314,264 results

  • Creating the climate and space for peer review within the writing classroom

    Dixon, H; Hawe, Eleanor (2017)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Substantive and ongoing critique of the quality of one???s writing is necessary if students are to experience writing as a recursive process. However, students??? willingness to critique their texts and those of others is dependent upon the creation of a trusting and mutually supportive learning environment. Using the naturalistic setting of an elementary school writing classroom, attention is drawn to the ways in which two teachers nurtured competence and communication trust (Reina & Reina, 2006) between themselves and students, and among students. Consideration is also paid to teachers??? creation and use of public and private spaces to promote interactions that helped writers revise and recraft substantive aspects of their writing in an ongoing and iterative manner.

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  • MAPS: Living, moving, emerging assemblages

    Matapo, Jacoba; Roder, Howard (2014-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This research narrative tells the story of a M??ori immersion early childhood centre???s engagement with the performing arts. In this research, and fundamental to this narrative is the provocation that came from the drama based Community Artist who, joining the centre, listened, shared, planned and lived drama arts practices with the children and teachers. This activity rests within a more extended arts based teaching and research learning initiative (TRLI) known as Move, Act, Play, Sing (MAPS), which also involved provocations from music and dance Community Artists. Drama and storytelling are the focus of the encounters shared here, particularly what might be understood as a ???walking performance??? linked to a local mountain, which featured in the children???s lives and the life of the centre becoming-M??ori. What emerged throughout the overall project was an affirmation of the intricate ties to lived experiences, sensations, encounters, interactions and intensities that are present in children???s work. Drama as ???real??? or living is supported within the imaginary, where Deleuze identifies ???real??? as both virtual and the actual (1988). Attention is drawn to the movement or leakage between virtual and the actual, enabling another of Deleuze???s concepts to operate, namely, the rhizome (Sellers, 2013). This research also draws on Deleuze and Guattari???s (1988) concept of assemblages of desire invoking the imaginary as a new means of expression affecting unexpected relations and connections, and it is within these emergent, unexpected, yet still anticipated potentials that this article seeks new possibilities for drama in early childhood education.

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  • Investigating the use of talk in middle and secondary classrooms

    Davies, Maree (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis describes two projects which investigated effects of systematic interventions upon students??? patterns of productive engagement and discussion in group learning contexts. In the first study, the Paideia method was applied with middle school students. In the second study, the framework of Quality Talk and the principles of dialogic teaching were employed with senior school students to encourage their interactions and their questioning skills. In each study, intervention classes were able to be compared with non-intervention classes, and students in both studies also participated through online discussion. Classroom interactions were recorded and coded. In Study 1, it was found that the use of the Paideia method occasioned increased volume and complexity of student responding especially on measures of student-to- student interaction. The complexity of these interactions increased significantly for students in the mid-level and high socioeconomic intervention classes but less so for the students in low socioeconomic classes. Differences between intervention and non- intervention students for classes in the mid-level to high socioeconomic classes achieved statistical significance but not for the low socioeconomic classes. Study 2 investigated the framework Quality Talk and principles of dialogic teaching in assisting students to use question-asking strategies, such as authentic questions, uptake questions, high-level questions, intertextual questions and affective response questions and within a classroom environment that encouraged trust and respect. Results showed students increased their use of authentic questions, uptake questions and high-level questions. In turn, the use of these questions appeared to stimulate more complex dialogue, more reasoning words, dialogic spells (a stretch of discourse starting with a student question and followed subsequently, thought not necessarily immediately, by at least two more student questions) and elaborated explanations (a statement or claim that is based on at least 2 reasons). Further, there was a significant change in writing with students in the intervention classes demonstrating increased writing with a critical analytical stance compared with the writing of students in the non-intervention class. The data from Study 2 showed the effect of a recurring pattern of teaching practice. Analyses revealed that productive student interactions became relatively disrupted through teachers joining into group discussions and immediately asking procedural or managerial questions. When teachers listened to student-to-student interchanges for several minutes before speaking, however, such disruption effects were not evident. It was also found many teachers inconsistently applied dialogic teaching methods but, using different types of feedback to students, appeared to have a positive influence on students??? ability to talk and write with a critical analytical stance. When student discussions were held in groups online rather than in face-to-face groups their use of uptake and high-level questions increased, as did their dialogic spells. Results indicate that interventions to increase dialogic discussion can be effective with secondary students, can transfer from spoken to written work, and can be generated in an online environment. The study???s findings also have implications for professional development for teachers in the use of classroom discussions.

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  • Man-monkey, monkey-man: neutrality and the discussion about the ???inhumanity??? of poison gas in the Netherlands and International Committee of the Red Cross

    van Bergen, L; Abbenhuis, Maartje (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Systemic Approaches The Achieving with Integrity Project: Positive Approaches to Dealing with Academic Dishonesty

    Stephens, Jason; Wangaard, DB (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Who needs a Hippocampus? The role of the Avian Hippocampus in Serial Order Behaviour and Temporal Discriminations

    Wilson, Alysha (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The avian hippocampus is a functional homologue of the mammalian hippocampus. Damage to the hippocampus in both birds and mammals impairs performance on spatial tasks and generally leaves performance on non-spatial tasks unaffected. In the current study, control and hippocampal-lesioned pigeons were trained on 4-item serial order tasks, a radial arm maze analogue task and timing discrimination tasks. Hippocampal-lesioned pigeons showed no impairment on the acquisition of the 4-item serial order tasks but they were significantly impaired on the radial arm maze analogue task. Finally, hippocampal-lesioned birds showed no impairment in the ability to discriminate between the intervals ranging from one second to 12 minutes.

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  • Immunomodulation and Vaccination with RHDV VLP

    Donaldson, Braeden Carl (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an insidious disease, responsible for almost 700,000 deaths annually worldwide. The incidence of CRC in New Zealand is more than double the world average, at 48.1 and 36.7 cases per 100,000 annually for men and women respectively, with the highest rates of distant metastases on presentation around the world at 24% of cases. The predominance of this late stage presentation may be attributed to poor public awareness, exacerbated by the current absence of the nationwide screening program that is due to begin in 2017. Combined with limited long-term treatment options, the prognosis for patients diagnosed with CRC in New Zealand is relatively poor. The availability of alternative treatment options, such as immunotherapy, may help to improve patient outcomes, promoting remission and recovery while limiting the development of adverse side effects. Immunotherapy involves the engagement and manipulation of the patients own immune system, re-educating the effector cells of the immune system to recognise, respond and eliminate tumour cells. One of the most promising types of immunotherapy is vaccination, capable of reinvigorating the immune system to recognise and target molecules associated with CRC. This study used virus-like particles (VLP) derived from Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) as a vaccine construct for the treatment of CRC. VLP are a form of subunit vaccine composed of components derived from a virus, but without the ability to infect or replicate. These inert shells can be modified to incorporate heterologous antigens, such as those derived from tumour cells, as well as additional molecules that can manipulate and modify the immune responses induced. In previous work undertaken with RHDV VLP, these molecules have included adjuvants such as α-galactosylceramide and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oligonucleotides containing unmethylated CpG islands (CpGs), as well as compounds that promote uptake, such as mannose and surface conjugated CpGs. During this study, it was found that RHDV VLP have a natural affinity for CpGs, facilitating the co-delivery of this adjuvant into antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that uptake VLP. This property was identified based on the protection of CpG oligonucleotides from DNase digestion in the presence of RHDV VLP, and the further retention of CpGs following dialysis. The functionality of CpGs associated with RHDV VLP was investigated using the RAW-Blue reporter cell line, and confirmed in assays evaluating the activation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). CpGs delivered in association with RHDV VLP were found to induce enhanced activation of BMDCs in comparison to an equivalent quantity of CpGs administered alone. This enhancement could not be explained by the direct effects of RHDV VLP on these cells, as VLP alone was found to be slightly suppressive relative to untreated controls. RHDV VLP were further found to have a natural affinity for other short nucleic acids, such as short interfering RNA (siRNA). This affinity was identified following dialysis of siRNA laced RHDV VLP. The efficacy of siRNA delivery was investigated using signal transducer and activator of transduction (STAT) 3 siRNA, based upon its ability to knockdown STAT3 protein levels in a model cell line following administration in combination with RHDV VLP. The functionality of STAT3 siRNA delivery by RHDV VLP was further investigated based on the hypothesised ability to interfere with interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in activated murine macrophages. Although RHDV VLP was found to be capable of delivering STAT3 siRNA to murine macrophages, inducing a significant knockdown in STAT3 protein levels, this effect did not functionally translate into significant alterations in IL-6 secretion. RHDV VLP-based vaccines developed for the treatment of cancer have previously included the incorporation of model antigens, limiting direct relevance of these vaccines to targeting true tumour-associated antigens. More recently, a study involving the incorporation of the melanoma-associated antigen gp100 proved that RHDV VLP-based vaccines can induce responses against tumour-associated antigens. However, this study also showed that targeting gp100 alone was insufficient for inducing responses that could induce complete remission of murine melanoma tumours, indicating that escape mechanisms remained intact. This may be overcome by inducing simultaneous immune responses against multiple tumour-associated antigens, potentially limited the ability of tumours to adapt and escape. In order to test this hypothesis, RHDV VLP were produced that contained an epitope derived from murine topoisomerase IIα (T.VP60), an epitope derived from murine survivin (S.VP60) or both in combination (TS.VP60). The identity of these chimaeric VLP was confirmed through sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), electron microscopy and mass spectrometry. Their ability to induce targeted immune responses against their respective epitopes was assessed with in vivo cytotoxicity assays. The efficacy of these chimaeric VLP constructs to combat subcutaneously engrafted MC38-OVA murine CRC tumours in combination with CpGs as an adjuvant was evaluated in therapeutic tumour trials, with RHDV VLP containing the model chicken ovalbumin epitope SIINFEKL (SIIN.VP60) used as a model control. Both T.VP60 and S.VP60 delayed the growth of MC38-OVA tumours with comparable efficacy to SIIN.VP60, attributable to 60% overall survival amongst mice combined across all trials. TS.VP60 exhibited further delays in the growth of MC38-OVA tumours, attributable to 67% overall survival amongst mice combined across all trials. Although this trend for enhanced efficacy with vaccination targeting multiple tumour-epitopes was repeatable between trials, the difference between mono- and multi-target therapies was not statistically significant. All mice that survived following vaccination were rechallenged with a subcutaneous MC38-OVA tumour on the opposing flank at day 100, and by day 200 none of these mice had grown tumours. Although these results are promising, combinations of greater than two target antigens may be required to provide significant benefits with a multi-target vaccine. Finally, RHDV VLP was assessed for its ability to be expressed by the oncolytic virus Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The purpose of this investigation was to facilitate the development of a combination vaccine capable of utilising the targeted tumour cell-specific lytic infection of an oncolytic virus, and the therapeutic vaccination properties of RHDV VLP. To this end, recombinant VSV expressing RHDV VP60 (VSV-VP60), SIIN.VP60 (VSV-SIIN.VP60) and TS.VP60 (VSV-TS.VP60) were produced. The viability of recombinant VSV was assessed by plaque assay, the incorporation of each VLP construct was confirmed through sequencing, and the production of each VLP in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells was identified by Western blot and electron microscopy. In MC38-OVA tumour trials, none of the VLP expressing VSV constructs provided significant benefits in either growth rate or survival. The absence of the usual oncolytic properties of VSV may be due to impaired or altered activity in the MC38-OVA murine CRC model system, or through impairment in combination with RHDV VLP expression. The apparent inefficacy of the VLP vaccines expressed by each VSV construct may be due to inadequate dosage, with in vivo expression from the administered quantity of recombinant VSV possibly incapable of recapitulating levels known to be required for successful RHDV VLP vaccination. These results indicate that although VSV is able to express RHDV VLP, further work is required to facilitate the development of this potential combination therapy.

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  • Ethical Norm Promotion in European Union Foreign Policy: Responding to the Arab Uprisings in the Southern Neighbourhood

    Meikle, Chris (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The European Union (EU) has increasingly used its external policy mechanisms to export the principles that it was founded upon: democracy, rule of law, social justice and, in particular, respect for human rights. This approach has long been evident in the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), which includes the Union for the Mediterranean states to the south. However, a number of these southern states have been thrown into disarray by the popular revolutions which swept through the Arab world in 2011; although these uprisings seem to share many of the principles which the EU has sought to promote, the implications for the EU’s role in the region are still far from clear. In order to assess the extent to which the EU has demonstrated an ethically normative foreign policy in response to the Arab Uprisings, this research sets out to establish which of the international norms that the EU promotes in the North Africa and Middle East (MENA) region can be considered ethical, and whether or not they can be differentiated from the EU’s “interests”. The discussion of ethics, norms and interests in EU external action is situated within the Normative Power Europe literature, which also provides the theoretical framework for the analysis that takes place in later chapters. It is shown that the EU correlates its promotion of some norms with international human rights discourse, and rhetorically advances itself as an ethically normative actor by highlighting the centrality of such norms to its international identity. The EU’s policy towards the MENA region is assessed before, during and after the Arab Uprisings, both at a regional and a bilateral level, the latter with regard to the particular cases of Tunisia and Morocco. The research draws on an analysis of official EU documents, secondary academic sources and interviews conducted in Brussels, Tunis and Rabat, in order to evaluate the EU’s evolving priorities in its southern neighbourhood. It is argued that despite a steady rhetorical commitment to ethical norm promotion in the region, the EU has consistently prioritised issues such as security and migration, with the exception of its immediate response to the uprisings in 2011. To explain this temporary and aberrant substantive shift, a hypothesis is presented drawing on Frank Schimmelfennig’s theory of rhetorical action, showing the consequences resulting from the intersection of the EU’s own rhetoric with the international attention garnered by the so-called “Arab Spring”. An analysis of policy responses to the Arab Uprisings not only sheds light on the nature, scope and limitations of ethics and norms in EU foreign policy, but also clarifies the nature of the EU as an international actor.

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  • Indonesian EFL teachers' perceptions of the influence and role of professional development and teacher study groups on teachers' self-efficacy : a mixed methods study : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education, Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Bachtiar

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A growing body of research suggests that effective professional development (PD) can help teachers increase their knowledge, skills and understanding about teaching. Research evidence also indicates that good quality PD enhances teacher self-efficacy. However, there have been few studies that have investigated the relationship between teachers‟ participation in PD and changes in perceived levels of their self-efficacy. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of good quality PD from the perspective of junior secondary English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in Indonesia. It also aims to find out the relationship between teachers‟ participation in PD and teacher study groups (TSGs) and changes in perceived levels of their self-efficacy. A mixed methods research with a convergent parallel design involving four phases was used in this study. In the first and fourth phases, the initial and follow-up questionnaires were completed by 104 teachers in three districts. The questionnaires consisted of closed questions and open-ended questions. In the second phase, three observations were carried out in each of the three TSGs in the three districts. This focused on how teachers conducted TSG meetings. In the third phase, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 EFL teachers from three districts. The findings from this study revealed that the participants‟ perceptions of good quality PD seemed to be influenced by the Indonesian cultural context, educational system and policies, and teacher resources. The EFL teachers perceived good quality PD facilitates: increased teachers‟ knowledge and teaching skills, encourages collaboration, and is based on teachers‟ classroom practical needs. The study also revealed that there is a relationship between teachers‟ participation in PD, and TSGs, and changes in perceived levels of their self-efficacy. Of the three aspects of instructional strategy, classroom management, and student engagement, the EFL teachers made the greatest change of their self-efficacy in instructional strategy. However, the participants also saw the importance of having a good understanding of classroom management and student engagement, in addition to instructional strategy. The study suggests that good quality PD for junior secondary EFL teachers in Indonesia needs to give teachers time to talk and work collaboratively, and the content should be based on teachers‟ classroom practical needs. The study also suggests the need to involve teachers in the process of planning, designing, and implementing PD in order to maximize its benefits. Therefore PD, such as TSGs in Indonesia, should be expanded and encouraged by the Indonesian government.

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  • "Peer-led support for long term health conditions : its functions, benefits and challenges and how the role of a facilitator could increase effectiveness" : a Masters thesis

    Hughes, Emily

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Peer-led support groups for long-term health conditions are inexpensive and beneficial resources. However, literature on peer-led support is minimal and suggests that these groups face many challenges. The current study endeavored to explore the challenges and functions of peer-led support groups for long-term health conditions; further, examining how the implementation of the role of a Facilitator for these groups could negate some of the challenges and increase the prevalence and effectiveness of groups. Through focus groups and individual interviews with Group Leaders, Health Professionals and Group Participants involved in peer-led support groups, the current study identified 7 emergent themes. These themes were discussed and analyzed, particularly in relation to the experience of peer-led support groups and the possibility for the development of the role of a facilitator in the future.

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  • Development of bread products containing Chordaria cladosiphon (mozuku) and its bioactive extract fucoidan : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Food Technology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand. EMBARGOED until 12 December 2019

    Grubb, Stephen Daniel

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Many seaweeds such as Chordaria cladosiphon, commonly known as mozuku, have been shown to contain several health promoting components such as dietary fibres, antioxidants, and a range of bioactive compounds. Mozuku is an edible brown seaweed which constitutes an important part of the diet of native Okinawans who enjoy long lives and consume the seaweed mixed with various seafoods and vegetables. Brown seaweeds and their isolated compounds, specifically a long-chain polysaccharide known as fucoidan, are reported to retard the formation and growth of various cancer cells in humans as well as having anticoagulation, antiviral and immunological activities. The present study developed wheat and gluten-free bread formulations containing mozuku powder in order to introduce its potential health effects into a staple food product thus making it more accessible to a wider range of consumers. Nutritional analysis of mozuku powder was determined by proximate analysis, fatty acid analysis and amino acid analysis, particle size distribution of the powder was also determined. Mozuku powder was added to modified wheat bread and developed gluten-free bread formulations with adjustments in levels of added salt. The effects of mozuku powder inclusion on bread quality were assessed by measuring changes in bread quality parameters, with standard methods being used to determine texture characteristics, crust and crumb colour, specific volume and water activity. Samples of glutenfree and wheat bread were evaluated by consumer sensory panellists for appearance, texture, aroma, taste, and overall acceptability using the 9-point hedonic scale. Microbial stability of wheat bread was determined by enumeration of total aerobic plate counts and, yeast and mould counts over the course of 3 days.

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  • Factors shaping the operation of machinery hire services : case studies on the implementation of the Institution for Rental Service of Agricultural Machinery (IRSAM) programme in the special region of Yogyakarta, the Republic of Indonesia : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of AgriCommerce at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Winarno, Kodrad

    Thesis
    Massey University

    As part of the government initiative to improve the production of agricultural commodities, particularly the five major staples – rice, maize, soybeans, sugar and beef, the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) of the Republic of Indonesia launched the implementation of the Institution for Rental Service of Agricultural Machinery (IRSAM) programme in 1998. The programme aims to encourage the use of farm machinery at the farm level to improve agricultural production, and to promote farmers to develop a rural business unit by providing agricultural machinery services to other farmers. The IRSAM programme has been rolled out for more than 18 years. From this programme, many farmers have received machinery and started to provide services to other farmers. Nevertheless, the implementation of the IRSAM programme has been applied to different areas of the Republic of Indonesia, and showed various levels of success. Some IRSAMs have successfully developed the units into profitable businesses. However, the majority of the IRSAMs are still underdeveloped. This research is interested in gaining a deeper understanding of the factors that are shaping the operation of IRSAMs, especially in the Special Region of Yogyakarta and how they are working on those factors. By understanding the various factors, there would be a possibility for this research to provide recommendations on how the MoA will be able to improve the implementation of the IRSAM programme. A multiple case studies approach was used to explore factors and circumstances, which influence the operation of the IRSAM. Two cases were selected in the Special Region of Yogyakarta. One IRSAM was chosen in each of Gunungkidul Regency and Bantul Regency, respectively. This research applied purposive and snowballed sampling to select participants. Sixteen groups of participants were interviewed. This research analysed the data using qualitative data analysis method. The results revealed four significant factors influenced the operation of both IRSAMs. These were: 1) managers with good administrative and finance skills, 2) the availability of capable machinery operators, 3) the demand for machinery services from farmers (farmer group members and non-members), and 4) the availability of institutional support from the public and private sectors that enable the IRSAM to flourish, such as access to financial aid, the availability of spare parts, access to agricultural extension services, training for IRSAM employees, and rural infrastructure (rural road networks and irrigation networks). Although most of these factors have been identified in other literature, significantly, this research highlighted one factor that has previously not been identified. This factor was the availability of alternative private providers/other IRSAMs around the selected IRSAMs. Additionally, it was revealed that the formal organisation structure of the IRSAM seemed only to exist in the Republic of Indonesia. The formal structure has made the roles of manager and operators a significantly important factor in affecting the operation and success of the IRSAM. This research illustrates the complexity of the dynamic factors that affect the operation of small-scale machinery service providers. The local circumstances and different characteristics of situations are going to mean that the specific factors and settings that are shaping the performance of the machinery hiring group will vary. This research shows how the delivery process of the IRSAM programme using a blanket policy does allow the IRSAMs to perform well across different situations. This study highlights the value that could be had for the IRSAMs to perform better if the government better targets types of machinery to match specific needs of farmers in different areas. Besides, the research suggests that the government could develop a database management system of public and private machinery hire services to obtain information on the actual supply and demand of machinery services. Keywords: farm machinery hire services, small-scale farmers, agricultural mechanisation, IRSAM, custom hiring, the Special Region of Yogyakarta,

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  • Panel versus individual interviews: A meta-analytic investigation of employment interview validity

    Guilford, Justine Rebecca (1997)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Further analysis using a similar data set to the McDaniel, Whetzel, Schmidt and Maurer (1994) meta-analysis of employment interviews was performed in the present study, in order to investigate four possible causes for the apparent superiority of individual employment interviews. These causes included (a) criterion contamination of individual interview studies, (b) greater prevalence of psychologists performing individual interviews, (c) greater number of trained/experienced individual interviewers, and (d) greater prevalence of high proximity to target positions in individual interviews. A research question was also proposed to investigate whether all interview panel sizes were inferior to individual interviews in terms of validity. Meta-analyses using 204 job and training performance validity coefficients indicated that individual interviews were superior in validity to panel interviews, but only when the criterion was training performance. Training/experience was the only explanation for the superiority of individual interview validity, such that individual interviewers were more likely to be trained/experienced, suggesting that individual interview validity was superior as a result. The explanation that the use of psychologists in interviews may account for superior individual interview validity was only partially supported. While psychologists were more prevalent in individual interviews, individual interview validity was lower than that of panel interviews, when the criterion was job performance. Only when training was the criterion was individual interview validity higher when psychologists were interviewers. Two hypotheses were not supported. Firstly, there was no evidence of criterion contamination inflating individual interview validity. Secondly, no relationship between interviewer proximity and interview validity was found. Investigations of whether all panel sizes were inferior in terms of validity found that panel sizes of more than three members were superior in validity to individual interviews, when the criterion was job performance.

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  • The philosophical use and misuse of science

    Kingsbury, Justine; Dare, Tim (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Science is our best way of finding out about the natural world, and philosophers who write about that world ought to be sensitive to the claims of our best science. There are obstacles, however, to outsiders using science well. We think philosophers are prone to misuse science: to give undue weight to results that are untested; to highlight favorable and ignore unfavorable data; to give illegitimate weight to the authority of science; to leap from scientific premises to philosophical conclusions without spelling out their relevance; to treat mere resonance between a scientific theory and a philosophical view as empirical evidence for the philosophical view. This article identifies and illustrates some of the ways in which philosophers misuse science, explains why these pitfalls are easy to fall into, and concludes with suggestions for avoiding them.

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  • Application of lidar techniques to time-of-flight range imaging

    Whyte, Refael; Streeter, Lee; Cree, Michael J.; Dorrington, Andrian A. (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Amplitude modulated continuous wave (AMCW) time-of flight (ToF) range imaging cameras measure distance by illuminating the scene with amplitude modulated light and measuring the phase difference between the transmitted and reflected modulation envelope. This method of optical range measurement suffers from errors caused by multiple propagation paths, motion, phase wrapping and non-ideal amplitude modulation. In this paper a ToF camera is modified to operate in modes analogous to continuous wave (CW) and stepped frequency continuous wave (SFCW) lidar. In CW operation the velocity of objects can be measured. CW measurement of velocity was linear with true velocity (R² = 0.9969). Qualitative analysis of a complex scene confirms that range measured by SFCW is resilient to errors caused by multiple propagation paths, phase wrapping and non-ideal amplitude modulation which plague AMCW operation. In viewing a complicated scene through a translucent sheet, quantitative comparison of AMCW with SFCW demonstrated a reduction in the median error from −1.3 m to −0.06 m with inter-quartile range of error reduced from 4.0 m to 0.18 m.

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  • Momentum, idiosyncratic volatility and market dynamics: Evidence from China

    Cheema, Muhammad A.; Nartea, Gilbert V. (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Recent evidence on the relation between momentum and idiosyncratic volatility (IV) in the U.S. is mixed. We verify the relation between momentum and IV in China and find at best, no relation supporting the view that idiosyncratic risk is not a significant arbitrage cost for momentum returns. While the absence of a positive relation between momentum returns and IV rejects both the underreaction and the overconfidence and self-attribution stories of momentum, we find support for the overconfidence and self-attribution story from our results on market dynamics and momentum. Our results are robust when verified in other Asian markets. We also find support for the suggestion that cross-country differences in momentum returns could be the result of differences in market dynamics rather than differences in levels of individualism as suggested earlier in the literature.

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  • Petrogenesis of the Rifted Southern Victoria Land Lithospheric Mantle, Antarctica, Inferred from Petrography, Geochemistry, Thermobarometry and Oxybarometry of Peridotite and Pyroxenite Xenoliths from the Mount Morning Eruptive Centre

    Martin, Adam P.; Price, Richard C.; Cooper, Alan F.; McCammon, Catherine A. (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The lithospheric mantle beneath West Antarctica has been characterized using petrology, whole-rock and mineral major element geochemistry, whole-rock trace element chemistry and Mössbauer spectroscopy data obtained on a suite of peridotite (lherzolite and harzburgite) and pyroxenite xenoliths from the Mount Morning eruptive centre, Southern Victoria Land. The timing of pyroxenite formation in Victoria Land overlaps with subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific plate beneath the Gondwana margin and pyroxenite is likely to have formed when fluids derived from, or modified by, melting of the subducting, eclogitic, oceanic crustal plate percolated through peridotite of the lithospheric mantle. Subsequent melting of lithospheric pyroxenite veins similar to those represented in the Mount Morning xenolith suite has contributed to the enriched trace element (and isotope) signatures seen in Cenozoic volcanic rocks from Mount Morning, elsewhere in Victoria Land and Zealandia. In general, the harzburgite xenoliths reflect between 20 and 30% melt depletion. Their depleted element budgets are consistent with Archaean cratonization ages and they have mantle-normalized trace element patterns comparable with typical subcontinental lithospheric mantle. The spinel lherzolite mineral data suggest a similar amount of depletion to that recorded in the harzburgites (20–30%), whereas plagioclase lherzolite mineral data suggest <20% melt depletion, consistent with Proterozoic to Phanerozoic cratonization ages, and have mantle-normalized trace element patterns comparable with typical depleted mid-ocean ridge mantle. All peridotite xenoliths have undergone a number of melt–rock reaction events. Melting took place mainly in the spinel peridotite stability field, but one plagioclase peridotite group containing high-sodium clinopyroxenes is best modelled by melting in the garnet field. Median oxygen fugacity estimates based on Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements of spinel and pyroxene for spinel-facies conditions in the rifted Antarctic lithosphere are –0·6 Δlog fO₂ at Mount Morning and –1·0 ± 0·1 (1σ) Δlog fO₂ for all of Victoria Land, relative to the fayalite–magnetite–quartz buffer. These values are in good agreement with a calculated global median value of –0·9 ± 0·1 (1σ) Δlog fO₂ for mantle spinel-facies rocks from continental rift systems.

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  • The evolution of working capital management research

    Darun, Mohd R.; Roudaki, Jamal; Radford, Joseph J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    This study aims to develop an understanding about the evolutionary process of Working Capital Management (WCM) research, explaining WCM in particular environments from the 1900’s until the present. The study discusses relevant studies in the literature, exploring the relevance of models, concepts or frameworks developed to serve managers needs in particular operating environments and speculating future research directions. The evolution of WCM and influencing factors illustrate the integrative nature of WCM, appears to be dynamic as changes in managerial focus would reflect how companies manage WCM components. However, the review reveals that the WCM literature unable to provide relevant information to explain WCM in current environment. The study is particularly value in making sense of WCM research today and likely future directions. The pathway of development while vital for research exposes needs and responds that is fundamental for forecast of future prospects of WCM.

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  • Computational investigation of Amyloid-β-induced location- and subunit-specific disturbances of NMDAR at hippocampal dendritic spine in Alzheimer's disease

    Liang, Jingyi; Kulasiri, Gamalathge D.; Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), dysregulation of intracellular Ca²⁺ signalling has been observed as an early event prior to the presence of clinical symptoms and is believed to be a crucial factor contributing to AD pathogenesis. Amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs) disturb the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated postsynaptic Ca²⁺ signalling in response to presynaptic stimulation by increasing the availability of extracellular glutamate as well as directly disturbing the NMDARs. The abnormal Ca²⁺ response can further lead to impairments in long-term potentiation (LTP), an important process in memory formation. In this study, we develop a mathematical model of a CA1 pyramidal dendritic spine and conduct computational experiments. We use this model to mimic alterations by AβOs under AD conditions to investigate how they are involved in the Ca²⁺ dysregulation in the dendritic spine. The alterations in glutamate availability, as well as NMDAR availability and activity, are studied both individually and globally. The simulation results suggest that alterations in glutamate availability mostly affect the synaptic response and have limited effects on the extrasynaptic receptors. Moreover, overactivation of extrasynaptic NMDARs in AD is unlikely to be induced by presynaptic stimulation, but by upregulation of the resting level of glutamate, possibly resulting from these alterations. Furthermore, internalisation of synaptic NR2A-NMDAR shows greater damage to the postsynaptic Ca²⁺ response in comparison with the internalisation of NR2B-NMDARs; thus, the suggested neuroprotective role of the latter is very limited during synaptic transmission in AD. We integrate a CaMKII state transition model with the Ca²⁺ model to further study the effects of alterations of NMDARs in the CaMKII state transition, an important downstream event in the early phase of LTP. The model reveals that cooperation between NR2A- and NR2B-NMDAR is required for LTP induction. Under AD conditions, internalisation of membrane NMDARs is suggested to be the cause of the loss of synapse numbers by disrupting CaMKII-NMDAR formation.

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  • Apparent acquired resistance by a weevil to its parasitoid is influenced by host plant

    Goldson, Stephen; Tomasetto, Federico

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Field parasitism rates of the Argentine stem weevil Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Microctonus hyperodae Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are known to vary according to different host Lolium species that also differ in ploidy. To further investigate this, a laboratory study was conducted to examine parasitism rates on tetraploid Italian Lolium multiflorum, diploid Lolium perenne and diploid hybrid L. perenne x L. multiflorum; none of which were infected by Epichloë endophyte. At the same time, the opportunity was taken to compare the results of this study with observations made during extensive laboratory-based research and parasitoid-rearing in the 1990s using the same host plant species. This made it possible to determine whether there has been any change in weevil susceptibility to the parasitoid over a 20 year period when in the presence of the tetraploid Italian, diploid perennial and hybrid host grasses that were commonly in use in the 1990’s. The incidence of parasitism in cages, in the presence of these three grasses mirrored what has recently been observed in the field. When caged, weevil parasitism rates in the presence of a tetraploid Italian ryegrass host were significantly higher (75%) than rates that occurred in the presence of either the diploid perennial (46%) or the diploid hybrid (52%) grass, which were not significantly different from each other. This is very different to laboratory parasitism rates in the 1990s when in the presence of both of the latter grasses high rates of parasitism (c. 75%) were recorded. These high rates are typical of those still found in weevils in the presence of both field and caged tetraploid Italian grasses. In contrast, the abrupt decline in weevil parasitism rates points to the possibility of evolved resistance by the weevil to the parasitoid in the diploid and hybrid grasses, but not so in the tetraploid. The orientation of plants in the laboratory cages had no significant effect on parasitism rates under any treatment conditions suggesting that plant architecture may not be contributing to the underlying mechanism resulting in different rates of parasitism. The evolutionary implications of what appears to be plant-mediated resistance of L. bonariensis to parasitism by M. hyperodae are discussed.

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