

    Roess, Michaella Delphine; Roche, Maree A. (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether individuals engage in response distortion when applying for which they are highly motivated by job desire. Design/Method/Approach: Participants completed questionnaires regarding scenarios of different jobs to assess the level of job desire and personality dimensions. Personality dimensions were assessed using the 50 item IPIP to determine a representation of the Big Five factor framework commonly relied upon by HR managers. The data was analysed by the use of ttests to determine statistical significance. Findings: Response distortion was found to be significantly higher for all personality variables in the high job desire than in the low job desire. Implications: The results indicate that merely applying for a job can not be assumed to mean that every applicant has the same level of motivation, job desire, and that consequently, the responses to the personality dimensions may be distorted.

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