311,796 results

  • Identification of Delivery Models for the Provision of Predictive Genetic Testing in Europe: Protocol for a Multicentre Qualitative Study and a Systematic Review of the Literature

    Brigid Unim; Tyra Lagerberg; Erica Pitini; Corrado De Vito; Maria Rosaria Vacchio; Giovanna Adamo; Annalisa Rosso; Elvira D’Andrea; Carolina Marzuillo; Paolo Villari (2017-08-01)

    article
    Directory of Open Access Journals

    IntroductionThe appropriate application of genomic technologies in healthcare is surrounded by many concerns. In particular, there is a lack of evidence on what constitutes an optimal genetic service delivery model, which depends on the type of genetic test and healthcare context considered. The present project aims to identify, classify, and evaluate delivery models for the provision of predictive genetic testing in Europe and in selected Anglophone extra-European countries (the USA, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand). It also sets out to survey the European public health community’s readiness to incorporate public health genomics into their practice.Materials and equipmentThe project consists of (i) a systematic review of published literature and selected country websites, (ii) structured interviews with health experts on the genetic service delivery models in their respective countries, and (iii) a survey of European Public Health Association (EUPHA) members’ knowledge and attitudes toward genomics applications in clinical practice. The inclusion criteria for the systematic review are that articles be published in the period 2000–2015; be in English or Italian; and be from European countries or from Canada, the USA, Australia, or New Zealand. Additional policy documents will be retrieved from represented countries’ government-affiliated websites. The results of the research will be disseminated through the EUPHA network, the Italian Network for Genomics in Public Health (GENISAP), and seminars and workshops.Expected impact of the study on public healthThe transfer of genomic technologies from research to clinical application is influenced not only by several factors inherent to research goals and delivery of healthcare but also by external and commercial interests that may cause the premature introduction of genetic tests in the public and private sectors. Furthermore, current genetic services are delivered without a standardized set of process and outcome measures, which makes the evaluation of healthcare services difficult. The present study will identify and classify delivery models and, subsequently, establish which are appropriate for the provision of predictive genetic testing in Europe by comparing sets of process and outcome measures. In this way, the study will provide a basis for future recommendations to decision makers involved in the financing, delivery, and consumption of genetic services.

    View record details
  • Real Deal or No Deal? A Comparative Analysis of Raw Milk Cheese Regulation in Australia and France

    William van Caenegem; Madeline Elizabeth Taylor (2017-04-01)

    article
    Directory of Open Access Journals

    Australia’s regulatory framework has resulted in the standardisation of cheese production based on pasteurisation. Up until early 2015, regulations effectively prohibited raw milk cheese-making in Australia and thus stifled artisanal on-farm production. Although the introduction of Food Standards Australia New Zealand Standard 4.2.4 has allowed the production of certain hard, low-moisture raw milk cheeses, the new standard is rigid and does not encourage new entrants into the emerging raw milk cheese consumer market. This article compares the Australian system with the French raw milk cheese regulation and production system, and argues that its approach in encouraging and supporting small farmhouse artisanal traditional raw milk cheese is beneficial to both producer and consumer, and has not resulted in any significant health risks. The Australian approach amounts to a missed opportunity to encourage the emergence of a value-added industry with local and export potential, and is at odds with important movements in food policy, such as recognition of the value of localism and terroir.

    View record details
  • ‘A Sense of Myself as a Mother’: An Exploration of Maternal Fantasies in the Experience of ‘Circumstantial Childlessness’

    Lois Tonkin (2017-08-01)

    article
    Directory of Open Access Journals

    ‘Circumstantially childless’ women (Cannold 2000) are those who have seen themselves as having a biological child or children at some point in their lives, but have come to — or are approaching — the end of their reproductive years without giving birth, for primarily social rather than biological reasons. The women who experience this form of childlessness are part of a growing demographic in Western countries, but the experience is not well understood. Using a detailed case example of one participant in a qualitative feminist psychosocial study of the experience of 26 circumstantially childless women in Aotearoa/New Zealand (Tonkin 2014), I draw on Hollway’s (2015) work on the development of maternal subjectivity and Ettinger’s (2006b) concept of the ‘matrixial’ to try to make meaning of her apparently non-sensical ‘sense of myself as a mother’. I suggest the term ‘fantasy mother’ as a further dimension of motherhood, as a way to take account of aspects of this experience that appear to cut across available discourses of maternity.

    View record details
  • Rock climbing and acute emotion regulation in patients with major depressive disorder in the context of a psychological inpatient treatment: a controlled pilot trial

    Kleinstäuber M; Reuter M; Doll N; Fallgatter AJ (2017-08-01)

    article
    Directory of Open Access Journals

    Maria Kleinstäuber,1,2 Merle Reuter,3 Norbert Doll,4 Andreas J Fallgatter4 1Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Faculty of Psychology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany; 2Department of Psychological Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany, 4Department of General Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany Background: Major depressive disorder is characterized by deficits in emotion regulation. This study examined associations between rock climbing and acute emotion regulating effects in patients with major depression. Patients and methods: In a nonrandomized, controlled study, 40 major depressive disorder inpatients were assigned to either a climbing session (n=20) or a relaxation session (n=20). Positive and negative affect, depressiveness, and coping emotions were assessed immediately before and after the session. Results: Mixed analyses of variance and covariance revealed significant time × group interaction effects for all assessed outcomes (p≤0.012): positive affect and coping emotions significantly increased and negative affect and depressiveness significantly decreased after the climbing session (1.04≤ Cohen’s d ≤1.30), in contrast to a relaxation session (0.16≤ Cohen’s d ≤0.36). Conclusion: The results show that rock climbing is associated with acute emotion regulatory effects. These findings have to be replicated with a randomized design, and future research should pay attention to possible mechanisms of rock climbing in regard to emotion regulation. Keywords: physical activity, controlled trial, relaxation, inpatient treatment

    View record details
  • Vaccination with Salmonella Typhi recombinant outer membrane protein 28 induces humoral but non-protective immune response in rabbit

    Anjani Saxena; Rajesh Kumar; Mumtesh Kumar Saxena (2017-08-01)

    article
    Directory of Open Access Journals

    Aim: Typhoid is one of the most important food and water borne disease causing millions of deaths over the world. Presently, there is no cost effective vaccine available in India. The outer-membrane proteins (Omps) of Salmonella have been exhibited as a potential candidate for development of subunit vaccine against typhoid. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of recombinant Omp 28 protein for immunization of rabbit to elucidate its protection against virulent Salmonella Typhi. Materials and Methods: Immune potential of recombinant Omp28 was tested in New Zealand Rabbits. Rabbits were divided into two groups, i.e., control and test group. Control group was injected with phosphate buffer saline with adjuvant while test group were injected with recombinant Omp28 along with adjuvant. Rabbits were bleed and serum was collected from each rabbit. Serum was tested by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for humoral response. Rabbits were challenged with virulent culture to test the protective immunity. Results: Humoral response was provoked at 15th day and maintained till 30th day. The mean ELISA titer at 15th day was 1 : 28000 (mean titer log 10 : 4.4472) and on the 30th day was 1 : 25866 (mean titer log 10 : 4.4127). Protective immune potential of Omp 28 was assessed by challenge studies in rabbits for which vaccinated and control rabbits were challenged with 109 cells of virulent culture of S. Typhi. In control group, out of six, no rabbit could survive after 48 days while in vaccinated group, three out of six rabbit were survived. Conclusion: Immunization of rabbit with recombinant Omp 28 induced a strong humoral response which was exhibited by high antibody titer in ELISA. Subsequently, intraperitoneal homologous challenge of the immunized New Zealand rabbit resulted in lack of significant protection. These findings indicate that Omp 28 though provoked the humoral immunity but could not provide the protective immunity in rabbit model.

    View record details
  • Notes on the emerging accreditation regimes in Australia and New Zealand

    Kristian Boehringer; Fionna Scott; Sue Blyth (2012-09-01)

    article
    Directory of Open Access Journals

    In recent years, new higher education regulatory regimes have emerged in both New Zealand and Australia. In Australia, the new Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA) employs a risk management approach while New Zealand Quality Agency (NZQA) has adopted an evaluative approach. In practice, these varying approaches create real differences in the ways in which the regulatory regimes are applied. This paper considers one discreet but critical element of these new regulatory regimes, academic staff qualifications, as an example of the difference between the risk management and evaluative regulatory approaches. Unsurprisingly, the application of academic staff qualifications requirements is particularly an issue whenever a higher education provider seeks to deliver a new course of study. In order to do so, a higher education provider must seek regulatory approval, in both countries this is known as accreditation.  DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v2i3.76

    View record details
  • An overview of thriving through transformation

    Boyd Dirk Blackwell (2017-06-01)

    article
    Directory of Open Access Journals

    The articles published in this special issue come from the blind peer review and refinement of papers presented to the biennial conference of the Australia New Zealand Society for Ecological Economics (ANZSEE) held at the University of New England (UNE) in Armidale, New South Wales (NSW), Australia on 19-23 October 2015. All papers jointly contribute to helping transform the human existence toward one that is socially, culturally, environmentally, ecologically, economically and politically sustainable. Transforming our human existence to meet these multiple dimensions of ‘true’ sustainability is a difficult task, balancing potentially competing interests and, inevitably, involving trade-offs between these dimensions.

    View record details
  • A Pilot Study Evaluating the Safety of Intravenously Administered Human Amnion Epithelial Cells for the Treatment of Hepatic Fibrosis

    Rebecca Lim; Alexander Hodge; Gregory Moore; Euan M. Wallace; William Sievert (2017-08-01)

    article
    Directory of Open Access Journals

    Liver cirrhosis is the 6th leading cause of death in adults aged 15–59 years in high-income countries. For many who progress to cirrhosis, the only prospect for survival is liver transplantation. While there is some indication that mesenchymal stem cells may be useful in reversing established liver fibrosis, there are limitations to their widespread use – namely their rarity, the need for extensive serial passaging and the associated potential for genomic instability and cellular senescence. To this end, we propose the use of allogeneic amnion epithelial cells. This clinical trial will assess the safety of intravenously delivered allogeneic human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis. This will also provide clinical data that will inform phases 2 and 3 clinical trials with the ultimate goal of developing hAECs as a therapeutic option for patients with cirrhosis who are at significant risk of disease progression. We will recruit 12 patients with compensated cirrhosis, based on their hepatic venous pressure gradient, for a dose escalation study. Patients will be closely monitored in the first 24 h post-infusion, then via daily telephone interviews until clinical assessment on day 5. Long term follow up will include standard liver tests, transient elastography and hepatic ultrasound. Ethics approval was obtained from Monash Health for this trial 16052A, “A Pilot Study Evaluating the Safety of Intravenously Administered Human Amnion Epithelial Cells for the Treatment of Liver Fibrosis, A First in Adult Human Study.” The trial will be conducted in accordance to Monash Health Human Ethics guidelines. Outcomes from this study will be disseminated in the form of conference presentations and submission to a peer reviewed journal. This trial has been registered on the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616000437460.

    View record details
  • Editorial

    The Editors (2012-09-01)

    article
    Directory of Open Access Journals

    Welcome to this special issue of Higher Learning Higher Learning Research Communications (HLRC)! This issue is dedicated to international accreditation of higher education.Academic leaders from Australia, Brazil, Chile, México, Spain, Switzerland and the United States provide insights into the world of higher education accreditation, and describe existing trends, changes, guidelines and their own experiences navigating the higher education accreditation process for specific countries in the times internationalization. Authors for this issue were individually invited because of their knowledge and insights gained while working on innovative projects as institutions adjust to new and emerging accreditation standards.Thus, Agueda Benito Capa (rector at Universidad Europea de Madrid, Spain), Almeida Guimaraes and Chaves Edler de Almeida (leaders at CAPES the Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education), Boehringer and Blyth (academic leaders at Blue Mountain Hotel School, Australia), Scott (dean of Media Design School, New Zealand), Morales Hernández (corporate rector at Universidad del Valle de México, México), Prince (director of academic affairs at Glion Institute of Higher Education, Switzerland), and Armanet (academic vice-rector at Universidad de las Américas, Chile), write about their experiences.They detail, at different levels, the path to accreditation, the complexities and decisions involved, the standards and history behind the processes, and provide the insights that can only be learned from experience. We want to acknowledge and thank all the invited authors and their collaborators for their contributions to this special issue. The global vision of accreditation summarized in the articles presented demonstrate the power of academia, encompassing divergent international standards that cross boundaries for a common goal:quality in higher education.   The Editors

    View record details
  • Identifying and Prioritizing Gaps in Neuroendocrine Tumor Research: A Modified Delphi Process With Patients and Health Care Providers to Set the Research Action Plan for the Newly Formed Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration

    Eva Segelov; David Chan; Ben Lawrence; Nick Pavlakis; Hagen F. Kennecke; Christopher Jackson; Calvin Law; Simron Singh (2017-08-01)

    article
    Directory of Open Access Journals

    Purpose: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a diverse group of malignancies that pose challenges common to all rare tumors. The Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration (CommNETS) was established in 2015 to enhance outcomes for patients with NETs in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. A modified Delphi process was undertaken involving patients, clinicians, and researchers to identify gaps in NETs research to produce a comprehensive and defensible research action plan. Methods: A three-round modified Delphi process was undertaken with larger representation than usual for medical consensus processes. Patient/advocate and health care provider/researcher expert panels undertook Round 1, which canvassed 17 research priorities and 42 potential topics; in Round 2, these priorities were ranked. Round 3 comprised a face-to-face meeting to generate final consensus rankings and formulate the research action plan. Results: The Delphi groups consisted of 203 participants in Round 1 (64% health care providers/researchers, 36% patient/advocates; 52% Canadian, 32% Australian, and 17% New Zealander), of whom 132 participated in Round 2. The top eight priorities were biomarker development; peptide receptor radionuclide therapy optimization; trials of new agents in advanced NETs; functional imaging; sequencing therapies for metastatic NETs, including development of validated surrogate end points for studies; pathologic classification; early diagnosis; interventional therapeutics; and curative surgery. Two major areas were ranked significantly higher by patients/advocates: early diagnosis and curative surgery. Six CommNETS working parties were established. Conclusion: This modified Delphi process resulted in a well-founded set of research priorities for the newly formed CommNETS collaboration by involving a large, diverse group of stakeholders. This approach to setting a research agenda for a new collaborative group should be adopted to ensure that research plans reflect unmet needs and priorities in the field.

    View record details
  • Safeguarding seeds and Maori intellectual property through partnership

    Sue Scheele (2016-04-01)

    article
    Directory of Open Access Journals

    The Nagoya Protocol is a recent binding international instrument that articulates the need to recognise the rights of indigenous peoples regarding their biological resources and cultural knowledge and strengthens the mechanisms to do so. New Zealand has not signed this protocol because of the overriding importance of the Treaty of Waitangi in New Zealand’s domestic affairs, and the need to ensure that government options are not limited concerning the development of domestic policy on access to biological resources. In particular, policy makers and legislators are waiting for the government response to a 2011 Waitangi Tribunal report (Ko Aotearoa Tēnei) on a far-reaching and complex claim (WAI 262) concerning the place of Māori traditional knowledge, culture and identity in contemporary New Zealand law and government policies and practice. Especially pertinent to this paper is the report’s section on Māori rights relating to biological and genetic resources. In accordance with the recommendation within Ko Aotearoa Tēnei, the principle of partnership, built on the explicit Treaty premise of Crown and Māori as formal equals, is presented here as the overarching framework and mechanism by which government agencies and Māori can work together to safeguard such resources. Core concepts and values are elucidated that underpin the Māori relationship to indigenous flora and fauna and are integral to the protection of cultural knowledge of seeds and plants. Examples are given of plant species regarded as taonga (treasures) and how they are conserved, and a case study is presented of institutional stewardship of harakeke (New Zealand flax) weaving varieties. Seed bank facilities are also evaluated regarding their incorporation of Māori values and rights under the Treaty of Waitangi.

    View record details
  • Foreign practice of introducing conventional communicative strategy in the implementation of the functions of government

    I. P. Zarytska (2014-10-01)

    article
    Directory of Open Access Journals

    This article describes the role of conventional communicative strategy from the standpoint of foreign practice. Depending on scientific approaches to communications, business and management strategies based conventional communicative strategy implementation functions of government. It has certain methodological features and differences in different countries: UK, Germany, Australia, USA, Spain, Holland, Finland, New Zealand. Generalization showed that each state produces its conventional communicative strategy depending on the overall state objectives. However joint is considered important not only communication, but also the ability to communicate effectively, understand how to implement the vision of an opinion on relations between the state and society. Purpose conventional communicative strategy determined by the impact on the optimization of the authorities at the national and regional level, the processes of globalization, the experience of other states, its implementation in practical activities as well as their lack of predictive scenarios of the process of optimizing the functions of government. Demonstrated the appropriateness of existing methodologies to use in domestic practice of public administration.

    View record details
  • Dietary biomarkers for the assessment of sugars intake in New Zealand populations

    Kruimer, Devonia (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Nutritional studies typically assess dietary intake of sugars using self-reporting techniques (i.e. diet records, 24-h recalls, and food frequency questionnaires). These techniques, however, are prone to misreporting, leading to attenuation and inconsistency in observed diet-disease relationships. Alternative assessment techniques are required to overcome these research limitations and to strengthen the evidence base for dietary intake recommendations. Recently, two biomarkers of sugar intake have been developed: urinary sugars excretions, used as a predictive biomarker of total sugars intake; and carbon stable isotope ratios (13C/12C; expressed as δ13C), used in various tissues as a predictive biomarker of corn- and cane-derived sugar intake. To date, much research has been carried out on populations where intake of sugars is predominately from corn. The research described in this thesis evaluates the use of urinary sugars excretion in 24-h urine collections and spot urine collections, and the use of carbon stable isotope ratios in red blood cells and hair, as biomarkers of sugars intake in populations where the majority of sugars consumed originates from sugar cane. Additionally, the comparative performances of urinary excretion of sugars and stable isotope ratios as biomarkers was evaluated. Data was analysed from a controlled-feeding study (n = 12), and from two cross-sectional studies. The first cross-sectional study involved young Pacific people (n = 80), and the second study, in conjunction with Ngāti Porou Hauora, involved the Māori Tairāwhiti population (n = 168) around Gisborne and the East Coast of New Zealand. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 7-day diet record in the controlled-feeding study, while a culturally appropriate FFQ, designed to measure intake of sugars, was administered in the Pacific youth and the Māori Tairāwhiti population. Urinary sucrose excretion was most strongly associated with total sugar intake, as measured using a 7-day weighed diet record (r = 0.87); however, urinary sugar excretion measured during the controlled-feeding experiment did not show a linear relationship between the sugars consumed and sugars excreted in the urine. A study conducted in the Māori Tairāwhiti population demonstrated that, urinary sugars in spot samples were associated with self-reported intakes of sucrose (r = 0.22; n = 168). Carbon stable isotopes measured in red blood cells and hair were not associated with self-reported intakes in the pilot study. In young Pacific people, a dual isotope model with δ13C and δ15N was correlated with self-reported intakes of sugar-sweetened beverage intake (R2 = 0.35) in normal-weight adolescents (body mass index (BMI): 19-25 kg/m2), but not in overweight and obese participants. Conversely, δ13Calanine was not found to be correlated with any of the self-reported sugar intakes overall, and in any of the BMI categories. In a subsample of the Māori Tairāwhiti population (n = 36) δ13Calanine was correlated with added sugar intake (r = 0.38). Bulk measures of δ13C and δ15N were not associated with self-reported sugar intakes. The comparative performance of urinary sugars and stable isotope ratios as biomarkers of sugars intake does not give any firm indication of the superiority of using one over the other. Nevertheless, the research of this thesis has identified the potential use of both urinary sugar excretion and carbon stable isotope ratios as biomarkers of sugar intakes.

    View record details
  • Sodium intake and adherence to dietary recommendations in patients undergoing hemodialysis in the SoLID Trial in New Zealand

    Xie, Zhengxiu (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: In New Zealand (NZ), the prevalence of dialysis is increasing with Māori and Pacific people over-represented. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is responsible for the majority of deaths in the NZ hemodialysis (HD) population. There are few definite interventions to improve CVD mortality risk in dialysis patients except transplantation. The Sodium Lowering in Dialysate (SoLID) Trial was a multi-centre randomised controlled trial conducted in NZ from 2012 to 2016. The trial compared the use of low sodium dialysate (135 mmol/L (mM) sodium) with conventional dialysate (140 mM sodium) in HD patients over a 12-month period. The main outcomes included left ventricular (LV) mass (primary outcome), CVD mortality, blood pressure (BP), and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG). Dietary sodium intake also has a critical role in kidney health. There are few data on sodium intake and its relationship with outcomes in dialysis populations. Therefore, this Nutritional Sub-study of the SoLID Trial represents a major opportunity to describe intake of sodium and other nutrients in a multi-ethnic sample of dialysis patients in NZ, and the response of sodium intake to manipulation of dialysate sodium (DNa). As part of the core trial design, longitudinal dietary data were therefore collected to document nutrient intake in trial participants. Objectives: 1) Describe baseline dietary intake of sodium, and other nutrients, in the context of recommended ranges for intake from relevant clinical practice guidelines 2) Compare baseline dietary sodium intake with a range of socio-demographic and health related characteristics, as well as intake of other nutrients 3) Compare baseline dietary sodium intake with 6 months and 12-month data 4) Compare dietary sodium intake in the low DNa vs high DNa group at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Methods: Recruitment of participants Participants were patients on HD recruited in 10 centres from 7 District Health Boards (DHBs) in NZ (Counties Manukau, Auckland, Waitemata, Waikato, Capital & Coast, Canterbury, and Southern), with an accrual period of 36 months between May 2013 to May 2016, and patient follow-up of 12 months. Participants were eligible for the study if they were incident or prevalent patients treated with maintenance HD, aged 18 years or older, suitable for both low and standard sodium dialysate with pre-dialysis serum sodium concentration of ≥135mM. Dietary information collection and analysis Ninety-nine participants randomised into the SoLID trial, were asked to provide baseline data and a 3-day weighed food diary (3DWFD) at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Diaries were analysed using Foodworks 8 professional, supplemented by other sources of nutrient information. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the differences in baseline characteristics of participants by sodium intake category. The significance of changes in nutrient intakes between baseline and 6 months and baseline and 12 months was assessed by paired t-tests. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to model a number of factors against baseline sodium intake (mg/day). Inferential statistical analyses were undertaken and two sorts of regression models were built to analyse the treatment effect of DNa on oral sodium intake at 6 and 12 months. Results: Of the 99 participants recruited to the SoLID Trial, 86 completed at least one 3DWFD, 85 completed a 3DWFD at baseline, 61 completed a 3DWFD at 6 months, 60 completed a 3DWFD at 12 months, and 52 completed a 3DWFD at all three time periods. The Nutritional Sub-study population had a mean (standard deviation (SD)) age of 52 (13) years. The largest ethnic group was NZ European and Other (NZEO) (44%) followed by Pacific (30%). The mean (SD) sodium intake was 2502 (957) mg/day at baseline, 2738 (1251) mg/day at 6 months, 2415 (1125) mg/day at 12 months. According to NZ Renal Dietitians’ recommendation, more than half of the participants exceeded the sodium intake target. Of 59 participants who completed baseline and 12-month diaries, paired t test showed 12-month mean sodium intake (2317 mg/day) was significantly lower than baseline mean sodium intake (2636 mg/day) (P=0.0082). Multivariate regression analysis shows baseline sodium intake was positively associated with energy intake (β=211, P<0.0001). For other nutrients, 5% (baseline), 7% (6 months) and 3% (12 months) of participants met the recommended calorie density; nine percent (baseline), 7% (6 months), and 15% (12 months) of participants ate the recommended minimum of 1.2g/kg of protein per day; about two thirds of participants were consuming inadequate fibre across all the three time periods. In contrast, saturated fat contributed around 14% of total energy. Approximately two out of five participants had excessive phosphorus intake at all the three time periods. More than 90% of participant exceeded the idea sodium/potassium ratio of 1:1 at all three time periods. There were changes in dietary sodium intake in low DNa and high DNa groups over time. The sodium intake was similar at baseline between two groups (2531 vs 2475 mg/day); the high DNa group had higher sodium intakes at 6 months (3004 vs 2481 mg/day) and 12 months (2527 vs 2289 mg/day) compared to low DNa group, however, the mean treatment effect was not significant according to mixed-effects linear modeling (P=0.063 at 6 months, P=0.411 at 12 months) and repeated measure analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) (P=0.067). Conclusion: This study showed a high proportion of dialysis patients in SoLID Trial did not meet current renal-specific dietary recommendations. The data suggest excess sodium intake at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. It is also evident that there was poor intake of calorie, protein, fibre and excess intake of saturated fat, and phosphorus. Health professionals, especially renal dietitians, need to consider barriers for non-adherence and continue to promote lower sodium intake without compromising energy and protein intake. The results from the study merit further research, especially, into the effect of DNa on dietary sodium intake.

    View record details
  • The centralised development of elearning resources : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Masters of Education (Elearning) at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    O'Brien, Raymond John


    Massey University

    This thesis explores the centralisation of elearning resource development in New Zealand Institutes of Technology and Polytechnics (ITPs). There was a significant gap in existing research relating to the organisation of elearning resource development. The tertiary education sector has been subject to significant and rapid change with associated challenges. Centralisation has been mooted as contributing to a solution for these challenges. The lack of research around centralised development of resources makes it difficult to support such a claim. To address this, the thesis explored three areas: the extent to which centralised development of elearning has been adopted, the perceived advantages and disadvantages of a centralised model, and the attitudes teaching staff hold towards a centralised model. The study applied a mixed method convergent parallel research design. This drew on data from interviews with elearning managers and from a survey of teaching staff. Findings established that three categories of centralisation exist in New Zealand ITPs; decentralised, centralised and highly centralised. The typical composition and functions of the centralised teams were defined for each category. The findings supported the perceived advantages and disadvantages identified in existing research, but also identified additional advantages. These included better project management, more clarity around roles and responsibilities, that elearning resources produced by a centralised unit was more student focussed and specific cost saving information. Levels of understanding around the financial advantages of a centralised model were inconsistent. The attitudes teaching staff held towards a centralised model were seen as to some extent ambivalent. Attitudes were more positive where the staff already operated within a centralised model. The thesis makes a significant contribution where there was a gap in existing research. This new knowledge is directly relevant to current decisions around cost of development, composition of central teams, expectations when adopting a centralised model, and planning to centralise or decentralise. These findings are both timely and significant as recent mergers, qualification reviews and the expectation to innovate and adopt new models of delivery increase the need for more efficient solutions to creating elearning resources.

    View record details
  • Agent-based Persuasive Route Recommendation for Public Goods

    Sengvong, Sotsay

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Over many decades, the transport sector has played a significant role in contributing to economic growth. Unfortunately, this sector has not only provided positive effects, but also has produced a number of negative impacts on society. These impacts are known as the external costs, and include traffic pollution, congestion and accident costs. Transport users rarely take these costs into consideration when they make travel decisions. As a result, the number of external costs is growing and is likely to continue to increase in parallel with the increase of urban mobility. This thesis proposes a novel recommendation system, known as the Agent-based Public-Friendly Route Recommendation (APF2R). The APF2R can help commuters make green, safe and less congested travel decisions, while supporting society to mitigate the external costs. A novel persuasive reward algorithm is introduced, which can be used by other researchers to balance two conflicted parties. This study demonstrates an agent-based model, which was used to evaluate the persuasiveness of recommendation systems. The result of the proposed system shows potential in addressing the problem of external costs. An analysis of the experimental results undertaken here, captures the evolution of the distance of users’ ranks. These results indicate a means of persuasion in connection with behavioural change.

    View record details
  • Museum Exhibit Ideas for Virtual Antarctic Historic Hut Experience

    Sickinger, David (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this report was to investigate museum exhibit ideas for a Virtual Antarctic historic hut experience. The author's one-line response to probably the most important question on the GCAS course application form is reproduced below: 2. Indicate !tow, 011 completion oftlte course, you intend to use the experience btfuture postgraduate research, education, community work or in your career. Since I work at HIT Lab NZ, perhaps we could see if we could put together some type of interactive exhibit to help educate people on Antarctica. With this background information in mind, the author was contacted by Nigel Watson from the Antarctic Heritage Trust (AHT) at the beginning of the GCAS course. He suggested a topic idea for the personal project dealing with virtually visualizing the historic huts. Nigel is interested in providing "virtual access to showcase the Antarctic historic huts and the Antarctic 'heroic-era' legacy" (Personal Communication, Watson, 2004). A GCAS 2001/2002 student conducted a literature review on the subject that did a nice job of reviewing what was currently available on Antarctica at the time, various technologies that are available, and suggestions on what could be done in the future to create a much better virtual hut experience (Hyde, 2002). The author of this report assumes familiarity with the terminology that was nicely explained in Peter Hyde's literature review and would suggest reading it prior to this report if unfamiliar with any terms mentioned. This report focused on what could be done in a museum setting and an attempt was made to provide some actual Antarctic related samples that could be used to pursue project funding. There is information about HIT Lab NZ (www.hitlabnz.org) towards the end of the report but mention is made throughout the report on ways this University of Canterbury lab could contribute towards a project such as this. There are 34 historic interest sites in the Ross Sea Region that the AHT recognizes (www.heritage-antarctica.org/index.cfm/default) under 3 different category classifications. The AHTs main focus is currently on four of the huts and they are: 1) Cape Adare Huts, Northern Victoria Land (British Southern Cross Expedition 1898 - 1900, led by Carsten Borchgrevink) 2) Discovery Hut, Ross Island, Hut Point (National Antarctic Expedition 1901- 04, led by Commander RF Scott) 3) Nimrod Hut, Ross Island, Cape Royds (British Antarctic (Nimrod) Expedition 1907 - 09, led by Ernest Shackleton) 4) Terra Nova Hut, Ross Island, Cape Evans (British Antarctic Expedition 1910- 1913, led by Captain RF Scott) For some more insight into the huts, refer to the GCAS 2003/2004 Syndicate report that investigated the question whether the huts should be removed, repaired, or restored (Evans et al, 2004). The authors of this report passed on a personal communication from J. Heap about comments that were made in a case where an attempt was made to get grant money. Questions where asked about who would actually get to see the huts located in Antarctica and a discussion followed dealing with creating a Virtual Reality experience so the general public would be included (Evans et al, 2004, p. 43). This author's GCAS 2004/2005 Syndicate project report investigated the question "Raising the bar for an International Polar Year 2007-2008, how much will this IPY raise the bar compared to IGY?" (available from Gateway Antarctica). The official website for the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 can be found at: www.ipy.org. An Education, Outreach, and Communication (EOC) Committee has been established for the IPY. They have set up five target areas for education and outreach initiatives that include school children, potential new polar researches, Arctic communities, the general public, and decision-makers (ICSU IPY 2007-2008 Planning Group, 2004). Creating a Virtual Antarctic experience for a museum to showcase during IPY would represent a perfect time to get the message out about the historic huts. The huts could be part of a bigger virtual world that included 3D-models of certain key buildings from Scott Base, McMurdo, and the South Pole as well as key land formations such as Mount Erebus. The IPY offers a perfect catalyst to pursue project funding as there are currently 29 nations planning to be involved (as of January 2005). There exists the potential to put together a traveling museum exhibition that would be experienced by several thousand people during the timeframe that IPY is taking place. Not only would the message get out about the Antarctic huts to the public but it also provides an opportunity to generate revenue. A great deal of the project time went into working with software and trying to make small demos. So in addition to the screen capture pictures in the report, there are also seven places that refer to a movie clip (provided on a CD, places highlighted by a"*" at the beginning of a line) since a variety of software was used which would have to be installed to view otherwise. Note that the software used to record the video only captured at 15 frames per second (fps) and so the motion appears jerky at times but the demos run smoothly on the source computer.

    View record details
  • Emerging Fisheries – Threat or Opportunity?

    Gibson, Mark; McKay, David; Nicholls, Jill; Paton, Mark (1999)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Between the months of January and March, 1999, the Canterbury Univesity's inaugral course for the Certificate in Continuing Educatron, Antarctic Studies, engaged a research syndicate to investigate and report upon threats and opportunities related to emerging fisheries in the Southern Ocean. This report is the product of that study, and has been prepared in support of an oral presentation Of the syndicate's findings, at Canterbury university, on Friday 19 February, 1999. The purpose Of this report is to encourage discussion and evaluation of dominant perspectives which determine current fisheries management, towards a significant shift in understanding, values and human interactions with marine ecosy<ems.

    View record details
  • TEAM SELECTION IN ANTARCTICA

    Lindsay, Margaret (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A number of memoirs about journeys to Antarctica commence with or recall "for as long as I can remember I dreamed of travelling to Antarctica'. Antarctica, Terra Australis Incognita or Antarktikos have held humans captivated as the inhospitable white continent surrounded by deep, dark stormy seas for all of human history. So how do you get to visit Antarctica? And why would you visit? Who and how you want to experience Antarctica will determine how and why you visit. As a tourist, you will part with large quantities of money and be in the hands of your guides and Antarctica. As a modem day explorer or adventurer you will part with really large quantities of money and will be in the hands of sponsors, organisations, politics and Antarctica. Or you can visit Antarctica as a participant of one of the National Antarctic Programmes, either in a paid capacity, as a volunteer or as a participant of an art/education/writers program. In this capacity you will be in the hands of the National Antarctic Program, a scientific base, organisation, politics and Antarctica. Note that any way that you visit Antarctica; you will always be in Antarctica's hand. Antarctica is the highest, driest, windiest and coldest content and those that select to visit and work in Antarctica must exhibit certain characterisations, attitudes and the ability to adapt and survive. This report will introduce the reasons why and who goes to Antarctica and the criteria an Antarctican must fulfil to be selected to work and live in Antarctica. The selection process used by Scott, Shackleton and Mawson from the heroic period and today's selection process for Antarctica New Zealand will be explained. The final section will be a general overview of how the selection process is important in regards to the "assembly effects" and well-being while on the ice.

    View record details
  • Human Artefacts in Antarctica – Treasure to be Conserved or Junk to be Removed?

    Cadenhead, Natalie; Johnston, Lindsay; Kestle, Linda; Webb, Keryn (1999)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The question generating this report was perceived by the syndicate to be a limited question as it is couched in very black and white terms with no middle ground indicated. There was considerable debate concerning the definitions and assumptions and the emotive tone Of the question. Due to the possibility of the wide scope Of the question, the bulk Of the artefacts discussed will be those of the Ross Sea Region with reference to Other Antarctic where appropriate. Several definitions concerns were raised from research into the question. The following definitions will provide clarity. Artefacts are movable historic items Of all descriptions that are directly associated with an Antarctic expedition, and which were taken to Antarctica for consumption or use there, or were created by members of an expedition while in the Antarctic. 1 Conservation refers to the professional preservation techniques involved in maintaining an artefacts structural and contextual integrity. Conservation is about doing reversible 'repairs' to an Object and does not include restoration where new permanent materials may be adhered to the artefact, Conservation aims to minimize avoidable loss or decay Of an area, site, or associated artefact. Rubbish 2 refers to an item which . Is in such poor condition that it is not reasonably possible to conserve it 2. Has a limited life if left untreated Does not contribute in any significant way to Our understanding Of the human history of Antarctica 3. Does not contribute to the visual qualities Of the site or building of which it is a part 4. 5 Is not a unique or relatively rare item Junk refers to any item that is regarded as Of little value. Rubbish is junk. 3 Treasure refers to items that are valued for their uniqueness, rarity, associations, and emotional attachment, Relic refers to a part or a fragment of an object left after the rest has decayed. Any Object valued as a being a memorial or souvenir of the past, including corpses. The question generating this report was perceived by the syndicate to be a limited question as it is couched in very black and white terms with no middle ground indicated. There was considerable debate concerning the definitions and assumptions and the emotive tone Of the question. Due to the possibility of the wide scope Of the question, the bulk Of the artefacts discussed will be those of the Ross Sea Region with reference to Other Antarctic where appropriate. Several definitions concerns were raised from research into the question. The following definitions will provide clarity. Artefacts are movable historic items Of all descriptions that are directly associated with an Antarctic expedition, and which were taken to Antarctica for consumption or use there, or were created by members of an expedition while in the Antarctic. 1 Conservation refers to the professional preservation techniques involved in maintaining an artefacts structural and contextual integrity. Conservation is about doing reversible 'repairs' to an Object and does not include restoration where new permanent materials may be adhered to the artefact, Conservation aims to minimize avoidable loss or decay Of an area, site, or associated artefact. Rubbish 2 refers to an item which . Is in such poor condition that it is not reasonably possible to conserve it 2. Has a limited life if left untreated Does not contribute in any significant way to Our understanding Of the human history of Antarctica 3. Does not contribute to the visual qualities Of the site or building of which it is a part 4. 5 Is not a unique or relatively rare item Junk refers to any item that is regarded as Of little value. Rubbish is junk. 3 Treasure refers to items that are valued for their uniqueness, rarity, associations, and emotional attachment, Relic refers to a part or a fragment of an object left after the rest has decayed. Any Object valued as a being a memorial or souvenir of the past, including corpses.

    View record details