91,016 results

  • Acute Respiratory Tract Infections and Vitamin D: Neonatal vitamin D levels and acute respiratory tract infections in the first year of life

    Saraf, Rajneeta (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background There is growing interest in vitamin D as an immune modulator and the role of vitamin D in respiratory illnesses is increasingly being recognised. Respiratory tract infections are a prevalent cause of hospital admission in the preschool-aged population; particularly in the first year of life. In order to try to reduce the ARI disease burden, it is necessary to understand the contribution of different risk factors acting at different phases of a child???s life. One risk factor that is of particular interest for this thesis is vitamin D status at birth. Aim My aim was to investigate the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) status at birth and hospital admission with an acute respiratory tract infection in the first year of life. Two validation studies were also undertaken that allowed us to develop a dried blood spot liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay in a NZ laboratory and determine whether the developed assay was robust enough to measure 25(OH)D concentrations on dried blood spot samples stored for more than 5 years. Methods I performed a case-control study nested within Growing Up in New Zealand; a longitudinal study that is following 6853 children since their birth in 2009-2010. All the Growing Up in New Zealand cohort children hospitalised due to acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) in their first year of life were identified from linkage to the national collection of hospital events (the national minimum dataset (NMDS)). As part of the National Newborn Screening programme, 4 drops of blood were collected onto absorbent cards called dried blood spot cards (DBS). The DBS samples of respiratory cases (children in the cohort admitted with an ARI) and controls (cohort children matched with date of birth ?? 7 days and not hospitalised with an ARI) were tested for 25(OH)D concentration. Data collected during the antenatal period, birth and during infancy (9 months and immunisation register) were used to identify predictors of ARI in the first year of life. The dried blood spot 25(OH)D concentrations were categorised as deficient (3 people/bedroom (OR=1.84 95% CI 1.08 - 3.17) , living in a damp house (OR=1.54 95% CI 0.83 - 2.89), sleeping in rooms with heavy condensation (OR=1.80 95% CI 1.10 - 2.97), did not receive immunisations on time (OR=1.43 95% CI 0.89 - 2.27), and who spent on average <50 nmol/L) are twice as likely as children who are vitamin D sufficient at birth to be hospitalised with an ARI during infancy. Prevention of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and infancy has the potential to reduce the burden of severe ARI during infancy.

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  • The NZ Social Science Journal System: Characteristics and Visibility

    Crothers, C

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Academic journals are central to the social science knowledge of any society. The set of social science journals sourced in New Zealand or focusing on New Zealand is described in terms of the characteristics of its constituent journals, pointing to ways the system has changed over time. An attempt is made to assess the adequacy of the system as a whole, as well as explaining trends in its development. Without expanding this study considerably it seems possible to draw conclusions that demand for NZ publishing is reasonably balanced with its supply, although there seem to be some areas of considerable supply and a few where there are apparent gaps in coverage. When it comes to the actual operation of journals there may be more strain, with reviewing often requiring many failed attempts before sufficient referees are located. There have been a considerable number of journal ‘failures’ but for the remaining journals their futures seem well-secured, although given the pace of technological developments the longer-term future for the whole of academic publishing seems clouded.

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  • Novel Nutrition Profiling of New Zealanders’ Varied Eating Patterns

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    There is increasing recognition that the relationship between nutrition and health is influenced by complex eating behaviors. The aims of this study were to develop novel nutrition profiles of New Zealanders and to describe the prevalence of these profiles. Observational, cross-sectional data from the Sovereign Wellbeing Index, 2014 was used to develop the profiles in an a-priori process. Descriptive prevalence for the total data (N = 10,012; 4797 males; 18+ years) and profiles were reported. Nutrition question responses were presented as: Includers (consumed few time a week or more), Avoiders (few time a month) and Limiters (not eaten). Fruit or non-starchy vegetables were Included (fruit: 83.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 82.7, 84.1); vegetables: 82.6% (81.8, 83.4)) by the majority of the sample. Also Included were confectionary (48.6% 95% CI (47.6, 49.6)) and full sugar drinks (34.3% (33.4, 35.2)). The derived nutrition profiles were: Junk Food (22.4% 95% CI (21.6, 23.3)), Moderator (43.0% (42.1, 44.0)), High-Carbohydrate (23.0% (22.2, 23.8)), Mediterranean (11.1% (10.5, 11.8)), Flexitarian (8.8% (8.2, 9.4)), and Low-Carbohydrate (5.4% (4.9, 5.8)). This study suggests that New Zealanders follow a number of different healthful eating patterns. Future work should consider how these alternate eating patterns impact on public health.

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  • Digital Materiality, Embodied Practices and Fashionable Interactions in the Design of Soft Wearable Technologies

    Joseph, F; Smitheram, M; Cleveland, D; Stephens, C; Fisher, H

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    The emergent field of smart textiles is recognized as an interdisciplinary domain. While each discipline has contributed specific knowledge, an initial focus on technical development has led to an emphasis on function and scientific discourse, ignoring relevant fields like dress and fashion and post-cognitive perspectives that prioritize materiality and embodied experience. As the field continues to develop, different theoretical perspectives are needed to inform new conceptual and methodological approaches to support this expanding, combinatorial field. The notion of embodied interaction, which recognizes the fundamental importance of engaging and re-conceptualizing technology through the experience of the body and its senses is critical to this new agenda. The limitations of technology oriented human-computer interaction (HCI) theories and normative semiotic theories of fashion are considered in relation to the design of soft wearable technologies. Two recent smart garment design projects, that have used embodied interaction approaches are discussed in relation to three theoretical perspectives: firstly from current dress/fashion theory, where notions drawn from new materialism and embodiment theory have led to a reconceptualization of dress as corporeal experience; secondly that of somatics, an approach where knowledge is developed from within the lived experience of the moving body; and thirdly in relation to new material ontologies that address the digital materiality of smart textiles. The theoretical and methodological approaches introduced in the paper and explored through the projects introduce new ideas and approaches that can inform fresh approaches to the design of soft wearable technologies and smart textiles.

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  • Economic Policy Uncertainty And Corporate Cash Holdings

    Duong, Huu Nhan; Nguyen, Justin Hung; Nguyen, My; Rhee, S. Ghon (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    We find that economic policy uncertainty is positively related to cash holdings. This positive relation is attributed to financial constraints that emerge as a new and dominating channel through which policy uncertainty affects corporate financing policies. Neither a delay in investment nor a reduction of the disciplining effect from M&A activities explains this positive relation. Increasing cash holdings during the period of high policy uncertainty contributes to firm excess returns and mitigates the negative impact of policy uncertainty on investment.

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  • Governance of Tunnelling in Developing Countries: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Tareq, Mohammad; Houqe, Muhammad Nurul; van Zijl, Tony (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Tunnelling is a governance issue between controlling shareholders and minority shareholders in both developed and developing countries. However, most studies on tunnelling are in developed countries with the few exceptions of studies on China, India and Mexico. Using Oliver Williamson’s Market and Hierarchy model this paper analyses the suitability of the governance requirements on tunnelling in Bangladesh and reports on interviews with non-independent directors, independent directors, and audit committee members. The study thus identifies the limitations and factors that affect the implementation and effectiveness of the current governance requirements to constrain tunnelling in companies in Bangladesh.

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  • Punishment of Bribery and Corruption: Evidence from the Malaysian Judicial System

    Idrus, Muhammad Arif; Houqe, Muhammad Nurul; Bui, Binh; van Zijl, Tony (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    We investigate the judicial outcomes of crimes involving bribery and corruption in the context of the Malaysian judicial system. Using a sample of 1869 court cases over the period 2006 to 2013, we find that ‘white-collar’ workers, politically connected offenders, government employees, female offenders, indigenous Malaysians (Bumiputera) and private attorney offenders receive more lenient treatment compared to others. Evidence is also found that prior conviction of the offender and the seriousness of the offencee play significant roles in determining the fines and imprisonment of the offender. Moreover, young offenders receive harsher sentences compared to older offenders in terms of jail sentences but young offenders receive lower fines compared to older offender. We also find that more educated offenders receive more fines but fewer jail sentences. Our findings clearly suggest that not everybody is equal in the eyes of the Malaysian judicial system.

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  • Carbon Risk and Dividend Policy in an Imputation Tax Regime

    Nguyen, Justin Hung; Balachandran, Balasingham (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Australia ratified the Kyoto Protocol in December 2007, which mandates the country to reduce carbon emissions, thereby exogenously affecting firms in highest-emitting industries, or polluters. We examine the role of carbon risk in dividend policy and how this effect varies as between imputation (paying franked dividends) and classical (paying unfranked dividends) tax environments in the unique experimental setting in Australia. We find that the probability of paying dividend and dividend payout ratio are lower for polluters relative to non-polluters subsequent to the ratification. We further document that the post-Kyoto dividend reduction of polluters is driven by their relative increase in earnings uncertainty. However, the negative effect is weaker for firms that pay franked dividends than otherwise. The evidence suggests a causal influence of carbon risk on firm dividend policy, and highlights the significance of imputation tax environment on the impact of carbon risk on dividend policy

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  • Ngā wāhine kaha from Syria: The experience of former refugee women from Syria resettling in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Fitzgerald, Hawa Kusuma Setyawati (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines the experience of former refugee women from Syria resettling in Aotearoa New Zealand. It focuses on Syrian women who have resettled in the Wellington region and Dunedin - the two main areas to which Syrian refugees have been allocated. The study documented Syrian refugee women’s perspectives about resettlement satisfaction, their strengths and challenges, and their ideas for community development. The methodology and analysis for the study incorporated the Human Rights-Based Approach (HRBA) to resettlement and the Mana Wahine framework. Through forty-five survey participants and three focus groups, the study found that the integration of wairua/spirituality, cultural identity, language and whanaungatanga/relationships in the family was very important for Syrian women’s resettlement in Aotearoa New Zealand. This study found gender roles between men and women strongly exist in the Syrian community. Many refugee women found their roles changed and lost the support they used to have from family members back home. Participants also expressed facing isolation resulting from cultural aspects. These show refugee women have bigger challenges to integration compared to their male counterparts, and that Syrian women have specific cultural rights related to their gender and religion. However, refugee resettlement services and community development were delivered the same way for men and women, and more types of supports are needed for refugee women.

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  • Building reuse and sustainable behaviours: Nurturing occupant behaviours towards a sustainable reuse of existing buildings

    Bartley, Georgia (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This proposition will address the identified problem of deteriorating built environments through designing a sustainable reinvigoration. This type of reinvigoration instils not only the value of sustainability in reuse, but is known to succeed when designs result in the ‘triple bottom line’ effect of increased social, economic, and environmental values (“Triple Bottom Line”, 2009). This proposition intends to explore a fourth bottom line. One to engage with people outside of the site, to extend beyond the prescribed boundaries and behaviours, and to go away with people within the mind of the beholder. To introduce the fourth bottom line is to address the psychology of sustainable practice surrounding the built environment. Integrating this principle will deliver a design response that aims to be sustainable, and regenerative in the teachings and demonstrations that can provide inception of sustainable practices within the wider society. This proposition will explore a discussion between two pre-existing enquiries; - sustainable reclamation of existing built environments - pro-environmental behaviour and sustainable psychologies The existing built environment along the western shore of Watts Peninsula, known as Shelly Bay, was home to the New Zealand Defence Force Base for over 125 years. Since its retirement from government use in 1995, its re-development has been setback by policy, a division of land tenure, and member approval from its governing body (Jackman, 2014). Since the retirement, the infrastructure and existing built environment have been progressively deteriorating. A sustainable reinvigoration of this site will succeed in savings of the existing culture, expenses and heritage while positioning an adapted environment that could be utilised by the wider society. Moreover, this proposal could be designed to inform sustainable psychology while achieving increased or realised social, economic, and environmental values. This design as research thesis will explore the existing site to determine contextual and psychological effects that are influencing the degradation of the environment. The identified problem(s) will then provide parameters for the designed reinvigoration and through an analysis of the pre-existing principles, a proposed design criterion will be applied to the designed concept.

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  • Designed Parameters: Advancing Parametric Software in the Architectural Design Process

    Le Comte, Thomas (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Architects use computers predominantly to digitise a design process that has been in use prior to the advent of the computer. Traditional analogue concepts are transferred into and sculpted through the digital world but the overall process has remained mostly unchanged for decades. Merely digitising a known process does not utilise the full power of the computer and its near limitless ability to compute. For an architect, design of the built environment is highly important especially if they are to optimise the physical, phenomenological and psychological aspects of the space. The process of designing an architectural space is riddled with possibilities or variables that architects have used historically to aid in the design of the built environment, including but not limited to: object relationships, climate, site conditions, history, habitibility and the clients input - all project requirements that must somehow be quantified into a built object. This information is key for an architect as it will inform and form the architecture which is to be designed for the project at hand. This information, however useful, is not easy to integrate into every aspect of the design without intensive planning, problem solving and an exploration of almost an infinite number of possibilities. This is where parametric design can be used to aid in the design. More of the fundamental aspects of the information gathered in a project can be programmed into a computer as parameters or relationships. Once this information has been quantified, the designer can run through iterations of a design which are defined by these parameters. This is not a random process. It is controlled by the designer and the outcome is a product of how the architect designs the parameters, or relationships between components of the design. Parametric design offers a shift from merely digitising design ideas to using programmed constraints derived through the design process to influence and augment the design envisioned by the architect. Parametric design allows the system to be changed holistically and updated through the alteration of individual components that will then impact the form of the design as a whole – creating a non-linear process that is connected throughout all design phases. This thesis seeks to explore parametric design through its implementation within a group design project to decipher how a parametric process grounded in an understanding of contemporary digital fabrication can inform architectural space. To explore parametric design, this thesis will practice this re-envisioned design process through three design phases. The first phase is the foundational knowledge stage where the applications of digital workflow, computer models, tools and material explorations are examined. Second is the production of a prototype to investigate lessons learnt from phase one and apply these lessons to an actual parametric system used to design a prototype. The final stage will be a developed design process that will further explore a parametric system and its architectural applications. These phases will be developed through a series of prototypes in the form of material explorations and scale artefacts which will explore how it would be used to address many of the designs facets from sensual to corporeal.

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  • Designed Deposition - Freeform 3D Printing for Digitally Crafted Artefacts

    Molloy, Isabella (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Through the exploitation of new additive manufacturing (AM) processes, this research seeks to reinvent the designer as an informed mediator between the digitally defined and the physically expressed. Current 3D printing techniques generally construct an object layer by layer, building vertically in the z-axis. Recently developed, ‘freeform 3D printing’ is an AM method which builds through the deposition of material that solidifies upon extrusion. The result is free-standing material forms with diminished need for support material. Building in this spatial manner means that AM is no longer reliant on layer based techniques that are built from ground-up. Instead, motions can move simultaneously in the x, y and z axes. This increased freedom of motion allows the designer to disregard the requisite that solid forms need to be delineated prior to considering material deposition. Considering this in relationship to the design of artefacts, specific approaches that consider both form and material deposition concurrently allow the authorship of the method of making to be reclaimed. Bespoke computational processes work to encode material deposition with qualities that are tactile, visual and expressive of its making method. Considerations to structural, performative and aesthetic implications are assimilated from the onset rather than post-rationalised. Material deposition is crafted to become three-dimensionally informed and considerate of the integral nature of its making method and its output, exposing new design opportunities. Among other things, the research-through-design process suggests how parametric modelling could be used for mass-customisation and suggests a possible path for AM beyond prototyping, towards the manufacturing of bespoke products through an industrial design perspective. Through iterative abstract and application based experiments, Designed Deposition pursues an increasingly integrated process between the user, the designer, the digital and the physical, towards the creation of digitally crafted artefacts.

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  • THINK BIG, act small

    Roach, Elyjana (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Porirua City is twenty minutes north of Wellington, New Zealand’s capital. The city is fifty years young and is home to the youngest demographic in the country. The city is culturally diverse but lacks a clear architectural representation of this cultural diversity. The city has developed around a beautiful harbour but the waterfront is underutilised in the city’s urban design. THINK BIG, act small proposes a design strategy that re-invents Porirua City’s urban future by bringing people back to its neglected water-edge. The proposition explores how design as process and outcome can empower a community for the future of a city through spatial agency and social engagement. The thesis explores the designer’s role in this process as landscape architect, architect, and social activist. A series of large, medium and small scale interventions are proposed. The Strategy is presented in three parts: 1. The Toolkit: a kit of architectural ideas designed to re-think the city’s urban environment around its relationship to water. These ideas can be deployed over time. 2. Two Temporary Projects: two small interventions from The Toolkit are tested in Porirua. An art installation and a community pop-up space are used to initiate conversations around the future of the city with people of the city. 3. The Big Move: a series of design moves, both big and small, are proposed as a composite vision for the future of Porirua. The proposition includes outcomes from the community pop-up space. The Big Move proposes a constructed wetland park, a series of blue-green streets, public pools, and housing. The aim is to establish new ecosystems that ease flooding, improve water quality, provide catalyst areas for economic growth, and create new social spaces for the city. The design aims to draw the harbour into the city. Polynesian and Maori attitudes towards land and water are integrated in the design: land is boundless and water is a bridge. A park, Te Awaura Park, is proposed as a ‘soft’ edge to the city’s existing boundary. The narrative of the park expresses the neighbourhood characterstics unique to each suburb in Porirua. The park aims to create a true local space, a space celebrating the city’s people.

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  • Exploring Community Engagement in Climate Change Planning: The Case in Samoa

    Toailoa, Annie Saofaiga (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Coastal communities within Pacific Island Countries (PIC) are vulnerable due to the rising and volatile nature of the sea as a result of climate change. Adaptation strategies and community-based approaches have increasingly been advocated for by environmental organisations, policy makers and researchers. Community-based approaches have, in turn, begun to promote the values of meaningful community engagement and integration of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) into adaptation planning. This research explores the extent to which community engagement and TEK is utilised at both the national and local level adaptation planning in Samoa. An assessment of policies and plans assesses the national level context, whilst the community level context was explored through a study of the coastal village of Tafitoala. A qualitative approach is employed in which semi-structured interviews were used to collect the perspectives of community members, government personnel, and Non-governmental Organisations (NGO) staff to provide a range of viewpoints. Using Samoa as my case study, the research findings demonstrated that community ideologies and values, and community governance structures determine the efficacy of adaptation programmes. Findings also emphasised that although there is a vast amount of TEK used within local communities, documentation and verification of TEK is required in order for it be integrated more effectively into adaptation planning. Whilst the need for meaningful community engagement had already been identified by government and NGO agencies as a priority for effective adaptation, with agencies currently implementing strategies to encourage its integration, more is required for strategies to be strongly embedded into the practices of local communities.

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  • Intellectual Capital Efficiency and Firm Financial Performance: Evidence from South East Asian Countries

    Ariff, Arifatul Husna Mohd; Islam, Ainul; van Zijl, Tony (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study applies a modified version of the Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC) model proposed by Pulic (1998; 2000) to investigate the impact of IC on financial performance of listed firms in five South East Asian (SEA) countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand over the period 2006 to 2013. The sample employed consists of 16,039 firm-year observations. Financial performance is measured using return on equity and return on assets ratios. The study employs the VAIC model to measure aggregate IC efficiency and its elements: human capital efficiency, structural capital efficiency and tangible capital efficiency. The test results indicate that aggregate IC has a positive and significant impact on financial performance of listed firms in the five SEA countries. The results also show that, among the components of IC, human capital and tangible capital both have positive and significant impact on financial performance of listed firm in the five SEA countries. However, structural capital has a negative impact on financial performance of firms in all SEA countries other than Thailand, which contradicts the theoretical expectation.

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  • Flood of Ecology - Floodplain Habitation

    Braczek, Christopher (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Larger and more devastating flood events are happening more frequently across the planet, but flooding is a natural occurrence for any river system. It is only due to human modification of the river system, through the removal of natural features and attempts at flood control, that creates flood hazards that cause damage to communities and ecosystems. Kapiti Coast’s terrain consisted, pre 19th century, of a mixture of dense coastal forests and extensive wetlands. The landscape has and always will be prone to flooding. With the addition of the expressway to the region, making it easier to travel to and from the capital Wellington, it is expected that the population of Kapiti will grow. But biodiversity may get lost, and flooding may become increasingly more frequent. How might new settlers learn to live with flooding and the constant risk that every time it rains it may cause damage to their homes or businesses? Can there be other benefits to floodplain management, such as biodiversity and recreation? The aim of this research is to investigate and develop strategies to aid in the settlement of floodplains so that biodiversity is improved, allowing people to live with floods and without the fear that flooding may cause damage. Specifically, the design-led research seeks to generate solutions that improve both flood awareness and flood protection along the Waikanae River. The design seeks to allow the river to express its own flow patterns, and then secondly, how settlement will work within that. It can then be a catalyst for settlement of floodplain areas along the edge of the river. This thesis will explore how ecology, rehabilitation and natural flood protection can be employed amongst an expanding urban context to create a new way of thinking about our rivers and mitigating the ever pressing issue of flooding.

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  • Optimising Batting Partnership Strategy in the First Innings of a Limited Overs Cricket Match

    Brown, Patrick (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In cricket, the better an individual batsman or batting partnership performs, the more likely the team is to win. Quantifying batting performance is therefore fundamental to help with in-game decisions, to optimise team performance and maximise chances of winning. Several within-game metrics exist to summarise individual batting performances in cricket. However, these metrics summarise individual performance and do not account for partnership performance. An expectation of how likely a batting partnership is to survive each ball within an innings can enable more effective partnership strategies to optimise a team’s final total. The primary objective of this research was to optimise batting partnership strategy by formulating several predictive models to calculate the probability of a batting partnership being dismissed in the first innings of a limited overs cricket match. The narrowed focus also reduced confounding factors, such as match state. More importantly, the results are of practical significance and provide new insight into how an innings evolves. The model structures were expected to reveal strategies for optimally setting a total score for the opposition to chase. In the first innings of a limited overs cricket match, there is little information available at the commencement and during the innings to guide the team in accumulating a winning total score. The secondary objective of this research was to validate the final models to ensure they were appropriately estimating the ball-by-ball survival probabilities of each batsman, in order to determine the most effective partnership combinations. The research hypothesised that the more effective a batting partnership is at occupying the crease, the more runs they will score at an appropriate rate and the more likely the team is to win the match, by setting a defendable total. Data were split into subsets based on the batting position or wicket. Cox proportional hazard models and ridge regression techniques were implemented to consider the potential effect of eight batting partnership performance predictor variables on the ball-by-ball probability of a batting partnership facing the next ball without being dismissed. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) was implemented as a performance measure used to rank the batting partnerships. Based on One-Day International (ODI) games played between 26th December 2013 and 14th February 2016, the model for opening batting partnerships ranked Pakistani’s A Ali and S Aslam as the optimal opening batting partnership. This method of calculating batting partnership rankings is also positively correlated with typical measures of success: average runs scored, proportion of team runs scored and winning. These findings support the research hypothesis. South African’s, HM Amla and AB de Villiers are ranked as the optimal partnership at wicket two. As at 28th February 2016, these batsmen were rated 6th equal and 2nd in the world respectively. More importantly, these results show that this pair enable South Africa to maximise South Africa’s chances of winning, by setting a total in an optimal manner. New Zealand captain, Kane Williamson, is suggested as the optimal batsman to bat in position three regardless of which opener is dismissed. Reviewing New Zealand’s loss against Australia on 4th December 2016, indicates a suboptimal order was used with JDS Neesham and BJ Watling batting at four and five respectively. Given the circumstances, C Munro and C de Grandhomme were quantified as a more optimal order. The results indicate that for opening batsmen, better team results are obtained when consecutive dot balls are minimised. For top order and middle order batsmen, this criteria is relaxed with the emphasis on their contribution to the team. Additionally, for middle order batsmen, minimising the occasions where 2 runs or less are scored within 4 deliveries is important. In order to validate the final models, each one was applied to the corresponding Indian Premier League (IPL) 2016 data. These models were used to generate survival probabilities for IPL batting partnerships. The probabilities were then plotted against survival probabilities for ODI batting partnerships at the same wicket. The AUC was calculated as a metric to determine which models generated survival probabilities characterising the largest difference between IPL partnerships and ODI partnerships. All models were validated by successfully demonstrating the ability of these models to distinguish between higher survival probabilities for ODI partnerships compared with IPL partnerships at the same wicket. This research has successfully determined ball-by-ball survival probabilities for individual batsmen and batting partnerships in limited overs cricket games. Additionally, the work has provided a rigorous quantitative framework for optimising team performance.

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  • The Isolation and Identification of α-Glucosidase and Lipase Inhibitors from Samoan Plant Extracts

    Wong Soon, Julian (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    There is a growth in the problems relating to diabetes and obesity within the Pacific region. A recent study found that nearly 20% of the Samoan population suffer from type 2 diabetes. The same study found that rates of obesity are correspondingly high, at 53% of the male population and almost 77% of the female population. Healthcare costs are high, and so this study was initiated to focus specifically on an economical, available and socially acceptable way of introducing anti-diabetic and anti-obesity treatments. Inspired by ethnobotanical interests relating to the unknown potential of plants within the Pacific Island region, a set of five Samoan plants were selected for evaluation of their potential to provide leads for anti-diabetic or anti-obesity treatments. The work presented here was carried out in collaboration with the Scientific Research Organisation of Samoa (SROS) which collected plant samples and provided the extracts used for the present study. This study focused on the biological activity of the five selected Samoan plant extracts; Myristica fatua, Barringtonia samoensis, Barringtonia asiatica, Annona muricata and Neisosperma oppositifolia against pancreatic lipase and α-glucosidase enzymes. The enzyme bioassays were optimised and used to validate and identify potential anti-diabetic and anti-obesity treatments from compounds isolated and identified from the samples using LC-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Two main fractions were carried forward for further fractionation and in vitro bioassay screening; one against lipase and the other against α- glucosidase. The known compound threo-dihydroguaiaretic acid was identified and isolated from Myristica fatua having the most potent lipase inhibition whereas a mixture of compounds containing alkaloids and the compound nirathin was obtained from Neisosperma oppositifolia in a fraction that exhibited the highest α-glucosidase inhibition. The kinetic modelling of both fractions were used to identify threo-dihydroguaiaretic acid having a mixed inhibition and the compound mixture inhibiting α-glucosidase competitively.

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  • Cold War Blues: Coastal Restoration of Shikhov Beach In a Post Oil World

    Rowland, Mathew (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The oil industry is responsible for massive amounts of pollution across the world. A significant amount of this is due to the impact of large infrastructure created by drilling operations, which are hostile work environments and often damage the ecosystem they inhabit. Because Oil is one of the primary energy sources around the world its continued exploitation is guaranteed to happen for decades to come. As technological advancements facilitate new ways to obtain oil for the ever increasing demand, old facilities and their megastructures are abandoned with no plan for re-use. This thesis is an exploration into architecture’s current role as a facilitator of offshore oil infrastructure. It explores the scale of investment for the multi-national corporations and how this investment is disposed of after there is no more oil in the well. More often than not there is little consideration as to what happens after the drilling and this causes a multitude of problems that push the area closer to the brink of ecological disaster. The design project proposes deploying new machinery onto an architectural construction to develop a symbiotic relationship between the two. The way new machinery interacts with the architecture it inhabits is considered by discussing the life cycle of current technology and what future developments might hold for the sustainability of coastal regions.

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  • How can Herman and Chomsky’s ideas function in a post-communist world?

    Smith, Samantha (2017-12-21)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This essay discusses the opportunity for Herman and Chomsky’s propaganda model, as outlined in their book, Manufacturing Consent (1988), to be altered to remain relevant in a post-communist world. The model previously described five filters, which influence the US media, causing them to stray somewhat from their role as the fourth estate, and preventing them from upholding the ideals of democracy. These filters included ownership, advertising, sourcing, flak and anti-communism. But with the collapse of the Soviet Union, the threat of communism diminished and a new threat emerged. Since September 11, the war on terrorism has become a focus in the US media, creating a new hysteria. In Herman and Chomsky’s propaganda model, anti-communism can be replaced with terrorism to prolong its functionality in a post-communist world.

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